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G.R. No.

163653

July 19, 2011 REVENUE, Petitioner,

COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs. FILINVEST DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Respondent. x - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -x G.R. No. 167689 COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs. FILINVEST DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Respondent. DECISION PEREZ, J.:

REVENUE, Petitioner,

Assailed in these twin petitions for review on certiorari filed pursuant to Rule 45 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure are the decisions rendered by the Court of Appeals (CA) in the following cases: (a) Decision dated 16 December 2003 of the then Special Fifth Division in CAG.R. SP No. 72992;1 and, (b) Decision dated 26 January 2005 of the then Fourteenth Division in CA-G.R. SP No. 74510.2 The Facts The owner of 80% of the outstanding shares of respondent Filinvest Alabang, Inc. (FAI), respondent Filinvest Development Corporation (FDC) is a holding company which also owned 67.42% of the outstanding shares of Filinvest Land, Inc. (FLI). On 29 November 1996, FDC and FAI entered into a Deed of Exchange with FLI whereby the former both transferred in favor of the latter parcels of land appraised at P4,306,777,000.00. In exchange for said parcels which were intended to facilitate development of medium-rise residential and commercial buildings, 463,094,301 shares of stock of FLI were issued to FDC and FAI.3 As a result of the exchange, FLI’s ownership structure was changed to the extent reflected in the following tabular précis, viz.: Number and Percentage of Shares Stockholder Held Prior to the Exchange FDC FAI OTHERS Number of Number and Additional Percentage of Shares Shares Held After the Issued Exchange 2,579,575,000 61.03% 9.96%

2,537,358,000 67.42% 42,217,000 0 0

420,877,000 420,877,000

1,226,177,000 32.58% 0

1,226,177,000 29.01%

3,763,535,000 100%

463,094,301 4,226,629,000 (100%)

On 13 January 1997, FLI requested a ruling from the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) to the effect that no gain or loss should be recognized in the aforesaid transfer of real properties. Acting on the request, the BIR issued Ruling No. S-34-046-97 dated 3 February 1997, finding that the exchange is among those contemplated under Section 34 (c) (2) of the old National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC)4 which provides that "(n)o gain or loss shall be recognized if property is transferred to a corporation by a person in exchange for a stock in such corporation of which as a result of such exchange said person, alone or together with others, not exceeding four (4) persons, gains control of said corporation." 5 With the BIR’s reiteration of the foregoing ruling upon the 10 February 1997 request for clarification filed by FLI, 6 the latter, together with FDC and FAI, complied with all the requirements imposed in the ruling.7 On various dates during the years 1996 and 1997, in the meantime, FDC also extended advances in favor of its affiliates, namely, FAI, FLI, Davao Sugar Central Corporation (DSCC) and Filinvest Capital, Inc. (FCI).8 Duly evidenced by instructional letters as well as cash and journal vouchers, said cash advances amounted toP2,557,213,942.60 in 19969 and P3,360,889,677.48 in 1997.10 On 15 November 1996, FDC also entered into a Shareholders’ Agreement with Reco Herrera PTE Ltd. (RHPL) for the formation of a Singapore-based joint venture company called Filinvest Asia Corporation (FAC), tasked to develop and manage FDC’s 50% ownership of its PBCom Office Tower Project (the Project). With their equity participation in FAC respectively pegged at 60% and 40% in the Shareholders’ Agreement, FDC subscribed to P500.7 million worth of shares in said joint venture company to RHPL’s subscription worth P433.8 million. Having paid its subscription by executing a Deed of Assignment transferring to FAC a portion of its rights and interest in the Project worth P500.7 million, FDC eventually reported a net loss of P190,695,061.00 in its Annual Income Tax Return for the taxable year 1996.11 On 3 January 2000, FDC received from the BIR a Formal Notice of Demand to pay deficiency income and documentary stamp taxes, plus interests and compromise penalties, 12 covered by the following Assessment Notices, viz.: (a) Assessment Notice No. SP-INC-96-00018-2000 for deficiency income taxes in the sum ofP150,074,066.27 for 1996; (b) Assessment Notice No. SP-DST-96-00020-2000 for deficiency documentary stamp taxes in the sum of P10,425,487.06 for 1996; (c) Assessment Notice No. SP-INC-97-00019-2000 for deficiency income taxes in the sum of P5,716,927.03 for 1997; and (d) Assessment Notice No. SP-DST97-00021-2000 for deficiency documentary stamp taxes in the sum of P5,796,699.40 for 1997.13 The foregoing deficiency taxes were assessed on the taxable gain supposedly realized by FDC from the Deed of Exchange it executed with FAI and FLI, on the dilution resulting from the Shareholders’ Agreement FDC executed with RHPL as well as the "arm’s-length" interest rate and documentary stamp taxes imposable on the advances FDC extended to its affiliates. 14 On 3 January 2000, FAI similarly received from the BIR a Formal Letter of Demand for deficiency income taxes in the sum of P1,477,494,638.23 for the year 1997.15 Covered by Assessment Notice No. SP-INC-97-0027-2000,16said deficiency tax was also assessed on the taxable gain purportedly realized by FAI from the Deed of Exchange it executed with FDC and FLI.17 On 26 January 2000 or within the reglementary period of thirty (30) days from notice of

the assessment, both FDC and FAI filed their respective requests for reconsideration/protest, on the ground that the deficiency income and documentary stamp taxes assessed by the BIR were bereft of factual and legal basis.18 Having submitted the relevant supporting documents pursuant to the 31 January 2000 directive from the BIR Appellate Division, FDC and FAI filed on 11 September 2000 a letter requesting an early resolution of their request for reconsideration/protest on the ground that the 180 days prescribed for the resolution thereof under Section 228 of the NIRC was going to expire on 20 September 2000. 19 In view of the failure of petitioner Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR) to resolve their request for reconsideration/protest within the aforesaid period, FDC and FAI filed on 17 October 2000 a petition for review with the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) pursuant to Section 228 of the 1997 NIRC. Docketed before said court as CTA Case No. 6182, the petition alleged, among other matters, that as previously opined in BIR Ruling No. S-34-046-97, no taxable gain should have been assessed from the subject Deed of Exchange since FDC and FAI collectively gained further control of FLI as a consequence of the exchange; that correlative to the CIR's lack of authority to impute theoretical interests on the cash advances FDC extended in favor of its affiliates, the rule is settled that interests cannot be demanded in the absence of a stipulation to the effect; that not being promissory notes or certificates of obligations, the instructional letters as well as the cash and journal vouchers evidencing said cash advances were not subject to documentary stamp taxes; and, that no income tax may be imposed on the prospective gain from the supposed appreciation of FDC's shareholdings in FAC. As a consequence, FDC and FAC both prayed that the subject assessments for deficiency income and documentary stamp taxes for the years 1996 and 1997 be cancelled and annulled. 20 On 4 December 2000, the CIR filed its answer, claiming that the transfer of property in question should not be considered tax free since, with the resultant diminution of its shares in FLI, FDC did not gain further control of said corporation. Likewise calling attention to the fact that the cash advances FDC extended to its affiliates were interest free despite the interest bearing loans it obtained from banking institutions, the CIR invoked Section 43 of the old NIRC which, as implemented by Revenue Regulations No. 2, Section 179 (b) and (c), gave him "the power to allocate, distribute or apportion income or deductions between or among such organizations, trades or business in order to prevent evasion of taxes." The CIR justified the imposition of documentary stamp taxes on the instructional letters as well as cash and journal vouchers for said cash advances on the strength of Section 180 of the NIRC and Revenue Regulations No. 9-94 which provide that loan transactions are subject to said tax irrespective of whether or not they are evidenced by a formal agreement or by mere office memo. The CIR also argued that FDC realized taxable gain arising from the dilution of its shares in FAC as a result of its Shareholders' Agreement with RHPL.21 At the pre-trial conference, the parties filed a Stipulation of Facts, Documents and Issues22 which was admitted in the 16 February 2001 resolution issued by the CTA. With the further admission of the Formal Offer of Documentary Evidence subsequently filed by FDC and FAI23 and the conclusion of the testimony of Susana Macabelda anent the cash advances FDC extended in favor of its affiliates,24 the CTA went on to render the Decision dated 10 September 2002 which, with the exception of the deficiency income tax on the interest income FDC supposedly realized from the advances it extended in favor of its affiliates, cancelled the

972. The assailed Decision dated September 10. Calling attention to the fact that the cash advances it extended to its affiliates were interest-free in the absence of the express stipulation on interest required under Article 1956 of the Civil Code. While likewise finding that the documents evidencing the cash advances FDC extended to its affiliates cannot be considered as loan agreements that are subject to documentary stamp tax. that the CIR's authority under Section 43 of the NIRC: (a) does not include the power to impute imaginary interest on said transactions.. 6182 directing petitioner Filinvest Development Corporation to pay the amount of P5. 72992. No pronouncement as to costs.e.rest of deficiency income and documentary stamp taxes assessed against FDC and FAI for the years 1996 and 1997. the CTA also ruled that the increase in the value of FDC's shares in FAC did not result in economic advantage in the absence of actual sale or conversion thereof. respectively and Assessment Notice No.482-2 of 1965-1969 Regulations of the Law of Federal Income Taxation.691. and. the CA's then Special Fifth Division rendered the herein assailed decision dated 16 December 2003. SP-DST-96-00020-2000 and SP-DST-97-00021-2000 imposing deficiency documentary stamp tax on FDC for taxable years 1996 and 1997. 28 Upholding FDC's position. pursuant to Rule 43 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure. (c) can only be invoked in cases of understatement of taxable net income or evident tax evasion. Assessment Notice No. However.29 the decretal portion of which states: WHEREFORE. SP-INC-97-00019-2000 imposing deficiency income tax on petitioner for taxable year 1997. as implemented by Section 1.691. a new one entered annulling Assessment Notice No. the instant petition is hereby GRANTED.R. the court finds the instant petition partly meritorious. SP-INC-96-00018-2000 imposing deficiency income tax on FDC for taxable year 1996. FDC filed on 5 November 2002 the petition for review docketed before the CA as CA-G.26 Finding that the collective increase of the equity participation of FDC and FAI in FLI rendered the gain derived from the exchange tax-free. that the CIR was justified in assessing undeclared interests on the same cash advances pursuant to his authority under Section 43 of the NIRC in order to forestall tax evasion. among others. plus 20% delinquency interest computed from February 16. premises considered. Assessment Notice No. petitioner is also ORDERED to PAY 20% delinquency interest computed from February 16. the CTA referred to the equivalent provision in the Internal Revenue Code of the United States (IRC-US). [FDC] is hereby ORDERED to PAY the amount of P5. however. For persuasive effect. No.972. i. 482.03 representing deficiency income tax on allegedly undeclared interest income for the taxable year 1997. Accordingly.27 Dissatisfied with the foregoing decision.03 as deficiency income tax for taxable year 1997. the CTA enunciated. 2000 until full payment thereof is REVERSED and SET ASIDE and.25 thus: WHEREFORE.30 . in view of all the foregoing. 2002 rendered by the Court of Tax Appeals in CTA Case No. Sec. SP-INC-97-0027-2000 imposing deficiency income tax on FAI for the taxable year 1997 are hereby CANCELLED and SET ASIDE. 2000 until full payment thereof pursuant to Section 249 (c) (3) of the Tax Code. FDC questioned the imposition of an arm's-length interest rate thereon on the ground. (b) is directed only against controlled taxpayers and not against mother or holding corporations. In addition.

said latter ruling cannot be given retroactive application if to do so would be prejudicial to the taxpayer. to the effect that documentary stamp taxes are imposable on inter-office memos evidencing cash advances similar to those extended by FDC. 4. 3. In essence.With the denial of its partial motion for reconsideration of the same 11 December 2002 resolution issued by the CTA.R. until actually converted thru sale or disposition of said shares. and (c) for deficiency income tax on the gain FDC purportedly realized from the increase of the value of its shareholdings in FAC. 74510. 2. no taxable gain can be recognized from the transaction under Section 34 (c) (2) of the old NIRC. they merely represent unrealized increase in capital.31 the CIR also filed the petition for review docketed before the CA as CA-G. 163653 and 167689. S-34-046-97. the CIR urges the grant of its petition on the following ground: THE COURT OF APPEALS ERRED IN REVERSING THE DECISION OF THE COURT OF TAX APPEALS AND IN HOLDING THAT THE ADVANCES EXTENDED BY RESPONDENT TO ITS AFFILIATES ARE NOT SUBJECT TO INCOME TAX. FDC's alleged gain from the increase of its shareholdings in FAC as a consequence of the Shareholders' Agreement it executed with RHPL cannot be considered taxable income since. the 29 November 1996 Deed of Exchange resulted in the combined control by FDC and FAI of more than 51% of the outstanding shares of FLI. dated 15 July 1999. No. however.R. As affirmed in the 3 February 1997 BIR Ruling No. 116-98 had been subsequently modified by BIR Ruling No. on the other hand. 108-99. The instructional letters as well as the cash and journal vouchers evidencing the advances FDC extended to its affiliates are not subject to documentary stamp taxes pursuant to BIR Ruling No.R. No. upon the following findings and conclusions. (b) for deficiency documentary stamp taxes on the documents evidencing FDC's cash advances to its affiliates. 163653. Nos.35 In G. 116-98. 72992 and the 26 January 2005 decision in CA-G. hence.34 Respectively docketed before this Court as G.R. denied due course and dismissed for lack of merit in the herein assailed decision dated 26 January 2005 33 rendered by the CA's then Fourteenth Division. 167689. Although BIR Ruling No.R. SP No. 74510 were consolidated pursuant to the 1 March 2006 resolution issued by this Court’s Third Division. No. The Issues In G.32 The foregoing petition was. FAI and FLI. since they do not partake the nature of loan agreements. the CIR argued that the CTA reversibly erred in cancelling the assessment notices: (a) for deficiency income taxes on the exchange of property between FDC. dated 30 July 1998. the CIR's petitions for review on certiorari assailing the 16 December 2003 decision in CA-G.R. to wit: 1. petitioner proffers the following issues for resolution: . No.

trades or businesses. trades or businesses even in the absence of fraud. as the specialized court dedicated to the study and consideration of tax matters.I THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS COMMITTED GRAVE ABUSE OF DISCRETION IN HOLDING THAT THE EXCHANGE OF SHARES OF STOCK FOR PROPERTY AMONG FILINVEST DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (FDC). the CIR argues that the CA erred in reversing the CTA’s finding that theoretical interests can be imputed on the advances FDC extended to its affiliates in 1996 and 1997 considering that.R.R. 2. since said power is intended "to prevent evasion of taxes or clearly to reflect the income of any such organizations. No. No. the CIR maintains that it is vested with the power to allocate. 163653 is bereft of merit. No.37 . 167689 impressed with partial merit. In G. Since considerable interest expenses were deducted by FDC when said funds were borrowed.R. FILINVEST ALABANG. we find the CIR’s petition in G. the CIR theorizes that interest income should likewise be declared when the same funds were sourced for the advances FDC extended to its affiliates. can take judicial notice of US income tax laws and regulations.36 The Court’s Ruling While the petition in G." In addition. III THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS GRAVELY ERRED IN HOLDING THAT GAIN ON DILUTION AS A RESULT OF THE INCREASE IN THE VALUE OF FDC’S SHAREHOLDINGS IN FAC IS NOT TAXABLE. INCORPORATED (FAI) AND FILINVEST LAND INCORPORATED (FLI) MET ALL THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NONRECOGNITION OF TAXABLE GAIN UNDER SECTION 34 (c) (2) OF THE OLD NATIONAL INTERNAL REVENUE CODE (NIRC) (NOW SECTION 40 (C) (2) (c) OF THE NIRC. the CIR asseverates that the CA should have accorded weight and respect to the findings of the CTA which. for said purpose. II THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS COMMITTED REVERSIBLE ERROR IN HOLDING THAT THE LETTERS OF INSTRUCTION OR CASH VOUCHERS EXTENDED BY FDC TO ITS AFFILIATES ARE NOT DEEMED LOAN AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO DOCUMENTARY STAMP TAXES UNDER SECTION 180 OF THE NIRC. distribute or apportion income or deductions between or among controlled organizations. FDC resorted to interest-bearing fund borrowings from commercial banks. Invoking Section 43 of the 1993 NIRC in relation to Section 179(b) of Revenue Regulation No. 163653.

whether exempt or taxable. Section 43 of the 1993 NIRC38 provides that. resulting to the controlled taxpayer by reason of the particular contract.Admittedly." In amplification of the equivalent provision39 under Commonwealth Act No. trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated and whether or not organized in the Philippines) owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests. whether legally enforceable. if he determines that such distribution. an estate. or whether affiliated or not. the net income (or as the case may be. and regardless of whether domestic or foreign. (3) The term "controlled" includes any kind of control. (5) The term "group" and "group of controlled taxpayers" means the organizations. as the case may be. trades. It does not mean the income. where operated. or where its trade or business is conducted. the controlled taxpayer. 466. irrespective of the place where organized. the Commissioner of Internal Revenue is authorized to distribute. whether it be a sole proprietorship. a partnership. in the particular contract. – When used in this section – (1) The term "organization" includes any kind. or the item or element of either. arrangement or other act) dealt with the other members or members of the group at arm’s length.40 Sec. a trust. apportion or allocate gross income or deductions between or among such organization. 179(b) of Revenue Regulation No. the deductions. 2 states as follows: Determination of the taxable net income of controlled taxpayer. trade or business. had it in the conduct of its affairs (or. . regardless of whether or where organized. not its form or mode of exercise. transaction. It is the reality of the control which is decisive. apportionment or allocation is necessary in order to prevent evasion of taxes or clearly to reflect the income of any such organization. or businesses owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests. any item or element affecting net income) which would have resulted to the controlled taxpayer. "(i)n any case of two or more organizations. and however exercisable or exercised. or arrangement. transaction. direct or indirect. in the case of a controlled taxpayer. had it in the conduct of its affairs (or. (4) The term "controlled taxpayer" means any one of two or more organizations. trades or businesses owned or controlled by the same interests. any item or element affecting net income) which would have resulted to the controlled taxpayer. and regardless of the place where carried on. whether owned individually or otherwise. (2) The terms "trade" or "business" include any trade or business activity of any kind. – (A) DEFINITIONS. as the case may be. trade or business. (6) The term "true net income" means. or a corporation or association. or the interest controlling it. A presumption of control arises if income or deductions have been arbitrarily shifted.

the fact that FDC extended substantial sums of money as cash advances to its said affiliates for the purpose of providing them financial assistance for their operational and capital expenditures seemingly indicate that the situation sought to be addressed by the subject provision exists. For as long as the controlled taxpayer's taxable income is not reflective of that which it would have realized had it been dealing at arm's length with an uncontrolled taxpayer. nor does it grant any right to compel the Commissioner of Internal Revenue to apply its provisions. or sham transaction. . this has not been done and the taxable net income are thereby understated. 2. From the tenor of paragraph (c) of Section 179 of Revenue Regulation No. or arrangement be legally binding upon the parties thereto). the statute contemplates that the Commissioner of Internal Revenue shall intervene. apportion or allocate gross income or deductions between or among controlled taxpayers may be likewise exercised whether or not fraud inheres in the transaction/s under scrutiny. or of any item or element affecting net income. Aside from owning significant portions of the shares of stock of FLI. the Commissioner of Internal Revenue is not restricted to the case of improper accounting.The purpose of Section 44 of the Tax Code is to place a controlled taxpayer on a tax parity with an uncontrolled taxpayer. according to the standard of an uncontrolled taxpayer. shall determine the true net income of each controlled taxpayer. is other than it would have been had the taxpayer in the conduct of his affairs been an uncontrolled taxpayer dealing at arm’s length with another uncontrolled taxpayer. and. to the case of a fraudulent. it may also be seen that the CIR's power to distribute. FAI. or allocations as he may deem necessary of gross income or deductions. however. If. avoid or escape taxes. In determining the true net income of a controlled taxpayer. between or among the controlled taxpayers constituting the group. (C) APPLICATION – Transactions between controlled taxpayer and another will be subjected to special scrutiny to ascertain whether the common control is being used to reduce. or to the case of a device designed to reduce or avoid tax by shifting or distorting income or deductions.chose to make (even though such contract. by making such distributions. . apportionments. transaction. it would appear that FDC and its affiliates come within the purview of Section 43 of the 1993 NIRC. Section 44 grants no right to a controlled taxpayer to apply its provisions at will. the CIR can make the necessary rectifications in order to prevent evasion of taxes. colorable. (B) SCOPE AND PURPOSE. by determining. The standard to be applied in every case is that of an uncontrolled taxpayer. The authority to determine true net income extends to any case in which either by inadvertence or design the taxable net income in whole or in part.41 As may be gleaned from the definitions of the terms "controlled" and "controlled taxpayer" under paragraphs (a) (3) and (4) of the foregoing provision. of a controlled taxpayer. DSCC and FCI. the true net income from the property and business of a controlled taxpayer. The interests controlling a group of controlled taxpayer are assumed to have complete power to cause each controlled taxpayer so to conduct its affairs that its transactions and accounting records truly reflect the net income from the property and business of each of the controlled taxpayers.

Considering that taxes.51 ." 47 Even if we were.FDC's Funds Management Department Manager who was the sole witness presented before the CTA . the source of the advances the former provided its affiliates." interest. rents. when it is borne in mind that. gross income derived from business. at the very least. and partner’s distributive share of the gross income of general professional partnership. no interest shall be due unless it has been expressly stipulated in writing. we find that the CIR's powers of distribution. therefore. however." 44 Otherwise stated.45 Susan Macabelda . More so. For all its harping upon the supposed fact that FDC had resorted to borrowings from commercial banks. pensions. pursuant to Article 1956 of the Civil Code of the Philippines. there must be proof of the actual or. including. are not to be presumed beyond what the applicable statute expressly and clearly declares. said witness testified that said advances: (a) were extended to give FLI.50 While it is true that taxes are the lifeblood of the government. the general rule of requiring adherence to the letter in construing statutes applies with peculiar strictness to tax laws and the provisions of a taxing act are not to be extended by implication.42 after all. probable receipt or realization by the controlled taxpayer of the item of gross income sought to be distributed. Pursuant to Section 28 of the 1993 NIRC.49 Accordingly. and. (b) were all temporarily in nature since they were repaid within the duration of one week to three months and were evidenced by mere journal entries. being burdens. and similar items. to accord precipitate credulity to the CIR's bare assertion that FDC had deducted substantial interest expense from its gross income. including fees.48 the rule is likewise settled that tax statutes must be construed strictly against the government and liberally in favor of the taxpayer. but not limited to the following items: compensation for services. dividends.43 While it has been held that the phrase "from whatever source derived" indicates a legislative policy to include all income not expressly exempted within the class of taxable income under our laws. the CIR had adduced no concrete proof that said funds were. commissions.46 More significantly.Despite the broad parameters provided. cash vouchers and instructional letters. annuities. "the amount of money coming to a person within a specific time" or "something distinct from principal or capital.clarified that the subject advances were sourced from the corporation's rights offering in 1995 as well as the sale of its investment in Bonifacio Land in 1997. royalties. it has been held that their assessment and collection should be in accordance with law as any arbitrariness will negate the very reason for government itself. 2 does not include the power to impute "theoretical interests" to the controlled taxpayer's transactions. While admitting that FDC obtained interest-bearing loans from commercial banks. the term "income" has been variously interpreted to mean "cash received or its equivalent". the term "gross income" is understood to mean all income from whatever source derived. apportioned or allocated by the CIR. there would still be no factual basis for the imputation of theoretical interests on the subject advances and assess deficiency income taxes thereon. gains derived from dealings in property. apportionment or allocation of gross income and deductions under Section 43 of the 1993 NIRC and Section 179 of Revenue Regulation No. Our circumspect perusal of the record yielded no evidence of actual or possible showing that the advances FDC extended to its affiliates had resulted to the interests subsequently assessed by the CIR. DSCC and FCI financial assistance for their operational and capital expenditures. FAI. prizes and winnings. indeed.

088.579. prior to the exchange.03 when reckoned from the transferee's aggregate 4. FAI's acquisition of 420. in fact.226. on the other hand. Section 34 (c) (2) of the 1993 NIRC pertinently provides as follows: Sec.921.763. 56 Then as now. we also find a dearth of merit in the CIR's insistence on the imposition of deficiency income taxes on the transfer FDC and FAI effected in exchange for the shares of stock of FLI.629.55 there is also no dispute that said transferee and transferors subsequently complied with the requirements provided for the non-recognition of gain or loss from the exchange of property for tax.00 should be recognized on the part of FDC and in the sum ofP3. the CIR asseverates that taxable gain in the sum of P263.000 FLI shares as a result of the exchange purportedly resulted in its control of only 9.42% of FLI's 3.000 thereof accruing in favor of FDC for a total of 2.629. FAI and FLI.000 outstanding shares. gains control of the transferee. As even admitted in the 14 February 2001 Stipulation of Facts submitted by the parties. 34. acting alone or together with others. That stocks issued for services shall not be considered as issued in return of property. With respect to the Deed of Exchange executed between FDC. S-34-046-97. the BIR had. Determination of amount of and recognition of gain or loss.52 the requisites for the non-recognition of gain or loss under the foregoing provision are as follows: (a) the transferee is a corporation.763.000 outstanding shares.000 or 67. the CIR argues that taxable gain should be recognized for the exchange considering that FDC's controlling interest in FLI was actually decreased as a result thereof. (b) the transferee exchanges its shares of stock for property/ies of the transferor. (d) as a result of the exchange the transferor. Without owning a share from FLI's initial 3.575.217.386. Upon the issuance of 443.094.537.367. not exceeding four.877. On the principle that the transaction did not qualify as a tax-free exchange under Section 34 (c) (2) of the 1993 NIRC.000 outstanding capital stock. not exceeding four persons. No. gains control of said corporation.711. alone or together with others.54 With the BIR's reiteration of said ruling upon the request for clarification filed by FLI. and. acknowledged the concurrence of the foregoing requisites in the Deed of Exchange the former executed with FDC and FAI by issuing BIR Ruling No. Provided.535.000 outstanding shares.In G.358. said corporation’s controlling interest was supposedly reduced to 61%.000 additional FLI shares as a consequence of the exchange and with only 42.00 on the part of FAI.R. FDC owned 2. (c) the transfer is made by a person. not exceeding four persons.57 . the CIR calls attention to the fact that.535.xxxx (c) Exception – x x x x No gain or loss shall also be recognized if property is transferred to a corporation by a person in exchange for shares of stock in such corporation of which as a result of such exchange said person.226. 53 Acting on the 13 January 1997 request filed by FLI.000 shares.96% of said transferee corporation's 4. alone or together with others. 167689. For said purpose. as provided under Section 34 (c) (2) of the 1993 NIRC.

226.998% of said transferee corporation's outstanding shares of stock which is evidently still greater than the 67. represents 7. the BIR opined as follows: Please be informed that regardless of the foregoing.877. the CIR cites then Supreme Court Justice Jose Vitug and CTA Justice Ernesto D.e. Control is determined by the amount of stocks received.03% control of FLI as a consequence of the 29 November 1996 Deed of Transfer. Acosta who.968% of the outstanding shares of FLI. 6182 upholding the tax-exempt status of the exchange between FDC.000 shares or 70. by itself.03% control of FLI's 4. Rather than isolating the same as proposed by the CIR.96%) clearly add up to 3.000 shares or 61. only those persons who transferred property for stocks in the same transaction may be counted up to the maximum of five (BIR Ruling No. Documents and Issues they submitted to the CTA.99% of FLI's 4. evident from the categorical language of Section 34 (c) (2) of the 1993 NIRC which provides that gain or loss will not be recognized in case the exchange of property for stocks results in the control of the transferee by the transferor. apprised in FLI's request for clarification about the change of percentage of ownership of its outstanding capital stock. Considered alongside FDC's 61. it also appears that the supposed reduction of FDC's shares in FLI posited by the CIR is more apparent than real. it cannot be gainsaid that FDC ideally controls the same percentage of the 420.877. Together FDC's 2.629. Since the term "control" is clearly defined as "ownership of stocks in a corporation possessing at least fifty-one percent of the total voting power of classes of stocks entitled to one vote" under Section 34 (c) (6) [c] of the 1993 NIRC.000.61 At any rate.579.000 shares. i.575. opined that said provision could be inapplicable if control is already vested in the exchangor prior to exchange. and Filinvest Alabang. be appreciated in combination with the 420.968% add up to an aggregate of 68. As the uncontested owner of 80% of the outstanding shares of FAI.96% control of said transferee corporation.62 Inasmuch as the combined ownership of FDC and FAI of FLI's outstanding capital . In determining the 51% stock ownership. still gained control of Filinvest Land.575. 547-93 dated December 29. Inc. whether for property or for services by the transferor or transferors.000 new shares issued to FAI which represents 9.579. Filinvest Development Corp.000 shares (9."60 This was confirmed when.The paucity of merit in the CIR's position is.629.000 outstanding shares should.42% FDC initially held prior to the exchange. the exchange of property for stocks between FDC FAI and FLI clearly qualify as a tax-free transaction under paragraph 34 (c) (2) of the same provision. Inc. alone or with other transferors not exceeding four persons.. in their book Tax Law and Jurisprudence.877. 1993.452. the transferors. total subscribed. The term 'control' shall mean ownership of stocks in a corporation by possessing at least 51% of the total voting power of all classes of stocks entitled to vote.03%) and FAI's 420.000 shares (61. however.226. FDC's 2. said 7. 59 FDC and FAI significantly point out that said authors have acknowledged that the position taken by the BIR is to the effect that "the law would apply even when the exchangor already has control of the corporation at the time of the exchange. This much was admitted by the parties in the 14 February 2001 Stipulation of Facts. FAI and FLI was penned by no less than Justice Acosta himself. therefore.58 Aside from the fact that that the 10 September 2002 Decision in CTA Case No. Against the clear tenor of Section 34(c) (2) of the 1993 NIRC.000 shares issued to its said co-transferor which.

whether made or signed in the Philippines. promissory notes.stock adds up to a total of 70. certificate of deposit or note: Provided. Stamp tax on all loan agreements. of the face value of any such agreement. while a deed of mortgage shall be taxed under Section 195.30) on each two hundred pesos. or orders for the payment of any sum of money otherwise than at sight or on demand. except bank notes issued for circulation. A loan agreement shall be taxed under Section 180. it stands to reason that neither of said transferors can be held liable for deficiency income taxes the CIR assessed on the supposed gain which resulted from the subject transfer. the following term shall mean: (b) 'Loan agreement' – refers to a contract in writing where one of the parties delivers to another money or other consumable thing. both of the Tax Code. there shall be collected a documentary stamp tax of Thirty centavos (P0. resale.000. advice or drawings. insofar as documentary stamp taxes on loan agreements and promissory notes are concerned. certificates of deposit bearing interest and others not payable on sight or demand. 180. bill of exchange (between points within the Philippines). On the other hand. The terms 'Loan Agreement" under Section 180 and "Mortgage' under Section 195.00) executed by an individual for his purchase on installment for his personal use or that of his family and not for business." Correlatively. whichever will yield a higher tax: Provided however. or abroad when the obligation or right arises from Philippine sources or the . generally refer to distinct and separate instruments. bills of exchange. or on all promissory notes. as amended. That only one documentary stamp tax shall be imposed on either loan agreement. The term shall include credit facilities. or fractional part thereof. – All loan agreements whether made or signed in the Philippines. or promissory notes issued to secure such loan. draft. That loan agreements or promissory notes the aggregate of which does not exceed Two hundred fifty thousand pesos (P250. – For purposes of these Regulations. Stamp on all Loan Agreements. barter or hire of a house. 9-94 provide as follows: Section 3. 63 the foregoing provision concededly applies to "(a)ll loan agreements. bill of exchange. whether negotiable or non-negotiable. Section 180 of the NIRC provides follows: Sec. drafts. instruments and securities issued by the Government or any of its instrumentalities or certificates of deposits drawing interest. instruments and securities issued by the government or any of its instrumentalities." "Section 6. appliance or furniture shall be exempt from the payment of documentary stamp tax provided under this Section. When read in conjunction with Section 173 of the 1993 NIRC. lot. which may be evidenced by credit memo. Definition of Terms. upon the condition that the same amount of the same kind and quality shall be paid. or abroad when the obligation or right arises from Philippine sources or the property or object of the contract is located or used in the Philippines. Section 3 (b) and Section 6 of Revenue Regulations No.99%. – On all loan agreements signed abroad wherein the object of the contract is located or used in the Philippines. and on each renewal of any such note. motor vehicle. drafts.

. we find that the instructional letters as well as the journal and cash vouchers evidencing the advances FDC extended to its affiliates in 1996 and 1997 qualified as loan agreements upon which documentary stamp taxes may be imposed. advice or drawings by any form of check or withdrawal slip. the CIR opined that documents like those evidencing the advances FDC extended to its affiliates are not subject to documentary stamp tax. which opined that inter-office memos evidencing lendings or borrowings extended by a corporation to its affiliates are akin to promissory notes.1avvphi1 In its appeal before the CA. pursuant to Section 180 in relation to Section 173 of the Tax Code. dated 30 July 1998 which. under Section 180 of the Tax Code. rules and regulations promulgated by the BIR have no retroactive application if to so apply them would be prejudicial to the taxpayers. it is informed that nothing in Regulations No. strictly speaking. subject to documentary stamp taxes. the CA applied Section 246 of the 1993 NIRC65 from which proceeds the settled principle that rulings.30) on each two hundred pesos. In said ruling. In cases where no formal agreements or promissory notes have been executed to cover credit facilities. 9-94 states that the same is subject to documentary stamp tax. is not subject to documentary stamp tax imposed under Section 180. 26 (Documentary Stamp Tax Regulations) and Revenue Regulations No. the documentary stamp tax shall be based on the amount of drawings or availment of the facilities. 108-99 dated 15 July 1999. said interoffice memo evidencing the lendings or borrowings which is neither a form of promissory note nor a certificate of indebtedness issued by the corporation-affiliate or a certificate of obligation. to wit: On the matter of whether or not the inter-office memo covering the advances granted by an affiliate company is subject to documentary stamp tax. we find that the CA reversibly erred in utilizing BIR Ruling No. the inter-office memo is being prepared for accounting purposes only in order to avoid the comingling of funds of the corporate affiliates. in the first instance. circulars. or fractional part thereof. respectively. Applying the aforesaid provisions to the case at bench. however. 174 and 175 of the Tax Code of 1997. FDC cannot invoke the foregoing principle on non-retroactivity of BIR rulings. which may be evidenced by credit/debit memo. which are. categorized as 'securities'. 66 Admittedly. 116-98. this rule does not apply: (a) where the taxpayer deliberately misstates or omits material facts from his return or in any document required of him by the Bureau of Internal Revenue. the taxpayer who sought the same.64 In brushing aside the foregoing argument.property or object of the contract is located in the Philippines shall be subject to the documentary stamp tax of thirty centavos (P0. In keeping with the caveat attendant to every BIR Ruling to the effect that it is valid only if the facts claimed by the taxpayer are correct. however. more or less. (b) where the facts subsequently gathered by the Bureau of Internal Revenue are materially different from the facts on which the ruling is based. of the face value of any such agreements. the CIR argued that the foregoing ruling was later modified in BIR Ruling No.67 Not being the taxpayer who. hence. Rather. or (c) where the taxpayer acted in bad faith. sought a ruling from the CIR. Such being the case. could be invoked only by ASB Development Corporation.

Answer).68 The imposition of the compromise penalty is. 1. 1996. 1. 1. In payment of its subscription in FAC. On November 15. warranted under Sec.000.62 for documentary stamp tax.13.400. the record shows that the parties were in agreement about the following factual antecedents narrated in the 14 February 2001 Stipulation of Facts. 249 (a) and (b) of the NIRC which authorizes the assessment of the same "at the rate of twenty percent (20%).12. Documents and Issues they submitted before the CTA. 25069 of the NIRC which prescribes the imposition thereof "in case of each failure to file an information or return.693.425. the CIR similarly assessedP1. pars. FDC subscribed to P500.14. 1 and 7. Ltd. 1.12.44 in interests and P25. FAC.000. Alongside the sum of P4.15. FDC executed a Deed of Assignment transferring to FAC a portion of FDC’s right and interests in the Project to the extent of P500.40. finally.Viewed in the light of the foregoing considerations. Petition. 6. statement or list.01 and 6. P3.: "1. Anent FDC’s Shareholders’ Agreement with RHPL.487.721.7 million worth of shares of stock representing a 60% equity participation in FAC. Answer). or such higher rate as may be prescribed by regulations".11.999.699. In Assessment Notice No. Pursuant to the SA between FDC and RHPL. is tasked to develop and manage the 50% ownership interest of FDC in its PBCom Office Tower Project (‘Project’) with the Philippine Bank of Communications (par. from the date prescribed for the payment of the unpaid amount of tax until full payment. In turn. in turn. 1. In accordance with the terms of the SA. SP-DST-97-00021-2000 or a total of P5. FDC entered into a Shareholders’ Agreement (‘SA’) with Reco Herrera Pte.796. no reversible error can. (‘RHPL’) for the formation of a joint venture company named Filinvest Asia Corporation (‘FAC’) which is based in Singapore (pars. the equity participation of FDC and RHPL in FAC was 60% and 40% respectively.8 million worth of shares of stock of FAC representing a 40% equity participation in FAC.00 as compromise penalty. SP-DST96-00020-2000.599.06. we find that both the CTA and the CA erred in invalidating the assessments issued by the CIR for the deficiency documentary stamp taxes due on the instructional letters as well as the journal and cash vouchers evidencing the advances FDC extended to its affiliates in 1996 and 1997. or keep any record or supply any information required" on the date prescribed therefor. be imputed against both the CTA and the CA for invalidating the Assessment Notice issued by the CIR for the deficiency income taxes FDC is supposed to have incurred as a consequence of the dilution of its shares in FAC. the CIR correctly assessed the sum of P6. .050. RHPL subscribed to P433.11. 7.62 for documentary stamp tax. Petition.00 as compromise penalty in Assessment Notice No. To our mind. the joint venture company formed by FDC and RHPL.099.70 viz.78 in interests and P25. for a total ofP10.7 million.793. par. The imposition of deficiency interest is justified under Sec.

Since "a mere advance in the value of the property of a person or corporation in no sense constitute the ‘income’ specified in the revenue law. 74510 is MODIFIED. at any rate." Hence. x---------------------------------------------------------x G. No. 72992 is AFFIRMED in toto. failed to establish. SP-INC-96-00018-2000. G.16.R.74 that it "constitutes and can be treated merely as an increase of capital. WHEREFORE. the CIR's petition for review on certiorari in G. SP No. 72 the rule is settled that the findings and conclusions of the CTA are accorded great respect and are generally upheld by this Court. No. that a mere increase or appreciation in the value of said shares cannot be considered income for taxation purposes. L-13049 February 28. SP-DST-96-00020-2000 and SP-DST-97-00021-2000 issued for deficiency documentary stamp taxes due on the instructional letters as well as journal and cash vouchers evidencing the advances FDC extended to its affiliates are declared valid. however. upheld. and (c) income from the dilution resulting from FDC’s Shareholders’ Agreement with RHPL is. premises considered. the CIR has no factual and legal basis in assessing income tax on the increase in the value of FDC's shareholdings in FAC until the same is actually sold at a profit. ARTHUR HENDERSON. even then. Trinidad. SO ORDERED. Assessment Notices Nos. 163653 is DENIED for lack of merit and the CA’s 16 December 2003 Deci sion in G. No. No.00 in its Annual Income Tax Return for the taxable year 1996." it has been held in the early case of Fisher vs. No."71 Alongside the principle that tax revenues are not intended to be liberally construed. Bearing in mind the meaning of "gross income" as above discussed.R. The CIR’s petition in G.R. 1961 INTERNAL REVENUE.R. 167689 is PARTIALLY GRANTED and the CA’s 26 January 2005 Decision in CA-G. COLLECTOR OF vs.061. respondent. we find no strong and cogent reasons to depart from said rule with respect to the CTA's finding that no deficiency income tax can be assessed on the gain on the supposed dilution and/or increase in the value of FDC's shareholdings in FAC which the CIR. petitioner.R.1.73 Absent showing of such error here.695. 1961 . unless there is a clear showing of a reversible error or an improvident exercise of authority.R. it cannot be gainsaid. SP-INC-97-00019-2000 and SP-INC-97-0027-2000 issued for deficiency income assessed on (a) the "arms-length" interest from said advances. Accordingly. FDC reported a net loss of P190. (b) the gain from FDC’s Deed of Exchange with FAI and FLI. L-12954 February 28. The cancellation of Assessment Notices Nos.

..........79 .... Office of the Formilleza & Latorre for respondent.: Solicitor General HENDERSON.. No. No....... Exemption 3......74 .... Less:Personal ..... Republic Act No.. Henderson (later referred to as the taxpayers) filed with the Bureau of Internal Revenue returns of annual net income for the years 1948 to 1952...00 Amount subject to ........ personal exemptions and amounts subject to tax appear: 1948: Net Income P29.....817...ARTHUR vs............073........500..................605...............00 Amount subject to ........R..................... for petitioner...... Exemption 2............317.............. 1949: tax P27.... The spouses Artuhur Henderson and Marie B......................66 ........... petitioner........ COLLECTOR OF INTERNAL REVENUE..........................83 . inclusive.......500.................. Exemption 2....... L-13049) under the provisions of section 18..79 Net Income P31. 237... for review of a judgment dated 26 June 1957 and a resolution dated 28 September 1957 rendered and adopted by the Court of Tax Appeals in Case No........... 1951: Net tax P31........74 Income P32................573........815.....66 Net Income P34.. PADILLA.....00 Amount subject to . 1125......R... 1950: tax P29. J.................. L-12954) and by Arthur Henderson (G.. respondent.............815..... where the following net incomes..000............ Less:Personal ......... These are petitioner filed by the Collector of Internal Revenue (G.... Less:Personal .

..... A.......R. 25450-49.83 Net Income P36...605..... No... Exhibit B P2....... O.00 Amount subject to ...... 15 May 1952.314... O...................000... tax P33........................136.23 ... 1950: 27 April 1951...314. 2..................068.....………. 1951: Amount withheld from salary and paid by P5.. No.R..... In due time the taxpayers received from the Bureau of Internal Revenue assessment notices Nos.......780....... O...........11 (Exhibits 1.............273.......95 .......... Exemption 3...... 232366. N......R..00 Amount subject to .......11 Total .... 247918... J......50 ................R.... Exhibit G P2... 15255-50.......... No.... 15804-48...............780... 323173............. Less:Personal .............000.... No..………............. Exhibit B-1 ....94 Total .12 .629. Exemption 3.... 12 September 1950...... 160473.. 25705-51 and 22527-52 and paid the amounts assessed as follows: 1948: 14 May 1949..11 .. Exhibit K P7.40 employer .. 7. 5.......... Exhibit Paid P4.. 1949: 13 May 1950. Exhibit O 360..00 ... 383318..780.. No..89 Paid P4..... 2.. O...R.... 1952: tax P29.068... No.... 33250. 3. 9.......... 52991......R.. O........... R).... Exhibit G-1 ........R... Less:Personal ....... No....... O.............. 15 August 1952..... O.. F......… 15 September 1950..

......562..23 ... Entrance fee — Marikina Gun & Country Club .981..00 income P44.....10 Amount withheld from salary and paid by P5...................................................…....... No.11 Tax due thereon ...……… Other income: Manager's a/c/#4. Net taxable .. after investigation and verification..................... 18 May 1953.......... 7.....….. 438026. 6... 443483.....400..O-1 ..32 P & L) .......……… investigation P46.723.....………… 13 August 1953.................500...... as follows: 1948: Net income per ......500.47 Less: Amount of tax already paid per OR 4.......20 Paid P6..........……….......00 return P29.160........136. inclusive..........00 On 28 November 1953............... 1952: 361....502.... the Bureay of Internal Revenue reassessed the taxpayers'income for the years 1948 to 1952...00 Additional bonus for 1947 received May 13......……………………… Add: Rent expense ........... Total ..........……....................573....660......40 employer ............... Paid P7.................... No.51) residential expense (2/29/48 1.00 1948 ... 200.00 Net income per ....200.……… P8...……..849.160.......... 1..R.........30 Total ..R......30 ....79 Manager's residential expense (refer to 1948 1................ Less: Personal ........... O.....................223.. Exhibit T-1 ........11 exemption 2........ Exhibit T 1....... O.................………........

...... investigation P46....189....... electricity.............. 232366 & 247918 Deficiency tax ........... Amount of income subject ...............................21 ..................500.....#52991 & 160473 ...275.815.......I.....292.........800...................32 .................. Less: tax already assessed & paid per OR Nos......... 1950: Net income per ....... P3...........958......................... water ...051.........……….…….......24 1949: Net income per .....................……………………… Add: Rent.......662.......U...................84 Undeclared .....................817.....………….....30 Net income per .........................23 be) 3.. allowances 8.....857.. (Should ...... P4.................74 4..........…………....373..……………………………………………………… Deficiency tax still due & assessable ...........00 tax 43..........75 A....248...00 14.U.......... Net income per ............426.……………………… Add: disallowances — Capital loss (no capital gain) ......... . Less: Personal ......... from bonus 3..............47 return P34........………. 6..775...66 Subsistence allowance from A...09 return P31....662.………... Rental allowance ...............73 investigation P43....I..89 due P3........………........................………..75 exemption to 2..............629..............………........... 1..75 Tax due thereon P8..

.... investigation P83.000................……………………....40 Allowances for rent...00 Less: tax already assessed and paid per O.........................................502...023........67 investigation P47..............560......................00 return P36...........296.............. 7.......……………………………………….........388... Tax due thereon P10.....273..47 .....................………......00 to tax P35................00 6.................... 1951: Net income per ....782........044. Amount of income subject .......................00 ..……….... 1952: Net income per ..... 3........ electricity.11 due P2.......................058..000... by company 600... Less: Personal .................780............……………………… Add: Withholding tax paid ...............00 Travelling allowances ...........672.... .......00 Tax due thereon ..……….......91 & 7.....247.............189.......... etc... Less: tax already paid per OR No..Less: Personal ......83 5...........…………......74 exemption 3.............74 return P32................R......……….……………………………………… Deficiency tax .......00 assessable P3................................ Nos.………........……………………… Add: house rental allowance from AIU Net income per ...00 Net taxable income P40.. #323173 Deficiency tax due ..... water.388...... exemption 3.................................. A33250 & 383318 ... Net income per telephone.... P 8.....605.......18 ............………......................

and travelling allowance of his wife.... of P7. 1950 and 1952and on or before 15 February 1954 with respect to thatdue for the year 1951 (Exhibits B-2........ In the foregoing assessments....subsistence......32 in 1948.089.200 andresidential expenses of P1....... Nos..60 Deficiency tax still due . 443484 2. #438026................. electricity and telephone....………………………… Tax due thereon P12..otherwise they would have lived in a less expensive one. onlythe amount of P3...247.... at the behestof her husband's employer. thesame should not be considered as part of their income forit was an expense of his employer and his membershiptherein was merely incidental to his duties of increasingand sustaining the business of his employer...40 7. electricity and telephone.051.. 31. electricity and waterof P8.that as regards his allowances for rental of P7...... 6.....800 and subsistence of P6......R.. S).. withholding tax and entrance fee to the Marikinagun and Country Bluc paid by his employer for hisaccount.73 in 1950. BIR rec.. 1949. which is the amountthey would have spent for rental of an apartment includingutilities....373. telephone. etc. that as regards the amount ofP200 representing entrance fee to the Marikina Gun andCountry Club paid for him by his employer in 1948..... rental of P5..... the Bureau of InternalRevenue considered as part of their taxable income thetaxpayer-husband's allowances for rental..108..900 for each year. L..044....849.water. water..... it should not be considered as part of theirincome because she merely accompanied him in his businesstrip to New York as his secretary and.......18 . that they had no choicebut live in the said apartment furnished by his employer.) in 1949 rental. The claimthat as regards the husband-taxpayer's allowances forrental and utilities such as water.. to study and look into the detailsof the plans and decorations of the building intendedto be constructed byn his employer in its property at DeweyBoulevard...400 and P1...……….......320....782.....00 (Exhibits 2. 29.....50 (the latter merelyconsisting of allowances for rent and utilities such as light....... Less: Tax already withheld P5.............. exemption 3. rentalof P1....... Less: Personal .. etc.. the taxpayerspaid the deficiency taxes ...00 Tax already paid per O. should be taxed.00 ...... and that asregards the wife-taxpayer's travelling allowance of P3. 36-38. 8. On 26 and27 January 1954 the taxpayers asked for reconsiderationof the foregoing assessment (pp. residential expenses.... 62-66.………..67 in 1952.981.....00 Net taxable income P44.. water..he did not receive the money for said allowances....………… & collectible P4.. but thatthey lieved in the apartment furnished and paid for byhis employer for its convenience..000........ 10) and demanded payment of thedeficiency taxes on or before 28 February 1954 with respectto those due for the years 1948.. electricity....) andon 11 Februayr 1954 and 28 February 1955 stated thegrounds and reasons in support of their request for reconsideration (pp. 4.. BIR rec.)... On 15 and 27 February 1954..672........... P..................660. H. bonuspaid to him..40 in 1952.91 in 1951 and rental..………..telephone...

BIR rec. Q. Amount already paid Deficiency tax still due and demanded payment of the deficiency taxes of P4.662. 6. On 14 July 1955.247.849. P354 and P2.assessed under Official ReceiptsNos. I. On 10 February 1956 the taxpayers again requestedthe Collector of Internal Revenue to refund to them theamounts allegedly paid in excess as income .79 7. 4.000 yearly to P4.108 for 1952.).477.32 P46. 451748 and 451844 (ExhibitsC. exceptas regards the assessment of their income tax due for theyear 1948.23 for 1949. P3. P569.800 yearly. or a total of P7. on 27 May 1955the Staff recommended to the Collector of Internal Revenuethat the assessments made on 28 November 1953 (Exhibits2. The taxpayers also reiteratedtheir previous stand regarding the transportationallowance of the wife-taxpayer of P3. P2. P3. etc. 5% surcharge and 1% monthlyinterest thereon from 1 March 1954 to the date of paymentand P80 as administrative penalty for late payment.41) 1.11 P 8.47 4. 451842. and Y). the Collector of Internal Revenuedenied the taxpayers' request for reconsideration.to the City Treasurer of Manila not later than 31 July1955 (Exhibit 14). BIRrec.40 in 1952 andrequested the refund of the amounts of P3.400. 1948 6..858.51.00 Additional bonus for 1947 received on May 13.023.164.506. 10) be sustained except that the amountof P200 as entrance fee to the Marikina Gun and CountryClub paid for the husband-taxpayer's account by his employerin 1948 should not be considered as part of thetaxpayers' taxable income for that year (pp.24for 1948. 451843.370. 451841.00 P44. which "isthe value to the employee of the benefits he derived therefrommeasured by what he had saved on account thereof'in the ordinary course of his life . from P3. M. in line with the recommendationof the Conference Staff. (Exhibit Z).294.18. After hearing conducted by theConference Staff of the Bureau of Internal Revenue on5 October 1954 (pp.058 for1951 and P4.24 Net income per investigation Less: Personal exemption Net taxable income Tax due thereon Less.23 P 4..P1.023 for 1950. 8.370. which was modified as follows: Net income per return Add: Rent expense P29.573.136.500.200.00 Manager's expense (1948 loss) residential profit and 1. On 30 January 1956 the taxpayersagain sought a reconsideration of the denial of their requestfor reconsideration and offered to settle the case ona more equitable basis by increasing the amount of thetaxable portion of the husband-taxpayer's allowances forrental.523.00 Manager's residential expense (2/29/48 a/c #4. 74-85. 95-107. for which hewould have spent in any case'".11 2.).33.500.

109.He also filed a separate motion for reconsiderationof the decision claiming that his assessmentunder review was correct and should have been affirmed. andthat even if it were considered as such. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in finding that theherein respondent did not have any choice in the selection ofthe living quarters occupied by him. without pronouncement as tocosts. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in giving full weightand credence to respondent's allegation. still it could not besubject to tax because it was deductible as travel expense. water and telephone in the apartment furnished bythe husbant-taxpayer's employer. a reply thereto. II.the same could not be considered as income.400 and P1. L-13049). On29 October 1957 the taxpayers filed a notice of appealin the Court of Tax Appeals and a petition for review inthis Court (G.The taxpayers filed an opposition to this motion for reconsiderationof the Collector of Internal Revenue. thelatter.R. On 7 October1957 the Collector of Internal Revenue filed a notice ofappeal in the Court of Tax Appeals and on 21 October1957. a petition for review (G. a self-serving and unsupported declaration that the ratable value to him of the living quarters and subsistence allowance was only P400.R. however. Afterhearing." that. No. within the extension of time previously granted bythis Court.800 annually. in the appreciationof respondent's alleged lack of choice in the matter of the selectionof the quarters occupied by him.that since the taxpayers did not receive any benefitout of the P3. 237).and ordering the Collector of Internal Revenue to refundto the taxpayers the amount of P5. The Collectorof Internal Revenue did not take any action on the taxpayers'request for refund.00 a month. The Collector of InternalRevenue filed an opposition to their motion for reconsideration. On 15 February 1956 the taxpayers filed in the Courtof Tax Appeals a petition to review the decision of theCollector of Internal Revenue (C. Case No. does not require him to occupy the apartments suppliedby his employer-corporation.61 is the amount refundableto them because the amounts of P1.986. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in not consideringthe fact that respondent is not a minor company official butthe President of his employer-corporation. the ratable value to him ofthe quarters furnished constitutes a part of taxable income.33 with interestfrom 27 February 1954. III. they being mainly expenses for utilities aslight.T. L-12954). onlythe amount of P4.32 as manager's residential expenses in 1948 shouldnot be included in their taxable net income for the reasonthat they are of the same nature as the rentals for theapartment. The Collector of Internal Revenue had assigned the followingerrors allegedly committed by the Court of TaxAppeals: I.40 traveling expense allowance grantedin 1952 to the wife-taxpayer and that she merely undertookthe trip abroad at the behest of her husband's employer.849.Inc.taxes for theyears 1948 to 1952.247. No. . on 26 June 1957 the Court rendered judgmentholding "that the inherent nature of petitioner's(the husbandtaxpayer) employment as president of theAmerican International Underwriters as president of theAmerican International Underwriters of the Philippines. The taxpayers filed a motion for reconsiderationclaiming that the amount of P5. inclusive (Exhibit Z-1).A. On 28 September 1957 the Courtdenied both motions for reconsideration.

securities. 56. 466. or dealings in property. Aznar. 1957.800. 1125. In Collector of Internal Revenue vs.00 per annum. growing out of the ownership or use of or interest in such property.33 with interest from February 17.800. VI. Are the allowances for rental of the apartment furnished by the husband-taxpayer's employercorporation. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in ordering the refund of the sum of P5. and the allowance for travel expenses given by his employer-corporation to his wife in 1952 part of taxable income? Section 29. it may review the findings of fact of the Court of Tax Appeals.R. etc. V. including utilities such as light. that it did not take into consideration the fact that the husband-taxpayer is not a mere minor company official. vocations.R. therefore. L-13049. VII. National Internal Revenue Code. Off. as found by the Court. Gaz. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in holding that only the ratable value of P4. but the highest executive of his employer-corporation. wages. or from professions. trades. L-12954. Commonwealth Act No. provides: "Gross income" includes gains.40 constituted income to respondent and. or P400. No. sales. rents dividend. subject to the income tax. whether real or personal. also from interest. 2386. or P400. this Court held that in petitions for review under section 18.109. (G.) The taxpayers have assigned the following errors allegedly committed by the Court of Tax Appeals: I. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in not finding that travelling allowance in the amount of P3.) The Government's appeal: The Collector of Internal Revenue raises questions of fact.00 per annum. 1954. a business but a vacation trip. profits. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in its computation of the 1948 income tax and consequently in the amount that should be refunded for that year. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in arbitrarily fixing the amount of P4.247. and that the wife-taxpayer's trip abroad in 1952 was not. or the transaction of any business . telephone. Republic Act No. II. water. businesses. (G.IV. or compensation for personal service of whatever kind and in whatever form paid. The Court of Tax Appeals erred in denying our motion for reconsideration as contained in its resolution dated September 28. He claims that the evidence is not sufficient to support the findings and conclusion of the Court of Tax Appeals that the quarters occupied by the taxpayers were not of their choice but that of the husband-taxpayer's employer. commerce.00 a month constitutes income to respondent. and income derived from salaries.00 a month as the only amount taxable aganst respondent during the five tax years in question. The determination of the main issue in the case requires a review of the evidence. No.

kitchen and a large porch. guests and customers such as the president of C. inquiring about the progress made in the acquisition of the lot. that he and his wife are childless and are the only two in the family. and informing him of the wishes of Mr. Mrs. (Emphasis ours. dining room two bedrooms and bathroom.. that were he not required by his employer to live in those apartments furnished to him. upon request o Mr. he and his wife would have chosen an apartment only large enough for them and spend from P300 to P400 monthly for rental. and that the trip to New York undertaken by his wife in 1952. Mrs. who spent four weeks in his apartment. etc. that "In 1952. C. V. they lived in apartments chosen by his employer. Marie Henderson. sala. Inc. a stockholder of AIUPI. Starr. undertook a trip to New York in connection with the purchase of a lot in Dewey Boulevardby petitioner's employer-corporatio.40. they lived at the Embassy Apartments on Dakota Street. letters written by his wife while in New York concerning the proposed building. V. and from the early part of 1950 to 1952. C." that the taxpayers "entertained officials. Manila. V.. which representa a group of American insurance companies engagad in the business of general insurance except life insurance. she and her husband gave parties every Friday night at their apartment for about 18 to 20 people. telephone. and Manuel Elizalde. D. the construction of a building thereon. Thomas Cocklin. that their guests were officials . or gains. Inc. that during the years 1948 to 1952. and income derived from any source whatever.800 annually. Starr & Company. In support of his claim. for which she was granted by his employer-corporation travelling expense allowance of P3. Starr. profits. Inc. and other related matters.000 and allowance for house rental and utilities like light. that from 1948 to the early part of 1950. two bathrooms." Arthur H. petitioner's wife. X-1) were presented in evidence.C. Marie Henderson testified that for almost three years.. they had to live in apartments of the size beyond their personal needs because as president of the corporation.carried on for gain or profit. should be considered as taxable income and the excess treated as expense of the company.. chairman of the parent corporation of the American International Underwriters for the Philippines. that of the allowances granted to him. U-1-A. Starr concerning the proposed building (Exhibits X. Henderson testified that he is the President of American International Underwriters for the Philippines.) The Court of Tax Appeals found that the husband-taxpayer "is the president of the American International Underwriters for the Philippines. chairman of the board of directors of the parentcorporation (Exhibits U-1.. a lawyer from Washington. inclusive. Inc. that despite the fact that they were the only two in the family. the drawing of prospectus and plans for said building. V-1 and W) and a letter written by the witness to Mr. they lived at the Rosaria Apartments on the same street where they had a kitchen. only the amount of P4. dining room. that during all those years of 1948 to 1952. where they had a large sala. a domestic corporation engaged in insurance business. he and his wife had to entertain and put up houseguests. was made at the behest of his employer to assist its architect in the preparation of the plans for a proposed building in Manila and procurement of supplies and materials for its use. that he receives a basic annual salary of P30. in apartments furnished by the latter and successively occupied by him as president thereof. water. the maximum they would have spent for rental. hence the said amount should not be considered as part of taxable income.. they entertained and put up houseguests of his company's officials.247. V. guests and customers of his employer-corporation. V. C. three bedrooms.

t. two bathrooms.). and because "the woman of the family is closer to those problems. C. . water. Hence. The parts of the letters written by the wife-taxpayer to her husband while in New York and the letter written by the husband-taxpayer to Mr. Neverthelss. No part of the allowance for travellking expenses redounded to the benefit of the taxpayers. 170-193. yet he and his wife had to entertain and put up houseguests in their apartments. therefore. or a total of P3. that they also entertained during luncheons and breakfasts.849.800 annually. The quarters. for "manager's residential expense" in 1948 as taxable income despite the fact "that they were of the same nature as the rentals for the apartment. The taxpayers are childless and are the only two in the family. for no part of the allowances in question redounded to their personal benefit or was retained by them. should be the amount subject to tax. inclusive. and that in 1952 she was asked by Mr. that these involved and necessitated the services of additional servants. that during those parties movies for the entertainment of the guests were shown after dinner. telephone. the taxpayers are entitled only to a ratable value of the allowances in question.n. not to mention social standing.s. three bedrooms.32. and only the amount of P4. pp. two bedrooms and a bathroom. But the exigencies of the husband-taxpayer's high executive position. The taxpayers' appeal: The taxpayers claim that the Court of Tax Appeals erred in considering the amounts of P1. dining room.400 and P1. and the excess considered as expenses of the corporation. V-1. demanded and compelled them to live in amore spacious and pretentious quarters like the ones they had occupied. the findings of the Court of Tax Appeals that the wife-taxpayer had to make the trip to New York at the behest of her husband's employer-corporation to help in drawing up the plans and specificatins of a proposed building. kitchen and a large porch.32. V.of her husband's employer-corporation and other corporations. That is why his employer-corporation had to grant him allowances for rental and utilities in addition to his annual basic salary to take care of those extra expenses for rental and utilities in excess of their personal needs. sala dining room." The evidence presented at the hearing of the case substantially supports the findings of the Court of Tax Appeals.. X). etc.249. the fact that the taxpayers had to live or did not have to live in the apartments chosen by the husbandtaxpayer's employer-corporation is of no moment. Likewise. C. the reasonable amount they would have spent for house rental and utilities such as light. as correctly held by the Court of Tax Appeals. Their bills for rental and utilities were paid directly by the employer-corporation to the creditors (Exhibit AA to DDD. The fact that she had herself operated on for tumors while in New York wsa but incidental to her stay there and she must have merely taken advantage of her presence in that city to undergo the operation. 104. V. that they occupied at the Embassy Apartments consisting of a large sala. Starr support the said findings (Exhibits U-2. and at the Rosaria Apartments consisting of a kitchen. Neither was a part thereof retained by them. W-1. is also supported by the evidence. Starr to come to New York to take up problems concerning the proposed building and entertainment because her husband could not make the trip himself. exceeded their personal needs. Although entertaining and putting up houseguests and guests of the husbnad-taxpayer's employer-corporation were not his predominand occupation as president.

00. Reyes. P1. Inc.. Inc.00.573. The computation made by the taxpayers is correct. Concepcion. P354. and P4.249. petitioner. The judgment under review is modified as above indicated. The taxpayers' claim is supported by the evidence. from the amount already paid. PHILIPPINE LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE vs. B-1. The income tax due on this amount is P6.249. testified that he total amount of P3. Deducting therefrom the amount of P2.849. utilities. refundable to the taxpayers for 1949. water and telephone necessarily incidental to the apartment furnished to him by his employer.32 "for manager's residential expense" in 1948 should be treated as rentals for apartments and utilities and should not form part of the ratable value subject to tax. 2008 COMPANY. testified that rentals.. Actg. J. The total amount of P3.79.19. C). and Mrs.R. the amount of P38." and that "the amount of P1." Mrs. respondent. G.61.500 for personal exemption. water. 1950.957.47 (Exhibits B." Buenaventura Loberiza. the amount of P1.J..61. Adding to the amount of P29.00 and P2. Labrador. such as light.B. acting head of the accouting department of the American International Underwriters for the Philippines. Add this amount to P563.373.873. telephone and electric bills of executives of the corporation were entered in the books of account as "subsistence allowances and expenses.986. and that expenses for rentals and other utilities were not charged to salary accounts.32 was entered as profit and loss account. brings up their gross income to P40." that there was a separate account for salaries and wages of employees and officers. the bonus received in 1948. Bautista Angelo. P6. P8. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE. the taxable ratable value of the allowances.concur.19 only. Bengzon. their net income per return. an examiner of the Bureau of Internal Revenue who examined the books of accound of the American International Underwriters for the Philippines.28 is the amount refundable to the taxpayers. The Collector of Internal Revenue is ordered to refund to the taxpayers the sum of P5. Deducting the amount of income tax due. Crescencia Perez Ramos.400 was included as manager's residential expense while the amount of P1.79. JJ.500.800. C.562.32 was reflected in its books as "living expenses of Mr.33.986. No.294.they being expenses for utilities. DECISION . without pronouncement as to costs. Barrera. 157264 January 31. the amount of P6. Arthur Henderson in the quarters they occupied in 1948.605.79 is the amount subject to income tax...L. 1951 and 1952 and the total is P5.957. Paredes and Dizon.154.

and was thus not made .2 (Underscoring supplied) As the BIR took no action on its claim. and executive employees due to redundancy. 1997 with the BIR a claim for tax credit or refund of the P23. supervisory.8 adjusted PLDT's claim to P6.12 Justifying its motion.679. of the voluminous cash salary vouchers. In its Answer. invoking Section 28(b)(7)(B) of the 1977 National Internal Revenue Code1 which excluded from gross income [a]ny amount received by an official or employee or by his heirs from the employer as a consequence of separation of such official or employee from the service of the employer due to death. 10-97. 1998 that it was reducing its claim to P16.909. and moved to avail of the procedure laid down in CTA Circular No. it deducted from the separation pay withholding taxes in the total amount ofP23.6 The CTA thereupon appointed Amelia Cabal (Cabal) of SGV as Commissioner of the court. the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. as amended by CTA Circular No. it paid those separated employees separation pay and other benefits.777.909. undersigned counsel relied on the audit of SGV & Co.3 respondent.72. and that as employer and withholding agent.20 which it remitted to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR).61 because a number of the separated employees opted to file their respective claims for refund of taxes erroneously withheld from their separation pay. that in compliance with labor law requirements. Through excusable mistake or inadvertence.707.167.7 Cabal's audit report. contended that PLDT failed to show proof of payment of separation pay and remittance of the alleged withheld taxes. which formed part of PLDT's evidence.9 By Decision10 of July 25. allowing the presentation of a certification of an independent certified public accountant in lieu of voluminous documents. praying for an opportunity to present the receipts and quitclaims executed by the employees and prove that they received their separation pay.: Petitioner. J. the files having been misplaced and were only recently found. invoices and other long accounts. filed on November 20. PLDT filed a claim for judicial refund before the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA). 5 PLDT thereafter retained Sycip Gorres Velayo and Company (SGV) to conduct a special audit examination of various receipts. the CTA denied PLDT's claim on the ground that it "failed to sufficiently prove that the terminated employees received separation pay and that taxes were withheld therefrom and remitted to the BIR. sickness or other physical disability or for any cause beyond the control of the said official or employee. claiming that it terminated in 1995 the employment of several rank-and-file.4 PLDT later manifested on March 19.20."11 PLDT filed a Motion for New Trial/Reconsideration. PLDT alleged that x x x [t]hese Receipts and Quitclaims could not be presented during the course of the trial despite diligent efforts.CARPIO MORALES.707. 2000. 1-95. the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT).439.

unlike the cash salary vouchers for the supervisory and executive employees.14 PLDT thus filed a Petition for Review15 before the Court of Appeals which.167.20 PLDT argues against the need for proof that the employees received their separation pay and proffers the issue in the case in this wise: It is not essential to prove that the separation pay benefits were actually received by the terminated employees. WHEN IT HELD THAT PETITIONER FAILED TO ESTABLISH THAT PETITIONER'S EMPLOYEES RECEIVED THEIR SEPARATION PAY.18 it filed the present Petition for Review on Certiorari. x x x Proving. . WHICH CERTIFIED THAT PETITIONER IS ENTITLED TO A REFUND OF THE AMOUNT OF P6. . WHEN IT HELD THAT PROOF OF PAYMENT OF SEPARATION PAY TO THE EMPLOYEES IS REQUIRED IN ORDER TO AVAIL OF REFUND OF TAXES ERRONEOUSLY PAID TO THE BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE. This issue is not for the CTA. D.679. . C. but is a matter that falls within the competence and exclusive jurisdiction of the Department of Labor and Employment and/or the National Labor Relations Commission. PLDT's Motion for Reconsideration 17 having been denied. dismissed the same.wary of the fact that the cash salary vouchers for the rank and file employees do not have acknowledgement receipts. . . IN DISREGARDING THE CERTIFICA-TION/REPORT OF SGV & CO. . . B. receipt of separation pay would have been material. IN NOT ORDERING A NEW TRIAL TO ALLOW PETITIONER TO PRESENT ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE IN SUPPORT THEREOF. . 2002. .. by Decision16 of February 11. . If admitted in evidence. relevant and necessary if its deductibility as a business expense has been put . . will prove that the rank and file employees received their separation pay from petitioner. nor the Court of Appeals to resolve. . these Receipts and Quitclaims.13(Underscoring supplied) The CTA denied PLDT's motion. or submitting evidence to prove. together with the cash salary vouchers.72. 19 faulting the appellate court to have committed grave abuse of discretion A.

be refunded/credited to the taxpayer/withholding agent. are construed strictly against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the taxing authority. it is incumbent on PLDT as a claimant for refund on behalf of each of the separated employees to show that each employee did x x x reflect in his or its own return the income upon which any creditable tax is required to be withheld at the source. thus: With respect to the redundant rank and file employees' final payment/terminal pay x x x.22 Under the earlier quoted portion of Section 28 (b)(7)(B) of the National Internal Revenue Code of 1977 (now Section 32(B)6(b) of the National Internal Revenue Code of 1997).Claims for tax credit or refund of income tax deducted and withheld on income payments shall be given due course only when it is shown on the return that the income payment received was declared as part of the gross income and the fact of withholding is established by a copy of the statement duly issued by the payer to the payee (BIR Form No.21 (Emphasis in the original. should be refunded for having been erroneously withheld and paid to the latter. and the taxpayer bears the burden of establishing the factual basis of his claim for a refund. the cash salary vouchers relative thereto have no payment acknowledgement receipts. . regardless of whether or not separation pay was actually paid to the concerned employees. like tax exemptions. Only when there is an excess of the amount of tax so withheld over the tax due on the payee's return can a refund become possible. The issue is whether or not the withholding taxes. For as long as there is no legal basis for the payment of taxes to the BIR. PLDT must prove that the employees received the income payments as part of gross income and the fact of withholding. But this has never been an issue in the instant case. any taxes withheld from separation benefits and paid to the BIR constitute erroneous payment of taxes and should therefore. Inasmuch as these cash vouchers were not signed by the respective ."23 (Underscoring supplied) In fine. which Petitioner remitted to the BIR. 1743. A taxpayer must thus do two things to be able to successfully make a claim for the tax refund: (a) declare the income payments it received as part of its gross income and (b) establish the fact of withholding. Hence.in issue. underscoring supplied) PLDT's position does not lie. the relevant revenue regulation provides as follows: "Section 10. The CTA found that PLDT failed to establish that the redundant employees actually received separation pay and that it withheld taxes therefrom and remitted the same to the BIR. Claims for tax credit or refund. the taxpayer is entitled to claim a refund therefore.1) showing the amount paid and the amount of tax withheld therefrom. Tax refunds. On this score.

Salazar. the same merely serves as proofs of authorization for payment and not actual payment by the Petitioner of the redundant rank and file employees' separation pay and other benefits. inclusive) cannot be verified against the "Summary of Gross Compensation and Tax Withheld for 1995" (Exhs. Chief of the BIR Appellate Division. 766 had . E-6-b to E-6-e. and withholding taxes) attached to the summary was for the withholding taxes on service terminal pay (Exh. E-4. xxxx It is worthy to note that Respondent presented a witness in the person of Atty. However.706. Expanded and Final Withholding Taxes for the year 1995 d) Summary of Income Taxes Withheld E-6-a for the calendar year ended December 31. To establish that the withholding taxes deducted from the redundant employees' separation pay/other benefits were actually remitted to the BIR. who opted to file directly with the BIR. corresponding gross compensation. it cannot be determined from the above documents whether or not Petitioner actually remitted the total income taxes withheld from the redundant employees' taxable compensation (inclusive of the separation pay/other benefits) for the year 1995. Petitioner failed to prove that the rank and file employees were actually paid separation pay and other benefits.employees to prove actual receipt of payment. In other words. Certification E to E-3-d c) Annual Information Return of Income E-6 Tax Withheld on Compensation. the names listed thereon were not among the names of the redundant separated employees being claimed by petitioner. The amounts of total taxes withheld for each redundant employees (Exhs. Rodolfo L.20 had already been granted. who testified that a portion of the Petitioner's original claim for refund of P23. 1995 e) Summary of Gross Compensation E-6-b to E-6-e and Tax Withheld However. E-6-e). He also testified that out of 769 claimants. inclusive) due to the fact that this summary enumerates the amounts of income taxes withheld from Petitioner's employees on per district/area basis. E-5. therein petitioner submitted the following: Exhibit a) Monthly Remittance Return of D Income Taxes Withheld for December 1995 b) Revised SGV & Co.908. E7. The only schedule (with names.

167. 24(Emphasis and underscoring supplied) The appellate court affirmed the foregoing findings of the CTA.777. Apropos is this Court's ruling in Far East Bank and Trust Company v. identification and comparison with the originals thereof need not be done before the Court or Clerk of Court anymore after the introduction of the summary and CPA certification. vouchers or other documents covering the said accounts or payment to be introduced in evidence must be pre-marked by the party concerned and submitted to the Court in order to be made accessible to the adverse party who desires to check and verify the correctness of the summary and CPA certification. evaluation and audit of the voluminous receipts and invoices x x x 2. after motion and approval by the Court. a chronological listing of the numbers. In fact. Likewise the originals of the voluminous receipts. among others. especially if these are substantially similar to the findings of the C[ourt of] A[ppeals] which is normally the final arbiter of questions of fact. invoice or account for marking. For the relevant portions of CTA Circular 1-95 instruct: 1. binding. The party who desires to introduce as evidence such voluminous documents must. a special court exercising particular expertise on the subject of tax. 26(Underscoring supplied) While SGV certified that it had "been able to trace the remittance of the withheld taxes summarized in the C[ash] S[alary] V[ouchers] to the Monthly Remittance Return of Income Taxes Withheld for the appropriate period covered by the final payment made to the concerned executives.439.72 which is the subject of this claim. invoices." 27 the same cannot be appreciated in PLDT's favor as the courts cannot verify such claim. supervisors. present: (a) a Summary containing. Failure to present these documents is fatal to PLDT's case. dates and amounts covered by the invoices or receipts and the amount/s of tax paid.been processed and granted. and (b) a Certification of an independent Certified Public Accountant attesting to the correctness of the contents of the summary after making an examination. invoices and accounts must be ready for verification and . the documents from which SGV "traced" the former to the latter have not been presented. The method of individual presentation of each and every receipt. aregenerally regarded as final. While the records of the case contain the Alphabetical List of Employee from Whom Taxes Were Withheld for the year 1995 and the Monthly Remittance Returns of Income Taxes Withheld for December 1995. x x x three claims were not processed because the concerned taxpayer failed to submit the income tax returns and withholding tax certificates. and rank and file staff members of PLDT. and conclusive upon this Court. It is enough that the receipts. Court of Appeals:25 The findings of fact of the CTA. Considering that no documentary evidence was presented to bolster said testimony.61 claim for refund withdrawn by the Petitioner from the instant petition or to the remaining balance of P6.679. We have no means of counter checking whether the 766 alleged to have been already granted by the Respondent pertained to the P16.

dated December 28. mistake or excusable negligence which ordinary prudence could not have guarded against and by reason of which such aggrieved party has probably been impaired in his rights. Release and Quitclaim" bearing the signatures purportedly of those employees for whom the Petitioner filed the"Petition" before the CTA. Manila Mining Corporation29 explains the need for the promulgation of the immediately-cited CTA Circular and its effect: x x x The circular. however. identifying and marking of documents before the Court.32 And the grant or denial of a new trial is.33 PLDT has not shown any such abuse. generally speaking. accident. have discovered and produced at the trial. and which if presented would probably alter the result. Commissioner of Internal Revenue. in the interest of speedy administration of justice. the court cannot verify the authenticity and veracity of the independent auditor's conclusions.comparison in case of doubt on the authenticity thereof is raised during the hearing or resolution of the formal offer of evidence.from which the summary and schedules were based. or by duly authenticated documents which are proposed to be introduced in evidence. which he could not. addressed to the sound discretion of the court which cannot be interfered with unless a clear abuse thereof is shown. . was promulgated to avoid the time-consuming procedure of presenting." viz: xxxx The petitioner appended to its "Motion for New Trial".31 Newly discovered evidence as a basis of a motion for new trial should be supported by affidavits of the witnesses by whom such evidence is expected to be given. It does not relieve respondent of its imperative task of premarking photocopies of sales receipts and invoices andsubmitting the same to the court after the independent CPA shall have examined and compared them with the originals. (Italics in the original. with reasonable diligence. or b) Newly discovered evidence. Emphasis and underscoring supplied). 1995 x x x[.]34 xxxx .30 On the denial of PLDT's motion for new trial: new trial may be granted on either of these grounds: a) Fraud. The affirmance by the appellate court of the CTA's denial of PLDT's motion for new trial on the ground of "newly discovered evidence. unnotarized copies of "Receipts. Without presenting these pre-marked documents as evidence . etc.28 citingCommissioner of Internal Revenue v. (Emphasis and underscoring supplied) Atlas Consolidated Mining and Development Corporation v.

" on August 18. For sure. the said deeds were not notarized. the Petitioner. its counsel has not explained why it failed to present the same before the Commissioner and/or adduce the same in evidence during the hearing of the Petition on its merits with the CTA. as claimed by Petitioner. etc. . The petitioner did not. (b) whether the said deeds were turned over to its counsel when it filed the Petition at bench. etc." filed by the Petitioner. etc. 2000. or an interregnum of almost five (5) years. The Petitioner wanted the CTA to believe that the employees executed the aforesaid "Receipts. it should have collated all the documents necessary to support its Petition and submit the same to its counsel. This is a dangerous proposition and one which we refuse to countenance.. 36 Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. especially the custodian of said Receipts. None of the responsible officers of the Petitioner. the employees. etc. He submits that Section 8 of the Rules of the Court of Tax Appeals declaring that the latter shall not be governed strictly by technical rules of evidence mandates a relaxation of the requirements of new trial on the basis of newly discovered evidence. as early as December 28.Although the Rules require the appendage. (c) why it failed to present the said Receipts to the SGV & Co. Releases and Quitclaims" as early as December 28. We cannot agree more with the Court of Appeals when it stated thus. Indeed. indeed. allegedly by the employees. by the Petitioner. Soriano Corporation37 furnishes a caveat on the matter: Perhaps realizing that under the Rules the said report cannot be admitted as newly discovered evidence. respectively. 1995. the Petitioner failed to append to its "Motion for New Trial" any affidavits of said witnesses. or approximately two (2) years before the Petitioner filed the Petition before the CTA. 1995. while the latter was conducting its examination and/or audit of the records of the Petitioner. of the "Affidavits of Witnesses" it intends to present in a new trial. We are convinced that the said Receipts. one of the biggest corporations in the Philippines and laden with competent execu-tives/officers/employees. is thus in order. 1995. the petitioner invokes a liberal application of the Rules. only when it filed its "Motion for New Trial. were antedated and executed only after the CTA rendered its Decision and only in anticipation of the "Motion for New Trial. It behooved the Petitioner to have appended the Affidavits of the separated employees to authenticate the "Receipts. did not bother having the same notarized on or about December 28. Finally. on PLDT's plea for a liberal application of the rules of procedure. executed an "Affidavit" explaining why the same (a) were not notarized on or about December 28. It is incredible that. 1995.. The "Receipts. and kept the same in its possession and custody. However. when the Petitioner endorsed the preparation and filing of the Petition to its counsel. and Quitclaims" appended to the Petition are not authenticated. A. Releases.. etc. 1995. Releases and Quitclaims" purportedly executed by them. If the Petitioner did. the petitioner divulged the existence of said Receipts. signed the said Receipts on December 28.35 (Emphasis and underscoring in the original). if it is true. despite their having been signed.

to a considerable extent. For this act of negligence. Section 5 of the Rules of the Court of Tax Appeals should not be ignored at will and at random to the prejudice of the orderly presentation of issues and their resolution. and A. In the case at bench. SO ORDERED. 108576 January 20. the alleged "newly discovered evidence" that PLDT seeks to offer does not suffice to establish its claim for refund. No." WHEREFORE. on whose behalf it filed the claim for refund. Furthermore. To do so would affect. 1743. every time a party is aggrieved by its decision. For it should not be forgotten that the first and fundamental concern of the rules of procedure is to secure a just determination of every action. the stability of judicial decisions. INTERNAL COURT OF TAX APPEALS REVENUE. G. Soriano Corporation's (hereinafter ANSCOR) redemption and exchange . 1999 COMMISSIONER OF vs. he can have it set aside by asking to be allowed to present additional evidence without having to comply with the requirements of a motion for new trial based on newly discovered evidence. the petition is DENIED. Costs against petitioner. THE COURT OF APPEALS. the same Revenue Regulation requires that "the fact of withholding is established by a copy of the statement duly issued by the payor to the payee (BIR Form No." We are left with no recourse but to conclude that this is a simple case of negligence on the part of the petitioner.R. petitioner. CORP. as it would still have to comply with Revenue Regulation 6-85 by proving that the redundant employees.38 (Underscoring supplied) At all events. Rule 13. J.. respondents.1) showing the amount paid and the amount of tax withheld therefrom. a liberal application of the rules of procedure to suit the petitioner's purpose would clearly pave the way for injustice as it would be rewarding an act of negligence with undeserved tolerance.: Petitioner Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR) seeks the reversal of the decision of the Court of Appeals (CA)1 which affirmed the ruling of the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) 2 that private respondent A. SORIANO MARTINEZ. declared the separation pay received as part of their gross income. the petitioner cannot be allowed to seek refuge in a liberal application of the Rules."To accept the contrary view of the petitioner would give rise to a dangerous precedent in that there would be no end to a hearing before respondent court because.

ANSCOR is wholly owned and controlled by the family of Don Andres. ANSCOR's authorized capital stock was increased to P2. 1967.of the stocks of its foreign stockholders cannot be considered as "essentially equivalent to a distribution of taxable dividends" under.290 and 46. 7 A month later.. formed the corporation "A. 1945. ANSCOR reclassified its existing 300. 15 A day after Don Andres died.727.659 shares as stock dividend declarations. The estate of Don Andres in turn.860 of the newly reclassified preferred shares. stock dividends worth 46. 26 . 6 This increased his subscription to 14. Doña Carmen Soriano.000.000 common shares at a par value of P100/share. 22 By January 2.000.250 shares each to his two sons. 9 Both sons are foreigners.140 preferred shares. Soriano Y Cia". as her conjugal share.000 common shares into 150. thus reducing its (the estate) common shares to 127. 3 The undisputed facts are as follows: Sometime in the 1930s. As of that date. ANSCOR increased its capital stock to P20M 16 and in 1966 further increased it to P30M.000 shares originally issued. 13 Correspondingly. 20 On December 28. a citizen and resident of the United States. 1968 Doña Carmen exchanged her whole 138.000 common shares with the same par value of the additional 15. exchanged 11. 11 On December 30. inquiring if an exchange of common with preferred shares may be considered as a tax avoidance scheme 21under Section 367 of the 1954 U.000 shares. who are all non-resident aliens. as their initial investments in ANSCOR.S. 23 In a letter-reply dated February 1968. Jose and Andres.000 was issued which were all subscribed by Don Andres. Revenue Act. 24 Consequently. Doña Carmen requested a ruling from the United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS).00 divided into 25. Don Andres subscribed to 4.864 19 common shares each. Other stock dividend declarations were made between 1949 and December 20. 5 On September 12. Jr. increasing their accumulated shareholdings to 138. the records revealed that he has a total shareholdings of 185. with a P1. Don Andres Soriano. 10 By 1947.577 14 shares were transferred to his wife.000.140 of its common shares.963 shares of the 5. 25 on March 31. 1964 Don Andres died.867 and 138.154 shares 12 — 50.287 shares were respectively received by the Don Andres estate 18 and Doña Carmen from ANSCOR. 1963.00 capitalization divided into 10.000 preferred shares. after the other stockholders waived in favor of the former their pre-emptive rights to subscribe to the new issues. for the remaining 11. the IRS opined that the exchange is only a recapitalization scheme and not tax avoidance. ANSCOR declared stock dividends. 1968. predecessor of ANSCOR.864 common shares for 138. 4 In 1937. Section 83(b) of the 1939 Internal Revenue Act. one-half of that shareholdings or 92. Hence.495 of which are original issues and the balance of 134.500.963 common shares. 17 In the same year (December 1966). only 10. 8 Don Andres transferred 1.000 common and 150. The other half formed part of his estate.

28 further reducing the latter's common shareholdings to 19.727. essentially equivalent to the distribution of a taxable dividend. Revenue examiners issued a report proposing that ANSCOR be assessed for deficiency withholding tax-at-source. the Tax Court reversed petitioner's ruling. 27 About a year later. ANSCOR's business purpose for both redemptions of stocks is to partially retire said stocks as treasury shares in order to reduce the company's foreign exchange remittances in case cash dividends are declared.D.000 common shares. 35 Subsequently. this petition.'s 67 and 157. 1968. ANSCOR filed a petition for review with the CTA assailing the tax assessments on the redemptions and exchange of stocks.On June 30. nineteen hundred and thirteen. As stated in the Board Resolutions. 30 for the year 1968 and the second quarter of 1969 based on the transactions of exchange 31 and redemption of stocks. (Emphasis supplied) Specifically. if a corporation cancels or redeems stock issued as a dividend at such time and in such manner as to make the distribution and cancellation or redemption.D. petitioner ruled that the invoked decrees do not cover Sections 53 and 54 in relation to Article 83(b) of the 1939 Revenue Act under which ANSCOR was assessed. the issue is whether ANSCOR's redemption of stocks from its stockholder as well as the exchange of common with preferred shares can be considered as "essentially equivalent to the distribution of taxable dividend" making the proceeds thereof taxable under the provisions of the above-quoted law.) 23 32 which were amended by P. pursuant to Sections 53 and 54 of the 1939 Revenue Code. in whole or in part.000 common shares from the Don Andres' estate. 34 ANSCOR's subsequent protest on the assessments was denied in 1983 by petitioner. the amount so distributed in redemption or cancellation of the stock shall be considered as taxable income to the extent it represents a distribution of earnings or profits accumulated after March first. 31 The Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) made the corresponding assessments despite the claim of ANSCOR that it availed of the tax amnesty under Presidential Decree (P. Distribution of dividends or assets by corporations. 83.000 common shares from the Don Andres' estate. after finding sufficient evidence to overcome the prima facie correctness of the questioned assessments. 37 Hence. However. . The bone of contention is the interpretation and application of Section 83(b) of the 1939 Revenue Act 38 which provides: Sec. after examining ANSCOR's books of account and records. ANSCOR redeemed 28. — (b) Stock dividends — A stock dividend representing the transfer of surplus to capital account shall not be subject to tax. 29 In 1973. 33 However. pursuant to a Board Resolution.000 preferred shares and 600. By November 1968. ANSCOR again redeemed 80. the Board further increased ANSCOR's capital stock to P75M divided into 150. affirmed the ruling of the CTA. 36 In a petition for review the CA as mentioned. In its decision.

The decree condones "the collection of all internal revenue taxes including the increments or penalties or account of non-payment as well as all civil. natural or juridical. as amended. 67 46 provides: 1. a tax of ten (10%) per centum on such previously untaxed income or wealth. Section 1 of P.42 The findings of facts of a special court (CTA) exercising particular expertise on the subject of tax. 67. avers that it has no duty to withhold any tax either from the Don Andres estate or from Doña Carmen based on the two transactions. 43 considering that it is substantially similar to the findings of the CA which is the final arbiter of questions of facts." . in lieu thereof. We must emphasize that the application of Sec. Further. subject to the following conditions: (conditions omitted) [Emphasis supplied]. receipts. the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act. laws and regulations on Immigration and Deportation. generally binds this Court. natural or judicial. the collection of all internal revenue taxes including the increments or penalties or account of non-payment as well as all civil. this Court is not necessarily bound by the lower courts' conclusions of law drawn from such facts. criminal or administrative liable arising from or incident to" (voluntary) disclosures under the NIRC of previously untaxed income and/or wealth "realized here or abroad by any taxpayer. pursuant to Section 53 and 54 of the 1939 Revenue Act. criminal or administrative liabilities arising from or incident to such disclosures under the National Internal Revenue Code. are hereby condoned and. Accordingly.Petitioner contends that the exchange transaction a tantamount to "cancellation" under Section 83(b) making the proceeds thereof taxable. realized here or abroad by any taxpayer. It also argues that the Section applies to stock dividends which is the bulk of stocks that ANSCOR redeemed. the Civil Service laws and regulations. as allegedly. however. 44 The issue in this case does not only deal with facts but whether the law applies to a particular set of facts. or any other applicable law or proclamation. 39 ANSCOR. In all cases of voluntary disclosures of previously untaxed income and/or wealth such as earnings. 83(b) depends on the special factual circumstances of each case. because the same were done for legitimate business purposes which are (a) to reduce its foreign exchange remittances in the event the company would declare cash dividends. bequests or any other acquisitions from any source whatsoever which are taxable under the National Internal Revenue Code. it was the duty of ANSCOR to withhold the tax-at-source arising from the two transactions. 40 and to (b) subsequently "filipinized" ownership of ANSCOR. petitioner claims that under the "net effect test. Moreover.D. the Revised Administrative Code. is hereby imposed. 45 AMNESTY: We will deal first with the issue of tax amnesty. envisioned by Don Andres. 41 It likewise invoked the amnesty provisions of P. gifts." the estate of Don Andres gained from the redemption. the Revised Penal Code.D.

much like a tax exemption. 47 ANSCOR was assessed by petitioner for deficiency withholding tax under Section 53 and 54 of the 1939 Code. 4. The former could not be deemed to have evaded the tax had the withholding agent performed its duty.D. 57 The rule on strictissimi juris equally applies. 55 The taxpayer should not answer for the non-performance by the withholding agent of its legal duty to withhold unless there is collusion or bad faith. This could be the situation for which the amnesty decree was intended. not a taxpayer. Thus. a withholding agent.May the withholding agent. a "tax amnesty. In the operation of the withholding tax system. 56 it was deemed administratively feasible to grant tax amnesty in certain instances. 54 Not being a taxpayer. compliance with which is imposed on the withholding agent and not upon the taxpayer. the withholding agent is the payor. to wit: Sec. 50 and the payee is the taxing authority. the agent-payor becomes a payee by fiction of law. The Tax Code only makes the agent personally liable for the tax 53 arising from the breach of its legal duty to withhold as distinguish from its duty to pay tax since: the government's cause of action against the withholding is not for the collection of income tax. the term of the amnesty like that of a tax exemption must be construed strictly against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the taxing authority. be deemed a taxpayer for it to avail of the amnesty? An income taxpayer covers all persons who derive taxable income. 58 So that. 51 In other words. however. 370 which expanded amnesty on previously untaxed income under P. In addition. but for the enforcement of the withholding provision of Section 53 of the Tax Code. in such capacity. Codal provisions on withholding tax are mandatory and must be complied with by the withholding agent. any doubt in the application of an amnesty law/decree should be resolved in favor of the taxing authority. ANSCOR's claim of amnesty cannot prosper. Furthermore. is never favored nor presumed in law and if granted by a statute. 23 is very explicit. 52 because the income tax is still impose on and due from the latter. the withholding agent is merely a tax collector. like ANSCOR in this transaction is not protected by the amnesty under the decree. Under the withholding system. to curtail tax evasion and give tax evaders a chance to reform. — The following cases are not covered by the amnesty subject of these regulations: xxx xxx xxx . a separate entity acting no more than an agent of the government for the collection of the tax 48 in order to ensure its payments. The agent is not liable for the tax as no wealth flowed into him — he earned no income. it is being held liable in its capacity as a withholding agent and not its personality as a taxpayer.D. His (agent) liability is direct and independent from the taxpayer. 49 the payer is the taxpayer — he is the person subject to tax impose by law. The implementing rules of P. As such. Cases not covered by amnesty.

Thus. this provision originally referred to "stock dividends" only. are considered unrealized gain. TAX ON STOCK DIVIDENDS General Rule Sec." 67 It means cash or its equivalent. represent capital and do not constitute income to its 63 64 recipient. Under the US Revenue Code. the stock dividends postpone the realization of profits because the "fund represented by the new stock has been transferred from surplus to capital and no longer available for actual distribution. interest. 83(b) of the 1939 NIRC was taken from the Section 115(g)(1) of the U. 69 from labor or from both combined 70 — so that to tax a stock dividend would be to tax a capital increase rather than the income. 62 Specifically. 71 In a loose sense. resort to the jurisprudence of its origin may shed light. It should be noted that capital and income are different. Before the realization. whereas income is profit or gain or the flow of wealth. Capital is wealth or fund. stock dividends are nothing but a representation of an interest in the corporate properties. 68 It is gain derived and severed from capital. essentially equivalent to the distribution of a taxable dividend. the general rule states that: A stock dividend representing the transfer of surplus to capital account shall not be subject to tax." 66Income in tax law is "an amount of money coming to a person within a specified time. it is not yet subject to income tax." As capital. 60 It laid down the general rule known as the proportionate test 61 wherein stock dividends once issued form part of the capital and. if a corporation cancels or redeems stock issued as a dividend at such time and in such manner as to make the distribution and cancellation or redemption. Having been derived from a foreign law. by specific provision of law. and cannot be subjected to income tax until that gain has been realized.S. Stock dividends. So that the mere issuance thereof is not yet subject to income tax as they are nothing but an "enrichment through increase in value of capital 65 investment. on withholding tax at source provided under Section 53 and 54 of the National Internal Revenue Code. strictly speaking. Revenue Code of 1928. 73 The determining factor for the imposition of income tax is whether any gain or profit was derived from a transaction. or profit from investment. stock dividends issued by the corporation. 59 ANSCOR was assessed under Sections 53 and 54 of the 1939 Tax Code. the amount so distributed in redemption or cancellation of the stock shall be considered as taxable income to the extent it represents a . whether as payment for services. thus.(2) Tax liabilities with or without assessments. 74 The Exception However. subject to income tax. without any exception. it is not covered by the amnesty. as amended. 72 As capital. in whole or in part.

which is fundamentally not taxable. 79 Having realized gain from that redemption. depending on the circumstances. whether the amount distributed in the redemption should be treated as the equivalent of a "taxable dividend" is a question of fact.distribution of earnings or profits accumulated after March first. Thereafter. as such. 77 Although redemption and cancellation are generally considered capital transactions. It provides that the redemption or cancellation of stock dividends. 82 which is determinable on "the basis of the particular facts of the transaction in question. The use of the words "such manner" and "essentially equivalent" negative any idea that a weighted formula can resolve a crucial issue — Should the distribution be treated as taxable dividend. the income earner cannot escape income tax. American courts developed certain recognized criteria. The exception was designed to prevent the issuance and cancellation or redemption of stock dividends. Macomber 75 (that pro ratastock dividends are not taxable income). 83 No decisive test can be used to determine the application of the exemption under Section 83(b). Thus. the latter becomes the exclusive owner thereof and can exercise the freedom of choice. the proceeds of redemption of stock dividends are essentially distribution of cash dividends. 80 As qualified by the phrase "such time and in such manner. depending on the "time" and "manner" it was made. to plug the loophole — the exempting clause was added. which is taxable." the exception was not intended to characterize as taxable dividend every distribution of earnings arising from the redemption of stock dividend. . They resorted to devious means to circumvent the law and evade the tax. (Emphasis supplied). the exempting clause above quoted was added because provision corporation found a loophole in the original provision. from being made use of as a device for the actual distribution of cash dividends. nineteen hundred and thirteen. the provision had the obvious purpose of preventing a corporation from avoiding dividend tax treatment by distributing earnings to its shareholders in two transactions — a pro rata stock dividend followed by a pro rataredemption — that would have the same economic consequences as a simple dividend. which includes the following: 85 1) the presence or absence of real business purpose. 84 On this aspect. 81 So that. This process of issuance-redemption amounts to a distribution of taxable cash dividends which was lust delayed so as to escape the tax. It becomes a convenient technical strategy to avoid the effects of taxation." making the proceeds thereof "taxable income" "to the extent it represents profits". In a response to the ruling of the American Supreme Court in the case of Eisner v. Corporate earnings would be distributed under the guise of its initial capitalization by declaring the stock dividends previously issued and later redeem said dividends by paying cash to the stockholder. However. which when paid becomes the absolute property of the stockholder. they are not subject to tax. 76 Thus. is essentially equivalent to a distribution of taxable dividends. it does not necessarily mean that a shareholder may not realize a taxable gain from such transactions. 78 Simply put.

in whole or in part. there is no dispute that ANSCOR redeemed shares of stocks from a stockholder (Don Andres) twice (28. 83(b) to apply. for it is not merely a return of capital but a gain thereon. Here. it is indispensable that: (a) there is redemption or cancellation." Of these. But where did the shares redeemed come from? If its source is the original capital subscriptions upon establishment of the corporation or from initial capital investment in an existing enterprise.000 less 25. the balance of 82. the original common shares owned by the estate were only 25. as it is not income but a mere return of capital. 86 5) the presence of a substantial surplus 87 and a generous supply of cash which invites suspicion as does a meager policy in relation both to current earnings and accumulated surplus.000 and 80. 83(b) under the 1939 Tax Code. On the contrary.000 shares redeemed from the estate. distributes cash or property to the shareholder in payment for the stock.5) must have come from stock dividends. in the absence of evidence to the contrary.000 common shares). whether or not the acquired stock is cancelled. its redemption to the concurrent value of acquisition may not invite the application of Sec. the most important is the third. In the instant case.5 91 This means that from the total of 108. The redemption of stock dividends previously issued is used as a veil for the constructive distribution of cash dividends. it is undisputed that at the time of the last redemption. retired or held in the treasury.2) the amount of earnings and profits available for the declaration of a regular dividends and the corporation's past record with respect to the declaration of dividends.5 (108. 94 That doctrine was intended for the protection of corporate creditors.247. It is not the stock dividends but the proceeds of its redemption that may be deemed as taxable dividends. the Tax Code presumes that every distribution of corporate property. 4) the lapse of time between issuance and redemption. 90 Essentially.88 REDEMPTION AND CANCELLATION For the exempting clause of Section. The capital cannot be distributed in the form of redemption of stock dividends without violating the trust fund doctrine — wherein the capital stock. as compared with the declaration of regular dividend. it is always capital. and continues in business as before. the proceeds of the redemption is additional wealth. if the redeemed shares are from stock dividend declarations other than as initial capital investment. Redemption is repurchase. a reacquisition of stock by a corporation which issued the stock 89 in exchange for property.247. is made out of corporate profits 92 such as stock dividends. (b) the transaction involves stock dividends and (c) the "time and manner" of the transaction makes it "essentially equivalent to a distribution of taxable dividends. the corporation gets back some of its stock. 93 Once capital.752. 3) the effect of the distribution. property and other assets of the corporation are regarded as equity in trust for the payment of the corporate creditors. Besides. 95 .

103 which is judged after each and every step of the transaction have been considered and the whole transaction does not amount to a tax evasion scheme. is whether the redemption resulted into a flow of wealth. there may not be a dividend equivalence treatment. The "time" element is a factor to show a device to evade tax and the scheme of cancelling or redeeming the same shares is a method usually adopted to accomplish the end sought. there was no intention to redeem it as a means of distributing profit or avoiding tax on dividends. ANSCOR invoked two reasons to justify the redemptions — (1) the alleged "filipinization" program and (2) the reduction of foreign exchange remittances in case cash dividends are declared. the exempting provision of Sec. the presence of which might negate a tax evasion plan. 106 The existence of legitimate business purposes in support of the redemption of stock dividends is immaterial in income taxation. distinct. Again. and the sole object and accomplishment of which was the consummation of a preconceived plan. 107 Such purposes may be material only upon the issuance of the stock dividends. 100 Redemption cannot be used as a cloak to distribute corporate earnings. Macomber. but to transfer a parcel of corporate shares to a stockholder." "device" or "artifice" to evade payment of tax? It is necessary to determine the "net effect" of the transaction between the shareholder-income taxpayer and the acquiring (redeeming) corporation. 96 Was this transaction used as a "continuing plan.With respect to the third requisite. it is rather an inference to be drawn or a conclusion to be reached. 101 Otherwise. The test of taxability under the exempting clause. for the redemption to be considered a legitimate tax scheme. The time alone that lapsed from the issuance to the redemption is not a sufficient indicator to determine taxability. income is not deemed "realize" until the fruit has fallen or been plucked from the tree. 83(b). 97 The "net effect" test is not evidence or testimony to be considered. it is the "net effect rather than the motives and plans of the taxpayer or his corporation" 104 that is the fundamental guide in administering Sec. when it provides "such time and manner" as would make the redemption "essentially equivalent to the distribution of a taxable dividend". 105 It also applies even if at the time of the issuance of the stock dividend. and not related. the apparent intention to avoid tax becomes doubtful as the intention to evade becomes manifest. ANSCOR redeemed stock dividends issued just 2 to 3 years earlier. It has no relevance in determining "dividend equivalence". 99 The issuance of stock dividends and its subsequent redemption must be separate. 83(b) of the 1939 Code may not be applicable if the redeemed shares were issued with bona fide business purpose. This tax provision is aimed at the result. . The Court is not concerned with the wisdom of these purposes but on their relevance to the whole transaction which can be inferred from the outcome thereof. If no wealth is realized from the redemption. not to reorganize a business or any part of a business. 98 It is also important to know whether the issuance of stock dividends was dictated by legitimate business reasons. It has been ruled that: [A]n operation with no business or corporate purpose — is a mere devise which put on the form of a corporate reorganization as a disguise for concealing its real character. In the metaphor of Eisner v. 102 Depending on each case. It is a must to consider the factual circumstances as to the manner of both the issuance and the redemption.

This is absurd. illogical and impractical considering that the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) would be pestered with instances in determining the legitimacy of business reasons that every income earner may interposed. 108 and (3) it is not exempted by law or treaty from income tax. The issuance and the redemption of stocks are two different transactions. First. the test of taxability under the exempting clause of Section 83(b) is. A review of the cited American cases shows that the presence or absence of "genuine business purposes" may be material with respect to the issuance or declaration of stock dividends but not on its subsequent redemption. The redemption converts into money the stock dividends which become a realized profit or gain and consequently. The ruling in the American cases cited and relied upon by ANSCOR that "the redeemed shares are the equivalent of dividend only if the shares were not issued for genuine business purposes". the payment of tax under the exempting clause of Section 83(b) would be made to depend not on the income of the taxpayer. but on the business purposes of a third party (the corporation herein) from whom the income was earned. Any business purpose as to why or how the income was earned by the taxpayer is not a requirement. the alleged "filipinization" plan cannot be considered legitimate as it was not implemented until the BIR started making assessments on the proceeds of the redemption. It is not administratively feasible and cannot therefore be allowed. (2) that the gain or profit is realized or received. not its form. the proceeds of the redeemed stock dividends can be reached by income taxation regardless of the existence of any business purpose for the redemption. under the facts of this case are no excuse for its tax liability. the stockholder's separate property. Such corporate plan was not stated in nor supported by any Board Resolution but a mere . to rule that the said proceeds are exempt from income tax when the redemption is supported by legitimate business reasons would defeat the very purpose of imposing tax on income. As realized income. activity or service that produces the income because the Tax Code stands as an indifferent neutral party on the matter of where income comes from. actually or constructively. usually controls the tax consequences. whether income was realized through the redemption of stock dividends. 113 The adoption by the courts below 114 of such argument is misleading if not misplaced. 116 The two purposes invoked by ANSCOR. the redemption becomes suspicious which exempting clause. 109 As stated above. If the issuance of stock dividends is part of a tax evasion plan and thus. Income tax is assessed on income received from any property. 110 Profits derived from the capital invested cannot escape income tax. Although the existence of legitimate corporate purposes may justify a corporation's acquisition of its own shares under Section 41 of the Corporation Code. 115 such purposes cannot excuse the stockholder from the effects of taxation arising from the redemption.The three elements in the imposition of income tax are: (1) there must be gain or and profit. 111 or the "redeemed shares have been issued by a corporation bona fide" 112 bears no relevance in determining the non-taxability of the proceeds of redemption ANSCOR. relying heavily and applying said cases. Such argument would open the door for income earners not to pay tax so long as the person from whom the income was derived has legitimate business reasons. The substance of the whole transaction. In other words. without legitimate business reasons. argued that so long as the redemption is supported by valid corporate purposes the proceeds are not subject to tax. Otherwise.

It just so happen that what he bought is stock dividends. Otherwise. ANSCOR argued that to treat as "taxable dividend" the proceeds of the redeemed stock dividends would be to impose on such stock an undisclosed lien and would be extremely unfair to intervening purchase. Moreover. this circumstance negates the legitimacy of ANSCOR's alleged purposes. assuming arguendo. it is subject to income tax which is required to be withheld at source. The 1997 Tax Code may have altered the situation but it does not change this disposition. Thirdly. the same cannot be a valid excuse for the imposition of tax. yet when no cash dividends was issued for about three decades. Moreover.e. the taxpayer's liability to pay income tax would be made to depend upon a third person who did not earn the income being taxed. Furthermore. But the unfairness may not be true to an original subscriber like Don Andres. it is part of the "entire income" subject to tax under Section 22 in relation to Section 21 120 of the 1939 Code. that those business purposes are legitimate.afterthought interposed by the counsel of ANSCOR. bears no relevance in this case as no intervening buyer is involved. to issue stock dividends is to increase the shareholdings of ANSCOR's foreign stockholders contrary to its "filipinization" plan. Again. Records show that despite the existence of enormous corporate profits no cash dividend was ever declared by ANSCOR from 1945 until the BIR started making assessments in the early 1970's. The effect of its (stock dividends) redemption from that subsequent buyer is merely to return his capital subscription. considering that ANSCOR is a family corporation where the majority shares at the time of redemptions were held by Don Andres' foreign heirs. After considering the manner and the circumstances by which the issuance and redemption of stock dividends were made. Not even this purpose can be given credence. Secondly. And even if there is an intervening buyer. which is income if redeemed from the original subscriber. The undisclosed lien119 may be unfair to a subsequent stock buyer who has no capital interest in the company. Although a corporation under certain exceptions. i. those who buys the stock dividends after their issuance. there is no other conclusion but that the proceeds thereof are essentially considered equivalent to a distribution of taxable dividends. This would also increase rather than reduce their need for foreign exchange remittances in case of cash dividend declaration. who holds stock dividends as gains from his investments. it is necessary to look into the factual milieu of the case if income was realized from the transaction. the corporation can act only through its Board of Directors. 118 Such argument. however. As "taxable dividend" under Section 83(b). has the prerogative when to issue dividends. dividends are included in "gross income". The subsequent buyer who buys stock dividends is investing capital. Being a separate entity. under Section 29(a) of said Code. . even if the said purposes support the redemption and justify the issuance of stock dividends. As income. the same has no bearing whatsoever on the imposition of the tax herein assessed because the proceeds of the redemption are deemed taxable dividends since it was shown that income was generated therefrom. we reiterate that the dividend equivalence test depends on such "time and manner" of the transaction and its net effect. 117 The Board Resolutions authorizing the redemptions state only one purpose — reduction of foreign exchange remittances in case cash dividends are declared.

130 . It would have been different. It is a basic class of stock ordinarily and usually issued without extraordinary rights or privileges and entitles the shareholder to apro rata division of profits. 125 Reclassification of shares does not always bring any substantial alteration in the subscriber's proportional interest. Under the facts herein. without more. 126 Preferred stocks are those which entitle the shareholder to some priority on dividends and asset distribution.000 preferred shares. so long as the provisions of Section 83(b) is not applicable. No taxable gain or loss may be recognized on exchange of property. like priority in dividend declarations or absence of voting rights. Both stockholders are no different from ordinary investors who take on the same investment risks. The exchange of common stocks with preferred stocks. There was no change in their proportional interest after the exchange. may not produce a recognized gain or loss. stock or securities related to reorganizations. Preferred and common shareholders participate in the same venture. if the exchange transaction resulted into a flow of wealth. the exchange of shares. produces no realized income to the subscriber. Yet neither the reclassification nor exchange per se. any difference in their market value would be immaterial at the time of exchange because no income is yet realized — it was a mere corporate paper transaction. transfer to controlled corporation. or preferred for common or a combination of either for both. corporate acquisitions or corporate reorganizations. in which case income tax may be imposed. yields realize income for tax purposes. willing to share in the profits and losses of the enterprise. This is true in a trade between two (2) persons as well as a trade between a stockholder and a corporation. provided that the Articles of Incorporation is silent on such differences. In general. 128 Moreover. this trade must be parts of merger. There was no cash flow. 124 Both the Tax Court and the Court of Appeals found that ANSCOR reclassified its shares into common and preferred.EXCHANGE OF COMMON WITH PREFERRED SHARES 121 Exchange is an act of taking or giving one thing for another involving 122 reciprocal transfer 123 and is generally considered as a taxable transaction. under the doctrine of equality of shares — all stocks issued by the corporation are presumed equal with the same privileges and liabilities. 129 In this case. Thereafter. There is only a modification of the subscriber's rights and privileges — which is not a flow of wealth for tax purposes. Both stocks had the same par value. both the Don Andres estate and Doña Carmen remained as corporate subscribers except that their subscriptions now include preferred shares. A common stock represents the residual ownership interest in the corporation. and that parts of the common shares of the Don Andres estate and all of Doña Carmen's shares were exchanged for the whole 150. But the exchange is different — there would be a shifting of the balance of stock features. 127 Both shares are part of the corporation's capital stock. The issue of taxable dividend may arise only once a subscriber disposes of his entire interest and not when there is still maintenance of proprietary interest.

UCPB made the highest winning bid ofP504.00 to George C.00 and P335. Inc. DECISION ABAD. 2002 the executive judge finally signed the certificate of sale and approved its issuance to UCPB as the highest bidder.000.2 The notary public complied. 2009 REVENUE.1 But. Respondent.WHEREFORE.00 in relation to the extrajudicial foreclosure sale. Petitioner. and Tesco Realty Co.3 On March 1. that the borrowers caused to be secured by several real estate mortgages. G.700.640. SO ORDERED. 179063 October 23. UCPB filed a petition for extrajudicial foreclosure of the mortgaged properties.5 stock dividends is herein considered as essentially equivalent to a distribution of taxable dividends for which it is LIABLE for the withholding tax-atsource. When the latter later failed to pay their loans. the decision of the Court of Appeals is MODIFIED in that ANSCOR's redemption of 82. on February 18.00 and documentary stamp taxes (DST) of P7.: This is an action involving a disputed assessment for deficiencies in the payment of creditable withholding tax and documentary stamps tax due from a foreclosure sale. UNITED COCONUT PLANTERS BANK. The Facts and the Case Respondent United Coconut Planters Bank (UCPB) granted loans of P68. Go Tong Electrical Supply Co. It then submitted an affidavit of consolidation of ownership to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) with proof of tax payments and other documents in support of the bank’s application f or a tax clearance certificate and certificate authorizing registration.. Co. On July 5. 2002 the bank paid creditable withholding taxes (CWT) of P28.000. Pursuant to that petition. 2002 the notary public submitted the Certificate of Sale to the Executive Judge of Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Manila for his approval.00 for the whole lot.4 On June 18. . 2002 the executive judge returned it with instruction to the notary public to explain an inconsistency in the tax declaration of one mortgaged property.752. The executive judge further ordered the notary public to show proof of payment of the Sheriff’s percentage of the bid price.840. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs. The decision is AFFIRMED in all other respects.160.000.785.. premises considered. On January 4.R. on December 31.165. 2002 UCPB presented the certificate of sale to the Register of Deeds of Manila for annotation on the transfer certificates of title of the foreclosed properties. J.000. 2001 a notary public for Manila held a public auction sale of the mortgaged properties. No.

had three months after foreclosure within which to redeem the properties. 2002 or three months after the executive judge of Manila approved the issuance of the certificate of sale. Ruling The CIR argues that he has the more reasonable position: the redemption period should be reckoned from the date of the auction sale for. On appeal to the CTA En Banc in CTA EB 234. These taxes accrued upon the lapse of the redemption period of the mortgaged properties. But the CIR denied UCPB’s protest. and not the date of the auction sale. which required payment of DST within five days after the close of the month when the taxable document was made. Hence. Since the executive judge approved the issuance only on March 1. the taxing authority would be left at the mercy of the executive judge who may unnecessarily delay the approval of the certificate of sale and thus prevent the early payment of taxes. which stated that the CWT must be paid within 10 days after the end of each month.210.00 and deficiency DST of P2. . he said.051. It claimed that the redemption period lapsed on June 1. Issue The key issue in this case is whether or not the three-month redemption period for juridical persons should be reckoned from the date of the auction sale. prompting UCPB to file a petition for review with the CTA in CTA Case 7164. 2002. For this reason the CIR issued a Pre-Assessment Notice6 and.617.58 of Revenue Regulation 2-98. however. the redemption period expired on June 1.Petitioner Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR). 2002. charged UCPB with late payment of the corresponding DST and CWT. 2006 the CTA Second Division set aside the decision of the CIR and held that the redemption period lapsed three months after the executive judge approved the certificate of sale. On July 26. accepted or transferred.5 The CIR theorized that the three-month redemption period was to be counted from the date of the foreclosure sale. 2002. signed. UCPB was in default for having paid the CWT and DST only on July 5.173. the latter affirmed the decision of the Second Division on June 5. It said that "foreclosure" under the law referred to the whole process of foreclosure which included the approval and issuance of the certificate of sale. UCPB’s payments of CWT and DST in early July were well within the prescribed period. petitioner has taken recourse to this Court via a petition for review on certiorari. referred to the date of approval by the executive judge. 2001 or on March 31. There was no sale to speak of which could be taxed prior to such approval and issuance. With the denial of its motion for reconsideration. The CIR pointed out that the mortgagor. citing Section 2. a juridical person. the redemption period lapsed three months from December 31. otherwise. UCPB protested the assessment. Thus. 2007.75. said UCPB. a Final Assessment Notice7 to UCPB for deficiency CWT ofP8. and Section 5 of Revenue Regulation 06-01. "Foreclosure" under Section 47 of the General Banking Law. subsequently. Here. 2002.

1avvphi1 UCPB had. x x x Moreover. until July 10. or transferred. On the other hand. the Court finds no reason to reverse the decision of the CTA. under Section 5 of Revenue Regulation 06-01.9 this Court sustained a judge’s resolution requiring payment of notarial commission as a condition for the issuance of the certificate of sale to the highest bidder. the same shall be reckoned from the date of the confirmation of the auction sale which is the date when the certificate of sale is issued. which shall be filed on or before January 15 of the following year. Under Section 2. It reads: For purposes of reckoning the one-year redemption period in the case of individual mortgagors. in United Coconut Planters Bank v. except for taxes withheld for the month of December of each year. Besides. the DST return and payment become due within five days after the close of the month when the taxable document was made. it is not liable for deficiencies. first determine that the requirements for extrajudicial foreclosures have been strictly followed. the time within which to reckon the redemption period of real estate mortgages. the three-month redemption period ended only on June 1. the Bureau of Internal Revenue issued Revenue Memorandum Circular 58-2008 10which clarified among others.58 of Revenue Regulation 2-98. the executive judge approved the issuance of the certificate of sale to UCPB on March 1. 2002 to pay the DST. Here. Yap. the payment of the documentary stamp tax and the filing of the return thereof shall have to be made within five (5) days from the end of the month when the redemption period expires. or the three-month redemption period for juridical persons/mortgagors. Consequently. 2002. therefore. the CWT return and payment become due within 10 days after the end of each month. Thus. 2002. accepted. signed. the creditable expanded withholding tax shall be due and paid within ten (10) days following the end of the month in which the redemption period expires. 2002 to pay the CWT and July 5. The CIR must have in the meantime conceded the unreasonableness of the previous position it had taken on this matter. Since it paid both taxes on July 5. . WHEREFORE. 2002. the petition is DENIED. on August 15. in the interest of fairness. For instance. 2008.But the Supreme Court had occasion under its resolution in Administrative Matter 99-10-0508 to rule that the certificate of sale shall issue only upon approval of the executive judge who must. The BIR confirmed and summarized the above provisions under Revenue Memorandum Circular 58-2008 in this manner: [I]f the property is an ordinary asset of the mortgagor. Only on this date then did the deadline for payment of CWT and DST on the extrajudicial foreclosure sale become due.

. the mortgagors notified the bank of their intention to redeem the property..25 . Respondents.00 from BPI Family Savings Bank with a 714-square meter lot covered by Transfer Certificate of Title No. On August 7. x . J. Inc. SUPREME TRANSLINER. represented by its Managing Director. Petitioner. ALVAREZ and PAULITA S. DECISION VILLARAMA.. and Paulita S.. 1995. JR. ALVAREZ. 165617 February 25. SUPREME TRANSLINER... No. This case involves the question of the correct redemption price payable to a mortgagee bank as purchaser of the property in a foreclosure sale.... Alvarez...: SAVINGS INC. as collateral. PAULITA S... G. Petitioners. MOISES ALVAREZ. Respondent. Alvarez. C. Alvarez. 1996.. No. BPI FAMILY SAVINGS BANK.761... Accordingly. 1 For non-payment of the loan. Supreme Transliner.R.827.24 155. INC. the mortgage was extrajudicially foreclosed and the property was sold to the bank as the highest bidder in the public auction conducted by the Office of the Provincial Sheriff of Lucena City. Alvarez and Paulita S. Moises C.SO ORDERED. Before the expiration of the one-year redemption period. obtained a loan in the amount of P9.R... 165837 BPI FAMILY vs.000..64 1. INC..551... MOISES BANK.. ALVAREZ and INC.853.546. the following Statement of Account 3 was prepared by the bank indicating the total amount due under the mortgage loan agreement: xxxx Balance of Principal Add: Interest Due Late Payment Charges P 9..-x G. T-79193 in the name of Moises C. On April 24. 1996. vs. a Certificate of Sale2 was issued in favor of the bank and the same was registered on October 1.417.. 2011 C..

.372.711.00 518.70 1.57 207.79 from 08/07/96 to 105. Registration & Filing Fee 660. On May 21.25% p.952.635.280. A Certificate of Redemption4 was issued by the bank on May 27.704.704.241.372.01 10.12.79 Interest on P 906.555.00 04/07/97 (243 days) at 17.00 906.772.595.36 908.142.142.00 155.23 P 11.12 xxxx The mortgagors requested for the elimination of liquidated damages and reduction of attorney’s fees and interest (1% per month) but the bank refused. x x Asset Acquired Expenses: Documentary Stamps Capital Gains Tax Foreclosure Fee Registration and Filing Fee Add’l.249.00 Total Amount Due As Of 04/07/97 (Subject to Audit) P 15. Cancellation Fee 300.35 from 08/07/96 to 1.a.718.58 04/07/97 (243 days) at 17. 1997.MRI Fire Insurance Foreclosure Expenses Sub-total Less: Unapplied Payment Total Amount Due As Of 08/07/96 (Auction Date) Add: Attorney’s Fees (15%) Liquidated Damages (15%) 0.906.817.711.70 Interest on P 10.534.00 x x 155.207.555. the mortgagors redeemed the property by paying the sum of P15.249.509.25% p.a.23 23. 1997.00 0.35 1.906.

On June 11.a. On February 14. plaintiffs-mortgagors are estopped from questioning the correctness of the redemption price as they had freely and voluntarily signed the letteragreement prepared by the defendant bank. Senior Vice-President Gentlemen: AIDA C.77. the mortgagors filed a complaint against the bank to recover the allegedly unlawful and excessive charges totaling P5. SP No. the bank asserted that the redemption price reflecting the stipulated interest. thus: May 14. Manila DEVELOPMENT Floor Ever Recto Avenue BANKING Gotesco corner CORPORATION Corporate Center Matapang Street Attention: MS. 1997. 2002. The trial court held that plaintiffs -mortgagors are bound by the terms of the mortgage loan documents which clearly provided for the payment of the following interest. the bank filed a motion to set the case for hearing on the special and affirmative defenses by way of motion to dismiss. Branch 57. docketed as Civil Case No. DELA ROSA . 15% attorney’s fees and collection and legal costs. together with Orient Development Banking Corporation which committed to finance the redemption. 1998 and also denied the bank’s motion for reconsideration. The ba nk elevated the matter to the Court of Appeals (CA-G. According to the trial court. 47588) which dismissed the petition for certiorari on February 26. charges and/or expenses. on the loan. with prayer for damages and attorney’s fees. The trial court denied the motion on January 8. and along with Orient Bank expressed their conformity to the terms and conditions therein.331. 1997 ORIENT 7th C. is valid. On September 30. legal and in accordance with documents duly signed by the mortgagors. In its Answer with Special and Affirmative Defenses and Counterclaim. 15% liquidated damages.237. Plaintiffs -mortgagors’ claim that they paid the redemption price demanded by the defendant bank under extreme pressure was rejected by the trial court since there was active negotiation for the final redemption price between the bank’s representatives and plaintiffs-mortgagors who at the time had legal advice from their counsel. charges and expenses: 18% p. the trial court rendered its decision 5 dismissing the complaint and the bank’s counterclaims. 1999.R. 3% post-default penalty. 97-72 of the Regional Trial Court of Lucena City. 1997.M. The bank further contended that the claims are deemed waived and the mortgagors are already estopped from questioning the terms and conditions of their contract.

and spouses MOISES C. 4. City of Lucena under TCT No. please indicate your conformity on the space provided below and return to us the duplicate copy. INC. That you will annotate your mortgage lien and pay us the full amount to close the loan within five (5) working days from the receipt of the titles. we interpose no objection to the annotation of your mortgage lien thereon subject to the following conditions: 1. That we will release the title and the Certificate of Redemption and other pertinent papers only to your authorized representative with complete authorization and identification. Very truly yours. That all expenses for the registration of the annotation of mortgage and other incidental registration and cancellation expenses shall be borne by the borrower. 7. That all expenses related to the cancellation of your annotated mortgage lien should the Bank be not fully paid on the period above indicated shall be charged to you. representing the outstanding balance of the loan as of May 15.249. you have not registered the same and paid us in full. INC. With regard to the proposed refinancing of the account. ALVAREZ and PAULITA S. covering the real estate property located in the Poblacion. 1997 including interest and other charges thereof within a period of five (5) working days after clearance of the check payment. free from liens/encumbrances other than our lien.704. If you find the foregoing conditions acceptable.12.This refers to your undertaking to settle the account of SUPREME TRANS LINER. you will immediately and unconditionally return the titles to us without need of demand. 6. 5. That we will issue the Certificate of Redemption after full payment of P15. ALVAREZ. 2. That in case of loss of titles. If within this period. T-79193 which was foreclosed by BPI FAMILY SAVINGS BANK. you will undertake and shoulder the cost of reissuance of a new owner’s titles. That you will recognize our mortgage liens as first and superior until the loan with us is fully paid. 3. BPI FAMILY BANK BY: .

the Statement of Account showing the breakdown of the redemption price as computed by the defendant bank. CARRIDO ORIENT DEVELOPMENT (SGD. the appealed decision is hereby REVERSED and SET ASIDE.00 as exemplary damages and P100. 2004 reversed the trial court and decreed as follows: WHEREFORE.35 as per the recitals in the Certificate of Sale that said amount was paid .711.35 bid price.372.) As to plaintiffs-mortgagors’ contention that the amounts representing attorney’s fees and liquidated damages were already included in the P10.000.813. Defendant-appellee is hereby ORDERED to return to plaintiffs-appellees (sic) the invalidly collected amount of P3.8 The CA ruled that attorney’s fees and liquidated damages were already included in the bid price ofP10. P100. SO ORDERED.) Manager CONFORME: LOLITA C.000. CV No. by Decision7 dated April 6.40 plus six (6) percent legal interest from May 21. 4. The mortgagors appealed to the CA (CA-G. 3.00 as moral damages. foregoing considered. emphasis supplied. 74761) which.00 as attorney’s fees.111. the trial court said this was belied by their own evidence. Plaintiffs-appellants’ complaint for damages against defendant -appellee is hereby REINSTATED. (SGD. ALVAREZ (Underscoring in the original. 2.372. Costs against defendant-appellee. INC. A new one is hereby entered as follows: 1.711.) Mortgagors6 MOISES C.000. DELA CORPORATION ROSA ALVAREZ/PAULITA S. 1997 until fully returned. Defendant-appellee is hereby ORDERED to pay plaintiffs-appellees (sic) the amount of P100.(SGD.R. BANKING C.) AIDA Senior Vice President CONFORME: SUPREME TRANS LINER.

72 and the bank should return the amount ofP3.142.35 includes penalty charges and as such for purposes of computing the redemption price petitioner can no longer impose upon the private respondents the penalty charges in the form of 15% attorney’s fees and the 15% liquidated damages in the aggregate amount of P3.00 on the ground that the former acted in bad faith in the imposition upon them of the aforestated penalty charges.111. No. registration and filing fee. 3. … private respondents cannot be considered to be under estoppel to question the propriety of the aforestated penalty charges despite the fact that.435. The total redemption price thus should only be P12. the petitioner bank in G. … petitioner [to] pay private respondents damages in the aggregate amount of P300.79. the petitioners-mortgagors raise the single issue of whether the foreclosing mortgagee should pay capital gains tax upon execution of the certificate of sale.R. whether the same should be shouldered by the redemptioner. the private respondents and Orient Bank.9 By Resolution10 dated October 12. No.592.813. the bid price of P10. when in truth it is entitled thereto as the law and the contract expressly provide and that private respondents agreed to pay the same. They specifically prayed for the return of all asset-acquired expenses consisting of documentary stamps tax. the CA denied the parties’ respective motions for reconsideration.40 representing attorney’s fees and liquidated damages. … the Certificate of Sale. 2. The appellate court further stated that the mortgagors cannot be deemed estopped to question the propriety of the charges because from the very start they had repeatedly questioned the imposition of attorney’s fees and liquidated damages and were merely constrained to pay the demanded redemption price for fear that the redemption period will expire without them redeeming their property. which financed the redemption of the foreclosed property.12. 165837 assails the CA in holding that – 1. In G.R.711.111. cost of publication and expenses of the foreclosure proceedings.40. 165617. foreclosure fee. and additional registration and filing fee totaling P906.000." These "penalty charges" consist of 15% attorney’s fees and 15% liquidated damages which the bank imposes as penalty in cases of violation of the terms of the mortgage deed. these petitions separately filed by the mortgagors and the bank. Hence. 1997.11 On the other hand. "there was very active negotiation between the parties in the computation of the redemption price" culminating into the signing freely and voluntarily by the petitioner.704. and if paid by the mortgagee.12 . of Exhibit "3". with 6% interest thereon from May 21. although the evidence presented by the parties show otherwise.249.to the foreclosing mortgagee to satisfy not only the principal loan but also "interest and penalty charges. 2004.372.813. as found by the Honorable Trial Court. wherein they mutually agreed that the redemption price is in the sum of P15. capital gains tax.

judicially or extrajudicially. x x x x (Emphasis supplied. and e) The balance. and all the costs. if any. or to Bank of the Philippine Islands or any of its subsidiaries/affiliates such as.13 Said provision reads: SEC. to redeem the property by paying the amount fixed by the court in the order of execution. d) To the satisfaction of all other obligations then owed by the Borrower/Mortgagor to the Bank or any of its subsidiaries/affiliates such as. within the purview of this Act shall have the right. 23. to be due to the Borrower/Mortgagor. otherwise known as theGeneral Banking Act. Attorney’s Fees: In case the Bank should engage the services of counsel to enforce its rights under this Agreement. x x x In the event of foreclosure. or the amount due under the mortgage deed. 78. the mortgagor or debtor whose real property has been sold at public auction. 337. including the attorney’s fees as herein provided. within one year after the sale of the real estate as a result of the foreclosure of the respective mortgage. for the full or partial payment of an obligation to any bank. the Borrower/Mortgagor shall pay an amount equivalent to fifteen . as the case may be. The proceeds of sale of the mortgaged property/ies shall be applied as follows: a) To the payment of the expenses and cost of foreclosure and sale. BPI Securities Corporation and BPI Agricultural Development Bank.) Under the Mortgage Loan Agreement. governs in cases where the mortgagee is a bank. xxxx 31.On the correct computation of the redemption price. Application of Proceeds of Foreclosure Sale. whether judicially or extrajudicially. but not limited to BPI Leasing Corporation. but not limited to BPI Credit Corporation. BPI Express Card Corporation. and judicial and other expenses incurred by the bank or institution concerned by reason of the execution and sale and as a result of the custody of said property less the income received from the property. c) To the satisfaction of the principal amount of the obligations herein and hereby secured. b) To the satisfaction of all interest and charges accruing upon the obligations herein and hereby secured. with interest thereon at the rate specified in the mortgage.14 petitioners-mortgagors undertook to pay the attorney’s fees and the costs of registration and foreclosure. Section 78 of Republic Act No. banking or credit institution. of any mortgage on real estate which is security for any loan granted before the passage of this Act or under the provisions of this Act. The following contract terms would show that the said items are separate and distinct from the bid price which represents only the outstanding loan balance with stipulated interest thereon.

(15%) percent of the total amount claimed by the Bank, which in no case shall be less than P2,000.00, Philippine currency, plus costs, collection expenses and disbursements allowed by law, all of which shall be secured by this mortgage.15 Additionally, the Disclosure Statement on Loan/Credit Transaction 16 also duly signed by the petitioners-mortgagors provides: 10. ADDITIONAL CHARGES IN CASE CERTAIN STIPULATIONS ARE NOT MET BY THE BORROWER a. Post Default Penalty 3.00% per month b. Attorney’s Services 15% of sum due but not less than P2,000.00 c. Liquidated Damages 15% of sum due but not less than P10,000.00 d. Collection & Legal Cost As provided by the Rules of Court e. Others (Specify) As correctly found by the trial court, that attorney’s fees and liquidated damages were not yet included in the bid price of P10,372,711.35 is clearly shown by the Statement of Account as of April 4, 1997 prepared by the petitioner bank and given to petitioners-mortgagors. On the other hand, par. 23 of the Mortgage Loan Agreement indicated that asset acquired expenses were to be added to the redemption price as part of "costs and other expenses incurred" by the mortgagee bank in connection with the foreclosure sale. Coming now to the issue of capital gains tax, we find merit in petitioners-mortgagors’ argument that there is no legal basis for the inclusion of this charge in the redemption price. Under Revenue Regulations (RR) No. 13-85 (December 12, 1985), every sale or exchange or other disposition of real property classified as capital asset under Section 34(a)17 of the Tax Code shall be subject to the final capital gains tax. The term sale includes pacto de retro and other forms of conditional sale. Section 2.2 of Revenue Memorandum Order (RMO) No. 29-86 (as amended by RMO No. 16-88 and as further amended by RMO Nos. 27-89 and 6-92) states that these conditional sales "necessarily include mortgage foreclosure sales (judicial and extrajudicial foreclosure sales)." Further, for real property foreclosed by a bank on or after September 3, 1986, the capital gains tax and documentary stamp tax must be paid before title to the property can be consolidated in favor of the bank.18 Under Section 63 of Presidential Decree No. 1529 otherwise known as the Property Registration Decree, if no right of redemption exists, the certificate of title of the mortgagor shall be cancelled, and a new certificate issued in the name of the purchaser. But where the right of redemption exists, the certificate of title of the mortgagor shall not be cancelled, but the certificate of sale and the order confirming the sale shall be registered by brief memorandum thereof made by the Register of Deeds upon the certificate of title. In the event the property is

redeemed, the certificate or deed of redemption shall be filed with the Register of Deeds, and a brief memorandum thereof shall be made by the Register of Deeds on the certificate of title. It is therefore clear that in foreclosure sale, there is no actual transfer of the mortgaged real property until after the expiration of the one-year redemption period as provided in Act No. 3135 and title thereto is consolidated in the name of the mortgagee in case of non-redemption. In the interim, the mortgagor is given the option whether or not to redeem the real property. The issuance of the Certificate of Sale does not by itself transfer ownership.19 RR No. 4-99 issued on March 16, 1999, further amends RMO No. 6-92 relative to the payment of Capital Gains Tax and Documentary Stamp Tax on extrajudicial foreclosure sale of capital assets initiated by banks, finance and insurance companies. SEC. 3. CAPITAL GAINS TAX. – (1) In case the mortgagor exercises his right of redemption within one year from the issuance of the certificate of sale, no capital gains tax shall be imposed because no capital gains has been derived by the mortgagor and no sale or transfer of real property was realized. x x x (2) In case of non-redemption, the capital gains [tax] on the foreclosure sale imposed under Secs. 24(D)(1) and 27(D)(5) of the Tax Code of 1997 shall become due based on the bid price of the highest bidder but only upon the expiration of the one-year period of redemption provided for under Sec. 6 of Act No. 3135, as amended by Act No. 4118, and shall be paid within thirty (30) days from the expiration of the said one-year redemption period. SEC. 4. DOCUMENTARY STAMP TAX. – (1) In case the mortgagor exercises his right of redemption, the transaction shall only be subject to the P15.00 documentary stamp tax imposed under Sec. 188 of the Tax Code of 1997 because no land or realty was sold or transferred for a consideration. (2) In case of non-redemption, the corresponding documentary stamp tax shall be levied, collected and paid by the person making, signing, issuing, accepting, or transferring the real property wherever the document is made, signed, issued, accepted or transferred where the property is situated in the Philippines. x x x (Emphasis supplied.) Although the subject foreclosure sale and redemption took place before the effectivity of RR No. 4-99, its provisions may be given retroactive effect in this case. Section 246 of the NIRC of 1997 states: SEC. 246. Non-Retroactivity of Rulings. – Any revocation, modification, or reversal of any of the rules and regulations promulgated in accordance with the preceding Sections or any of the

rulings or circulars promulgated by the Commissioner shall not be given retroactive application if the revocation, modification, or reversal will be prejudicial to the taxpayers, except in the following cases: (a) where the taxpayer deliberately misstates or omits material facts from his return or in any document required of him by the Bureau of Internal Revenue; (b) where the facts subsequently gathered by the Bureau of Internal Revenue are materially different from the facts on which the ruling is based; or (c) where the taxpayer acted in bad faith. In this case, the retroactive application of RR No. 4-99 is more consistent with the policy of aiding the exercise of the right of redemption. As the Court of Tax Appeals concluded in one case, RR No. 4-99 "has curbed the inequity of imposing a capital gains tax even before the expiration of the redemption period [since] there is yet no transfer of title and no profit or gain is realized by the mortgagor at the time of foreclosure sale but only upon expiration of the redemption period."20 In his commentaries, De Leon expressed the view that while revenue regulations as a general rule have no retroactive effect, if the revocation is due to the fact that the regulation is erroneous or contrary to law, such revocation shall have retroactive operation as to affect past transactions, because a wrong construction of the law cannot give rise to a vested right that can be invoked by a taxpayer.21 Considering that herein petitioners-mortgagors exercised their right of redemption before the expiration of the statutory one-year period, petitioner bank is not liable to pay the capital gains tax due on the extrajudicial foreclosure sale. There was no actual transfer of title from the owners-mortgagors to the foreclosing bank. Hence, the inclusion of the said charge in the total redemption price was unwarranted and the corresponding amount paid by the petitionersmortgagors should be returned to them. WHEREFORE, premises considered, both petitions are PARTLY GRANTED. In G.R. No. 165617, BPI Family Savings Bank, Inc. is hereby ordered to RETURN the amounts representing capital gains and documentary stamp taxes as reflected in the Statement of Account To Redeem as of April 7, 1997, to petitioners Supreme Transliner, Inc., Moises C. Alvarez and Paulita Alvarez, and to retain only the sum provided in RR No. 4-99 as documentary stamps tax due on the foreclosure sale.1awphi1 In G.R. No. 165837, petitioner BPI Family Savings Bank, Inc. is hereby declared entitled to the attorney’s fees and liquidated damages included in the total redemption price paid by Supreme Transliner, Inc., Moises C. Alvarez and Paulita Alvarez. The sums awarded as moral and exemplary damages, attorney’s fees and costs in favor of Suprem e Transliner, Inc., Moises C. Alvarez and Paulita Alvarez are DELETED. The Decision dated April 6, 2004 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. CV No. 74761 is accordingly MODIFIED.

It affirmed in toto the judgment of the Regional Trial Court (RTC).00) pesos.00) pesos. all dated February 20. eight hundred forty-seven thousand and sixteen (P1. 1976. 102967 February 10. G. petitioner. 1 The facts.2 Selling Price of Land P2.847.00 as moral damages.308. Bañas Jr.00) pesos was to be paid in four equal consecutive annual installments. petitioner discounted the promissory note with AYALA. LARIN.00 pesos shall be payable starting on February 20. Each periodic payment of P461. 1980.00) pesos.224. BAÑAS. drawn against Bank of the Philippine Islands with the uniform amount of two hundred five thousand. 17251 promulgated on November 29. for its face value of P1. vs. The balance of one million. JR. in Civil Case No.308. AYALA issued one promissory note covering four equal annual installments. Manila. 82-12107. two hundred twenty-four (P205. 2000 BIBIANO V.00. Branch 39. this Court hereby renders judgment DISMISSING the complaint against all the defendants and ordering plaintiff [herein petitioner] to pay defendant Larin the amount of P200.R. sold to Ayala Investment Corporation (AYALA).754 initial payment as income from disposition of capital asset.016. or until February 20.00. with twelve (12%) percent interest per annum on the outstanding balance.R. CV No. RODOLFO TUAZON AND PROCOPIO TALON. In his 1976 Income Tax Return. No. Muntinlupa. which we find supported by the records.00 as exemplary damages and attorneys fees of P100.000.847. respondents.00 (Two Hundred Thousand Pesos) as actual and compensatory damages. evidenced by a Deed of Assignment signed by the petitioner and AYALA.SO ORDERED. petitioner. Bibiano V. seven hundred seventy (P2.000. 1977.754.265 square meters of land located at Bayanan.. seven hundred fifty-four (P461. petitioner reported the P461. 1991. 128. and P50. The same day. P200. AQUILINO T.000.016.00 . and every year thereafter. 1976. for two million. three hundred eight thousand. QUISUMBING.770. J. have been summarized by the Court of Appeals as follows: On February 20. AYALA issued nine (9) checks to petitioner.770.: For review is the Decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-C. Said judgment disposed as follows: FOR ALL THE FOREGOING CONSIDERATIONS.754.000. COURT OF APPEALS. The Deed of Sale provided that upon the signing of the contract AYALA shall pay four hundred sixty-one thousand.

673. In his 1980 income tax amnesty return. They recommended deficiency tax assessment for two million. Aquilino Larin succeeded Calaguio as Regional Director of Manila Region IV-A.00) pesos.00) pesos4 as gain from sale of capital asset. 1980. four hundred seventy-three thousand.847. petitioner acknowledged receipt of the letter but insisted that the sale of his land to AYALA was on installment. eight hundred seventy-seven (P230. . respondent Larin sent a letter to petitioner informing of the income tax deficiency that must be settled him immediately.754.65 In the succeeding years.Less Initial Payment Unrealized Gain 461.603.095.00 ( 76.877.598.10 P192.00 as the realized gain on disposition of capital asset for the year.547. petitioner reported a uniform income of two hundred thirty thousand. inclusive of surcharges and penalties for the year 1976. They discovered that petitioner had no outstanding receivable from the 1976 land sale to AYALA and concluded that the sale was cash and the entire profit should have been taxable in 1976 since the income was wholly derived in 1976.206. The deficiency tax assessment was reduced to nine hundred thirty six thousand. Meantime. petitioner also reported the same amount of P230. On September 26.00) pesos in petitioner's 1976 net income. with instruction to consider the land as capital asset. five hundred ninety-eight pesos and fifty centavos (P936. six hundred seventy-three (P2.877. Larin directed the revision of the audit report.90) P385.50).915.754. Tuazon and Talon filed their audit report and declared a discrepancy of two million. The tax due was only fifty (50%) percent of the total gain from sale of the property held by the taxpayer beyond twelve months pursuant to Section 345 of the 1977 National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC). 1978.00 P1.016. ninety-five thousand.206. nine hundred fifteen (P2. Rodolfo Tuazon and Procopio Talon to examine the books and records of petitioner for the year 1976. On June 27. On April 11.473. 10 x 50%) P461.00 3 1976 Declaration of Income on Disposition of Capital Asset subject to Tax: Initial Payment Less: Cost of land and other incidental Expenses Income Income subject to tax (P385. 1980. until 1979. then Revenue Director Mauro Calaguio authorized tax examiners. After reviewing the examiners' report.

On July 2.On June 8. 1740 and 1840. the matter was endorsed to the Acting Chief of the Legal Branch of the National Office of the BIR. the criminal charges filed against him in the Tanodbayan and in the City Fiscal's Office were all dismissed. In fact. Reacting to the complaint for tax evasion and the news reports. petitioner did not recognize that his sale of land to AYALA was on cash basis. 1981. seven hundred twenty-nine pesos and eighty-one centavos (P41. 1981. the appealed judgment is hereby AFFIRMED in toto. WHETHER THE COURT OF APPEALS ERRED IN ITS INTERPRETATION OF PERTINENT TAX LAWS.525. Presidential Decree Nos. 1981. In both. petitioner filed an Amnesty Tax Return under P. 1981. Alejandre and Conrado Bañas. petitioner again filed an Amnesty Tax Return under P. The trial court decided in favor of the respondents and awarded Larin damages. The Chief of the Tax Fraud Unit recommended the prosecution of a criminal case for conspiring to file false and fraudulent returns. WHEREFORE. 2 accountants." All news items mentioned petitioner's false income tax return concerning the sale of land to AYALA.62). Andres P.nêt Defendant-appellee Larin acted only in pursuance of the authority granted to him. wherein petitioner raises before us the following queries: I. 1840 and paid an additional amount of one thousand. 1740 and paid the amount of forty-one thousand. He claimed that the filing of criminal complaints against him for violation of tax laws were improper because he had already availed of two tax amnesty decrees. Larin filed a criminal complaint for tax evasion against the petitioner. as already stated. 1981.7 Hence this petition. Tuazon and Talon for extortion and malicious publication of the BIR's tax audit report. defendantappellee Larin was subjected to unnecessary anxiety and humiliation is therefore supported by the evidence on record.729. On November 2." Another news item also appeared in the July 2. five hundred twenty-five pesos and sixtytwo centavos (P1. 1981. petitioner filed with the RTC of Manila an action6for damages against respondents Larin. in violation of Section 51 of the Tax Code against petitioner and his accountants. On June 17. thus: The finding of the court a quo that plaintiff-appellant's actions against defendantappellee Larin were unwarranted and baseless and as a result thereof.D.81). THUS IT FAILED TO APPRECIATE THE CORRECTNESS . Petitioner seasonably appealed to the Court of Appeals. news items appeared in the now defunct Evening Express with the headline: "BIR Charges Realtor" and another in the defunct Evening Post with a news item: "BIR raps Realtor.D. In its decision of November 29. issue of the Bulletin Today entitled: "3-face P1-M tax evasion raps. 1991. the respondent court affirmed the trial court's decision. On July 1.1âwphi1.

AND ACCURACY OF PETITIONER'S RETURN OF THE INCOME DERIVED FROM THE SALE OF THE LAND TO AYALA. II. WHETHER THE RESPONDENT COURT ERRED IN NOT FINDING THAT THERE WAS AN ALLEGED ATTEMPT TO EXTORT [MONEY FROM] PETITIONER BY PRIVATE RESPONDENTS. III. WHETHER THE RESPONDENT COURT ERRED IN ITS INTERPRETATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NOS. 1740 AND 1840, AMONG OTHERS, PETITIONER'S IMMUNITY FROM CRIMINAL PROSECUTION. IV. WHETHER THE RESPONDENT COURT ERRED IN ITS INTERPRETATION OF WELL-ESTABLISHED DOCTRINES OF THIS HONORABLE COURT AS REGARDS THE AWARD OF ACTUAL, MORAL AND EXEMPLARY DAMAGES IN FAVOR OF RESPONDENT LARIN. In essence, petitioner asks the Court to resolve seriatim the following issues: 1. Whether respondent court erred in ruling that there was no extortion attempt by BIR officials; 2. Whether respondent court erred in holding that P.D. 1740 and 1840 granting tax amnesties did not grant immunity from tax suits; 3. Whether respondent court erred in finding that petitioner's income from the sale of land in 1976 should be declared as a cash transaction in his tax return for the same year (because the buyer discounted the promissory note issued to the seller on future installment payments of the sale, on the same day of the sale); 4. Whether respondent court erred and committed grave abuse of discretion in awarding damages to respondent Larin. The first issue, on whether the Court of Appeals erred in finding that there was no extortion, involves a determination of fact. The Court of Appeals observed, The only evidence to establish the alleged extortion attempt by defendants-appellees is the plaintiff-appellant's self serving declarations. As found by the court a quo, "said attempt was known to plaintiff-appellant's son-in-law and counsel on record, yet, said counsel did not take the witness stand to corroborate the testimony of plaintiff."8 As repeatedly held, findings of fact by the Court of Appeals especially if they affirm factual findings of the trial court will not be disturbed by this Court, unless these findings are not supported by evidence.9 Similarly, neither should we disturb a finding of the trial court and appellate court that an allegation is not supported by evidence on record. Thus, we agree with

the conclusion of respondent court that herein private respondents, on the basis of evidence, could not be held liable for extortion. On the second issue of whether P.D. Nos. 1740 and 1840 which granted tax amnesties also granted immunity from criminal prosecution against tax offenses, the pertinent sections of these laws state: P.D. No. 1740. CONDONING PENALTIES FOR CERTAIN VIOLATIONS OF THE INCOME TAX LAW UPON VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE OF UNDECLARED INCOME FOR INCOME TAX PURPOSES AND REQUIRING PERIODIC SUBMISSION OF NET WORTH STATEMENT. xxx xxx xxx

Sec. 1. Voluntary Disclosure of Correct Taxable Income. — Any individual who, for any or all of the taxable years 1974 to 1979, had failed to file a return is hereby, allowed to file a return for each of the aforesaid taxable years and accurately declare therein the true and correct income, deductions and exemptions and pay the income tax due per return. Likewise, any individual who filed a false or fraudulent return for any taxable year in the period mentioned above may amend his return and pay the correct amount of tax due after deducting the taxes already paid, if any, in the original declaration. (emphasis ours) xxx xxx xxx

Sec. 5. Immunity from Penalties. — Any individual who voluntarily files a return under this Decree and pays the income tax due thereon shall be immune from the penalties, civil or criminal, under the National Internal Revenue Code arising from failure to pay the correct income tax with respect to the taxable years from which an amended return was filed or for which an original return was filed in cases where no return has been filed for any of the taxable years 1974 to 1979: Provided, however, That these immunities shall not apply in cases where the amount of net taxable income declared under this Decree is understated to the extent of 25% or more of the correct net taxable income. (emphasis ours) P.D. NO. 1840 — GRANTING A TAX AMNESTY ON UNTAXED INCOME AND/OR WEALTH EARNED OR ACQUIRED DURING THE TAXABLE YEARS 1974 TO 1980 AND REQUIRING THE FILING OF THE STATEMENT OF ASSETS, LIABILITIES, AND NET WORTH. Sec. 1. Coverage. — In case of voluntary disclosure of previously untaxed income and/or wealth such as earnings, receipts, gifts, bequests or any other acquisition from any source whatsoever, realized here or abroad, by any individual taxpayer, which are taxable under the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended, the assessment and collection of all internal revenue taxes, including the increments or penalties on account of non-payment, as well as all civil, criminal or administrative liabilities arising from or

incident thereto under the National Internal Revenue Code, are hereby condoned provided that the individual taxpayer shall pay. (emphasis ours) . . . Sec. 2. Conditions for Immunity. — The immunity granted under Section one of this Decree shall apply only under the following conditions: a) Such previously untaxed income and/or wealth must have been earned or realized in any of the years 1974 to 1980; b) The taxpayer must file an amnesty return on or before November 30, 1981, and fully pay the tax due thereon; c) The amnesty tax paid by the taxpayer under this Decree shall not be less than P1,000.00 per taxable year; and d) The taxpayer must file a statement of assets, liabilities and net worth as of December 31, 1980, as required under Section 6 hereof. (emphasis ours) It will be recalled that petitioner entered into a deed of sale purportedly on installment. On the same day, he discounted the promissory note covering the future installments. The discounting seems questionable because ordinarily, when a bill is discounted, the lender ( e.g. banks, financial institution) charges or deducts a certain percentage from the principal value as its compensation. Here, the discounting was done by the buyer. On July 2, 1981, two weeks after the filing of the tax evasion complaint against him by respondent Larin on June 17, 1981, petitioner availed of the tax amnesty under P.D. No. 1740. His amended tax return for the years 1974 - 1979 was filed with the BIR office of Valenzuela, Bulacan, instead of Manila where the petitioner's principal office was located. He again availed of the tax amnesty under P.D. No. 1840. His disclosure, however, did not include the income from his sale of land to AYALA on cash basis. Instead he insisted that such sale was on installment. He did not amend his income tax return. He did not pay the tax which was considerably increased by the income derived from the discounting. He did not meet the twin requirements of P.D. 1740 and 1840, declaration of his untaxed income and full payment of tax due thereon. Clearly, the petitioner is not entitled to the benefits of P.D. Nos. 1740 and 1840. The mere filing of tax amnesty return under P.D. 1740 and 1840 does not ipso facto shield him from immunity against prosecution. Tax amnesty is a general pardon to taxpayers who want to start a clean tax slate. It also gives the government a chance to collect uncollected tax from tax evaders without having to go through the tedious process of a tax case. To avail of a tax amnesty granted by the government, and to be immune from suit on its delinquencies, the tax payer must have voluntarily disclosed his previously untaxed income and must have paid the corresponding tax on such previously untaxed income.10 It also bears noting that a tax amnesty, much like a tax exemption, is never favored nor presumed in law and if granted by statute, the terms of the amnesty like that of a tax exemption must be construed strictly against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the taxing authority.11 Hence, on this matter, it is our view that petitioner's claim of immunity from prosecution under the shield of availing tax amnesty is untenable.

(b) Sales of realty and casual sales of personalty — In the case (1) of a casual sale or other casual disposition of personal property (other than property of a kind which would properly be included in the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the taxable year). consecutive. Sale of real property involving deferred payments. the vendor being protected by a mortgage or other lien as to deferred payments. .On the third issue. Sec. or (2) of a sale or other disposition of real property if in either case the initial payments do not exceed twentyfive percentum of the selling price. . . sales in which the payments received in cash or property other than evidences of indebtedness of the purchaser during the taxable year in which the sale is made do not exceed 25 per cent of the selling price.308.00. as follows: (1) Sales of property on the installment plan.754. As used in this section the term "initial payment" means the payments received in cash or property other than evidences of indebtedness of the purchaser during the taxable period in which the sale or other disposition is made. petitioner asserts that his sale of the land to AYALA was not on cash basis but on installment as clearly specified in the Deed of Sale which states: That for and in consideration of the sum of TWO MILLION THREE HUNDRED EIGHT THOUSAND SEVEN HUNDRED SEVENTY (P2. and (b) sales in which there is an immediate transfer of title. under regulations prescribed by the Minister of Finance. beginning on February 20. Section 175 provides. 1976. Installment basis. (emphasis ours) Revenue Regulation No. the income may. 2. to be paid as follows: 1. and. but only after all or a substantial portion of the selling price has been paid. said installments to be evidenced by four (4) negotiable promissory notes.016. fall into two classes when considered with respect to the terms of sale. The balance of P1. be returned on the basis and in the manner above prescribed in this section. . for a price exceeding one thousand pesos.770. 2 to support his claim. 43 of the 1977 NIRC states. — . P461. that is.00) PESOS Philippine Currency.847. to be paid in four (4) equal. 175 of Revenue Regulation No.00.12 Petitioner resorts to Section 43 of the NIRC and Sec. . Such sales either under (a) or (b). upon the signing of the Deed of Sale. annual installments with interest thereon at the rate of twelve percent (12%) per annum. — Under section 43 deferredpayment sales of real property include (1) agreements of purchase and sale which contemplate that a conveyance is not to be made at the outset. . — (a) Dealers in personal property. 2.

there being no payment during the year. and in this section. other than evidences of indebtedness of the purchaser. Thus. shall not be considered as a part of the "initial payments" or of the "total contract price. in later years.754) P230. whether the property is merely taken subject to the mortgage or whether the mortgage is assumed by the purchaser. shall be included as a part of the "selling price" but the amount of the mortgage. does not include amounts received by the vendor which are part of the complete purchase price." as those terms are used in section 43 of the Code. the respective installments as provided by the deed of sale between him and AYALA. to the extent it does not exceed the basis to the vendor of the property sold. the proceeds of the promissory notes. Commissions and other selling expenses paid or incurred by the vendor are not to be deducted or taken into account in determining the amount of the "initial payments.00 1978 1979 1980 230.877. 2. respondents assert that taxation is a matter of substance and not of form. 43 allows him to return as income in the taxable years involved. The term "initial payments" does not include amounts received by the vendor in the year of sale from the disposition to a third person of notes given by the vendee as part of the purchase price which are due and payable in subsequent years.877.877.877. he argues. he religiously reported his yearly income from sale of capital asset. not yet due which he discounted to AYALA should not be included as income realized in 1976. On the other hand. Returns are scrutinized to determine if transactions are what they are and not declared to . that is sales in which the payments received in cash or property other than evidences of indebtedness of the purchaser during the taxable year in which the sale is made exceed 25 per cent of the selling price.00 230. subject to tax." the "total contract price. in sections 174 and 176 of these regulations. The term "initial payment". Consequently. is received during the first year. Petitioner asserts that Sec." or the "selling price." The term "initial payments" contemplates at least one other payment in addition to the initial payment.00 230. the purchaser having promised to make two or more payments.00 Petitioner says that his tax declarations are acceptable modes of payment under Section 175 of the Revenue Regulations (RR) No. still due and payable in subsequent years. Petitioner states that the original agreement in the Deed of Sale should not be affected by the subsequent discounting of the bill. Income may not be returned on the installment basis where no payment in cash or property. as follows: Year 1977 (50% of P461. In the sale of mortgaged property the amount of the mortgage. If the entire purchase price is to be paid in a lump sum in a later year. the income may not be returned on the installment basis.(2) Deferred-payment sales not on the installment plan.

if not all of the sale price is received during such year. Where an installment obligation is discounted at a bank or finance company. the whole profit accruing from a sale of property is taxable as income in the year the sale is made.18 Since our income tax laws are of American origin. even if the seller guarantees its payment. a declaration that a sale is on installment diminishes government taxes for the year of initial installment as against a declaration of cash sale where taxes to the government is larger. But. and a statute provides that income shall be taxable in the year in which it is "received. he necessarily must report the balance of the income from the discounting not only income from the initial installment payment. provided that the initial payment does not exceed 25% of the selling price. given of the purchaser during the taxable year of sale. The subsequent payments or liquidation of certificates of indebtedness is reported using the installment method in computing the proportionate income16 to be returned. If the initial payment is within 25% of total contract price.14 Such disposition or discounting of receivable is material only as to the computation of the initial payment. by analogy. If the seller disposes the entire installment obligation by discounting the bill or the promissory note. When payment is in lump sum the tax for the year proportionately increases. Initial payment does not include amounts received by the vendor in the year of sale from the disposition to a third person of notes given by the vendee as part of the purchase price which are due and payable in subsequent years. exclusive of the proceeds of discounted notes. They also state what may be regarded as installment payment and what constitutes initial payment.19 interpretations by American courts an our parallel tax laws have persuasive effect on the interpretation of these laws. during the respective year it was realized. all the more would a taxable disposition result when the discounting of the promissory note is done by the seller himself. 43 and Sec. the income should be reported at the time of the actual gain.13 Sec. Logically then. like promissory notes or mortgages. it is still taxable income for the year it was converted into cash. Non-dealer sales of real or personal property may be reported as income under the installment method provided that the obligation is still outstanding at the close of that year. Initial payment means the payment received in cash or property excluding evidences of indebtedness due and payable in subsequent years. or handles repossession of merchandise in case of default. As a general rule. 17 This rule prevails in the United States. the taxable income goes down and the tax due correspondingly decreases. Clearly.evade taxes. . Considering the progressive nature of our income taxation. the indebtedness of the buyer is discharged. while the seller acquires money for the settlement of his receivables. otherwise it is a deferred sale.20 Thus. a taxable disposition results." the profit from an installment sale is to be apportioned between or among the years in which such installments are paid and received. when income is spread over several installment payments through the years. 175 says that among the entities who may use the above-mentioned installment method is a seller of real property who disposes his property on installment. continues to collect on the installment obligation. the sale qualifies as an installment sale. Ultimately.15 Although the proceed of a discounted promissory note is not considered part of the initial payment.

Larin was given a promotion at the BIR. with knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not. 330 (1984). The trial court awarded him two hundred thousand (P200.. . Said respondent court: We find nothing on record. as we have earlier done.28 As a rule. the records of the case contain no statement whatsoever of the amount of the actual damages sustained by the respondents. Lastly. aside from defendant-appellee Larin's statements (TSN. he lost entitlement to report the sale as a sale on installment since. We can further grant that the pertinent tax laws needed construction. a public official may not recover damages for charges of falsehood related to his official conduct unless he proves that the statement was made with actual malice. still it must be included as taxable income on the year it was converted to cash. in defamation and libel cases. al. 35-39. et. in installment. the actual or compensatory damages counter-claimed by respondent Larin. income is an actual gain or an actual increase of wealth. 132 SCRA 316. 04 November 1985). 21 Although the proceeds of a discounted promissory note is not considered initial payment. a taxable disposition resulted and petitioner was required by law to report in his returns the income derived from the discounting. We appreciate petitioner's claim that he filed his 1976 return in good faith and that he had honestly believed that the law allowed him to declare the sale of the land. 22 Larin says the extortion cases filed against him hampered his immediate promotion. the appellate court stated that. vs.29 which we have long adopted. What petitioner did is tantamount to an attempt to circumvent the rule on payment of income taxes gained from the sale of the land to AYALA for the year 1976.23 Moreover. 11 December 1985). Moral damages may be recovered in cases involving acts referred to in Article 2127 of the Civil Code. In Babst. petitioner questions the damages awarded to respondent Larin. et.00) pesos as actual damages.26 Since we have no basis with which to assess. Sullivan.For income tax purposes.000. National Intelligence Board. . 25 To justify a grant of actual or compensatory damages. conjectures or guesswork as to the fact and amount of damages. al. despite pendency of this case. pp. 6-7. to show that he suffered loss of seniority that allegedly barred his promotion. on the same day of the sale. with certainty. viz. Actual damages cannot be allowed unless supported by evidence on the record. When petitioner had the promissory notes covering the succeeding installment payments of the land issued by AYALA. we reiterated the test for actual malice as set forth in the landmark American case of New York Times vs. However. it is necessary to prove with a reasonable degree of certainty.24The court cannot rely on speculation. the award of such damages should be deleted. the actual amount of loss.: . caused him strong anxiety and social humiliation. he was promoted to his present position despite the pendency of the instant case (TSN. Any person who seeks to be awarded actual or compensatory damages due to acts of another has the burden of proving said damages as well as the amount thereof. In fact. discounted by AYALA itself. . pp.

Larin was not yet the Regional Director of BIR Region IV-A.. Petitioner's actions against Larin were found "unwarranted and baseless. 472) and that the Court of Appeals can only modify or change the amount awarded when they are palpably and scandalously excessive "so as to indicate that it was the result of passion. In the case of Prudenciado v. Inc. . Now. Sadie v. Yet. petitioner went on to file the extortion cases against Larin in different fora. the income from which was subjected to only fifty percent (50%) assessment. On respondent Larin's instruction. Del Rosario vs. 57 O.. a ruling affirmed by the Court of Appeals. what would be a fair amount to be paid as compensation for moral damages also requires determination. the trial court did not err in dismissing petitioner's complaints. [256 SCRA 309 (1996)].Court of Appeals. But in more recent cases where the awards of moral and exemplary damages are far too excessive compared to the actual loses sustained by the aggrieved party.G.30 Hence. [4] 636 and Adone v. All these. 57 O. The appellate court believed respondent Larin when he said he suffered anxiety and humiliation because of the unfounded charges against him. Rodriguez." thus: In the case of PNB v. viz: ** **. 656). [4] 7347. Nevertheless. we find the award of P100. When the tax investigation against the petitioner started.A.31 On this score. Bacharach Motor Co. Manila.G. C. petitioner's tax assessment was considered one involving a sale of capital asset. Alliance Transport System. 7358. we are constrained to agree that there is sufficient basis for the award of moral and exemplary damages in favor of respondent Larin. Petitioner presented no evidence to prove Larin extorted money from him.Inc. prejudice or corruption on the part of the trial court" (Gellada v. Significantly.. . 57 O. Inc.00 as moral damages in favor of respondent Rodriguez excessive and unconscionable. there is adequate support for respondent court's conclusion that moral damages have been proved.. Inc. 93 Phil.000. He even admitted that he never met nor talked to respondent Larin. however. These circumstances may be taken to show that Larin's involvement in extortion was not indubitable. [I]t is undisputed that the trial courts are given discretion to determine the amount of moral damages (Alcantara v." and the criminal charges filed against him in the Tanodbayan and City Fiscal's Office were all dismissed. (148 SCRA 440 [1987]) we said: . .. however. this Court quoted with approval the following observation from RCPI v. this Court ruled that they should be reduced to more reasonable amounts. thus reducing the original tax assessment by half.That petitioner was offended by the headlines alluding to him as tax evader is also fully understandable. do not justify what amounted to a baseless prosecution of respondent Larin..32 cites several cases where no actual damages were adjudicated. and where moral and exemplary damages were reduced for being "too excessive.) . Each case must be governed by its own peculiar circumstances. (Emphasis ours. Keeping all these in mind. Warner Barnes & Co. . . This is where actual malice could attach on petitioner's part.. .G. Bacharach Motors Co. Surro.

is hereby AFFIRMED with MODIFICATION so that the award of actual damages are deleted. there is ample ground to award in his favor P50. the parties who were awarded moral damages were not public officials. 2005 COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs.00) pesos.000.00 as reasonable attorney's fees.000.000. Moreover.000.000. herein respondent Larin was compelled to hire a private lawyer for the conduct of his defense as well as the successful pursuit of his counterclaims. we must be careful lest the amounts awarded make citizens hesitate to expose corruption in the government. In our view. conformably with our declaration that moral damages are not intended to enrich anyone.000.R. CENTRAL LUZON DRUG CORPORATION. this Court found the amount of exemplary damages required to be paid (P1.00 only. . The law allows the award of attorney's fees when exemplary damages are awarded. considering the nature of the charges. 1991. the award is in favor of a government official in connection with his official function. 33 we hereby reduce the moral damages award in this case from two hundred thousand (P200.00.00). Respondent. and attorney's fees in the amount of P50. for fear of lawsuits from vindictive government officials.00 only. Thus. and when the party to a suit was compelled to incur expenses to protect his interest. WHEREFORE. Considering that here.00) pesos to seventy five thousand (P75. given the circumstances of this case.nêt No pronouncement as to costs.: REVENUE.000.000. DECISION PANGANIBAN. it is with caution that we affirm granting moral damages. CA).In other words. SO ORDERED.1âwphi1. 34 Though government officers are usually represented by the Solicitor General in cases connected with the performance of official functions. exemplary damages in the amount of P25.000.000. It will be noted that in above cases. In the same case (PNB v.00) "too excessive" and reduced it to an "equitable level" (P25. the assailed decision of the Court of Appeals dated November 29. No. and that petitioner is hereby ORDERED to pay to respondent Larin moral damages in the amount of P75. while the exemplary damage is set at P25. J. the moral damages awarded must be commensurate with the loss or injury suffered. 159647 April 15. Petitioners. for it might open the floodgates for government officials counter-claiming damages in suits filed against them in connection with their functions.00. G.

the amount allegedly representing the 20% sales discount granted by respondent to qualified senior citizens totaled P904. No costs."4 The assailed Resolution denied petitioner’s Motion for Reconsideration.A. not merely a tax deduction from the gross income or gross sale of the establishment concerned. a tax deduction. In 1996. 2003 Resolution3 of the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA-GR SP No. respondent elevated its claim to the Court of Tax Appeals [(CTA or Tax Court)] via a Petition for Review. 1997. 2001.] 7432. the Resolution appealed from is AFFIRMED in toto.769.00 allegedly arising from the 20% sales discount granted by respondent to qualified senior citizens in compliance with [R. 2002 Decision2 and the August 11. Basic is the rule that administrative regulations cannot amend or revoke the law. "On February 12. RA 7432 unconditionally grants a tax credit to all covered entities. the Tax Court rendered a Decision5 dismissing respondent’s Petition for lack of merit. 1998. respondent filed its Annual Income Tax Return for taxable year 1996 declaring therein that it incurred net losses from its operations.] 7432 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations. Thus. The Facts The CA narrated the antecedent facts as follows: "Respondent is a domestic corporation primarily engaged in retailing of medicines and other pharmaceutical products. 67439. respondent granted twenty (20%) percent sales discount to qualified senior citizens on their purchases of medicines pursuant to Republic Act No. In said decision. before the tax is computed. seeking to set aside the August 29.00. [R. "On April 15.A. it operated six (6) drugstores under the business name and style ‘Mercury Drug. The Case Before us is a Petition for Review1 under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court. A tax credit is used by a private establishment only after the tax has been computed. For the said period. respondent filed with petitioner a claim for tax refund/credit in the amount of P904.769. "On January 16. the provisions of the revenue regulation that withdraw or modify such grant are void. Unable to obtain affirmative response from petitioner.’ "From January to December 1996. The assailed Decision reads as follows: "WHEREFORE. premises considered. the [CTA] justified its ruling with the following ratiocination: .The 20 percent discount required by the law to be given to senior citizens is a tax credit.

’ Tax refunds or credits do not exclusively pertain to illegally collecte d or erroneously paid taxes as they may be other circumstances where a refund is warranted. 7432. in its assailed resolution. 4[.‘x x x. Hence this Petition.’ "Respondent lodged a Motion for Reconsideration. it could logically be deduced that tax credit is premised on the existence of tax liability on the part of taxpayer. It reasoned that Republic Act No. x x x.A. whether the recovery of the tax is made by means of a claim for refund or tax credit. In other words.6 granted respondent’s motion for reconsideration and ordered herein petitioner to issue a Tax Credit Certificate in favor of respondent citing the decision of the then Special Fourth Division of [the CA] in CA G. if there is no tax liability.R. Sec. if no tax has been paid to the government. or if no amount is due and collectible from the taxpayer. tax refund or tax credit is unavailing.’"7 Ruling of the Court of Appeals The CA affirmed in toto the Resolution of the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) ordering petitioner to issue a tax credit certificate in favor of respondent in the reduced amount of P903. 229 clearly does not apply in the instant case because the tax sought to be refunded or credited by petitioner was not erroneously paid or illegally collected. tax credit is not available. or that of excise tax paid on goods locally produced or manufactured but actually exported. Sec. before recovery is allowed[. Moreover. 60057 entitled ‘Central [Luzon] Drug Corporation vs. erroneously or illegally. 229.] it must be first established that there was an actual collection and receipt by the government of the tax sought to be recovered.8 The Issues . to wit: ‘However. (RA) 7432 required neither a tax liability nor a payment of taxes by private establishments prior to the availment of a tax credit. such as the refund of excess estimated corporate quarterly income tax paid. but rather a just compensation for the taking of private property for public use. such credit is not tantamount to an unintended benefit from the law. Commissioner of Internal Revenue’ promulgated on May 31. The [CTA]. SP No. or that of excess input tax paid by a VAT-registered person. x x x. We take exception to the CTA’s sweeping but unfounded statement that ‘both tax refund and tax credit are modes of recovering taxes which are either erroneously or illegally paid to the government. ‘x x x x x x x x x ‘Prescinding from the above.39.a)] of R. is yet another instance of a tax credit and it does not in any way refer to illegally collected or erroneously paid taxes. The tax refund provided under Section 229 deals exclusively with illegally collected or erroneously paid taxes but there are other possible situations. 2001. Moreover.038. The standards and mechanics for the grant of a refund or credit under these situations are different from that under Sec.

Examples of tax credits are withheld taxes. may still claim the 20 percent sales discount as a tax credit. One of these is tax deduction -. reduces the income that is subject to tax22 in order to arrive at taxable income. on the other. including -. 13 tax credit generally refers to an amount that is "subtracted directly from one’s total tax liability. 11 The latter may then claim the cost of the discount as a tax credit. even though an establishment operates at a loss? We answer in the affirmative. "Whether the Court of Appeals erred in holding that respondent is entitled to a refund."19 An example of a tax deduction is any of the allowable deductions enumerated in Section 3420 of the Tax Code. A tax credit differs from a tax deduction. payments of estimated tax.defined as a subtraction "from income for tax purposes.12 But can such credit be claimed. The Court’s Ruling The Petition is not meritorious. a tax credit reduces the tax due. despite incurring a net loss. On the one hand. Sole Issue: Claim of 20 Percent Sales Discount as Tax Credit Despite Net Loss Section 4a) of RA 743210 grants to senior citizens the privilege of obtaining a 20 percent discount on their purchase of medicine from any private establishment in the country.the income tax that is determined after applying the corresponding tax rates to taxable income.Petitioner raises the following issues for our consideration: "Whether the Court of Appeals erred in holding that respondent may claim the 20% sales discount as a tax credit instead of as a deduction from gross income or gross sales. Tax Credit versus Tax Deduction Although the term is not specifically defined in our Tax Code. and investment tax credits. 17 Tax credit should be understood in relation to other tax concepts.whenever applicable -." 14 It is an "allowance against the tax itself"15 or "a deduction from what is owed"16 by a taxpayer to the government." 18 or an amount that is "allowed by law to reduce income prior to [the] application of the tax rate to compute the amount of tax which is due.21 Atax deduction.23 To think of the former as the latter ."9 These two issues may be summed up in only one: whether respondent.

Nevertheless. In the meantime. it need not move. A tax credit is used only after the tax has been computed. a tax deduction. Prior Tax Payments Not Required for Tax Credit While a tax liability is essential to the availment or use of any tax credit. neither a tax liability nor a prior tax payment is needed.in computing for the donor’s tax due. By its nature. the existence of a tax credit or its grant by law is not the same as the availment or use of such credit. the irrefutable fact remains that. it need not be used by losing ventures. in computing the estate tax due. Neither can it be reduced to nil by the quick yet callow stroke of an administrative pen. On the contrary. Although this tax credit benefit is available. without which it does not have any use. no existing obligation to the government. even though no taxes have been previously paid. if not entirely confuse.is also allowed a tax credit that includes a ratable portion of any input tax not directly attributable to either activity. to begin with.registered person engaging in transactions -whether or not subject to the VAT -. Also found in Section 101(C) is a similar provision for donor’s taxes -. If a net loss is reported by. not a present. a business establishment. the tax credit may still be deducted from a future. For example. any tax credit application will be useless. However.not necessarily .24 For the establishment to choose the immediate availment of a tax credit will be premature and impracticable. Without that liability.for estate taxes paid to a foreign country. prior tax payments are not. for the existence or grant solely of such credit. While the grant is mandatory.subject to certain limitations -. simply because no reduction of taxes can instantly be effected. The tax credits in both instances allude to the prior payment of taxes. But it breathes. there will obviously be no tax liability against which any tax credit can be applied. Under Section 110. Congress has granted without conditions a tax credit benefit to all covered establishments. before. as will be presented shortly. and no other taxes are currently due from. the availment or use is not. tax liability. under RA 7432. Section 86(E) allows a tax credit -. there ought to be a tax liability before the tax creditcan be applied. The Tax Code is in fact replete with provisions granting or allowing tax credits. since there is no tax liability that calls for its application. Tax Liability Required for Tax Credit Since a tax credit is used to reduce directly the tax that is due. even if not made to our government.is to avoid. the issue.again when paid to a foreign country -. There will be no reason for deducting the latter when there is. This input tax may either be the VAT on the purchase or importation of goods or services that is merely due from -. a VAT (Value-Added Tax).

in this provision.as computed -. Section 34(C)(5) provides that for such taxes incurred but not paid. in such sum as may be required. subject to the condition precedent that the taxpayer shall simply give a bond with sureties satisfactory to and approved by petitioner.either in the processing of sardines. and further conditioned upon payment by the taxpayer of any tax found due. not as a deduction from the corresponding tax liability. again. upon petitioner’s redetermination of it. Indeed.and for the contract price of public work contracts entered into with the government. For the purchase of primary agricultural products used as inputs -. mackerel and milk.28 In contrast.paid by -.again not necessarily paid to -. it is not our government but the domiciliary country that credits against the income tax payable to the latter by the foreign corporation.then later prorated. to the extent that the input taxes have not been applied against output taxes. . categorically allows as credits.25 Clearly from this provision.27 Although true. It may be argued that Section 28(B)(5)(b) of the Tax Code is another illustration of a tax credit allowed. the amount of income taxes merely incurred -not necessarily paid -. a tax credit may be allowed. a one and a half percent input tax credit that is merely presumptive is allowed. this provision actually refers to the tax credit as a condition only for the imposition of a lower tax rate.26 Where a taxpayer is engaged in zero-rated or effectively zero-rated sales and also in taxable or exempt sales. the tax to be foregone or spared. The latter type may in fact be an amount equivalent to only eight percent of the value of a VAT-registered person’s beginning inventory of goods. or the transitional input tax determined in accordance with Section 111(A). the tax credit refers to an input tax that is either due only or given a value by mere comparison with the VAT actually paid -. No tax is actually paid prior to the availment of such credit. Besides. Moreover. Section 34(C)(3). against the income tax imposable under Title II. under Section 112(A). materials and supplies. even though no prior tax payments are not required.is higher than the actual VAT paid on the said items. when such amount -.as well as the one earlier mentioned -. no prior tax payments are needed for the use of the tax credit. More important. a VAT-registered person whose sales are zero-rated or effectively zero-rated may.by a domestic corporation during a taxable year in any foreign country. apply for the issuance of a tax credit certificate for the amount of creditable input taxes merely due -. Specifically.shows that the prior payment of taxes is not a requisite.the government and attributable to such sales. or in the manufacture of refined sugar and cooking oil -. in availing of such tax credit for VAT purposes. In Section 111(B).such VAT-registered person in the course of trade or business. the imposition of a final withholding tax rate on cash and/or property dividends received by a nonresident foreign corporation from a domestic corporation is subjected to the condition that a foreign tax credit will be given by the domiciliary country in an amount equivalent to taxes that are merely deemed paid. this provision -. the amount of creditable input taxes due that are not directly and entirely attributable to any one of these transactions shall be proportionately allocated on the basis of the volume of sales. in relation to Section 34(C)(7)(b).

Sections 2. the CA correctly held that the availment under RA 7432 did not require prior tax payments by private establishments concerned. income that is taxed in the state of source is also taxable in the state of residence. but the tax paid in the former is merely allowed as a credit against the tax levied in the latter. Under special laws that particularly affect businesses. include tax credits equivalent to either five percent of the net value earned. as amended by Batas Pambansa Blg. of a tax credit. the tax credit represents the amount of such discount. The examples above show that a tax liability is certainly important in the availment or use. for the losing establishment to immediately apply such credit. (PD) 1789. No tax. (BP) 391. even though no prior tax payments have been made. 31 However. Regarding this matter. From all the foregoing instances.In addition to the above-cited provisions in the Tax Code. 29 Apparently. the manner by which the discount shall be credited against taxes has not been clarified by the revenue regulations.33 In turn. Both are entitled to the tax credit provided for under RA 7432. not the existence or grant. the definition given by petitioner is erroneous. since the law itself accords that unconditional benefit.30 In order to avail of such credits under the said law and still achieve its objectives. 2-94 Erroneous RA 7432 specifically allows private establishments to claim as tax credit the amount of discounts they grant. we do not agree with its finding32 that the carry-over of tax creditsunder the said special law to succeeding taxable periods. there are also tax treaties and special laws that grant or allow tax credits. 34 To deny such credit. there can also be tax credit incentives. and even their application against internal revenue taxes. the Implementing Rules and Regulations. has been previously paid to the latter. or five or ten percent of the net local content of exports. Under the treaties in which the tax credit method is used as a relief to avoid double taxation. it is evident that prior tax payments are not indispensable to the availment of atax credit. To illustrate. However. therefore. . did not necessitate the existence of a tax liability. Thus. is indefensible. It refers to tax credit as the amount representing the 20 percent discount that "shall be deducted by the said establishments from their gross income for income tax purposes and from their gross sales for value-added tax or other percentage tax purposes.i and 4 of Revenue Regulations No. despite the plain mandate of the law and the regulations carrying out that mandate."35 In ordinary business language. where no tax is due. no prior tax payments are necessary. First. However. issued pursuant thereto. will be an improvident usance. provide the procedures for its availment. not the state of residence. payment is made to the state of source. a private establishment reporting a net loss in its financial statements is no different from another that presents a net income. the incentives provided for in Article 48 of Presidential Decree No.

shipping." 43 It is also called a volume or bulk discount. only the net amounts of the invoices -."37 or "a reduction from the full amount or value of something.48 Finally. No entry for it need be made in the manual or computerized books of accounts.47 Even a chain discount -.along with returns. and the prices at which the purchased goods may be resold are also suggested." 41 Also referred to as a sales discount on the part of the seller and a purchase discount on the part of the buyer.are recorded in . It is "a supplier’s price discount given to a purchaser based on the [latter’s] role in the [former’s] distribution system.are recorded in the manual and computerized books of accounts and reflected in the financial statements at the gross amounts of the invoices."38 In business there are many kinds of discount. since the purchase or sale is already valued at the net price actually charged the buyer.53 However. the most common of which is that affecting the income statement39 or financial report upon which theincome tax is based. Based on this discussion.is recorded at net."36 To be more precise. Business Discounts Deducted from Gross Sales A cash discount." 49 This role usually involves warehousing or advertising. n/30.from gross sales to arrive atnet sales. it is in business parlance "a deduction or lowering of an amount of money. especially a price.40 It is a "reduction in price offered to the purchaser if payment is made within a shorter period of time than the maximum time specified.52This manner of recording credit sales -.as well as from quantity. we find that the nature of a sales discount is peculiar. is a "reduction in price allowed for purchases made in large quantities. allowances. for example.44 A "percentage reduction from the list price x x x allowed by manufacturers to wholesalers and by wholesalers to retailers"45 is known as a trade discount. more convenient to apply than the net method.is most widely used. and produces no material errors over time.known as the gross method -."42 A quantity discount. under the net method used in recording trade. chain or functional discounts.By ordinary acceptation. however.after the discounts have been deducted -. because the accounts receivable and sales figures that arise from sales discounts. and handling. volume or bulk discounts -.51 This type of presentation is resorted to. -. this type of discount is reflected in the income statement50 as a line item deducted -.46 The purpose for the discount is to encourage trading or increase sales. it may be expressed in such terms as "5/10. justified by savings in packaging. because it is simple. a discount is an "abatement or reduction made from the gross amount or value of anything. akin to a trade discount is a functional discount. Applying generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in the country. is one granted by business establishments to credit customers for their prompt payment. rebates and other similar expenses -.a series of discounts from one list price -.

the latter provision also appears as a suitable reference point for income tax purposes already embraced in the former.immediately upon perfection of the sale. the discount period lasts no more than a day. we ought not to distinguish. To a senior citizen.is deducted from gross sales to come up with the gross income. this benefit has been erroneously likened and confined to a sales discount. However. The term sales discounts is not expressly defined in the Tax Code. allowances and cost of goods sold56 -. Ubi lex non distinguit. the effect is different from a simple reduction in price that results from such discount. the real and compelling reason for the private establishment giving the discount is that the law itself makes it mandatory. net of the said discounts. What RA 7432 grants the senior citizen is a mere discount privilege.and the net amount thereof collected -. A separate line item cannot be shown. To be sure. expected that for each retail sale made under this law. the effect of a sales discount on the income statement and income tax return of an establishment covered by RA 7432 is different from that resulting from the availment or use of its tax credit benefit. As mentioned earlier. the latter is a deduction after.60 It is. not a sales discount or any of the above discounts in particular. . profit or margin57 derived from business. Reason for the Senior Citizen Discount: The Law. the monetary effect of the privilege may be the same as that resulting from a sales discount. To stress. but one provision adverts to amounts whose sum -. therefore. To repeat from our earlier discourse. Prompt payment is not the reason for (although a necessary consequence of) such grant.59 While determinative only of the VAT. nec nos distinguere debemus. the income tax is computed. Yet. In other words.58 In another provision therein. the tax credit benefit is not the same as a sales discount. Not Prompt Payment A distinguishing feature of the implementing rules of RA 7432 is the private establishment’s outright deduction of the discount from the invoice price of the medicine sold to the senior citizen. While the former is a deduction before.and that do not depend upon the happening of any future event -may be excluded from the gross sales within the same quarter they were given. Where the law does not distinguish. sales discountsthat are granted and indicated in the invoices at the time of sale -. because such discount is given -. these two provisions affirm that sales discounts are amounts that are always deductible from gross sales. to a private establishment.61 Although prompt payment is made for an arm’s-length transaction by the senior citizen. a discount is not necessarily a sales discount. the privilege enjoyed by the senior citizen must be equivalent to the tax credit benefit enjoyed by the private establishment granting the discount. under the revenue regulations promulgated by our tax authorities. and a tax credit for a simple discount privilege should not be automatically treated like a sales discount. After all.along with sales returns.the books of accounts54 and reflected in the financial statements. this benefit cannot and should not be treated as a tax deduction.55 because the transactions themselves involving both accounts receivable and sales have already been entered into.

"69 Conversely." 63 In the scheme of judicial tax administration.68 A "regulation adopted pursuant to law is law.Sections 2. be stricken down. the law cannot be amended by a mere regulation. who are certain that these will be followed by the courts."65 The regulations these authorities issue are relied upon by taxpayers. even for purposes of computing the income tax. considering that the latter has to be deducted from gross sales in order to compute the gross income in theincome statement and cannot be deducted again.shall be treated as a reduction from any tax liability. therefore. or from gross sales for VAT or other percentage tax purposes. however. This contrived definition is improper. (RR) 2-94 define tax credit as the 20 percent discount deductible from gross income for income tax purposes.67 In case of conflict. Laws Not Amended by Regulations Second.i and 4 of Revenue Regulations No. a regulation or any portion thereof not adopted pursuant to law is no law and has neither the force nor the effect of law.62 it cannot prevail. When the law says that the cost of the discount may be claimed as a tax credit. plain and simple. The option to avail of the tax credit benefit depends upon the existence of a tax liability. it cannot engraft additional requirements not contemplated by the legislature. it means that the amount -.when claimed -.70 Availment of Tax Credit Voluntary . but to limit the benefit to a sales discount -.i and 4 of RR 2-94 a meaning utterly in contrast to what RA 7432 provides.64 Our tax authorities fill in the details that "Congress may not have the opportunity or competence to provide. In effect. erroneous or improper. the law must prevail. Their interpretation has muddled up the intent of Congress in granting a mere discount privilege. alter or restrict the provisions of the law it administers. the need for certainty and predictability in the implementation of tax laws is crucial. The definition must.does not define it at all and serves no useful purpose. will not uphold these authorities’ interpretations when clearly absurd.66 Courts. not a sales discount. a regulation that "operates to create a rule out of harmony with the statute is a mere nullity". The administrative agency issuing these regulations may not enlarge. In fact.which is not even identical to the discount privilege that is granted by law -. the tax credit benefit under RA 7432 is related to a sales discount. In the present case. It is a cardinal rule that courts "will and should respect the contemporaneous construction placed upon a statute by the executive officers whose duty it is to enforce it x x x. the tax authorities have given the term tax credit in Sections 2.

Sections 2. not only to make an imposition without basis in law. or any similar taxpayer. it is the existence or the lack of a tax liability that determines whether the cost of the discounts can be used as a tax credit. In other words. plain and free from ambiguity.either to claim or not to claim the cost of the discounts as a tax credit. In fact. "neither does it impose a duty on the part of the government to sit back and allow an important facet of tax collection to be at the sole control and discretion of the taxpayer. it may even ignore the credit and simply consider the gesture as an act of beneficence.a of RA 7432 means is that the tax credit benefit is merely permissive.77 The concept of public use is no longer confined to the traditional notion of use by the public. "The ‘plain meaning rule’ or verba legis in statutory construction is thus applicable x x x. Respondent is given two options -. therefore. to avail itself of the tax credit remedy whenever it chooses. then the tax credit can easily be applied. What Section 4. Neither does it allow our tax administrators to expand or contract the legislative mandate. however. the tax credit benefit granted to these establishments can be deemed as their just compensation for private property taken by the State for public use. but held synonymous with public interest."73 For the tax authorities to compel respondent to deduct the 20 percent discount from either its gross income or its gross sales74 is.72 There is no absolute right conferred upon respondent. Accordingly. but rather from the private establishments concerned. the word may in the text of the statute71 implies that the availability of the tax credit benefit is neither unrestricted nor mandatory. public benefit. an expression of its social conscience. The permanent reduction in their total ."76 Tax Credit Benefit Deemed Just Compensation Fourth.Third. thus compelling it to close shop. If. not imperative. the credit can never be applied and will be lost altogether. Where the words of a statute are clear. were it not for RA 7432. If there is none. it must be given its literal meaning and applied without attempted interpretation. RA 7432 does not give respondent the unfettered right to avail itself of the credit whenever it pleases. but also to blatantly contravene the law itself. Granting that there is a tax liability and respondent claims such cost as a tax credit.i and 4 of RR 2-94 deny the exercise by the State of its power of eminent domain.78 The discount privilege to which our senior citizens are entitled is actually a benefit enjoyed by the general public to which these citizens belong. the business continues to operate at a loss and no other taxes are due. The discounts given would have entered the coffers and formed part of the gross sales of the private establishments concerned. public welfare. the credit cannot be used and will just have to be carried over and revalidated75accordingly. and public convenience. Be it stressed that the privilege enjoyed by senior citizens does not come directly from the State.

the taxation power can also be used as an implement for the exercise of the power of eminent domain. . contradict these constitutional policies and statutory objectives. The same effect is expected if its mark-up is less than 20 percent. public welfare. and no administrative body can alter that fact.when not done within a reasonable time from the grant of the discounts -.i and 4 of RR 2-94. social justice "cannot be invoked to trample on the rights of property owners who under our Constitution and laws are also entitled to protection. it will also be grossly unfair to an establishment if the discounts will be treated merely as deductions from either its gross income or its gross sales. but also to the promptness in its release. the power to tax has indeed become a most effective tool to realize social justice. of the equivalent amount it needs to cope with the reduction in its revenues. it will realize that thetax credit limitation under RR 2-94 is inutile."82 In recent years. because no taxes are due from the latter. It is in the tax credit that our legislators find support to realize social justice.revenues is a forced subsidy corresponding to the taking of private property for public use or benefit." 84 For this reason. Equivalent to the payment of property taken by the State. The social justice consecrated in our [C]onstitution [is] not intended to take away rights from a person and give them to another who is not entitled thereto." 88 Sections 2. however. Operating at a loss through no fault of its own. respondent becomes entitled to a just compensation.without the discounts yet -. and the equitable distribution of wealth.86 These objectives are consonant with the constitutional policy of making "health x x x services available to all the people at affordable cost"87 and of giving "priority for the needs of the x x x elderly. through the certificate. profit-generating businesses will be put in a better position if they avail themselves of tax credits denied those that are losing. In effect.80Tax measures are but "enforced contributions exacted on pain of penal sanctions"81 and "clearly imposed for apublic purpose. respondent is made to suffer the consequences of being immediately deprived of its revenues while awaiting actual receipt. Grant of Tax Credit Intended by the Legislature Fifth.cannot be considered as just compensation.will surely start to incur losses because of such discounts. 79 Besides. This term refers not only to the issuance of a tax credit certificate indicating the correct amount of the discounts given. Aside from the observation we have already raised earlier.83 While it is a declared commitment under Section 1 of RA 7432. a private establishment that merely breaks even 85 -. To put it differently. RA 7432 itself seeks to adopt measures whereby senior citizens are assisted by the community as a whole and to establish a program beneficial to them. Worse. a just compensation for income that is taken away from respondent becomes necessary. As a result of the 20 percent discount imposed by RA 7432. and if all its sales come from retail purchases by senior citizens. if not improper. such issuance -.

You want to insert that? THE CHAIRMAN (Rep. SEN. so.on the responsibility of the private hospitals and drugstores. (Rep. Unico). (Rep. Unico). Singit na po ba yung 15% on credit. THE CHAIRMAN. ANGARA. Sa kuwan lang yon.Furthermore. Hindi pa. SEN. Yung ang proposal ni Senator Shahani. Unico) Ah. THE CHAIRMAN. (Rep. By the way. AQUINO. about deductions from taxable income. THE CHAIRMAN. Puwede na. hindi ba? SEN. e. I think we have to put in also a provision here about the deductions from taxable income of that private hospitals. before that ano. Ano ba yung establishments na covered? . THE CHAIRMAN. In fact. I think we incorporated there a provision na . So. ANGARA. ANGARA. AQUINO. ANGARA. We quote from those deliberations as follows: "THE CHAIRMAN (Rep. rather than as a deduction from gross income. Congress has allowed all private establishments a simple tax credit. Oo. In the case of private hospitals they got the grant of 15% discount. Yah could be allowed as deductions in the perpetrations of (inaudible) income. SEN. not a deduction. Hospitals ba o lahat ng establishments na covered. Kaya lang po sir. ANGARA. di ba ganon 'yan? MS. Unico). The deliberations on February 5. ADVENTO. hindi pa. Oo. 1992 of the Bicameral Conference Committee Meeting on Social Justice. disclose the true intent of our legislators to treat the sales discounts as a tax credit. ADVENTO. and mga discounts po nila affecting government and public institutions. Yung isiningit natin? MS. Okay. 'di pa ba naisama natin? SEN. I-tax credit na lang natin para walang cash-out ano? REP. the private hospitals can claim the expense as a tax credit. Unico). REP. Yung about the private hospitals. tax credit. puwede na po nating hindi isama yung mga less deductions ng taxable income. (Rep. AQUINO. as private hospitals lang. (inaudible/did not use the microphone). no cash outlay is required from the government for the availment or use of such credit. Oo. which finalized RA 7432. REP. provided that. Tama. Unico).

As a tax credit [rather] than a kuwan . RA 7432 is a special law that should prevail over the Tax Code -. THE CHAIRMAN. recreation centers.91 one as a general law of the land. Neither can the instances of or references to a tax deduction under . the earlier special and the later general -." 90 In addition. ANGARA. Alisin na natin 'Yung kuwan kung ganon. Unico). "x x x [T]he rule is that on a specific matter the special law shall prevail over the general law. REP. SEN.the terms of the general broad enough to include the matter provided for in the special -. ANGARA. Tax credit. When the former states that a tax credit may be claimed. provided that said establishments .the fact that one is special and the other is general creates a presumption that the special is to be considered as remaining an exception to the general. they don't need to claim it. Dahil kung government. which shall be resorted to only to supply deficiencies in the former. ANGARA. REP. "[w]here there are two statutes. SEN."92 "It is a canon of statutory construction that a later statute. To capture that thought. et cetera. cannot be made to apply. Yah. AQUINO Okay.deduction. Can we go back to Section 4 ha? REP. Ganon ba 'yon? REP. SEN. as discussed above. SEN. Letter A. Restaurant lodging houses. the other as the law of a particular case. general in its terms and not expressly repealing a prior special statute. AQUINO.provided that private establishments may claim the cost as a tax credit. ANGARA. AQUINO. we'll say the grant of 20% discount from all establishments et cetera. (Rep. ANGARA. Okay. the Tax Code -. ANGARA.89 Special Law Over General Law Sixth and last. Di subject to style na lang sa Letter A". Oho."93 RA 7432 is an earlier law not expressly repealed by. then the requirement of prior tax payments under certain provisions of the latter. All establishments covered siguro? SEN.a later law. From all establishments. Sige Okay.SEN. will ordinarily not affect the special provisions of such earlier statute. and therefore remains an exception to.a general law. AQUINO.

Commissioner of Internal Revenue.A.the Tax Code94 be made to restrict RA 7432.R. 1994. No. CENTRAL LUZON DRUG CORPORATION. 2-941 implementing R. 148512 June 26. 2006 REVENUE. of the Court of Appeals (CA) in CA-G. which states that the discount given to senior citizens shall be deducted by the establishment from its gross sales for value-added tax and other percentage tax purposes. As a consequence.778. For said taxable period." For the period January 1995 to December 1995. 7432. The antecedents are as follows: Central Luzon Drug Corporation has been a retailer of medicines and other pharmaceutical products since December 19.: This is a petition for review under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court seeking the nullification of the Decision. 60057. SO ORDERED. No pronouncement as to costs. No. entitled "An Act to Maximize the Contribution of Senior Citizens to Nation Building. Petitioner. 7432. in conformity to the mandate of Sec. entitled "Central Luzon Drug Corporation v. No provision of any revenue regulation can supplant or modify the acts of Congress.) No. Grant Benefits and Special Privileges and for other Purposes" otherwise known as the Senior Citizens Act. DECISION AZCUNA. dated May 31. respondent did not pay income tax for 1995. respondent reported a net loss of P20. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs. WHEREFORE. respondent deducted the total amount of P219. No. petitioner granted a 20% discount on the sale of medicines to qualified senior citizens amounting to P219.A. The assailed Decision and Resolution of the Court of Appeals AFFIRMED. 7432.963 in its corporate income tax return. In 1995. Pursuant to Revenue Regulations No. 2001. Respondent. the Petition is hereby DENIED.A. SP No. .R. it opened three (3) drugstores as a franchisee under the business name and style of "Mercury Drug.778 from its gross income for the taxable year 1995. J. G. 4(a) of R." granting herein respondent Central Luzon Drug Corporation’s claim for tax credit equal to the amount of the 20% discount that it extended to senior citizens on t he latter’s purchase of medicines pursuant to Section 4(a) of Republic Act (R.

232.856.00) As shown above.00 Gross Sales Less: Cost of Sales Merchandise Inventory.621.00 P 37. declaring that even if the law treats the 20% sales discounts granted to senior citizens as a tax credit. 1996.521.00 Purchases Merchandise Inventory.978.778. 7432. claiming that according to Sec. thus: Net Sales Add: Cost of 20% Discount to Senior Citizens P 37.014. No.234.A.193 claimed as a refund represents the tax credit allegedly due to respondent under R. 2000. the amount ofP219.00 P 3.00 P 217.199.00 219.00 (P 150.778 should be applied as a tax credit. No. the same cannot apply when there is .964.00 219. the CTA dismissed the petition.00 3.557. end Gross Profit Miscellaneous Income Total Income Operating Expenses Net Income Before Tax Income Tax (35%) Less: Tax Credit (Cost of 20% Discount to Senior Citizens) Income Tax Payable Income Tax Actually Paid Tax Refundable/Overpaid Income Tax 41.585.807. 4(a) of R.00) -0(P 150.145. beg P 1.585.00 33. 7432.00 3.193.740.014.00 69.00 8.Subsequently.00 39. Since the Commissioner of Internal Revenue "was not able to decide the claim for refund on time. On April 24. the amount of P150." 2 respondent filed a Petition for Review with the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) on March 18.748.416.A.193. 1998. respondent filed a claim for refund in the amount of P150.230. on December 27.377.778.193.138.

the tax credit will only be to the extent of the tax liability. No costs. Sec. 3Also. now Section 229.4 Hence. of the Tax Code. this petition raising the sole issue of whether the 20% sales discount granted by respondent to qualified senior citizens pursuant to Sec. The statute in such a case must be taken to mean exactly what it says. 7432 may be claimed as a tax credit or as a deduction from gross sales in accordance with Sec. No. In the latter case. 7432 provides: Sec. 2000.no tax liability or the amount of the tax credit is greater than the tax due. respondent filed with the CA a Petition for Review on August 3. restaurants and recreation centers and purchase of medicines anywhere in the country: Provided. hotels and similar lodging establishments. Furthermore.193. illegally and actually collected based on the provisions of Section 230. On May 31. 7432 should be treated as tax credits. no refund can be granted as no tax was erroneously. 7432 is considered just compensation and. No. 2-94. the law does not state that a refund can be claimed by the private establishment concerned as an alternative to the tax credit.A.A. 2(1) of Revenue Regulations No. It is a fundamental rule in statutory construction that the legislative intent must be determined from the language of the statute itself especially when the words and phrases therein are clear and unequivocal. To construe it otherwise would be a departure from the clear mandate of the law. A new one is entered granting petitioner’s claim for tax credit in the amount of Php: 150. as such. the CA rendered a Decision stating that Section 229 of the Tax Code does not apply in this case. not deductions from income." Nothing in the provision suggests for it to mean a "deduction" from gross sales. The CA and the CTA correctly ruled that based on the plain wording of the law discounts given under R. That private establishments may claim the cost as tax credit. the CA held: WHEREFORE.A. 4(a) of R. 2001.00. 4(a) of R. the instant petition is hereby GRANTED and the decision of the CTA dated 24 April 2000 and its resolution dated 06 July 2000 are SET ASIDE. 5 Its literal meaning should be followed. Thus.A. 4. It concluded that the 20% discount given to senior citizens which is treated as a tax credit pursuant to Sec. SO ORDERED.7 The above provision explicitly employed the word "tax credit. 4(a) of R. No. . – The senior citizens shall be entitled to the following: (a) the grant of twenty percent (20%) discount from all establishments relative to utilization of transportations services. No. may be carried over to the next taxable period if there is no current tax liability. In view of this.6 to depart from the meaning expressed by the words is to alter the statute. Privileges for the Senior citizens.

the definition of ‘tax credit’ found in Section 2(1) of Revenue Regulations No. prior payment of any tax liability is not a precondition before a taxable entity can benefit from the tax credit.8 The law cannot be amended by a mere regulation. Sec. 4 of the law speaks only of a tax credit. a regulation that "operates to create a rule out of harmony with the statute is a mere nullity. The Decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-G. it means that the amount -. the tax credit benefit granted to the establishments can be deemed as their just compensation for private property taken by the State for public use. if any. alter or restrict the provisions of the law they administer. the petition is DENIED. The administrative agencies issuing these regulations may not enlarge. As a corollary to this. SO ORDERED. the 20% discount required by the Act to be given to senior citizens is a tax credit. In the same vein.R. 7432 because the former provision governs exclusively all kinds of refund or credit of internal revenue taxes that were erroneously or illegally imposed and collected pursuant to the Tax Code while the latter extends the tax credit benefit to the private establishments concerned even before tax payments have been made. for purposes of clarity. not a refund. when the law says that the cost of the discount may be claimed as a tax credit. dated May 31. Where there is no tax liability or where a private establishment reports a net loss for the period. The privilege enjoyed by the senior citizens does not come directly from the State. No pronouncement as to costs." This definition is contrary to what our lawmakers had envisioned with regard to the treatment of the discount granted to senior citizens. G. Accordingly. 4 of R. 159610 June 12.R. is AFFIRMED. 229 of the Tax Code wherein the remedy of refund is available to the taxpayer. not a remedy for taxes that were erroneously or illegally assessed and collected.when claimed – shall be treated as a reduction from any tax liability.12 WHEREFORE. No.Thus.9 In fact. SP No. 22911 of the Tax Code does not apply to cases that fall under Sec."10 Finally. the tax credit can be availed of and carried over to the next taxable year. As earlier mentioned. 2008 . The credit may be availed of upon payment of the tax due. 2001. Sec. 60057. The tax credit that is contemplated under the Act is a form of just compensation. but rather from the private establishments concerned. not a deduction from the gross sales of the establishment concerned. No. It must also be stressed that unlike in Sec.A. 2 -94 is erroneous as it refers to tax credit as the amount representing the 20% discount that "shall be deducted by the said establishment from their gross sales for value added tax and other percentage tax purposes.

Section 2(i) of RR 2-94 is without force and effect for being inconsistent with the law it seeks to implement. arising from the alleged erroneous interpretation of the term "tax credit" used in Section 4(a) of Republic Act No. alter or amend the clear mandate of RA 7432. respondent filed a Petition for Review with the CTA in order to toll the running of the two-year statutory period within which to file a judicial claim.R.5 In 1997.805. (RA) 7432.00.405. respondent filed with the petitioner a claim for refund or credit of overpaid income tax for the taxable year 1997 in the amount of P2. cannot modify."6 Pursuant to the provisions of RA 7432 and Revenue Regulations No.376. 11 . SP No. respondent filed its 1997 Corporate Annual Income Tax Return reflecting a nil income tax liability due to net loss incurred from business operations of P2. On 15 April 1998.63. J.798. a tax credit certificate in the amount of P2. in favor of Central Luzon Drug Corporation (respondent). This petition for review on certiorari1 assails the 13 August 2003 Decision2 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G. Consequently.: The Case REVENUE.829. On 6 April 2000. 9 On 19 March 1999. respondent.COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs.660.00. DECISION CARPIO. petitioner.10 Respondent alleged that the overpaid tax was the result of the wrongful implementation of RA 7432. The Court of Appeals dismissed the appeal filed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (petitioner) questioning the 15 April 2002 Decision 3 of the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) in CTA Case No.8 Respondent filed its 1997 Income Tax Return under protest. (RR) 2-947 issued by the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR).140.508. Respondent reasoned that RR 2-94. Respondent treated the 20% sales discount as a deduction from gross sales in compliance with RR 2-94 instead of treating it as a tax credit as provided under Section 4(a) of RA 7432. The sales discount granted to senior citizens totaled P2. CENTRAL LUZON DRUG CORPORATION. it operated eight drugstores under the business name and style "Mercury Drug. which is a mere implementing administrative regulation.4 The Facts Respondent is a domestic corporation engaged in the retail of medicines and other pharmaceutical products. respondent granted 20% sales discount to qualified senior citizens on their purchases of medicines covering the calendar year 1997. 70480.00. 6054 ordering petitioner to issue.

540. Net Add: 20% Sales Discount to Senior Citizens Sales.00 .913. An administrative regulation must not contravene but should conform to the standards that the law prescribes. lack of senior citizen's ID number.762.00 P179.607.742.00 P 393. the CTA ruled that RR 2-94 engraved a new meaning to the phrase "tax credit" as deductible from gross income which is a deviation from the plain intendment of the law. the BIR issued RR 2-94 and defined the term "tax credit" as a deduction from the establishment's gross income and not from its tax liability in order to avoid an absurdity that is not intended by the law.950.000. 12 The Ruling of the Court of Tax Appeals On 15 April 2002.281.00 249.541. Gross Less: Cost of Sales Merchandise inventory.00 16. between the Summary Report presented by respondent and the audited amount presented by the independent CPA.00 P 17.115. beg.00 402.376. However. The CTA stated that in a number of analogous cases.00 162. end -27.489.00 P 17. it has consistently ruled that the 20% senior citizens' discount should be treated as tax credit instead of a mere deduction from gross income.368. When RA 7432 allowed senior citizens' discounts to be claimed as tax credit. the CTA rendered a Decision ordering petitioner to issue a tax credit certificate in the amount ofP2.115. based on the examination conducted by the commissioned independent certified public accountant (CPA).439.00 P 642. it was silent as to the mechanics of availing the same.63 in favor of respondent. the CTA deemed it proper to consider the lesser of two amounts.905.556. The re-computation of the overpaid income tax15 for the year 1997 is as follows: Sales.387.124. petitioner stated that the construction given to a statute by a specialized administrative agency like the BIR is entitled to great respect and should be accorded great weight.508. P 20. Therefore.798.172.14 The CTA also ruled that respondent has properly substantiated its claim for tax credit by documentary evidence.154.00 Merchandise inventory.239.805. For clarification.00 2.00 Gross Profit Add: Miscellaneous income Total Income Less: Operating expenses Net Income Less: Income subjected to final tax (Interest Income16) Net Taxable Income P176.699.In his Answer. failure to include the cash slips in the summary report and vice versa.13 In quoting its previous decisions.00 Purchases 168. there were some material discrepancies due to missing cash slips.

Further.63) 0.805.484.376.Income Tax Due (35%) Less: Tax Credit (Cost of 20% discount as adjusted17) Income Tax Payable Income Tax Actually Paid Income Tax Refundable P 137. RA 7432 does not require prior tax payment as a condition for claiming the cost of the sales discount as tax credit. Whether the appellate court erred in holding that respondent may claim the 20% senior citizens' sales discount as a tax credit deductible from future income tax liabilities instead of a mere deduction from gross income or gross sales. petitioner elevated the case before the Court of Appeals. . Whether the appellate court erred in holding that respondent is entitled to a refund. plain. if the statute is clear. It reasoned that under the verba legis rule.376.679. and 2. this petition.514.63 (P 2. and free from ambiguity.00 2. The Ruling of the Appellate Court On 13 August 2003.805. The Court of Appeals stressed that Section 229 of the Tax Code pertains to illegally collected or erroneously paid taxes while RA 7432 is a special law which uses the method of tax credit in the context of just compensation. it must be given its literal meaning and applied without interpretation. Hence. the Court of Appeals affirmed the CTA's decision in toto. "A credit differs from deduction in that the former is subtracted from tax while the latter is subtracted from income before the tax is computed."19 The Court of Appeals found no legal basis to support petitioner's opinion that actual payment by the taxpayer or actual receipt by the government of the tax sought to be credited or refunded is a condition sine qua non for the availment of tax credit as enunciated in Section 22920 of the Tax Code.00 (P 2. This principle rests on the presumption that the words used by the legislature in a statute correctly express its intent and preclude the court from construing it differently.63) Aggrieved by the CTA's decision. The Court of Appeals disagreed with petitioner's contention that the CTA's decision applied a literal interpretation of the law. 18 The Court of Appeals distinguished "tax credit" as an amount subtracted from a taxpayer's total tax liability to arrive at the tax due while a "tax deduction" reduces the taxpayer's taxable income upon which the tax liability is computed. The Issues Petitioner raises two issues21 in this Petition: 1.

23 this Court has squarely ruled that the 20% senior citizens' discount required by RA 7432 may be claimed as a tax credit and not merely a tax deduction from gross sales or gross income. 2. circuses. Under RA 7432. 4. However. Recording/Bookkeeping Requirement for Private Establishments . concert halls.The senior citizens shall be entitled to the following: a) the grant of twenty percent (20%) discount from all establishments relative to the utilization of transportation services. drugstores. RA 7432 to claim the as tax credit. RR 2-94 interpreted the tax credit provision of RA 7432 in this wise: Sec. That private establishments may claim the cost as tax credit. DEFINITIONS. restaurants.refers to the amount representing 20% discount granted to a qualified senior citizenby all establishments relative to their utilization of transportation services. leisure and amusement. Tax Credit . tax liability. which discount shall be deducted by the said establishments from their gross income for income tax purposes and from their gross sales for value-added tax or other percentage tax purposes. hotels and similar lodging establishments. expressly allows amount of discounts they private grant to establishments senior citizens Section 4(a) of RA 7432 states: SECTION 4. the senior citizens' discount granted as a tax credit cannot be refunded. not a present. xxx Sec. cinema houses. restaurants and recreation centers and purchase of medicines anywhere in the country: Provided. carnivals and other similar places of culture. .For purposes of these regulations: xxx i. Privileges for the Senior Citizens. (Emphasis supplied) However. The net loss incurred in a taxable year does not preclude the grant of tax credit because by its nature.The Ruling of the Court The petition lacks merit. hotels and similar lodging establishments. the tax credit may still be deducted from a future. recreation centers. theaters. (Emphasis supplied). The issues presented are not novel. Congress granted the tax credit benefit to all covered establishments without conditions. . In two similar cases involving the same parties where respondent lodged its claim for tax credit on the senior citizens' discount granted in 1995 22 and 1996.

hence. the tax credit can be availed of and carried over to the next taxable year.26 the Court stressed that prior payment of tax liability is not a pre-condition before a taxable entity can avail of the tax credit. Since no tax payment was made. Congress has granted the tax credit benefit to all covered establishments without conditions. is indefensible. RR 2-94 treated the amount of senior citizens' discount as a tax deduction which is only a subtraction from gross income resulting to a lower taxable income. (Emphasis supplied) Tax credit is defined as a peso-for-peso reduction from a taxpayer's tax liability. it cannot engraft additional requirements not contemplated by the legislature. Therefore. "Where there is no tax liability or where a private establishment reports a net loss for the period.xxx The amount of 20% discount shall be deducted from the gross income for income tax purposesand from gross sales of the business enterprise concerned for purposes of the VAT and other percentage taxes. it did not pay any income tax. alter or restrict the provisions of the law it administers. Chapter VII of the National Internal Revenue Code. neither a tax liability nor a prior tax payment is required for the existence or grant of a tax credit. RR 2-94 treats the senior citizens' discount in the same manner as the allowable deductions provided in Section 34. still be deducted In the petition filed before this Court. To deny the tax credit. it means that the amount. In Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. it follows that no tax credit can also be claimed because tax credits are usually applied against a tax liability. tax liability.25 In Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. the Court declared. The tax credit may from a future. petitioner alleged that respondent incurred a net loss from its business operations in 1997. there being a dichotomy in the law and the revenue regulation. despite the plain mandate of the law.29 Hence. RR 2-94 affords merely a fractional reduction in the taxes payable to the government depending on the applicable tax rate." Hence. It is a direct subtraction from the tax payable to the government. The Court declared.376."When the law says that the cost of the discount may be claimed as a tax credit. respondent is entitled to claim the amount of P2. .63 as tax credit despite incurring net loss from business operations for the taxable year 1997." The Court further stated that the law cannot be amended by a mere regulation because "administrative agencies in issuing these regulations may not enlarge.when claimed ― shall be treated as a reduction from any tax liability.24 the Court ruled that petitioner's definition in RR 2-94 of a tax credit is clearly erroneous. Central Luzon Drug Corporation . not a present. Central Luzon Drug Corporation ."27 It is irrefutable that under RA 7432. On the other hand. In Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. plain and simple.805. the definition provided in Section 2(i) of RR 2-94 cannot be given effect. Central Luzon Drug Corporation. 28 The applicable law on this point is clear and without any qualifications.

" (Emphasis supplied) Contrary to the provision in RA 7432 where the senior citizens' discount granted by all covered establishments can be claimed as tax credit. (f). . Privileges for the Senior Citizens. and purchase of medicines in all establishments for the exclusive use or enjoyment of senior citizens. That the total amount of the claimed tax deduction net of value added tax if applicable.30 RA 9257 now specifically provides that all may claim the senior citizens' discount as tax deduction. Provided. as amended. covered establishments On 26 February 2004. 4. can be encashed.further. Section 4(a) of RA 9257 reads: "Sec. plain. That the cost of the discount shall be allowed as deduction from gross income for the same taxable year that the discount is granted. it must be given its literal meaning and applied without any interpretation.The senior citizens shall be entitled to the following: (a) the grant of twenty percent (20%) discount from all establishments relative to the utilization of services in hotels and similar lodging establishments. A tax credit can only be utilized as payment for future internal revenue tax liabilities of the taxpayer while a tax refund. otherwise known as the "Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2003. restaurants and recreation centers. including funeral and burial services for the death of senior citizens. .The senior citizens' as a tax credit and not a refund. and free of ambiguity." was signed into law and became effective on 21 March 2004. RA 9257 now specifically provides that this discount should be treated as tax deduction. A tax refund can be availed of immediately while a tax credit can only be utilized if the taxpayer has existing or future tax liabilities. (g) and (h) as tax deductionbased on the net cost of the goods sold or services rendered: Provided. If the words of the law are clear. shall be included in their gross sales receipts for tax purposes and shall be subject to proper documentation and to the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code. xxx The establishment may claim the discounts granted under (a). Hence. RA 9257. issued as a check or a warrant.31 RA 9257 has amended RA 7432. the senior citizens' discount may be claimed as a tax credit and not as a refund. discount may be claimed Section 4(a) of RA 7432 expressly provides that private establishments may claim the cost as a tax credit.

R.: This is a petition1 for Prohibition with Prayer for Preliminary Injunction assailing the constitutionality of Section 4(a) of Republic Act (R. No pronouncement as to costs. 2007 CARLOS SUPERDRUG CORP. and prosecute and revoke the licenses of erring drugstore establishments.. there is now a new tax treatment for senior citizens' discount granted by all covered establishments. WHEREFORE. vs. doing business under the name and style "Leyte Serv-Well Drugstore. the Department of Justice (DOJ). J. SO ORDERED. DELA SERNA.R. doing business under the name and style "Advance Drug.With the effectivity of RA 9257 on 21 March 2004. doing business under the name and style "Carlos Superdrug. No.) No.2 otherwise known as the "Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2003. 70480..." petitioners. SIMPLICIO L. 166494 June 29. doing business under the name and style "City Pharmacy. The antecedents are as follows: . DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH (DOH). respondents. the Department of Finance (DOF)." ELSIE M. This discount should be considered as a deductible expense from gross income and no longer as tax credit. we DENY the petition.32 The present case. RA 7432. covers the taxable year 1997 and is thus governed by the old law." MELVIN S. include the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). 9257. Public respondents. the Department of Health (DOH). SP No. We AFFIRM the assailed Decision of the Court of Appeals dated 13 August 2003 in CA-G. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ). promulgate the implementing rules and regulations for the effective implementation of the law. JR. and the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) which have been specifically tasked to monitor the drugstores’ compliance with the law. on the other hand. YAP. doing business under the name and style "Botica dela Serna." Petitioners are domestic corporations and proprietors operating drugstores in the Philippines. and DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR and LOCAL GOVERNMENT (DILG). DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE and DEVELOPMENT (DSWD)." Dr.A. CANO. however. DECISION AZCUNA." and LEYTE SERV-WELL CORP. DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE (DOF). G.

Provided. 7432.A. including funeral and burial services for the death of senior citizens.5 Section 9. Medical and Dental Services in Private Facilities[. – The establishment may claim the discounts granted under Rule V. clarified as follows: 1) The difference between the Tax Credit (under the Old Senior Citizens Act) and Tax Deduction (under the Expanded Senior Citizens Act). amending R.1. Provided. The establishment may claim the discounts granted under (a). finally. and purchase of medicines in all establishments for the exclusive use or enjoyment of senior citizens. in reference to the query of the Drug Stores Association of the Philippines (DSAP) concerning the meaning of a tax deduction under the Expanded Senior Citizens Act. No. Provided. 4. further. ..]6 and Sections 107 and 118 – Air. further. 2004. No. Privileges for the Senior Citizens. as amended. Sea and Land Transportation as tax deduction based on the net cost of the goods sold or services rendered. Tax Deduction of Establishments. 9257.A.9 On July 10. That the cost of the discount shall be allowed as deduction from gross income for the same taxable year that the discount is granted. shall be included in their gross sales receipts for tax purposes and shall be subject to proper documentation and to the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code.On February 26. the DSWD approved and adopted the Implementing Rules and Regulations of R. the DOF. That the total amount of the claimed tax deduction net of value added tax if applicable. 2004. 9257. through Director IV Ma. R. No. restaurants and recreation centers. 7432 (the old Senior Citizens Act) grants twenty percent (20%) discount from all establishments relative to the utilization of transportation .A. (g) and (h) as tax deduction based on the net cost of the goods sold or services rendered: Provided. as amended.4 On May 28.. that the implementation of the tax deduction shall be subject to the Revenue Regulations to be issued by the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) and approved by the Department of Finance (DOF). shall be included in their gross sales receipts for tax purposes and shall be subject to proper documentation and to the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code. 1. That the cost of the discount shall be allowed as deduction from gross income for the same taxable year that the discount is granted. No. 3 was signed into law by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and it became effective on March 21. (f). 2004.A. Rule VI. That the total amount of the claimed tax deduction net of value added tax if applicable. – The senior citizens shall be entitled to the following: (a) the grant of twenty percent (20%) discount from all establishments relative to the utilization of services in hotels and similar lodging establishments. Provided. Recente. Section 4 – Discounts for Establishments. Lourdes B. The provision of Section 4 of R. Section 4(a) of the Act states: SEC. Article 8 of which states: Article 8. 2004.

It may be necessary to note that while the burden on [the] government is slightly diminished in terms of its percentage share on the discounts granted to senior citizens. provides that the establishment concerned may claim the discounts under Section 4(a). been broadened. Under this scheme. therefore. based on the net cost of goods sold or services rendered. Effectively. It must be noted. No. 9257. more establishments were added under the new law such as: establishments providing medical and dental services. The tax credit scheme under R. 1. the establishment concerned is allowed to deduct from gross income. on the other hand. as follows: Tax Deduction Tax Credit Gross Sales x x x x x x x x x x x x Less : Cost of goods sold x x x x x x x x x x Net Sales x x x x x x x x x x x x Less: Operating Expenses: . A simple illustration might help amplify the points discussed above. that conceptually. The establishment recovers the full amount of discount given to a senior citizen and hence. including professional fees of attending doctors in all private hospitals and medical facilities. hotels and similar lodging establishment. the government loses in terms of foregone revenues an amount equivalent to the marginal tax rate the said establishment is liable to pay the government. (f). This will be an amount equivalent to 32% of the twenty percent (20%) discounts so granted. restaurants and recreation centers and purchase of medicines anywhere in the country. (g) and (h) as tax deduction from gross income. a tax credit is a peso-for-peso deduction from a taxpayer’s tax liability due to the government of the amount of discounts such establishment has granted to a senior citizen. have however. the amount of discounts granted to senior citizens. inapplicable since no tax payments have previously occurred. public railways and skyways and bus transport services. Aside from the establishments that may claim tax credits under the old law. operators of domestic air and sea transport services. The establishment shoulders the remaining portion of the granted discounts. No.2. necessitates that prior payments of taxes have been made and the taxpayer is attempting to recover this tax payment from his/her income tax due. 7432 is. diagnostic and laboratory services. Effectively. however. The provision under R. the number of potential establishments that may claim tax deductions.A. the government shoulders 100% of the discounts granted. the costs of which may be claimed by the private establishments concerned as tax credit. a tax credit scheme under the Philippine tax system.A. in computing for its tax liability.services.

x x As shown above."14 . health and other social services available to all people at affordable cost. 1) enshrined in our Constitution which states that "no person shall be deprived of life. under a tax credit scheme. Sec. III. 177. the DOH issued Administrative Order No 17712 amending A. was deducted directly from the tax due amount." Petitioners assail the constitutionality of Section 4(a) of the Expanded Senior Citizens Act based on the following grounds:13 1) The law is confiscatory because it infringes Art. nor shall any person be denied of the equal protection of the laws. the tax deduction on discounts was subtracted from Net Sales together with other deductions which are considered as operating expenses before the Tax Due was computed based on the Net Taxable Income. 2) It violates the equal protection clause (Art." and 3) The 20% discount on medicines violates the constitutional guarantee in Article XIII.10 Meanwhile. Administrative Order (A. providing the grant of twenty percent (20%) discount in the purchase of unbranded generic medicines from all establishments dispensing medicines for the exclusive use of the senior citizens. otherwise known as the "Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2003"11was issued by the DOH. 171 or the Policies and Guidelines to Implement the Relevant Provisions of Republic Act 9257.______x x Net Tax Due -. it stated that "[t]he grant of twenty percent (20%) discount shall be provided in the purchase of medicines from all establishments dispensing medicines for the exclusive use of the senior citizens. No.O. 2004.) No. 171. Thus.O. Section 11 that makes "essential goods. on October 1. 2004. On November 12.O. Under A.Tax Deduction on Discounts x x x x -Other deductions: x x x x x x x x Net Taxable Income x x x x x x x x x x Tax Due x x x x x x Less: Tax Credit -. but shall extend to both prescription and non-prescription medicines whether branded or generic. liberty or property without due process of law. On the other hand. Sec. under a tax deduction scheme. No. the twenty percent discount shall not be limited to the purchase of unbranded generic medicines only. 9 of the Constitution which provides that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. III. the amount of discounts which is the tax credit item.

in promoting the health and welfare of a special group of citizens. substantial. and 2) the law failed to provide a scheme whereby drugstores will be justly compensated for the discount. and to grant benefits and privileges to them for their improvement and wellbeing as the State considers them an integral part of our society.19 Having said that. were it not for R. it is an amount that is allowed by law15 to reduce the income prior to the application of the tax rate to compute the amount of tax which is due. and to convey the idea that the equivalent to be rendered for the property to be taken shall be real. a tax-deductible expense that is subtracted from the gross income and results in a lower taxable income. The permanent reduction in their total revenues is a forced subsidy corresponding to the taking of private property for public use or benefit. Theoretically. Compelling drugstore owners and establishments to grant the discount will result in a loss of profit and capital because 1) drugstores impose a mark-up of only 5% to 10% on branded medicines. the tax deduction scheme does not fully reimburse petitioners for the discount privilege accorded to senior citizens. 9257. The Court believes so. the treatment of the discount as a deduction reduces the net income of the private establishments concerned. The Senior Citizens Act was enacted primarily to maximize the contribution of senior citizens to nation-building. The discounts given would have entered the coffers and formed part of the gross sales of the private establishments.Petitioners assert that Section 4(a) of the law is unconstitutional because it constitutes deprivation of private property. it is apparent that what petitioners are ultimately questi oning is the validity of the tax deduction scheme as a reimbursement mechanism for the twenty percent (20%) discount that they extend to senior citizens. the discount does not reduce taxes owed on a peso for peso basis but merely offers a fractional reduction in taxes owed. it would not meet the definition of just compensation. can impose upon private establishments the burden of partly subsidizing a government program.20 . Based on the afore-stated DOF Opinion.A. full and ample. The measure is not the taker’s gain but the owner’s loss. this raises the question of whether the State. No.16 Being a tax deduction.17 This constitutes compensable taking for which petitioners would ordinarily become entitled to a just compensation. Just compensation is defined as the full and fair equivalent of the property taken from its owner by the expropriator. Examining petitioners’ arguments. As such. The word just is used to intensify the meaning of the word compensation. This is because the discount is treated as a deduction.18 A tax deduction does not offer full reimbursement of the senior citizen discount. Stated otherwise.

7432 is hereby amended to read as follows: SECTION 1. property rights must bow to the primacy of police power because property rights. not repugnant to the constitution."23 It is "[t]he power vested in the legislature by the constitution to make. and diagnostic and laboratory fees. extending as it does to all the great public needs. Section 4 of the Constitution." Further. as they shall judge to be for the good and welfare of the commonwealth. women and children." 24 For this reason. leisure and amusement. circuses. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged sick.. Section 11. fares for domestic land. utilization of services in hotels and similar lodging establishments. In addition to this. carnivals. restaurants and recreation centers. it is the duty of the family to take care of its elderly members while the State may design programs of social security for them. thus assuring the greatest benefits. and of the subjects of the same. admission fees charged by theaters. and ordinances. (f) To recognize the important role of the private sector in the improvement of the welfare of senior citizens and to actively seek their partnership. ordain. must yield to general welfare. has general welfare for its object. and other similar places of culture. similar to the power of eminent domain. Republic Act No. the law grants a twenty percent discount to senior citizens for medical and dental services. Declaration of Policies and Objectives. elderly. disabled. 22 Accordingly." Consonant with these constitutional principles the following are the declared policies of this Act: . Thus. the law provides that business establishments extending the twenty percent discount to senior citizens may claim the discount as a tax deduction.25 . As a form of reimbursement. 2. Article XIII. air and sea travel. health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. Police power is not capable of an exact definition. provides: "The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods. it has been described as "the most essential. though sheltered by due process. the Act provides: SEC. either with penalties or without. Section 10 in the Declaration of Principles and State Policies provides: "The State shall provide social justice in all phases of national development. statutes. but has been purposely veiled in general terms to underscore its comprehensiveness to meet all exigencies and provide enough room for an efficient and flexible response to conditions and circumstances.. The law is a legitimate exercise of police power which. – Pursuant to Article XV. insistent and the least limitable of powers. concert halls. and purchases of medicines for the exclusive use or enjoyment of senior citizens. when the conditions so demand as determined by the legislature. and establish all manner of wholesome and reasonable laws.The priority given to senior citizens finds its basis in the Constitution as set forth in the law itself.21 To implement the above policy.

68 will be shouldered by them as only P0. To illustrate this point. In short.53 per tablet will be refunded and not the full amount of the discount which is P7. it is incorrect for petitioners to insist that the grant of the senior citizen discount is unduly oppressive to their business. 27 In treating the discount as a tax deduction. there is no basis for its nullification in view of the presumption of validity which every law has in its favor. petitioners cannot substantiate their claim that they will be operating at a loss should they give the discount. Furthermore. showing an accounting of petitioners’ sales.60 (or at a margin of 5%). in the absence of evidence demonstrating the alleged confiscatory effect of the provision in question.68 which translates to a loss from capital of P5. and net profit (or loss) for a given period could have accurately reflected the effect of the discount on their income. petitioners tried to show a loss on a per transaction basis. Lastly. For purposes of reimbursement.Police power as an attribute to promote the common good would be diluted considerably if on the mere plea of petitioners that they will suffer loss of earnings and capital. According to the latter. referring to the DOF Opinion.57 per tablet. the law states that the cost of the discount shall be deducted from gross income. petitioners cannot reproach the law for being oppressive. expenses. An income statement. petitioners . only P2. only 32% of the 20% discount will be reimbursed to the drugstores. which should not be the case. Here. the computation was erroneously based on the assumption that their customers consisted wholly of senior citizens.89 per tablet.32 will be refunded by the government by way of a tax deduction. In addition. Moreover. it is unfair for petitioners to criticize the law because they cannot raise the prices of their medicines given the cutthroat nature of the players in the industry. so that they have not been able to show properly whether or not the tax deduction scheme really works greatly to their disadvantage.00 senior citizen discount that petitioners would give. the 32% tax rate is to be imposed on income. because petitioners have not taken time to calculate correctly and come up with a financial report. petitioner Carlos Super Drug cited the anti-hypertensive maintenance drug Norvasc as an example. simply because they cannot afford to raise their prices for fear of losing their customers to competition. petitioners insist that they will incur losses because.29 the amount of income derived from all sources before deducting allowable expenses. Selling the medicines below acquisition cost. The Court is not oblivious of the retail side of the pharmaceutical industry and the competitive pricing component of the business. is merely a result of this decision. and retails it atP39. Inasmuch as pricing is a property right. it acquires Norvasc from the distributors at P37.92. which will result in net income.92. It is a business decision on the part of petitioners to peg the mark-up at 5%. Absent any financial statement.28 Petitioners’ computation is flawed. as alleged by petitioners. P0. for every P1. the questioned provision is invalidated. not on the amount of the discount. then it would have to sell Norvasc at P31. While the Constitution protects property rights.26 Given these. If it grants a 20% discount to senior citizens or an amount equivalent to P7. Even if the government will allow a tax deduction.

and Assessment Notice No. FAS-1-86-90-000681 for deficiency expanded withholding tax in the amount of P4. can intervene in the operations of a business which may result in an impairment of property rights in the process. The facts show that on February 23.86. the petition is DISMISSED for lack of merit. While Article XIII of the Constitution provides the precept for the protection of property.30 Undeniably.196.R. received from the BIR Assessment Notice No. Petitioner. No. both for the taxable year 1986. inclusive of surcharges and interest. particularly on agrarian reform and the regulation of contracts and public utilities. various laws and jurisprudence. 1990. SO ORDERED. J.R. 2005 Decision1 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G. . in order to achieve the purpose or objective of the law. Without sufficient proof that Section 4(a) of R. G. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs. in the exercise of police power. 172231 February 12. 2007 REVENUE. DECISION YNARES-SANTIAGO. 2003 Decision2 of the Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) in CTA Case No. is reasonably and directly related. SP No.79. No costs. 78426 affirming the February 26. FAS-1-86-90-000680 for deficiency income tax in the amount of P333. No. continuously serve as a reminder that the right to property can be relinquished upon the command of the State for the promotion of public good.: Petitioner Commissioner of Internal Revenue (CIR) assails the September 30.31 WHEREFORE. Respondent. a domestic corporation. which cancelled and set aside the Assessment Notices for deficiency income tax and expanded withholding tax issued by the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) against respondent Isabela Cultural Corporation (ICC).A.897. ISABELA CULTURAL CORPORATION. Moreover. and that the continued implementation of the same would be unconscionably detrimental to petitioners.must accept the realities of business and the State. the right to property has a social dimension. This being the case. 9257 is arbitrary. 5211. the success of the senior citizens program rests largely on the support imparted by petitioners and the other private establishments concerned. the means employed in invoking the active participation of the private sector. the Court will refrain from quashing a legislative act. ICC.

Hence. The CTA also held that ICC did not understate its interest income on the subject promissory notes. 2003.86.3 for the year ending December 31. the CTA rendered a decision canceling and setting aside the assessment notices issued against ICC. The deficiency expanded withholding tax of P4. This conclusion was sustained by this Court on July 1. that would justify the application of compounded interest. in G. ICC sought a reconsideration of the subject assessments.The deficiency income tax of P333. Inc. like delay in payment or breach of contract.00 deduction for security services.890. 1990. This was reversed by the Court of Appeals holding that a demand letter of the BIR reiterating the payment of deficiency tax. 1985.. arose from: (1) The BIR’s disallowance of ICC’s claimed expense deductions for professional and security services billed to and paid by ICC in 1986. It held that the claimed deductions for professional and security services were properly claimed by ICC in 1986 because it was only in the said year when the bills demanding payment were sent to ICC. it brought the case to the CTA which held that the petition is premature because the final notice of assessment cannot be considered as a final decision appealable to the tax court. Hence. . It found that it was the BIR which made an overstatement of said income when it compounded the interest income receivable by ICC from the promissory notes of Realty Investment. it received a final notice before seizure demanding payment of the amounts stated in the said notices. No. even if some of these professional services were rendered to ICC in 1984 or 1985. despite the absence of a stipulation in the contract providing for a compounded interest. 2001. nor of a circumstance. 1995. to wit: (a) Expenses for the auditing services of SGV & Co. 7 On March 23. On February 26.196. amounts to a final decision on the protested assessment and may therefore be questioned before the CTA. On February 9.79 (inclusive of interest and surcharge) was allegedly due to the failure of ICC to withhold 1% expanded withholding tax on its claimed P244.6 (2) The alleged understatement of ICC’s interest income on the three promissory notes due from Realty Investment..8 The case was thus remanded to the CTA for further proceedings.5 (c) Expense for security services of El Tigre Security & Investigation Agency for the months of April and May 1986.897. it could not declare the same as deduction for the said years as the amount thereof could not be determined at that time. however.4 (b) Expenses for the legal services [inclusive of retainer fees] of the law firm Bengzon Zarraga Narciso Cudala Pecson Azcuna & Bengson for the years 1984 and 1985. Inc. 135210.R.

are: (a) the expense must be ordinary and necessary. dependent upon the method of accounting upon the basis of which the net income is computed x x x". petitioner invoked the presumption that the assessment notices issued by the BIR are valid. or professional expenses. business. are hereby CANCELLED and SET ASIDE. which affirmed the CTA decision. As to the alleged deficiency interest income and failure to withhold expanded withholding tax assessment. SO ORDERED.Likewise. Inc.. The issue for resolution is whether the Court of Appeals correctly: (1) sustained the deduction of the expenses for professional and security services from ICC’s gross income. hence.11 The requisite that it must have been paid or incurred during the taxable year is further qualified by Section 45 of the National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC) which states that: "[t]he deduction provided for in this Title shall be taken for the taxable year in which ‘paid or accrued’ or ‘paid or incurred’. (c) it must have been paid or incurred in carrying on the trade or business of the taxpayer. the CTA found that ICC in fact withheld 1% expanded withholding tax on its claimed deduction for security services as shown by the various payment orders and confirmation receipts it presented as evidence. and that ICC withheld the required 1% withholding tax from the deductions for security services. records or other pertinent papers.897. in view of all the foregoing. FAS-1-86-90-000680 for deficiency income tax in the amount of P333. inclusive of surcharges and interest. the cost of the services was not yet determinable at that time. . both for the taxable year 1986.196. and (d) it must be supported by receipts.86. petitioner. (b) it must have been paid or incurred during the taxable year.79. and (2) held that ICC did not understate its interest income from the promissory notes of Realty Investment. Hence. the expenses for the professional services that accrued in 1984 and 1985.10 holding that although the professional services (legal and auditing services) were rendered to ICC in 1984 and 1985. through the Office of the Solicitor General. The requisites for the deductibility of ordinary and necessary trade. FAS-1-8690-000681 for deficiency expanded withholding tax in the amount of P4. The dispositive portion of the CTA’s Decision. It further ruled that ICC did not understate its interest income from the promissory notes of Realty Investment. reads: WHEREFORE. Inc. and Assessment Notice No. should have been declared as deductions from income during the said years and the failure of ICC to do so bars it from claiming said expenses as deduction for the taxable year 1986. filed the instant petition contending that since ICC is using the accrual method of accounting. like expenses paid for legal and auditing services. and that ICC properly withheld and remitted taxes on the payments for security services for the taxable year 1986. Assessment Notice No. it could be considered as deductible expenses only in 1986 when ICC received the billing statements for said services.9 Petitioner filed a petition for review with the Court of Appeals.

and the amount of such income or liability be determined with reasonable accuracy.17 Corollarily. or could reasonably be expected to have known. within the taxable year. only that a taxpayer has at his disposal the information necessary to compute the amount with reasonable accuracy. a taxpayer who is authorized to deduct certain expenses and other allowable deductions for the current year but failed to do so cannot deduct the same for the next year. The all-events test is satisfied where computation remains uncertain. at the closing of its books for the taxable year.Accounting methods for tax purposes comprise a set of rules for determining when and how to report income and deductions. if its basis is unchangeable. then it must also be strictly construed. which characterizes the cash method of accounting. 13 The accrual method relies upon the taxpayer’s right to receive amounts or its obligation to pay them. in opposition to actual receipt or payment. liabilities are accrued when fixed and determinable in amount. the determinative question is. 1-2000. Revenue Audit Memorandum Order No. when do the facts present themselves in such a manner that the taxpayer must recognize income or expense? The accrual of income and expense is permitted when the all-events test has been met. the term "reasonable accuracy" implies something less than an exact or completely accurate amount. where there is created an enforceable liability. without regard to indeterminacy merely of time of payment." Accordingly. but is not as much as unknowable. and (2) the availability of the reasonable accurate determination of such income or liability. and one who claims an exemption must be able to justify the same by the clearest grant of organic or statute law. Amounts of income accrue where the right to receive them become fixed. such that the taxpayer bears the burden of proof of establishing the accrual of an item of income or deduction. Similarly. the accounting method used by ICC is the accrual method. it must be determined with "reasonable accuracy.18 . it is a governing principle in taxation that tax exemptions must be construed in strictissimi juris against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the taxing authority. Thus. the test does not demand that the amount of income or liability be known absolutely. And since a deduction for income tax purposes partakes of the nature of a tax exemption. The amount of liability does not have to be determined exactly. An exemption from the common burden cannot be permitted to exist upon vague implications. However. provides that under the accrual method of accounting.14 For a taxpayer using the accrual method.[15] The propriety of an accrual must be judged by the facts that a taxpayer knew.[16] Accrual method of accounting presents largely a question of fact. This test requires: (1) fixing of a right to income or liability to pay. the test is satisfied where a computation may be unknown. The all-events test requires the right to income or liability be fixed. expenses not being claimed as deductions by a taxpayer in the current year when they are incurred cannot be claimed as deduction from income for the succeeding year.12 In the instant case.

per Revenue Audit Memorandum Order No. For one. and for reimbursement of the expenses of said firm in connection with ICC’s tax problems for the year 1984. ICC can be expected to have reasonably known the retainer fees charged by the firm as well as the compensation for its legal services. However." as the standard to ascertain its liability to SGV & Co. we sustain the findings of the CTA and the Court of Appeals that no such understatement exists and that only simple interest computation and not a compounded one should have been applied by the BIR.In the instant case. Hence. ICC thus failed to discharge the burden of proving that the claimed expense deductions for the professional services were allowable deductions for the taxable year 1986. the expenses for professional fees consist of expenses for legal and auditing services. ICC. the records show that these expenses were incurred by ICC in 198620and could therefore be properly claimed as deductions for the said year. the accrual method presents largely a question of fact and that the taxpayer bears the burden of establishing the accrual of an expense or income. As to the expenses for security services. the professional fees of SGV & Co. In the same vein. It simply relied on the defense of delayed billing by the firm and the company. As previously stated. which under the circumstances. it cannot determine the professional fees which said company would charge for its services. This is so because ICC failed to present evidence showing that even with only "reasonable accuracy. in the year 1985. For another. ICC failed to discharge this burden. or whether ICC exercised reasonable diligence to inquire about the amount of its liability.19 From the nature of the claimed deductions and the span of time during which the firm was retained.21 Under Article 1959 of the Civil Code.. especially so that it is using the accrual method of accounting. for auditing the financial statements of ICC for the year 1985 cannot be validly claimed as expense deductions in 1986. As to when the firm’s performance of its services in connection with the 1984 tax problems were completed. or whether it does or does not possess the information necessary to compute the amount of said liability with reasonable accuracy. unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. . The failure to determine the exact amount of the expense during the taxable year when they could have been claimed as deductions cannot thus be attributed solely to the delayed billing of these liabilities by the firm. they cannot be validly deducted from its gross income for the said year and were therefore properly disallowed by the BIR. is not sufficient to exempt it from being charged with knowledge of the reasonable amount of the expenses for legal and auditing services. it could have reasonably determined the amount of legal and retainer fees owing to its familiarity with the rates charged by their long time legal consultant. in the exercise of due diligence could have inquired into the amount of their obligation to the firm. the firm has been its counsel since the 1960’s. are questions of fact which ICC never established. The expenses for legal services pertain to the 1984 and 1985 legal and retainer fees of the law firm Bengzon Zarraga Narciso Cudala Pecson Azcuna & Bengson. Anent the purported understatement of interest income from the promissory notes of Realty Investment. 1-2000. Inc. There is indeed no stipulation between the latter and ICC on the application of compounded interest. As testified by the Treasurer of ICC. interest due should not further earn interest.

are concerned." On May 31. on June 14. is sustained.246 for media advertising for "Tang. No. 78426. SO ORDERED.R.). CORONA. The case is remanded to the BIR for the computation of Isabela Cultural Corporation’s liability under Assessment Notice No. respondent corporation.). INC. In said tax return. G. FAS-1-86-90-000681 in the amount of P4. 1985.: Petitioner Commissioner of Internal Revenue (Commissioner) assails the resolution 1 of the Court of Appeals reversing the decision2 of the Court of Tax Appeals which in turn denied the protest filed by respondent General Foods (Phils. The decision is affirmed in all other respects." "Calumet" and "Kool-Aid. 1988. 22 Hence. 1985. SP No. the Commissioner disallowed 50% or P4. The Court of Appeal’s cancellation of Assessment Notice No. The records reveal that.Likewise. respondent. is AFFIRMED with the MODIFICATION that Assessment Notice No. FAS-1-86-90-000680. GENERAL FOODS (PHILS. 2005 Decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-G. WHEREFORE. petitioner. In sum. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL vs.." filed its income tax return for the fiscal year ending February 28. respondent corporation was assessed deficiency . which is engaged in the manufacture of beverages such as "Tang.623 of the deduction claimed by respondent corporation. the Assessment Notice for deficiency expanded withholding tax was properly cancelled and set aside. Said Assessment is valid as to the BIR’s disallowance of ICC’s expenses for professional services. Inc. 2003 REVENUE. Consequently. the findings of the CTA and the Court of Appeals that ICC truly withheld the required withholding tax from its claimed deductions for security services and remitted the same to the BIR is supported by payment order and confirmation receipts. the petition is PARTIALLY GRANTED.R.79 for deficiency expanded withholding tax. The September 30.897. respondent corporation claimed as deduction. Bengzon Zarraga Narciso Cudala Pecson Azcuna & Bengson. is declared valid only insofar as the expenses for the professional fees of SGV & Co.86 for deficiency income tax should be cancelled and set aside but only insofar as the claimed deductions of ICC for security services. regarding the assessment made against the latter for deficiency taxes.196. and of the law firm. 143672 April 24. FAS-1-86-90-000680 in the amount of P333. Assessment Notice No..461. J. among other business expenses.730. which disallowed the expense deduction of Isabela Cultural Corporation for professional and security services. FAS-1-86-90-000680. the amount of P9.

WHEREFORE. the Decision. vs. SO ORDERED.635. App. the same should be allowed. 556 citing Douhart vs. 1989. 18. We are not convinced with such an explanation. Helvering. 294)." The term "good will" can hardly be said to have any precise signification. Hence.4 . 86 III. The latter filed a motion for reconsideration but the same was denied. respondent corporation filed a petition for review at the Court of Appeals which rendered a decision reversing and setting aside the decision of the Court of Tax Appeals: Since it has not been sufficiently established that the item it claimed as a deduction is excessive. citing Colonial Ice Cream Co. WHEREFORE. the petition of petitioner General Foods (Philippines). p. strong deterioration of the purchasing power of the Philippine peso and the slacking demand for consumer products" (Petitioner’s Memorandum. "abnormally large expenditures for advertising are usually to be spread over the period of years during which the benefits of the expenditures are received" (Mertens. Loagan. expenses related thereto are not business expenses but capital expenditures. which even excludes "other advertising and promotions" expenses. Commissioner of Internal Revenue . For sure such expenditure was meant not only to generate present sales but more for future and prospective benefits. and finding no error in the case appealed from.income taxes in the amount of P2. in all the foregoing. 1985. dated 8 February 1994 of respondent Court of Tax Appeals is REVERSED and SET ASIDE and the letter. efforts to establish reputation are akin to acquisition of capital assets and. The staggering expense led us to believe that such expenditure was incurred "to create or maintain some form of good will for the taxpayer ’s trade or business or for the industry or profession of which the taxpayer is a member. supra)."3 Aggrieved. we hereby RESOLVE to DISMISS the instant petition for lack of merit and ORDER the Petitioner to pay the respondent Commissioner the assessed amount of P2. 141. 273). 7 BTA 154). Accordingly. Vol.635. supra. Inc. CTA Records. dated 31 May 1988 of respondent Commissioner of Internal Revenue is CANCELLED.141. respondent corporation appealed to the Court of Tax Appeals but the appeal was dismissed: With such a gargantuan expense for the advertisement of a singular product. we are not prepared to accept that such amount is reasonable "to stimulate the current sale of merchandise" regardless of Petitioner’s explanation that such expense "does not connote unreasonableness considering the grave economic situation taking place after the Aquino assassination characterized by capital fight. As held in the case of Welch vs.42 representing its deficiency income tax liability for the fiscal year ended February 28. (Atlas Mining and Development Corp. it is generally used to denote the benefit arising from connection and reputation (Words and Phrases. therefore.42. On September 29. is hereby GRANTED. p..

jurisprudence: first. an advertising expense should not only be necessary but also ordinary. to be deductible from gross income.(1) Ordinary and necessary trade. the instant petition.S. (c) it must have been paid or incurred in carrying on the trade or business of the taxpayer. It is a governing principle in taxation that tax exemptions must be construed in strictissimi juris against the taxpayer and liberally in favor of the taxing authority. records or other pertinent papers. However.7 The parties are in agreement that the subject advertising expense was paid or incurred within the corresponding taxable year and was incurred in carrying on a trade or business. The Commissioner maintains that the subject advertising expense was not ordinary on the ground that it failed the two conditions set by U. (b) it must have been paid or incurred during the taxable year. wherein the Commissioner presents for the Court’s consideration a lone issue: whether or not the subject media advertising expense for "Tang" incurred by respondent corporation was an ordinary and necessary expense fully deductible under the National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC). the development. 1985 "necessary and ordinary. of the NIRC provides: (A) Expenses. To be deductible. hence.. their views conflict as to whether or not it was ordinary. fully deductible under the NIRC? Or was it a capital expenditure. the amount incurred must not be a capital outlay to create ." hence.(a) In general. Simply put. which should have been amortized over a reasonable period? Section 34 (A) (1). 5 and he who claims an exemption must be able to justify his claim by the clearest grant of organic or statute law. We then proceed to resolve the singular issue in the case at bar. formerly Section 29 (a) (1) (A). An exemption from the common burden cannot be permitted to exist upon vague implications. Was the media advertising expense for "Tang" paid or incurred by respondent corporation for the fiscal year ending February 28. business or professional expenses. "reasonableness" of the amount incurred and second.Thus. These two requirements must be met.6 Deductions for income tax purposes partake of the nature of tax exemptions. operation and/or conduct of the trade. paid in order to create "goodwill and reputation" for respondent corporation and/or its products. or which are directly attributable to.There shall be allowed as deduction from gross income all ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on. the subject advertising expense must comply with the following requisites: (a) the expense must be ordinary and necessary. business or exercise of a profession. if tax exemptions are strictly construed. management. and (d) it must be supported by receipts. then deductions must also be strictly construed. it was necessary. Hence.

except as to the question of the reasonableness of amount. the subject P9. respondentcorporation also claimed P2."goodwill" for the product and/or private respondent’s business. Advertising is generally of two kinds: (1) advertising to stimulate the current sale of merchandise or use of services and (2) advertising designed to stimulate the future sale of merchandise or use of services. for consumer promotion. the expenditures are for advertising of the second kind. Not only was the amount staggering.246 media advertising expense for "Tang" was almost double the amount of respondent corporation’s P4. a critical point during the period under review. in its letter protest8 to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue’s assessment. There is yet to be a clear-cut criteria or fixed test for determining the reasonableness of an advertising expense. to create or maintain some form of goodwill for the taxpayer’s trade or business or for the industry or profession of which the taxpayer is a member. that the subject media expense was incurred in order to protect respondent corporation’s brand franchise.461. the expense must be considered a capital expenditure to be spread out over a reasonable time. among other factors and properly weighed. the nature of the expenditure itself. The second type involves expenditures incurred. it cannot be considered an ordinary expense deductible under then Section 29 (a) (1) (A) of the NIRC. Therefore. We agree with the Court of Tax Appeals that the subject advertising expense was of the second kind. This is a capital expenditure which should be spread out over a reasonable period of time. the intention of the taxpayer and the general economic conditions." Aside from that. there is no doubt such expenditures are deductible as business expenses.9 . even if it is necessary.246 claimed as media advertising expense for "Tang" alone was almost one-half of its total claim for "marketing expenses.640.678. It is the interplay of these. that will yield a proper evaluation. There being no hard and fast rule on the matter. then. If. Otherwise.328 as "other advertising and promotions expense" and another P1. the P9. however.636 general and administrative expenses. in whole or in part. We find the subject expense for the advertisement of a single product to be inordinately large. If the expenditures are for the advertising of the first kind. the right to a deduction depends on a number of factors such as but not limited to: the type and size of business in which the taxpayer is engaged. The protection of brand franchise is analogous to the maintenance of goodwill or title to one’s property. the volume and amount of its net earnings. the respondent corporation itself also admitted.614.548. then normally they should be spread out over a reasonable period of time. Furthermore. We agree.461. In the case at bar.

is doubtlessly unreasonable. The assailed decision of the Court of Appeals is hereby REVERSED and SET ASIDE. Concomitantly. The burden of proof to establish the validity of claimed deductions is on the taxpayer.635." It is not incumbent upon the taxing authority to prove that the amount of items being claimed is unreasonable. Respondent corporation incurred the subject advertising expense in order to protect its brand franchise. the date of the denial of its protest. 1989. we find that the Court of Appeals committed reversible error when it declared the subject media advertising expense to be deductible as an ordinary and necessary expense on the ground that "it has not been established that the item being claimed as deduction is excessive. almost one-half of petitioner corporation’s entire claim for marketing expenses for that year under review.11 Said prerogative. that burden was not discharged satisfactorily. The P9.678. We consider this as a capital outlay since it created goodwill for its business and/or product. We extend due consideration to its opinion unless there is an abuse or improvident exercise of authority.548.42. plus 25% surcharge for late payment and 20% annual interest computed from August 25.461. is hereby ordered to pay its deficiency income tax in the amount of P2. premises considered. it must be reasonable in amount. Inc.246 media advertising expense for the promotion of a single product.14 In the present case.10 True. by the nature of its functions. The Court of Tax Appeals ruled that respondent corporation failed to meet the two foregoing limitations. It has necessarily developed an expertise on the subject. respondent General Foods (Phils. it is the taxpayer’s prerogative to determine the amount of advertising expenses it will incur and where to apply them.141. The CTA. This was akin to the acquisition of capital assets and therefore expenses related thereto were not to be considered as business expenses but as capital expenditures. the instant petition is GRANTED. 12 The second. this necessitates an inquiry into the nature or purpose of such expenditures.). We find said ruling to be well founded. The first relates to the extent to which the expenditures are actually capital outlays. a highly specialized body specifically created for the purpose of reviewing tax cases. Pursuant to Sections 248 and 249 of the Tax Code. until the same is fully paid. WHEREFORE. It has been a long standing policy and practice of the Court to respect the conclusions of quasi-judicial agencies such as the Court of Tax Appeals. Accordingly. which must be applied in harmony with the first. . for an expense to be considered ordinary. is dedicated exclusively to the study and consideration of tax problems.614 for consumer promotion. inclusive of other advertising and promotion expenses of P2.13 Since there is none in the case at bar. the Court adheres to the findings of the CTA. relates to whether the expenditures are ordinary and necessary. however. SO ORDERED.328 and P1.Respondent corporation’s venture to protect its brand franchise was tantamount to efforts to establish a reputation. is subject to certain considerations.

91 is not a deductible ordinary and necessary expense and should be treated as a distribution of earnings and profits of the taxpayer.145. 1959 to be computed in accordance with the provisions of Section 51(d) of the National Internal Revenue Code.R. respondent Commissioner of Internal Revenue. INC.977.G. a domestic corporation engaged in the real estate business as brokers. TEEHANKEE. 1964 rendered judgment against it. M. 1957 showing a net income of P92.00. its founder and controlling stockholder the amount of P99. filed its income tax return for its fiscal year ending September 30. The Tax Court therefore determined petitioner's tax deficiency to be in the amount of P27. Hoskins. Assistant Solicitor General Felicisimo R. We find no merit in petitioner's appeal. Bito and Misa for petitioner. Upon verification of its return. Petitioner is ordered to pay to the latter or his representative the sum of P27. the decision of the respondent is hereby modified. 1969 CO. Petitioner. respondent..977. representing deficiency income tax for the year 1957. J.145.91 representing 50% of supervision fees earned by it and set aside respondent's disallowance of three other minor items. C. Rosete and Special Attorney Michaelina R. L-24059 November 28. Office of the Solicitor General Arturo A. plus interest at 1/2% per month from June 20. managing agents and administrators. Del Rosario..540. M.00 and on November 8.: We uphold in this taxpayer's appeal the Tax Court's ruling that payment by the taxpayer to its controlling stockholder of 50% of its supervision fees or the amount of P99. as follows: WHEREFORE. disallowed four items of deduction in petitioner's tax returns and assessed against it an income tax deficiency in the amount of P28. petitioner. Petitioner questions in this appeal the Tax Court's findings that the disallowed payment to Hoskins was an inordinately large one. Alafriz. Salcedo. which bore a close relationship to the recipient's dominant stockholdings and therefore amounted in law to a distribution of its earnings and profits. C.00 plus interests. HOSKINS & vs. . without costs. premises considered.054.00. Ross. which it paid in due course. No.25 and a tax liability due thereon of P18. If the deficiency tax is not paid within thirty (30) days from the date this decision becomes final. upheld respondent's disallowance of the principal item of petitioner's having paid to Mr. petitioner is also ordered to pay surcharge and interest as provided for in Section 51 (e) of the Tax Code.508. The Court of Tax Appeals upon reviewing the assessment at the taxpayer's petition. Balasbas for respondent. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE.

94. 96.00 each share.000.6% of the total authorized capital stock (p.540. arrange contract for road constructions.n. but here 50% of the supervision fee of petitioner was being paid by it to Hoskins every year since 1955 up to 1963 and for as long as its contract with the subdivision owner subsisted. Financial Statements. BIR rec.).n. and Realty Investments. with a capital stock of 1. Inc. with the provision of water supply to all of the lots and in general to serve as managing agents for the Paradise Farms.25.00 amounting to an annual compensation of P45. 11.As found by the Tax Court. subdivision projects of Paradise Farms.).977.000. that of these 1. M. since his services to . preside over meetings and to get all of the real estate business I could for the company by negotiating sales.) Considering that in addition to being Chairman of the board of directors of petitioner corporation. purchases.750. If independently. Inc. 97-99. 1956 to September 30.).s. plus free use of the company car and receipt of other similar allowances and benefits. and subsequently for the Realty Investment. Hoskins was the President. Hoskins. Inc.750. from which petitioner derived a large portion of its income in the form of supervision fees and commissions earned on sales of lots (pp. bonus and supervision fee) a total of P184.977. 92. Inc. that as chairman of the Board of Directors of petitioner. which would be double the petitioner's reported net income for the year of P92. a one-time P100. p. the Tax Court correctly ruled that the payment by petitioner to Hoskins of the additional sum of P99. plan the proposed subdivision as outlined in the prospectus of Paradise Farms. and the Realty Investments. Hoskins in 1937. he was the chairman of the Board of Directors and salesman-broker for the company (p. that during the first four years of its existence.91 were to be allowed as a deductible item. Inc. Mr. was inordinately large and could not be accorded the treatment of ordinary and necessary expenses allowed as deductible items within the purview of Section 30 (a) (i) of the Tax Code. who owned 99. which constitute exactly 99. that is.s. or one-tenth of 1% each. raising funds to finance real estate operations where that was necessary' (p. t.n. regardless of whether services were actually rendered by Hoskins. that as chairman of the Board of Directors.s.. by the terms of which petitioner was 'to program the development. As correctly observed by respondent. from October 1.91 as his equal or 50% share of the 8% supervision fees received by petitioner as managing agents of the real estate.. Inc. "petitioner was founded by Mr. with their respective nominal shareholdings of one share each was also salesman-broker for his company. and Realty Investments. C. that he was familiar with the contract entered into by the petitioner with the Paradise Farms. C.000 shares. plus a salary bonus of about P40.s. which bears his name.n. t.s.000. If such payment of P99. Inc.s.n.00-fee to plan and lay down the rules for supervision of a subdivision project were to be paid to an experienced realtor such as Hoskins.000 shares at a par value of P1.91. but during the taxable period in question. that he was also a stockholder and officer of the Paradise Farms.00 a month.n. then Hoskins would receive on these three items alone (salary. 1957.6% of its total authorized capital stock while the four other officers-stockholders of the firm owned a total of four-tenths of 1%. M. Hoskins owns 996 shares (the other 4 shares being held by the other four officers of the corporation). 93. t.00 a year (p.000. t.00 and an annual salary bonus of P40. Mr. 96-97. his duties were: "To act as a salesman. making appraisals.00." (pp. as a director. its fairness and deductibility by the taxpayer could be conceded. C.). M.. receiving a 50% share of the sales commissions earned by petitioner.). besides his monthly salary of P3. Inc.977. arrange financing. t. Inc. t. attached to Exhibit '1'. he received a salary of P3.

it is provided that the 1/2 rule of equal sharing of the sales commissions does not apply and that the salesman's share is stipulated in the case of each subdivision.petitioner included such planning and supervision and were already handsomely paid for by petitioner. "N-1"). but not exceeding five percent (5%). Even just as board chairman. etc.4 we reaffirmed the test of reasonableness. vs. that: "It is a general rule that 'Bonuses to . the 1/2-rule does not apply. the salesman's share being stipulated in the case of each subdivision. is equally untenable. Inc.2 It will be readily seen therefrom that when the petitioner's commission covers general supervision. as mentioned above. which he presumably collected also from petitioner without respondent's questioning it. Schedule I — In the case of sales to prospects discovered and worked by a salesman. enunciated in the earlier 1967 case involving the same parties. in accordance with its board resolution of June 18. In most cases the salesman's share is 4%. (Exh. since "Hoskins had personally conceived and planned the project" cannot change the picture. 1969. going by petitioner's own enumeration of the powers of the office. bonuses and commissions. but a 50% share besides in petitioner's planning and supervision fee of 8% of the gross sales. what is involved here is not Hoskins' salesman's share in the petitioner's 12% sales commission. delegating powers to the president and advising the corporation in determining executive salaries. or total fees of 25% of gross sales. wherein it is recited that in addition to petitioner's sales commission of 12% of gross sales.3 In Kuenzle & Streiff. upheld by this Court as not being within the purview of ordinary and necessary expenses and not passing the test of reasonable compensation. Furthermore. The fact that such payment was authorized by a standing resolution of petitioner's board of directors. even though the closing is done by or with the help of the Sales Manager or other members of the staff. the salesmen get one-half (1/2) of the total commission received by the Company.1 Petitioner's invoking of its policy since its incorporation of sharing equally sales commissions with its salesmen. The case before us is similar to previous cases of disallowances as deductible items of officers' extra fees.6% of its stock. the subdivision owners were paying to petitioner 8% of gross sales as supervision fee. Hoskins. In the case of subdivisions. when the office commission covers general supervision. There could be no question that as Chairman of the board and practically an absolutely controlling stockholder of petitioner. Hoskins wielded tremendous power and influence in the formulation and making of the company's policies and decisions. such as directing the policy of the corporation. could exercise great power and influence within the corporation. Petitioner's Sales Regulations provide: Compensation of Salesmen 8. and a collection fee of 5% of gross collections. bonus plans and pensions. This is evident from petitioner's board's resolution of July 14. dividend policies. holding 99. 1946. Commissioner of Internal Revenue decided by this Court on May 29. 1953 (Exhibit 7).

employees made in good faith and as additional compensation for the services actually rendered by the employees are deductible.50. no single factor is decisive. On the right of the employer as against respondent Commissioner to fix the compensation of its officers and employees. . M. 44. but for income tax purposes the employer cannot legally claim such bonuses as deductible expenses unless they are shown to be reasonable. when added to the salaries.' Other tests suggested are: payment must be 'made in good faith'. Thus: "As far as petitioner's contention that as employer it has the right to fix the compensation of its officers and employees and that it was in the exercise of such right that it deemed proper to pay the bonuses in question." Petitioner's case fails to pass the test. 395). We must not lose sight of the fact that the question of allowing or disallowing as deductible expenses the amounts paid to corporate officers by way of bonus is determined by respondent exclusively for income tax purposes. Secs. . not absolute. bonus or additional remuneration — a matter that lies more or less exclusively within the sound discretion of the corporation itself. its locality. when added to the stipulated salaries. 'the employees' qualifications and contributions to the business venture'. 'in determining whether the particular salary or compensation payment is reasonable. the salary policy of the corporation'. provided such payments. the situation must be considered as whole.6% of its stock with four other nominal shareholders holding one share . 25. it is important to keep in mind that it seldom happens that the application of one test can give satisfactory answer. which must furnish the final answer. . 25. "Lastly. the type and extent of the services rendered. . Hoskins. do not exceed a reasonable compensation for the services rendered' (4 Mertens Law of Federal Income Taxation. who however chose to incorporate his business with himself holding virtually absolute control thereof with 99. the volume and amount of its net earnings. one of them being 'the amount and quality of the services performed with relation to the business. he has no authority to fix the amounts to be paid to corporate officers by way of basic salary. the question of the allowance or disallowance thereof as deductible expenses for income tax purposes is subject to determination by respondent Commissioner of Internal Revenue. But this right of the corporation is. p. Sec. when measured by the amount and quality of the services performed with relation to the business of the particular taxpayer' ( Idem. 25. pp. Ordinarily. and 'general economic conditions' (4 Mertens. Concededly. To hold otherwise would open the gate of rampant tax evasion.51. are 'reasonable . it should be noted that we have here a case practically of a sole proprietorship of C. 410). 'the size of the particular business'. This depends upon many factors. It cannot exercise it for the purpose of evading payment of taxes legitimately due to the State.50. of course. Law of Federal Income Taxation." Finally. and (3) the bonuses. 407-412). we there held further that while the employer's right may be conceded. (2) it must be for personal services actually rendered. all that We need say is this: that right may be conceded. 25. 25. "There is no fixed test for determining the reasonableness of a given bonus as compensation. . 25.44. 'the character of the taxpayer's business. p.. properly weighted for the particular case. and that ordinarily it is the interplay of several factors. Sec.49. The conditions precedent to the deduction of bonuses to employees are: (1) the payment of the bonuses is in fact compensation. However.

petitioner. to dilute and diminish its corresponding corporate tax liability. the corporation so created. it is bound to pay the income tax imposed by law on corporations and may not legally be permitted. Specifically. with costs in both instances against petitioner.each. is bound to comport itself in accordance with corporate norms and comply with its corporate obligations. i. .. by way of corporate resolutions authorizing payment of inordinately large commissions and fees to its controlling stockholder. ACCORDINGLY. Having chosen to use the corporate form with its legal advantages of a separate corporate personality as distinguished from his individual personality.e. the decision appealed from is hereby affirmed.