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TSL3106

N o t e b o o k : 2 PPG 08/11/2012 9:31 PM C re at e d : Suhaimi Shaarani A u t h o r: U p d at e d : 08/11/2012 11:40 PM

Reading Aloud Skills • Enunciation - To pronounce; articulate • Pronunciation - The act or manner of pronouncing words; utterance of speech • Stress - The emphasis placed on the sound or syllable spoken most forcefully in a word or phrase • Intonation - The use of changing pitch to convey syntactic information • Rhythm - In phonetics, the sense of movement in speech, marked by the stress, timing, and quantity of syllables. Reading Comprehension Skills • Reading for main ideas and Supporting details • Inferencing, predicting and drawing conclusion • Sequencing • Cause and effect • Synthesizing - To combine so as to form a new, complex product • Evaluating Selecting, Adapting and Producing Activities and Materials for Developing Reading Aloud and Reading Comprehension Skills • Readibility • Context Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary • Word attack skills • Contextual clues • Visuals • Mimes, actions and gestures • Dictionary • Games

Skimming Scanning Extensive reading Intensive reading

reading shorter texts to extract accurate detailed information quickly reading a text to get the gist of it quickly going through a text to find a particular piece of information reading longer texts, usually for pleasure

A top-down reading model This model states that readers begin with expectations and ideas about a text, based on its title, format and style, before they begin to look for words that will substantiate or refute these expectations. It is an approach which begins with a picture of the whole and deals with the parts in terms of this. Reading is a guessing game because readers must infer meaning, decide what to retain or not, and read on. Relying on their experience and intelligence. emphasizes what the reader brings to the text reading is driven by meaning

proceeds from whole to part Features of top-down approach...(Gove 1983) readers can comprehend a selection even though they do not recognise each word readers should use meaning and grammatical cues to identify unrecognised words reading for meaning is the primary objective of reading rather than mastery of letters, letter/sound relationships and words reading requires the use of meaning activities rather than the mastery of a series of word-recognition skills the primary focus of instruction should be the reading of sentences, paragraphs, and whole sentences the most important aspect about reading is the amount and kind of info gained through reading A bottom-up reading model. This process reflects the old models of reading as a simple process of decoding words into thoughts. However, it accepts that words must first be recognised and, having been decoded, the thoughts must then be remembered. It is an approach which works from the parts to the whole, building up gradually in a process of growth. Readers must first recognize multiple linguistic signals–letters, syllables, words, phrases, grammatical cues, discourse markers–in order to understand their reading. emphasizes on the written or printed text reading is driven by a process that results in meaning (..or, reading is driven by text) proceeds from parts to whole Features of a bottom-up approach to reading. identify letter features link these features to recognise letters combine letters to recognise spelling patterns link spelling patterns to recognise words, and then proceed to sentences, paragraph and text-level processing An Interactive reading model recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process (combination of both)...a bit like "inductive'/"deductive" approach in grammar teaching. Features of interactive reading model the interactive model suggests that the reader constructs meaning by the selective use of info from all sources of meaning (graphemic, phonemic, morphemic, syntax, semantics)...ok?....without adherence to any one set order.... an interactive model is one which uses print as input and has meaning as output. But the reader provides input too, and the reader, interacting with the text, in selective in using just as little of the cues from text as necessary to construct meaning. (Goodman, K. 1981) Reading is at once a perceptual and a cognitive process. it is a process which bridges and blurs these two traditional distinctions. Moreover, a skilled reader must be able to make use of the sensory, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic info to accomplish the task. These various sources of info appear to interact in many complex ways during the process of reading (Rumelhart, D. 1985)

reading for pleasure gives you the opportunity to enlarge your life and to enter into "alternate realities. A third purpose for reading is to gather usable information that you can apply toward a specific goal. the latest page-turner by DaVinci Code author Dan Brown. As Yale professor Harold Bloom points out. not for specific details. Critical evaluation involves understanding. It means approaching material with an open mind. "Because you can know. Read for practical application. The aims of extensive reading are to build reader confidence and enjoyment. These components depend on each other. Reading is its own reward. Characteristics: Students read as much as possible. Studying involves reading to comprehend concepts and details." Reading readiness To develop own knowledge of the English Language so he can understand what he reads Motivation to learn to read in English The ability to discriminate between shapes so that he can recognize letters and words when he begins to learn to read Recognition that print has meaning just as talk has meaning Extensive Reading Carried out "to achieve a general understanding of a text. intimately. Reading and action usually go hand in hand." Occurring when students read large amounts of high interest material. Students select what they want to read . or even novels by Charles Dickens and Jane Austen. such as Sports Illustrated magazine. your goal is to learn how to do or use something. evaluating ideas. Extensive reading is always done for the comprehension of main ideas. information and general understanding." "Why read?" Bloom asks. and concepts provide a framework for remembering details. only a very few people. A variety of materials on a range of topics is available. examining causes and effects. usually out of class. "reading for gist" and skipping unknown words. . Read to evaluate critically . and perhaps you never know them at all. Read for pleasure. After reading [the Thomas Mann masterpiece] The Magic Mountain you know Hans Castorp thoroughly. When you read a textbook preface or an instruction booklet for a new software package. Some materials you read for entertainment. Critical reading brings a level of understanding that goes beyond basic information recall.The Purpose of reading Read for understanding. The purposes of reading are usually related to pleasure. concentrating on meaning. Details help explain or support general concepts. and asking questions that test the writer's argument and assumptions. and he is greatly worth knowing.

only works if the teacher understands the student's first language. Teachers orient students to the goals of the program. Class time may be included for book exchange. The teacher is a role model of a reader for the students. Role of Teacher The teacher gives recommendations on reading materials. Activities: Reading may be combined with a speaking component. This may especially be necessary for students that choose the same type over and over. they may interview each other about their reading.Reading materials are well within the linguistic competence of the students in terms of vocabulary and grammar. students may be asked to write a newspaper report. Students may progress from reading graded reading material to authentic text . The teacher guides students in choosing a variety of materials of their interest. Role of Student The student assumes total responsibility for developing reading ability . Assessment: there are no reading comprehension exercises or formal assessments in Extensive Reading programs. teachers will allow their students to report on their reading in their native language so as not to make the "proof" of reading more difficult than the reading itself. Course grades for an Extensive Reading program may be determined by marks given for reading reports. Reading speed is usually faster than slower. The teacher overlooks if students are not aware of the exact meaning of each word. The student usually chooses their own material and moves along at their own pace but . If class time is given for reading. The teacher provides modeling. and actions. such as in the characters. The teacher guides students in choosing appropriate levels of material. This. Students may set their own goals for their next session. The student reads without the use of a dictionary. of course. For example. Extensive reading programs are often cited as being more "pleasurable" because there are no "tedious" exercises to complete. The teacher guides students in setting specific goals for amounts read. The teacher must be careful to provide just enough to stimulate curiosity but not so much that the need to read is removed. after reading the newspaper. Reading may be combined with a writing component. based on student's interests. the teacher reads at the same time. For example. themes. it it becomes more challenging. places. It should be expected that students will "slow down" in their reading then. The teacher leads pre-reading activities to build interest in the text. The teacher should not jump in and explain. reading journals. beginning with easy books. In some Extensive Reading Programs. if there is an in-class library. Reading is individual and silent. book reports and projects.

Some established programs use a "weighing scale" for students to record materials read. in others it becomes counter-productive if students try to read texts that are more difficult than they can manage and consequently become discouraged. They need texts they can read without great use of a dictionary. Reading each student's journals and reports can be very time-consuming for teachers. Broughton (1978) suggested that "It is by pursuing the activity of extensive reading that the volume of practice necessary to achieve rapid and efficient reading can be achieved. students require a specialized library within their language proficiency range.must push themselves in order to show greater progress." Challenges: An Extensive Reading program may be costly and time-consuming to set up if materials are not already available. more ideas and information. it may be acquired even though it was not directly taught build background knowledge increase reading comprehension improve overall language competence be more prepared for further academic courses because they have read large quantities An Extensive Reading program may be combined with writing or combined with speaking practice in a meaningful way (such as when students discuss with each other the books they have been reading. giving more "marks" for materials read at a higher level. An Extensive Reading program is easiest to establish when the students have a high level of second language proficiency.92) Krashen (1993a) suggested that the benefits of free voluntary reading included "enhanced language acquisition and literacy development. Students who come from a culture in which literacy is not valued may be unwilling to participate in pleasure reading or may not get support at home. being able to read for different purposes and being able to change reading strategies for different kinds of texts become more aware of what's available to them to read and how to access materials expand sight vocabulary acquire "incidental" grammatical competence .that is. It may be difficult to get support from Administration. For intermediate levels. and more fun. limiting their responses. loss of verbal memory." (p. Some teachers prefer a skills based program and do not feel comfortable with Extensive Reading. Some teachers feel that time spent on Extensive Reading will take away from time that . Some teachers are unaware of how to use Graded Readers and so. provide a limited range of activities for students. It may be difficult to keep students challenged to read more difficult texts as the program continues. become more " independent readers". Advantages The students may: develop a "reading habit" gain more confidence in reading improve their attitude towards reading and become more motivated to read feel more autonomous over their own learning and more likely to take more initiative. Students need to have easy access to texts within their language proficiency level. Although this has proven to be a motivating or competitive factor in some cases. greater success in life.

sometimes called "Narrow Reading". again and again aim is to build more language knowledge rather than simply practice the skill of reading seen more commonly than extensive reading in classrooms Materials: usually very short texts . discourse markers. by the teacher chosen to provide the types of reading and skills that the teacher wants to cover in the course Skills developed: rapid reading practice Interpreting text by using: word attack skills text attack skills non-text information Activities: Intensive reading exercises may include: looking at main ideas versus details understanding what is implied versus stated . They feel that some students may try "ungraded" materials too soon and may revert to using a dictionary to translate. Others will argue that Extensive Reading provides a "richer context" for practice. Intensive Reading. As a "zoom lens" strategy .not more than 500 words in length chosen for level of difficulty and usually. Students that have only been exposed to Intensive Reading programs may not believe that Extensive Reading is a "proper" way to learn. Aeberscold (1997) reported that feedback from students in an Extensive Reading program indicated that they liked the "choice" but not the "load" Intensive reading Calls attention to grammatical forms. rhetorical relationships. may involve students reading selections by the same author or several texts about the same topic. Characteristics: usually classroom based reader is intensely involved in looking inside the text students focus on linguistic or semantic details of a reading students focus on surface structure details such as grammar and discourse markers students identify key vocabulary students may draw pictures to aid them (such as in problem solving) texts are read carefully and thoroughly. Some people feel that students may place too much emphasis on the number of pages read instead of on the understanding achieved. implications. content and grammatical structures repeat themselves and students get many opportunities to understand the meanings of the text. and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning. Some people feel that if graded readers are used. and the like. they can give a false impression of the level of reading that has been achieved.could be spent on learning language skills. When this occurs.

students may not be able to read at their own level because everyone in the class is reading the same material. instead. Teachers should. Mackay (1968) . without giving answers. In a class with multi-reading abilities. Advantages It provides a base to study structure. in his book Reading in a Second Language. the structure of the text to get an idea of the intention of the writer Skimming is a more complex task than scanning because it requires the reader to organize and remember some of the information given by the author. unlike scanning in which some predetermined information is sought after. be spending most of the time training the student to understand what they read. There is little chance to learn language patterns due to the small amount of text. Role of the teacher The teacher chooses suitable text. It provides a base for students to develop a greater control of language It provides for a check on the degree of comprehension for individual students Disadvantages There is little actual practice of reading because of the small amount of text.making inferences looking at the order of information and how it effects the message identifying words that connect one idea to another identifying words that indicate change from one section to another Assessment : Assessment of intensive reading will take the form of reading tests and quizzes. The teacher prepares students to work on their own. vocabulary and idioms. Because exercises and assessment usually follow intensive reading. students may come to associate reading with testing and not pleasure. that is. The teacher encourages students through prompts. during and after reading. Skimming Skimming is a quick reading to get: to know the general meaning of a passage to know how the passage is organized. not just to locate it. Skimming is used in making decisions on how to approach a text such as when . Often the most difficult part is for the teacher to "get out of the way" . The teacher gives direction before. The text may or may not interest the reader because it was chosen by the teacher. When it is used Skimming is used when reading some some general question in mind. The most common systems of questioning are multiple-choice and free-response. reminds teachers that the most important objective in the reading class should NOT be the testing of the student to see if they have understood. Skimming is a tool in which the author's sequence can be observed. The teacher chooses tasks and activities to develop skills.

"beyond the scope of the purpose originally set" (p. or phrase. the teacher should guide students to ask themselves the following questions: What kind of audience was the text written for? Was it. formula. knows when he has located what he was searching for. in which the eyes wander until the reader finds the piece of information needed. a formal letter. or a set of instructions? What was the author's purpose? Was it . Role of the teacher Before the students start reading. The reader knows what the item looks like and so. or academic students? What type of text is it? Is it. Read any headings or sub-headings. an advertisement. after the students have read and completed the assigned questions. Activities Students must locate facts that are expressed in sentences. skimming should not be done competitively. to form appropriate questions and predictions and then read quickly Pugh (1978) suggests that to assess skimming. It is often used in reviewing for a test. not necessarily linear in fashion. To improve skimming. Skimming is used to build student confidence and an understanding that it is possible to gain meaning without reading every word in a text. . to persuade. is required.determining if a careful reading is deserving. that very little information is processed into long-term memory or even for immediate understanding because the objective is simply matching. Students should be encouraged individually to better themselves. further questions may be asked. the general public. symbol. focusing on locating specific information. Although speed is essential and the teacher often sets a time limit to the activity. date. readers should read more and more rapidly. for example. Read the first sentence of each of the following paragraphs. Scanning is used when a specific piece of information is required. Look at any pictures or phrases that are in boldface or italics Read the summary or last paragraph. for example. Read the introduction or the first paragraph. It is assumed then. not single words. Skimming is a skill that a student may want to develop if they are planning to continue with academic studies. such as a name.70). If students can answer these questions correctly. to inform or to instruct? The teacher should make the following clear to students before assigning a skimming exercise: the purpose of the exercise how deeply the text is to be read Role of the student Students read through the text in the following manner: Read the title if any. Scanning involves quick eye movements. technical readers. for example. it indicates they have read the text too closely. Scanning Scanning ia a quick reading.

pictures. they "interact with the text". menus. The teacher may use authentic materials that are commonly scanned in real life. they should pay particular attention to titles and keywords. Scanning is a valuable skill for second language learners to develop because often they do not require a detailed read of a text. Role of the Student The student forms questions before reading. The student tries to anticipate what the answer might look like and what sorts of clues would be useful. The student is aware of the graphic form that the answer may take. Reading approaches Phonics approach – most soundly supported by research for effective instruction in beginning reading Must be explicitly taught Must be systematically organized and sequenced . Students may do any of the following: make predictions and guesses use titles and tables of contents to get an idea of what a passage is about activate prior knowledge about the topic of the passage by answering some questions or performing a quiz anticipate what they want to learn about the top use titles. The teacher may ask students before they scan a text to note how the information is organized in the text. The teacher needs to remind students that as they read carefully to find the required information. Activities Activities may include exercises that are devised by the teacher in which students scan for a single word or specific text . anticipate what will come next. In other words.When it is used Scanning is used often with technical. There are many everyday uses for scanning. a capitalized word or a short phrase that includes key words. They reflect on expectations as they read. What specific information are they looking for? The student looks for contextual clues. such as reading a schedule. scientific or professional materials to locate specific information. that do not appear in the text. Activities may include exercises that are often carried on as a competition so students will work quickly. Role of Teacher The teacher selects passages that do include specific information. such as the telephone directory. Students use skills of prediction and anticipation. such as a numeral. and prior knowledge to anticipate the contents of the text use key words. relevant to a purpose. They react with a text by having expectations and ideas about the purposes of the text as well as possible outcomes. that may have been given to them by the teacher. that allude to the main idea It is an accepted view today that efficient readers are not passive. bus schedules. a written number.

Fluency skills help the readers see larger segments. comprehension. Literacy hour Stages of • • • • • Literacy Hour Whole class shared text work Whole class shared sentence/word work Guided reading Independent work Plenary . phrases. or sentence quickly enough to speed recognition. Definition Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader to read the written form as meaningful language to read anything written with independence.Must include learning how to blend sounds together Multi-Sensory Approach – effective for special needs Uses all possible senses – tracing. and to mentally interact with the message. and fluency. comprehension and fluency. looking Typically called VAKT Visual. Critical reading skills help the reader see the relationship of ideas and use these in reading with meaning and fluency. Auditory. Kinesthetic. phrase. Tactile Can be used with either Phonics or Whole Language Linguistic Method – supported only by "qualitative research" instead of quantitative research Teaches "whole words" in word families Students are not explicitly taught that there is a relationship between letters and sounds for most sounds Language Experience – called "Whole Language" Expects child to learn reading as "naturally" as speech Uses child’s oral language as content for reading Uses child’s oral language as basis for spelling instruction Children learn to "read" by reading and re-reading "big books" together with the teacher and then the teacher gradually withdraws prompts so child appears to be reading that book Reading Comprehension Support – Explicitly teaches strategies and techniques for studying texts and acquiring meaning Reading skills Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence. Comprehension skills help the reader predict the next word. listening. Example Word attack skills let the reader figure out new words. and groups of words as wholes. saying.

Students can also be asked to separate and categorize letters by uppercase and lowercase Phonemic awareness — The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words These assessments examine a student's knowledge of how sounds make words. and this can be done when teachers are knowledgeable about what their students are ready to learn and what they already know.Technique of assessing reading The purpose and benefits of assessment To identify skills that need review. the information gained from assessment allows a teacher to create appropriate instruction for their students To provide teachers with information on how instruction can be improved. They include: linguistic intelligence logical mathematical intelligence visual spatial intelligence bodily kinesthetic intelligence musical intelligence interpersonal intelligence intrapersonal intelligence naturalist intelligence . Through consistent assessment. and he suggests that eight different intelligences account for student potential (Armstrong. a teacher can make informed decisions about what instruction is appropriate for each student. Another example is to have a student separate the letters from a pile of letters. Assessment examples for specific areas of reading Letter knowledge — The ability to associate sounds with letters Present a student with a list of letters and ask the student to name each letter. It is important for teachers to use instructional time effectively. 1994. or to blend spoken parts of a word into one word. To monitor student progress. To demonstrate the effectiveness of instruction. Assessment provides teachers with information on what skills students have and have not mastered. A student can be asked to break spoken words into parts. Additionally. A teacher can learn which students need review before covering additional content and which students are ready to move forward. Gardner. The information gained from assessment allows teachers to know if all students are mastering the content covered. Dr. a student can count the number of phonemes in a word to demonstrate understanding. or a student can delete or add a phoneme to make a new word Emerging practice The theory of multiple intelligences is one that many educators support and believe to be effective. To guide teacher instruction. Gardner developed this theory in 1983. 1983). It is needed to help teachers know the skill levels of their students. numbers. since students have varying experiences and knowledge. Therefore. and symbols.

ensures that the class you are teaching gets a balanced mixture of different materials. such as grammar or vocabulary and pronunciation. content and interaction types. Assessments should always be culturally and linguistically appropriate Planning for Teaching Reading Principles of Lesson Planning What is a Lesson Plan? It’s the framework of my lesson. For students. It suggests professionalism and commitment. Words that are skipped or pronounced incorrectly are not counted. evidence of a plan shows them the teacher has devoted time to thinking about the class. Categories for Planning a Lesson Goals Objectives Prerequisites Materials Lesson Description Lesson Procedure Assessment/Evaluation What to consider? Engage: get the students interested in the class and hopefully enjoying what they are doing. reminds you to prepare materials beforehand. It is a way to help gain the respect of your students. It’s the map I follow during class. It’s the product of my thoughts about the class and what I hope to achieve Why Plan ahead? reduces uncertainty or panic and gives you confidence and clarity. and then having the student answer factual questions about the text. Reading comprehension — The process of understanding the meaning of text Involves a student reading a passage that is at an appropriate level for the student.Decoding — The process of using lettersound correspondences to recognize words To have a student read a passage of text as clearly and correctly as possible. Activate: the students do writing and/ or speaking activities which require . Considerations when selecting an assessment Every assessment will not be appropriate for all students. It does not have to be NEW language input. Study: it is a focus of language. The number of correct words read is counted and this total equals a student's oral reading fluency rate. Planning helps you to develop a personal style. The teacher records any mistakes that the student makes and analyzes them to determine what instruction is needed. Different measures provide distinct information. Fluency — The automatic ability to read words in connected text To ask a student to read a passage aloud for one minute. and makes it easier for you to organize the time and activities flow in classes.

justify Prerequisites Make sure students are ready to meet the lesson’s objectives Check on their prior knowledge Questions include: What must students already be able to do before this lesson? What concepts have to be mastered in advance to accomplish the lesson objectives? . produce Analysis – identify. categorize. analyze. play. process. predict. but also other language that they have learnt. etc Then.concerns performing an action. provide.them to use not only the language they are studying that day. infer. add a verb Eg. Goals Goals determine: Purpose of the lesson How students will engage We need to think about: Previous plans and activities Broader objectives of the unit plan or curriculum as well as the goals for this unit Future activities and new knowledge Central objective: What will students be able to do by the end of this lesson? Objectives Focus on what your students will do to acquire further knowledge and skills Questions to ask include: What will students be able to do during this lesson? Under what conditions will students' performance be accomplished? How will you determine if the objectives have been met? How will students demonstrate that they have learned and understood the objectives of the lesson? What do you want the student to learn as a result of the lesson It should be observable and measurable. compare. define. Creating Learning Objectives Create a stem Eg. copy Comprehension – arrange. deduce Evaluation – explain.) Verbs to Use in Creating Educational Objectives (Bloom’s Taxonomy) Knowledge – choose. recall. clustering. create. synthesize.involves cognitive functions. recite. etc. list. interpret. illustrate. outline Synthesis – construct. Skills . Students measure. complete. Students categorize. determine the actual product. recognize. analyze. collect. or outcome Eg. After completing the lesson. generate ideas and plans for speech by using _____ (brainstorming. the student will be able to After you create the stem. Categories of Objectives Knowledge . change Application – organize. sing.

Materials Determine necessary: Preparation time Resources/materials Books.m -9.00 a. use polite requests appropriately.m. step-by-step description How to achieve your objectives How to proceed Lesson Plan Format (L&S) Class : Year 1 Amanah Subject : English language Time : 8. students should be able to: sing song with guidance. etc Helpful questions to ask are: What materials will be needed? What needs to be prepared in advance? Lesson Procedure Detailed.30 a. equipment. respond to requests. Stage/Time Content Set Induction Presentation Practice Production Closure Teaching/Learning Activities Notes/Resources . Date : 23rd of July 2012 (Monday) Enrolment : 34 students Focal skills : Reading Other skill : Listening Previous knowledge: Students have learnt to ask simple questions and making polite requests Learning outcomes: By the end of the lesson.

In phonetics.The act or manner of pronouncing words.To combine so as to form a new. Relying on their experience and intelligence. marked by the stress. usually for pleasure A top-down reading model This model states that readers begin with expectations and ideas about a text. emphasizes what the reader brings to the text reading is driven by meaning .TSL3106 N o t e b o o k : 2 PPG 08/11/2012 9:31 PM C re at e d : Suhaimi Shaarani A u t h o r: U p d at e d : 08/11/2012 11:40 PM Reading Aloud Skills • Enunciation . It is an approach which begins with a picture of the whole and deals with the parts in terms of this. format and style. and read on. before they begin to look for words that will substantiate or refute these expectations. complex product • Evaluating Selecting. Reading Comprehension Skills • Reading for main ideas and Supporting details • Inferencing. Adapting and Producing Activities and Materials for Developing Reading Aloud and Reading Comprehension Skills • Readibility • Context Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary • Word attack skills • Contextual clues • Visuals • Mimes. utterance of speech • Stress . based on its title. timing. predicting and drawing conclusion • Sequencing • Cause and effect • Synthesizing . the sense of movement in speech.The emphasis placed on the sound or syllable spoken most forcefully in a word or phrase • Intonation . decide what to retain or not. articulate • Pronunciation .To pronounce. Reading is a guessing game because readers must infer meaning. actions and gestures • Dictionary • Games Skimming Scanning Extensive reading Intensive reading reading shorter texts to extract accurate detailed information quickly reading a text to get the gist of it quickly going through a text to find a particular piece of information reading longer texts.The use of changing pitch to convey syntactic information • Rhythm . and quantity of syllables.

This process reflects the old models of reading as a simple process of decoding words into thoughts. But the reader provides input too.. words... emphasizes on the written or printed text reading is driven by a process that results in meaning (. an interactive model is one which uses print as input and has meaning as output.ok?.. letter/sound relationships and words reading requires the use of meaning activities rather than the mastery of a series of word-recognition skills the primary focus of instruction should be the reading of sentences. and then proceed to sentences. and the reader.. identify letter features link these features to recognise letters combine letters to recognise spelling patterns link spelling patterns to recognise words. semantic. grammatical cues.or. phonemic. 1985) . and whole sentences the most important aspect about reading is the amount and kind of info gained through reading A bottom-up reading model.. Moreover. 1981) Reading is at once a perceptual and a cognitive process. morphemic.without adherence to any one set order.proceeds from whole to part Features of top-down approach. semantics).. it is a process which bridges and blurs these two traditional distinctions.. it accepts that words must first be recognised and. the thoughts must then be remembered.... (Goodman. However. It is an approach which works from the parts to the whole. syllables. K. interacting with the text. building up gradually in a process of growth. paragraph and text-level processing An Interactive reading model recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process (combination of both). D. in selective in using just as little of the cues from text as necessary to construct meaning. discourse markers–in order to understand their reading. These various sources of info appear to interact in many complex ways during the process of reading (Rumelhart.(Gove 1983) readers can comprehend a selection even though they do not recognise each word readers should use meaning and grammatical cues to identify unrecognised words reading for meaning is the primary objective of reading rather than mastery of letters. and pragmatic info to accomplish the task. reading is driven by text) proceeds from parts to whole Features of a bottom-up approach to reading. a skilled reader must be able to make use of the sensory. paragraphs. phrases. syntactic. Readers must first recognize multiple linguistic signals–letters.. having been decoded.a bit like "inductive'/"deductive" approach in grammar teaching.. Features of interactive reading model the interactive model suggests that the reader constructs meaning by the selective use of info from all sources of meaning (graphemic. syntax.

and concepts provide a framework for remembering details. It means approaching material with an open mind. Studying involves reading to comprehend concepts and details. Read to evaluate critically .The Purpose of reading Read for understanding. not for specific details. Details help explain or support general concepts. Extensive reading is always done for the comprehension of main ideas. only a very few people. examining causes and effects. Reading and action usually go hand in hand." "Why read?" Bloom asks. Students select what they want to read . Reading is its own reward. Critical evaluation involves understanding. Read for practical application. When you read a textbook preface or an instruction booklet for a new software package." Reading readiness To develop own knowledge of the English Language so he can understand what he reads Motivation to learn to read in English The ability to discriminate between shapes so that he can recognize letters and words when he begins to learn to read Recognition that print has meaning just as talk has meaning Extensive Reading Carried out "to achieve a general understanding of a text. Critical reading brings a level of understanding that goes beyond basic information recall. the latest page-turner by DaVinci Code author Dan Brown. "Because you can know. A variety of materials on a range of topics is available. and asking questions that test the writer's argument and assumptions. The aims of extensive reading are to build reader confidence and enjoyment. usually out of class. . After reading [the Thomas Mann masterpiece] The Magic Mountain you know Hans Castorp thoroughly. Read for pleasure. Characteristics: Students read as much as possible. The purposes of reading are usually related to pleasure. information and general understanding. or even novels by Charles Dickens and Jane Austen. concentrating on meaning. and he is greatly worth knowing. and perhaps you never know them at all." Occurring when students read large amounts of high interest material. These components depend on each other. Some materials you read for entertainment. intimately. A third purpose for reading is to gather usable information that you can apply toward a specific goal. "reading for gist" and skipping unknown words. evaluating ideas. As Yale professor Harold Bloom points out. your goal is to learn how to do or use something. reading for pleasure gives you the opportunity to enlarge your life and to enter into "alternate realities. such as Sports Illustrated magazine.

such as in the characters. themes.Reading materials are well within the linguistic competence of the students in terms of vocabulary and grammar. The teacher guides students in choosing a variety of materials of their interest. of course. The teacher should not jump in and explain. Teachers orient students to the goals of the program. they may interview each other about their reading. The teacher provides modeling. Assessment: there are no reading comprehension exercises or formal assessments in Extensive Reading programs. The teacher guides students in choosing appropriate levels of material. The student usually chooses their own material and moves along at their own pace but . reading journals. Role of Student The student assumes total responsibility for developing reading ability . Class time may be included for book exchange. It should be expected that students will "slow down" in their reading then. only works if the teacher understands the student's first language. This. The teacher must be careful to provide just enough to stimulate curiosity but not so much that the need to read is removed. book reports and projects. For example. Activities: Reading may be combined with a speaking component. the teacher reads at the same time. after reading the newspaper. based on student's interests. it it becomes more challenging. Students may progress from reading graded reading material to authentic text . Reading is individual and silent. This may especially be necessary for students that choose the same type over and over. Reading speed is usually faster than slower. The student reads without the use of a dictionary. For example. if there is an in-class library. places. teachers will allow their students to report on their reading in their native language so as not to make the "proof" of reading more difficult than the reading itself. Extensive reading programs are often cited as being more "pleasurable" because there are no "tedious" exercises to complete. Course grades for an Extensive Reading program may be determined by marks given for reading reports. Students may set their own goals for their next session. The teacher guides students in setting specific goals for amounts read. The teacher leads pre-reading activities to build interest in the text. If class time is given for reading. students may be asked to write a newspaper report. The teacher is a role model of a reader for the students. and actions. Reading may be combined with a writing component. Role of Teacher The teacher gives recommendations on reading materials. In some Extensive Reading Programs. beginning with easy books. The teacher overlooks if students are not aware of the exact meaning of each word.

Broughton (1978) suggested that "It is by pursuing the activity of extensive reading that the volume of practice necessary to achieve rapid and efficient reading can be achieved. Although this has proven to be a motivating or competitive factor in some cases. It may be difficult to get support from Administration. Some teachers prefer a skills based program and do not feel comfortable with Extensive Reading. being able to read for different purposes and being able to change reading strategies for different kinds of texts become more aware of what's available to them to read and how to access materials expand sight vocabulary acquire "incidental" grammatical competence . greater success in life. Advantages The students may: develop a "reading habit" gain more confidence in reading improve their attitude towards reading and become more motivated to read feel more autonomous over their own learning and more likely to take more initiative. It may be difficult to keep students challenged to read more difficult texts as the program continues. Some teachers are unaware of how to use Graded Readers and so. it may be acquired even though it was not directly taught build background knowledge increase reading comprehension improve overall language competence be more prepared for further academic courses because they have read large quantities An Extensive Reading program may be combined with writing or combined with speaking practice in a meaningful way (such as when students discuss with each other the books they have been reading. giving more "marks" for materials read at a higher level. loss of verbal memory. provide a limited range of activities for students. Students who come from a culture in which literacy is not valued may be unwilling to participate in pleasure reading or may not get support at home." Challenges: An Extensive Reading program may be costly and time-consuming to set up if materials are not already available. more ideas and information. limiting their responses.92) Krashen (1993a) suggested that the benefits of free voluntary reading included "enhanced language acquisition and literacy development. They need texts they can read without great use of a dictionary.that is. students require a specialized library within their language proficiency range. An Extensive Reading program is easiest to establish when the students have a high level of second language proficiency. in others it becomes counter-productive if students try to read texts that are more difficult than they can manage and consequently become discouraged. and more fun. Reading each student's journals and reports can be very time-consuming for teachers. become more " independent readers". Some teachers feel that time spent on Extensive Reading will take away from time that ." (p.must push themselves in order to show greater progress. Students need to have easy access to texts within their language proficiency level. For intermediate levels. Some established programs use a "weighing scale" for students to record materials read.

Aeberscold (1997) reported that feedback from students in an Extensive Reading program indicated that they liked the "choice" but not the "load" Intensive reading Calls attention to grammatical forms. rhetorical relationships. When this occurs. Students that have only been exposed to Intensive Reading programs may not believe that Extensive Reading is a "proper" way to learn. may involve students reading selections by the same author or several texts about the same topic. Others will argue that Extensive Reading provides a "richer context" for practice. They feel that some students may try "ungraded" materials too soon and may revert to using a dictionary to translate. by the teacher chosen to provide the types of reading and skills that the teacher wants to cover in the course Skills developed: rapid reading practice Interpreting text by using: word attack skills text attack skills non-text information Activities: Intensive reading exercises may include: looking at main ideas versus details understanding what is implied versus stated . implications.not more than 500 words in length chosen for level of difficulty and usually. Some people feel that students may place too much emphasis on the number of pages read instead of on the understanding achieved. Some people feel that if graded readers are used. and the like. and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning. As a "zoom lens" strategy . again and again aim is to build more language knowledge rather than simply practice the skill of reading seen more commonly than extensive reading in classrooms Materials: usually very short texts . sometimes called "Narrow Reading".could be spent on learning language skills. they can give a false impression of the level of reading that has been achieved. discourse markers. content and grammatical structures repeat themselves and students get many opportunities to understand the meanings of the text. Characteristics: usually classroom based reader is intensely involved in looking inside the text students focus on linguistic or semantic details of a reading students focus on surface structure details such as grammar and discourse markers students identify key vocabulary students may draw pictures to aid them (such as in problem solving) texts are read carefully and thoroughly. Intensive Reading.

The teacher chooses tasks and activities to develop skills. be spending most of the time training the student to understand what they read. students may not be able to read at their own level because everyone in the class is reading the same material. Because exercises and assessment usually follow intensive reading. Role of the teacher The teacher chooses suitable text. that is. during and after reading. the structure of the text to get an idea of the intention of the writer Skimming is a more complex task than scanning because it requires the reader to organize and remember some of the information given by the author. Mackay (1968) . The text may or may not interest the reader because it was chosen by the teacher. The teacher encourages students through prompts. in his book Reading in a Second Language. There is little chance to learn language patterns due to the small amount of text. not just to locate it. Skimming is used in making decisions on how to approach a text such as when . It provides a base for students to develop a greater control of language It provides for a check on the degree of comprehension for individual students Disadvantages There is little actual practice of reading because of the small amount of text. Teachers should. vocabulary and idioms. The most common systems of questioning are multiple-choice and free-response. reminds teachers that the most important objective in the reading class should NOT be the testing of the student to see if they have understood. unlike scanning in which some predetermined information is sought after. without giving answers. instead. Skimming Skimming is a quick reading to get: to know the general meaning of a passage to know how the passage is organized. The teacher prepares students to work on their own. The teacher gives direction before. Often the most difficult part is for the teacher to "get out of the way" . In a class with multi-reading abilities. students may come to associate reading with testing and not pleasure. When it is used Skimming is used when reading some some general question in mind. Skimming is a tool in which the author's sequence can be observed. Advantages It provides a base to study structure.making inferences looking at the order of information and how it effects the message identifying words that connect one idea to another identifying words that indicate change from one section to another Assessment : Assessment of intensive reading will take the form of reading tests and quizzes.

or phrase. It is assumed then. "beyond the scope of the purpose originally set" (p. not single words. further questions may be asked. To improve skimming.determining if a careful reading is deserving. Read the introduction or the first paragraph. after the students have read and completed the assigned questions. focusing on locating specific information. for example. If students can answer these questions correctly. Look at any pictures or phrases that are in boldface or italics Read the summary or last paragraph. the general public. technical readers. Read the first sentence of each of the following paragraphs. Skimming is a skill that a student may want to develop if they are planning to continue with academic studies. Activities Students must locate facts that are expressed in sentences.70). Role of the teacher Before the students start reading. Scanning Scanning ia a quick reading. readers should read more and more rapidly. it indicates they have read the text too closely. It is often used in reviewing for a test. date. symbol. in which the eyes wander until the reader finds the piece of information needed. for example. Although speed is essential and the teacher often sets a time limit to the activity. Students should be encouraged individually to better themselves. The reader knows what the item looks like and so. to persuade. the teacher should guide students to ask themselves the following questions: What kind of audience was the text written for? Was it. Scanning is used when a specific piece of information is required. formula. or a set of instructions? What was the author's purpose? Was it . or academic students? What type of text is it? Is it. . to form appropriate questions and predictions and then read quickly Pugh (1978) suggests that to assess skimming. is required. such as a name. skimming should not be done competitively. that very little information is processed into long-term memory or even for immediate understanding because the objective is simply matching. Scanning involves quick eye movements. a formal letter. Skimming is used to build student confidence and an understanding that it is possible to gain meaning without reading every word in a text. an advertisement. for example. not necessarily linear in fashion. to inform or to instruct? The teacher should make the following clear to students before assigning a skimming exercise: the purpose of the exercise how deeply the text is to be read Role of the student Students read through the text in the following manner: Read the title if any. Read any headings or sub-headings. knows when he has located what he was searching for.

Reading approaches Phonics approach – most soundly supported by research for effective instruction in beginning reading Must be explicitly taught Must be systematically organized and sequenced . that may have been given to them by the teacher. Activities Activities may include exercises that are devised by the teacher in which students scan for a single word or specific text . relevant to a purpose. Role of the Student The student forms questions before reading. Students may do any of the following: make predictions and guesses use titles and tables of contents to get an idea of what a passage is about activate prior knowledge about the topic of the passage by answering some questions or performing a quiz anticipate what they want to learn about the top use titles. They reflect on expectations as they read. they "interact with the text". There are many everyday uses for scanning. a capitalized word or a short phrase that includes key words. menus. In other words. such as a numeral. that do not appear in the text. that allude to the main idea It is an accepted view today that efficient readers are not passive. The teacher may use authentic materials that are commonly scanned in real life. Students use skills of prediction and anticipation. They react with a text by having expectations and ideas about the purposes of the text as well as possible outcomes.When it is used Scanning is used often with technical. such as reading a schedule. The teacher needs to remind students that as they read carefully to find the required information. they should pay particular attention to titles and keywords. scientific or professional materials to locate specific information. The student is aware of the graphic form that the answer may take. and prior knowledge to anticipate the contents of the text use key words. What specific information are they looking for? The student looks for contextual clues. Role of Teacher The teacher selects passages that do include specific information. Scanning is a valuable skill for second language learners to develop because often they do not require a detailed read of a text. The student tries to anticipate what the answer might look like and what sorts of clues would be useful. Activities may include exercises that are often carried on as a competition so students will work quickly. a written number. The teacher may ask students before they scan a text to note how the information is organized in the text. pictures. anticipate what will come next. such as the telephone directory. bus schedules.

Auditory. Definition Reading skills are specific abilities which enable a reader to read the written form as meaningful language to read anything written with independence. and to mentally interact with the message. looking Typically called VAKT Visual. saying. Fluency skills help the readers see larger segments. Example Word attack skills let the reader figure out new words. phrase. and fluency. comprehension. and groups of words as wholes. or sentence quickly enough to speed recognition. Tactile Can be used with either Phonics or Whole Language Linguistic Method – supported only by "qualitative research" instead of quantitative research Teaches "whole words" in word families Students are not explicitly taught that there is a relationship between letters and sounds for most sounds Language Experience – called "Whole Language" Expects child to learn reading as "naturally" as speech Uses child’s oral language as content for reading Uses child’s oral language as basis for spelling instruction Children learn to "read" by reading and re-reading "big books" together with the teacher and then the teacher gradually withdraws prompts so child appears to be reading that book Reading Comprehension Support – Explicitly teaches strategies and techniques for studying texts and acquiring meaning Reading skills Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence. Critical reading skills help the reader see the relationship of ideas and use these in reading with meaning and fluency. listening.Must include learning how to blend sounds together Multi-Sensory Approach – effective for special needs Uses all possible senses – tracing. comprehension and fluency. phrases. Literacy hour Stages of • • • • • Literacy Hour Whole class shared text work Whole class shared sentence/word work Guided reading Independent work Plenary . Kinesthetic. Comprehension skills help the reader predict the next word.

the information gained from assessment allows a teacher to create appropriate instruction for their students To provide teachers with information on how instruction can be improved. since students have varying experiences and knowledge. It is needed to help teachers know the skill levels of their students. and symbols. a student can count the number of phonemes in a word to demonstrate understanding. numbers. Students can also be asked to separate and categorize letters by uppercase and lowercase Phonemic awareness — The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words These assessments examine a student's knowledge of how sounds make words. To monitor student progress. and he suggests that eight different intelligences account for student potential (Armstrong. Gardner. To demonstrate the effectiveness of instruction. Assessment examples for specific areas of reading Letter knowledge — The ability to associate sounds with letters Present a student with a list of letters and ask the student to name each letter. It is important for teachers to use instructional time effectively. or a student can delete or add a phoneme to make a new word Emerging practice The theory of multiple intelligences is one that many educators support and believe to be effective. or to blend spoken parts of a word into one word. To guide teacher instruction. Dr. A student can be asked to break spoken words into parts. 1994. Gardner developed this theory in 1983. a teacher can make informed decisions about what instruction is appropriate for each student.Technique of assessing reading The purpose and benefits of assessment To identify skills that need review. Assessment provides teachers with information on what skills students have and have not mastered. Through consistent assessment. Another example is to have a student separate the letters from a pile of letters. The information gained from assessment allows teachers to know if all students are mastering the content covered. Additionally. and this can be done when teachers are knowledgeable about what their students are ready to learn and what they already know. They include: linguistic intelligence logical mathematical intelligence visual spatial intelligence bodily kinesthetic intelligence musical intelligence interpersonal intelligence intrapersonal intelligence naturalist intelligence . 1983). A teacher can learn which students need review before covering additional content and which students are ready to move forward. Therefore.

For students. ensures that the class you are teaching gets a balanced mixture of different materials. Activate: the students do writing and/ or speaking activities which require . Reading comprehension — The process of understanding the meaning of text Involves a student reading a passage that is at an appropriate level for the student. Fluency — The automatic ability to read words in connected text To ask a student to read a passage aloud for one minute. It’s the product of my thoughts about the class and what I hope to achieve Why Plan ahead? reduces uncertainty or panic and gives you confidence and clarity. Study: it is a focus of language. Different measures provide distinct information. It is a way to help gain the respect of your students. The number of correct words read is counted and this total equals a student's oral reading fluency rate. and then having the student answer factual questions about the text. and makes it easier for you to organize the time and activities flow in classes. Assessments should always be culturally and linguistically appropriate Planning for Teaching Reading Principles of Lesson Planning What is a Lesson Plan? It’s the framework of my lesson. Words that are skipped or pronounced incorrectly are not counted. Planning helps you to develop a personal style. It’s the map I follow during class. The teacher records any mistakes that the student makes and analyzes them to determine what instruction is needed. Considerations when selecting an assessment Every assessment will not be appropriate for all students. It does not have to be NEW language input. content and interaction types. evidence of a plan shows them the teacher has devoted time to thinking about the class. such as grammar or vocabulary and pronunciation.Decoding — The process of using lettersound correspondences to recognize words To have a student read a passage of text as clearly and correctly as possible. reminds you to prepare materials beforehand. Categories for Planning a Lesson Goals Objectives Prerequisites Materials Lesson Description Lesson Procedure Assessment/Evaluation What to consider? Engage: get the students interested in the class and hopefully enjoying what they are doing. It suggests professionalism and commitment.

Creating Learning Objectives Create a stem Eg.concerns performing an action.them to use not only the language they are studying that day. etc Then.involves cognitive functions. illustrate. the student will be able to After you create the stem. produce Analysis – identify. analyze. After completing the lesson. determine the actual product. clustering. recite. interpret. complete. recognize. outline Synthesis – construct. etc. Categories of Objectives Knowledge . Goals Goals determine: Purpose of the lesson How students will engage We need to think about: Previous plans and activities Broader objectives of the unit plan or curriculum as well as the goals for this unit Future activities and new knowledge Central objective: What will students be able to do by the end of this lesson? Objectives Focus on what your students will do to acquire further knowledge and skills Questions to ask include: What will students be able to do during this lesson? Under what conditions will students' performance be accomplished? How will you determine if the objectives have been met? How will students demonstrate that they have learned and understood the objectives of the lesson? What do you want the student to learn as a result of the lesson It should be observable and measurable. process. list. copy Comprehension – arrange. recall.) Verbs to Use in Creating Educational Objectives (Bloom’s Taxonomy) Knowledge – choose. add a verb Eg. predict. or outcome Eg. but also other language that they have learnt. sing. collect. justify Prerequisites Make sure students are ready to meet the lesson’s objectives Check on their prior knowledge Questions include: What must students already be able to do before this lesson? What concepts have to be mastered in advance to accomplish the lesson objectives? . deduce Evaluation – explain. provide. create. generate ideas and plans for speech by using _____ (brainstorming. compare. Students measure. Students categorize. change Application – organize. play. define. synthesize. infer. categorize. Skills . analyze.

use polite requests appropriately.m -9. Date : 23rd of July 2012 (Monday) Enrolment : 34 students Focal skills : Reading Other skill : Listening Previous knowledge: Students have learnt to ask simple questions and making polite requests Learning outcomes: By the end of the lesson. step-by-step description How to achieve your objectives How to proceed Lesson Plan Format (L&S) Class : Year 1 Amanah Subject : English language Time : 8. etc Helpful questions to ask are: What materials will be needed? What needs to be prepared in advance? Lesson Procedure Detailed.Materials Determine necessary: Preparation time Resources/materials Books.30 a. respond to requests. students should be able to: sing song with guidance.m.00 a. Stage/Time Content Set Induction Presentation Practice Production Closure Teaching/Learning Activities Notes/Resources . equipment.