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SEMICONDUCTOR BASICS CHAPTER 1    According to the classical Bohr model, the atom is viewed as having a planetary-type structure with electrons orbiting at various distances around the central nucleus. The nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons. The protons have a positive charge and the neutrons are uncharged. The number of protons is the atomic number of the atom. Electrons have a negative charge and orbit around the nucleus at distances that depend on their energy level. An atom has discrete bands of energy called shells in which the electrons orbit. Atomic structure allows a certain maximum number of electrons in each shell. These shells are designated 1, 2, 3, and so on. In their natural state, all atoms are neutral because they have an equal number of protons and electrons.  The outermost shell or band of an atom is called the valence band, and electrons that orbit in this band are called valence electrons. These electrons have the highest energy of all those in the atom. If a valence electron acquires enough energy from an outside source such as heat, it can jump out of the valence band and break away from its atom.   Semiconductor atoms have four valence electrons. Silicon is the most widely used semiconductive material. Materials that are conductors have a large number of free electrons and conduct current very well. Insulating materials have very few free electrons and do not conduct current at all under normal circumstances. Semiconductive materials fall in between conductors and insulators in their ability to conduct current.  Semiconductor atoms bond together in a symmetrical pattern to form a solid material called a crystal. The bonds that hold a crystal together are called covalent bonds. Within the crystal structure, the valence electrons that manage to escape from their parent atom are called conduction electrons or free electrons. They have more energy than the electrons in the valence band and are free to drift throughout the material. When an electron breaks away to become free, it leaves a hole in the valence band creating what is called an electron-hole pair. These electronhole pairs are thermally produced because the electron has acquired enough energy from external heat to break away from its atom.  A free electron will eventually lose energy and fall back into a hole. This is called recombination. But, electron-hole pairs are continuously being thermally generated so there are always free electrons in the material.  When a voltage is applied across the semiconductor, the thermally produced free electrons move in a net direction and form the current. This is one type of current in an intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.   Another type of current is the hole current. This occurs as valence electrons move from hole to hole creating, in effect, a movement of holes in the opposite direction. An n-type semiconductive material is created by adding impurity atoms that have five valence electrons. These impurities are pentavalent atoms. A p-type semiconductor is created by adding impurity atoms with only three valence electrons. These impurities are trivalent atoms.   The process of adding pentavalent or trivalent impurities to a semiconductor is called doping. The majority carriers in an n-type semiconductor are free electrons acquired by the doping process, and the minority carriers are holes produced by thermally generated electron-hole pairs. The

Zener diodes are available in many voltage ratings ranging from 1. Diode clampers add a dc level to an ac voltage. and the minority carriers are free electrons produced by thermally generated electron-hole pairs. The peak output voltage of a bridge rectifier equals the total peak secondary voltage less two diode drops. and a regulator. zener breakdown is predominant. There are two breakdown mechanisms in a zener diode: avalanche breakdown and zener breakdown. the better the filter. CHAPTER 2 DIODE APPLICATIONS                   The single diode in a half-wave rectifier is forward-biased and conducts for 180º of the input cycle. Ripple voltage is caused by the charging and discharging of the filter capacitor. CHAPTER 3 SPECIAL-PURPOSE DIODE         The zener diode operates in reverse breakdown.8 V to 200 V. A depletion region forms starting at the junction that is devoid of any majority carriers. The output frequency of a half-wave rectifier equals the input frequency. Diode limiters cut off voltage above or below specified levels. When VZ > 5 V. The smaller the ripple voltage. Limiters are also called clippers. PIV (peak inverse voltage) is the maximum voltage appearing across the diode in reverse bias. A capacitor-input filter provides a dc output approximately equal to the peak of its rectified input voltage. A dc power supply typically consists of an input transformer. Regulation of output voltage over a range of load currents is called load regulation. The output frequency of a full-wave rectifier is twice the input frequency. The PIV for each diode in a bridge rectifier is approximately half that required for an equivalent center-tapped configuration and is equal to the peak output voltage plus one diode drop. Regulation of output voltage over a range of input voltages is called input or line regulation.  A pn junction is formed when part of a material is doped n-type and part of it is doped p-type. When VZ < 5 V. The PIV for each diode in a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is twice the peak output voltage plus one diode drop. A zener diode maintains a nearly constant voltage across its terminals over a specied range of zener currents. Each diode in a full-wave rectifier is forward-biased and conducts for 180º of the input cycle. The two basic types of full-wave rectifier are center-tapped and bridge. The peak output voltage of a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is approximately one-half of the total peak secondary voltage less one diode drop. avalanche breakdown is predominant. Zener diodes are used as voltage regulators and limiters. a diode rectifier. a filter. A varactor diode acts as a variable capacitor under reverse-bias conditions. .majority carriers in a p-type semiconductor are holes acquired by the doping process. The depletion region is formed by ionization.

The dc current gain of a transistor is the ratio of IC to IB and is designated range from less than 20 to several hundred. emitter current (IE). low shorts on the circuit board. This is called forward-reverse bias. When a transistor is forward-reverse biased. the base-emitter junction and the base-collector junction. excessive leakage currents. IB is very small compared to IC and IE. CHAPTER 4 B J T ‘S          The BJT (bipolar junction transistor) is constructed with three regions: base.         The capacitance of a varactor varies inversely with reverse-bias voltage. or ceramic. collector. thus the term bipolar. LEDs are available for either infrared or visible light. The base region is very thin and lightly doped compared to the collector and emitter regions. It is used in fast-switching applications. The BJT has two pn junctions.       DC DC. The photodiode exhibits an increase in reverse current with light intensity. DC. A laser diode is similar to an LED except that it emits coherent (single wavelength) light when the forward current exceeds a threshold value. The three currents in the transistor are the base current ( IB).     There is a variation in type. an n region. In cutoff.95 to 0. A transistor can be operated as an electronic switch in cutoff and saturation. metal. Common faults are open junctions. and external opens and . the voltage gain depends on the internal emitter resistance and the external collector resistance. It is best to check a transistor in-circuit before removing it. the base-emitter junction must be forward-biased and the basecollector junction must be reverse-biased. In saturation. DC over temperature and also from one transistor to another of the same There are many types of transistor packages using plastic. The tunnel diode is used in oscillator circuits. An LED emits light when forward-biased. The current regulator diode keeps its forward current at a constant specified value. The Schottky diode has a metal-to-semiconductor junction.99. The transistor ideally behaves like an open switch between collector and emitter. Values typically is usually referred to as hFE on transistor data sheets. and an intrinsic (i) region and displays a variable resistance characteristic when forward-biased and a constant capacitance when reverse-biased. both pn junctions are forward-biased and the collector current is maximum. The two types of bipolar junction transistor are the npn and the pnp. Current in a BJT consists of both free electrons and holes. DC. both pn junctions are reverse-biased and there is essentially no collector current. and emitter. To operate as an amplifier. The pin diode has a p region. The ratio of IC to IB is called Values typically range from 0. and collector current (IC). The transistor ideally behaves like a closed switch between collector and emitter.

The high input resistance of a JFET is due to the reverse-biased gate-source junction. Voltage-divider bias provides good Q-point stability with a single-polarity supply voltage.   The dc input resistance at the base of a BJT is approximately most common bias circuit. A common-emitter amplifier has good voltage. but its voltage gain is approximately 1. The Q-point of a circuit is defined by specific values for IC and VCE. The linear (active) operating region of a transistor lies along the load line below saturation and above cutoff. The JFET operates with a reverse-biased pn junction (gate-to-source). Collector-feedback bias provides good stability using negative feedback from collector to base. . drain. thus increasing channel resistance. These values are called the coordinates of the Q-point. The total gain of a multistage amplifier is the product of the individual gains (sum of dB gains). but a relatively low input resistance. but it has a very low input resistance and its current gain is approximately 1. For an n-channel JFET. current. CHAPTER 7 FET’S       Field-effect transistors are unipolar devices (one-charge carrier).CHAPTER 5 TRANSISTOR BIAS CIRCUITS     The purpose of biasing a circuit is to establish a proper stable dc operating point (Q-point). A dc load line passes through the Q-point on a transistor's collector curves intersecting the vertical axis at approximately IC(sat) and the horizontal axis at VCE(off). The common-base amplifier has a good voltage gain. It is the Emitter bias generally provides good Q-point stability but requires both positive and negative CHAPTER 6 BJT AMPLIFIER          A small-signal amplifier uses only a small portion of its load line under signal conditions. h parameters are important to technicians and technologists because manufacturers' data sheets specify transistors using h parameters. VGS(off). r parameters are easily identifiable and applicable with a transistor's circuit operation. DC.    The base bias circuit arrangement has poor stability because its Q-point varies widely with supply voltages. A common-collector amplifier has high input resistance and good current gain. and power gains. VGS can vary from zero positively to VGS(off). DCRE. Reverse bias of a JFET produces a depletion region within the channel. The three FET terminals are source. and gate. VGS can vary from zero negatively to cutoff. A darlington pair provides beta multiplication for increased input resistance. For a p-channel JFET. Single-stage amplifiers can be connected in sequence with various coupling methods to form multistage amplifiers.

r′ds. . A depletion MOSFET (D-MOSFET) can operate with a zero. of a FET influences (reduces) the gain if it is not sufficiently greater than Rd so that it can be neglected. and the drain resistance. A channel is induced in an E-MOSFET by the application of a VGS greater than the threshold value. positive. obtained by setting VGS VGS(off)/3. The enhancement MOSFET (E-MOSFET) has no physical channel. Id. The input resistance at the gate of a FET is extremely high. A p-channel E-MOSFET has a negative VGS(th). to the input voltage. For an n-channel D-MOSFET. the E-MOSFET cannot operate with VGS = 0 V.               IDSS is the constant drain current when VGS = 0. higher voltage gains can be achieved with BJT amplifiers than with FET amplifiers. Midpoint bias for a D-MOSFET is ID = IDSS. or negative gate-to-source voltage. Rd. The input resistance of a common-gate amplifier is the reciprocal of gm. Unlike JFETs and D-MOSFETs. The Q-point in a JFET with voltage-divider bias is more stable than in a self-biased JFET. An E-MOSFET has no IDSS parameter. The D-MOSFET has a physical channel between the drain and source. An n-channel E-MOSFET has a positive VGS(th). A load resistance connected to the drain of a common-source amplifier reduces the voltage gain. The internal drain-to-source resistance. Generally. There is a 180º phase inversion between gate and drain voltages. The transconductance. LD MOSFET. g m. CHAPTER 8 FET AMPLIFIER              The drain of a FET is analogous to the collector of a BJT.4. VGS(th). the source of a FET is analogous to the emitter of a BJT. A FET is called a square-law device because of the relationship of ID to the square of a term containing VGS. and TMOSFET are E-MOSFET technologies developed for higher power dissipation than a conventional E-MOSFET. The total voltage gain of a multistage amplifier is the product of the individual voltage gains (sum of dB gains). There is no phase inversion between gate and source in a source-follower. The voltage gain of a common-source amplifier is determined largely by the transconductance. whereas the gate and channel in a JFET are separated by a pn junction. gm. MOSFETs differ from JFETs in that the gate of a MOSFET is insulated from the channel by an SiO 2 layer. negative values of VGS produce the depletion mode and positive values produce the enhancement mode. This is true for both JFETs and D-MOSFETs. Vgs. obtained by setting VGS = 0. of a FET relates the output current. Midpoint bias for a JFET is ID = IDSS/2. and the gate of a FET is analogous to the base of a BJT. An unbypassed resistance between source and ground ( RS) reduces the voltage gain of a FET amplifier. VMOSFET. The voltage gain of a common-drain amplifier (source-follower) is always slightly less than 1.

the highest critical frequency is the dominant critical frequency. the efficiency can approach 100 percent. The maximum efficiency of a class A power amplifier is 25 percent. Thyristors include 4-layer diodes.CHAPTER 9 POWER AMPLIFIER              A class A power amplifier operates entirely in the linear region of the transistor's characteristic curves. the lowest critical frequency is the dominant critical frequency. The gain-bandwidth product is a transistor parameter that is constant and equal to the unity-gain frequency. Class B amplifiers are normally operated in a push-pull configuration in order to produce an output that is a replica of the input. Each RC circuit causes the gain to drop at a rate of 20 dB/decade. and it is in cutoff for the other half. . Class AB eliminates crossover distortion found in pure class B. The bandwidth of an amplifier is the range of frequencies between the lower critical frequency and the upper critical frequency. CHAPTER 11 THYRISTORS AND OTHER DEVICES   Thyristors are devices constructed with four semiconductor layers ( pnpn). A class AB amplifier is biased slightly above cutoff and operates in the linear region for slightly more than 180º of the input cycle. An octave of frequency change is a two-times change (increase or decrease). diacs. The Q-point is at cutoff for class B operation. The maximum efficiency of a class B amplifier is 79 percent. Class C amplifiers are normally operated as tuned amplifiers to produce a sinusoidal output. CHAPTER 10 AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE           The coupling and bypass capacitors of an amplifier affect the low-frequency response. The Q-point must be centered on the load line for maximum class A output signal swing.7% of its midrange value. Under conditions of low power dissipation and high output power. A decade of frequency change is a ten-times change (increase or decrease). and PUTs. For the low-frequency RC circuits. A class B amplifier operates in the linear region for half of the input cycle (180º). SCRs. triacs. A class C amplifier operates in the linear region for only a small part of the input cycle. SCSs. The maximum efficiency of a class C amplifier is higher than that of either class A or class B amplifiers. Critical frequencies are values of frequency at which the RC circuits reduce the voltage gain to 70. The class C amplifier is biased below cutoff. For the high-frequency RC circuits. The transistor conducts during the full 360º of the input cycle. The internal transistor capacitances affect the high-frequency response.

The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. . base current is generated by light input. and the common mode. and a wide bandwidth. Light rays that strike the core boundary at an angle less than the critical angle are refracted into the cladding. and output. very high openloop voltage gain. It can be turned on by a pulse at the gate and conducts in a direction depending on the voltage polarity across the two anode terminals. like the diac. infinite open-loop voltage gain. very low output impedance. Light acts as the trigger source in light-activated SCRs (LASCRs). The insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) combines the input characteristics of a MOSFET with the output characteristics of a BJT. The silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) can be triggered on by a pulse at the gate and turned off by reducing the anode current below the specified holding value. CHAPTER 12 THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER        The basic op-amp has three terminals not including power and ground: inverting ( –) input. The ideal op-amp has infinite input impedance. infinite bandwidth. single-mode step index. The diac can conduct current in either direction and is turned on when a breakover voltage is exceeded. the differential mode. A differential amplifier forms the input stage of an op-amp. IGBTs are used in high-voltage switching applications. Optical coupling devices provide electrical isolation between a source and an output circuit.                    The 4-layer diode is a thyristor that conducts when the voltage across its terminals exceeds the breakover potential. Common-mode occurs when equal in-phase voltages are applied to both input terminals. zero output impedance. The programmable unijunction transistor (PUT) can be externally programmed to turn on at a desired anode-to-gate voltage level. It turns off when the current drops below the holding value. Three types of fiber optic cable are multimode step index. and multimode graded index. and infinite CMRR. The intrinsic standoff ratio of a unijunction transistor (UJT) determines the voltage at which the device will trigger on. and the jacket. The three basic parts of a fiber-optic cable are the core. Light rays must bounce off the core boundary at an angle (angle of incidence) greater than the critical angle in order to be reflected. resulting in attenuation of the light. A practical op-amp has very high input impedance. and collector. Three types of op-amp input operation are the single-ended mode. noninverting (+) input. Latch-up can occur in an IGBT when the maximum collector current is exceeded. is a bidirectional device. Fiber optics provides a light path from a light-emitting device to a light-activated device. The triac. In a phototransistor. The IGBT has three terminals: emitter. the cladding. The silicon-controlled switch (SCS) has two gate terminals and can be turned on by a pulse at the cathode gate and turned off by a pulse at the anode gate. Most op-amps require both a positive and a negative dc supply voltage. gate.

The input offset voltage can be compensated for with an external potentiometer between the two offset null pins provided on the IC op-amp package and as recommended by the manufacturer. The bandwidth of an op-amp equals the upper critical frequency. The product of gain and bandwidth is constant for a given op-amp. CHAPTER 13 BASIC OP-AMP CIRCUITS       In an op-amp comparator. noninverting. Open-loop voltage gain is the gain of an op-amp with no external feedback connections. when the input voltage exceeds a specified reference voltage. The difference between the UTP and the LTP is the hysteresis voltage. The gain-bandwidth product equals the frequency at which unity voltage gain occurs. and voltage-follower. Closed-loop voltage gain is the gain of an op-amp with external feedback. The midrange gain of an op-amp extends down to dc. thus reducing the voltage gain but increasing the stability and bandwidth. .              The voltage-follower has the highest input impedance and the lowest output impedance of the three amplifier configurations. A comparator switches to one state when the input reaches the upper trigger point (UTP) and back to the other state when the input drops below the lower trigger point (LTP).   A noninverting amplifier configuration has a higher input impedance and a lower output impedance than the op-amp itself (without feedback). Slew rate is the rate in volts per microsecond at which the output voltage of an op-amp can change in response to a step input.         The common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) is a measure of an op-amp's ability to reject commonmode inputs. All practical op-amps have small input bias currents and input offset voltages that produce small output error voltages. Bounding limits the output amplitude of a comparator. Negative feedback lowers the gain and increases the bandwidth. Negative feedback occurs when a portion of the output voltage is connected back to the inverting input such that it subtracts from the input voltage. the output changes state. Hysteresis gives an op-amp noise immunity. The input bias current effect can be compensated for with external resistors. An inverting amplifier configuration has an input impedance approximately equal to the input resistor Ri and an output impedance approximately equal to the output impedance of the op-amp itself. Input offset voltage produces an output error voltage (with no input voltage). Input offset current is the difference between the two bias currents. The three basic op-amp configurations employ negative feedback. There are three basic op-amp configurations: inverting. The internal RC lag circuits that are inherently part of the amplifier stages cause the gain to roll off as frequency goes up. The gain of an op-amp decreases as frequency increases above the critical frequency. Input bias current also produces an output error voltage (with no input voltage). The closed-loop voltage gain is always less than the open-loop voltage gain. The output voltage of a summing amplifier is proportional to the sum of the input voltages. The internal RC lag circuits also cause a phase shift between input and output signals.

In a scaling adder. Integration of a step produces a ramp with a slope proportional to the amplitude.      An averaging amplifier is a summing amplifier with a closed-loop gain equal to the reciprocal of the number of inputs. thus making the input contribute more or contribute less to the output. An instrumentation amplifier has high input impedance. A log amplifier has a BJT in the feedback loop. An antilog amplifier has a BJT in series with the input. Differentiation of a ramp produces a step with an amplitude proportional to the slope. An instrumentation amplifier is useful in applications where small signals are embedded in large common-mode noise. high CMRR. . Most isolation amplifiers use transformer coupling for isolation. a different weight can be assigned to each input. The operation of log and antilog amplifiers is based on the nonlinear (logarithmic) characteristics of a pn junction. CHAPTER 15 ACTIVE FILTERS      The bandwidth in a low-pass filter equals the critical frequency because the response extends to 0 Hz. Integration is a mathematical process for determining the area under a curve. Isolation amplifiers are used to interface sensitive equipment with high-voltage environments and to provide protection from electrical shock in certain medical applications. and low output impedance. low output offset. Logarithmic amplifiers are used for analog multiplication and division. A band-pass filter passes all frequencies within a band between a lower and an upper critical frequency and rejects all others outside this band. The operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is a voltage-to-current amplifier. A band-stop filter rejects all frequencies within a specified band and passes all those outside this band. transconductance varies with bias current. therefore. and power. In an OTA. output. The bandwidth in a high-pass filter extends above the critical frequency and is limited only by the inherent frequency limitation of the active circuit. CHAPTER 14 SPECIAL-PURPOSE OP-AMP CIRCUITS               A basic instrumentation amplifier is formed by three op-amps and seven resistors. A basic isolation amplifier has three electrically isolated parts: input. the gain of an OTA can be varied with a bias voltage or a variable resistor. including the gain-setting resistor RG. The output current of an OTA is the input voltage times the transconductance. The bandwidth of a band-pass filter is the difference between the upper critical frequency and the lower critical frequency. Differentiation is a mathematical process for determining the rate of change of a function. The voltage gain of a basic instrumentation amplifier is set by a single external resistor.

a local oscillator. or Bessel).     In filter terminology. Clapp. . The quality factor Q of a band-pass filter determines the filter's selectivity. the narrower the bandwidth and the better the selectivity. in addition to many other applications. Chebyshev. The 555 timer is an integrated circuit that can be used as an oscillator. phase-shift. a mixer. Sinusoidal RC oscillators include the Wien-bridge. Armstrong. The frequency in a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) can be varied with a dc control voltage. and audio and power amplifiers. exhibit a roll-off of –20 dB/decade/pole. The feedback signal in a Hartley oscillator is derived from an inductive voltage divider in the LC circuit. The feedback signal in a Colpitts oscillator is derived from a capacitive voltage divider in the LC circuit. a single RC circuit is called a pole. Filters with the Bessel characteristic are used for filtering pulse waveforms. The higher the Q.  The IF in a standard AM receiver is 455 kHz. the voltage gain around the feedback loop must be greater than 1. The Clapp oscillator is a variation of the Colpitts with a capacitor added in series with the inductor.   Filters with the Chebyshev characteristic have ripples or overshoot in the passband and exhibit a faster roll-off per pole than filters with the Butterworth characteristic. The feedback signal in an Armstrong oscillator is derived by transformer coupling. the amplitude of a higher-frequency carrier signal is varied by a lower-frequency modulating signal (usually an audio signal). Hartley. and are used when all the frequencies in the passband must have the same gain. For initial start-up. The two conditions for positive feedback are the phase shift around the feedback loop must be 0º and the voltage gain around the feedback loop must equal 1. Crystal oscillators are the most stable type. Their linear phase characteristic results in minimal waveshape distortion. The damping factor determines the filter response characteristic (Butterworth. CHAPTER 17 COMMUNICATIONS CIRCUITS   In amplitude modulation (AM). CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS              Sinusoidal oscillators operate with positive feedback. and crystal-controlled. an AM detector. The roll-off rate per pole is slower than for the Butterworth. A basic superheterodyne AM receiver consists of an RF amplifier (not always). Sinusoidal LC oscillators include the Colpitts. Each pole in a Butterworth filter causes the output to roll off at a rate of –20 dB/decade. and twin-T. an IF (intermediate frequency) amplifier. A relaxation oscillator uses an RC timing circuit and a device that changes states to generate a periodic waveform. Filters with the Butterworth response characteristic have a very flat response in the passband.

CHAPTER 18 VOLTAGE REGULATORS           Voltage regulators keep a constant dc output voltage when the input or load varies within limits. the frequency of a carrier signal is varied by a modulating signal. a different kind of detector or discriminator.   The AGC (automatic gain control) in a receiver tends to keep the signal strength constant within the receiver to compensate for variations in the received signal. and inverting. The radio frequency varies over the AM or FM band. The output spectrum of a balanced modulator includes upper-side and lower-side frequencies.7 MHz. high-current applications. DCE stands for digital communications equipment. and sometimes an amplifier. Two basic types of linear regulators are series and shunt. an error detector. Switching regulators are more efficient than linear regulators and are particularly useful in lowvoltage. A modem is a modulator/demodulator. A basic voltage regulator consists of a reference voltage source. Two basic categories of voltage regulators are linear and switching. DTE stands for digital terminal equipment. and a deemphasis network. the control element is a transistor in parallel with the load.                  A four-quadrant linear multiplier can handle any combination of voltage polarities on its inputs. Three-terminal linear IC regulators are available for either fixed output or variable output voltages of positive or negative polarities. The output spectrum of a standard amplitude modulator includes upper-side and lower-side frequencies and the carrier frequency. A VCO is a basic frequency modulator when the modulating signal is applied to the control voltage input. In frequency modulation (FM). An external pass transistor increases the current capability of a regulator. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is a feedback circuit consisting of a phase detector. The audio and power amplifiers boost the output of the detector or discriminator and drive the speaker. Amplitude modulation is basically a multiplication process. and a control device. the control element is a transistor in series with the load. step-up. The purpose of a PLL is to lock onto and track incoming frequencies. . A linear multiplier can be used as a phase detector. The IF is 10. The multiplication of sinusoidal signals produces sum and difference frequencies. A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) produces an output frequency that can be varied by a control voltage. A mixer converts the RF signal down to the IF signal. Its operation is based on a variable reactance. Three configurations for switching regulators are step-down. a sampling element. a low-pass filter. but no carrier frequency. In a shunt linear regulator. A linear multiplier is used as the mixer in receiver systems. a VCO. One type of AM demodulator consists of a multiplier followed by a low-pass filter. In a series linear regulator. The intermediate frequency is constant. A superheterodyne FM receiver is basically the same as an AM receiver except that it requires a limiter to keep the IF amplitude constant. Protection circuitry is also found in most regulators.

A switch capacitor circuit is based on charge flow and can emulate a resistor with a value determined by the capacitance value and the frequency at which it is switched. The AN221E04 FPAA has four configurable analog blocks (CABs) arranged in a 2X2 matrix. simulating the design to make sure that it operates as expected. summing amplifiers. Development software provides for entering a circuit design using a computer. gain amplifiers. The 78S40 is a switching voltage regulator. .   Typical development software provides configurable analog modules that can be dragged and dropped into a design window on the computer screen and then connected. The 7900 series are three-terminal IC regulators with fixed negative output voltage. An FPAA can be programmed or configured statically while installed on a development or evaluation board or dynamically while operating in a system. and so on with programmable parameters. comparators. integrators. CHAPTER 19 PROGRAMMABLE ANALOG ARRAYS        An FPAA consists of two or more configurable analog blocks. The LM337 is a three-terminal IC regulator with a negative variable output voltage. and downloading the design to an FPAA device. The LM317 is a three-terminal IC regulator with a positive variable output voltage. Most FPAAs use switched-capacitor circuits. differentiators. and a standard between the computer port and the board.     The 7800 series are three-terminal IC regulators with fixed positive output voltage. an FPAA device installed on a development or evaluation board. The setup for statically programming an FPAA requires a computer running the development software. Configurable analog modules (CAMs) include standard analog functions such as filters. rectifiers.