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Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal

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Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto, Ângela Giovana Batista, Cosme Damião Barbosa, Gilmar Vieira, Enilson de Barros Silva Effect of packages with biofilms in physicochemical and sensory characteristics of strawberries Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnología Postcosecha, vol. 12, núm. 2, 2011, pp. 175-184, Asociación Iberoamericana de Tecnología Postcosecha, S.C. México
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Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnología Postcosecha, ISSN (Printed Version): 1665-0204 rebasa@hmo.megared.net.mx Asociación Iberoamericana de Tecnología Postcosecha, S.C. México

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 Biofilm  3%  strawberries  showed  loss  of  total  pectin  on   day   15.  Alto  da  Jacuba.   3%   and   control   strawberries   in   terms   of   these   physicochemical   properties   and   the   sensory   preference   and   acceptance   of   panelists.  nº  5000.  Rodovia   MGT   367   –   Km   583.Effect of packages with biofilms in… Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto y Cols.   El   uso   de   bio-­‐película   basada   en   el   almidón   de   yuca   influencia  de  las  propiedades  físico-­‐químicas  y  sensoriales  de  las  fresas.   The   3%   cassava   starch   biofilms   promoted   more  efficient  protective  effect  during  the  15  days  of  storage.   Los   biofilms   yuca   3%   de   almidón   promovido   efecto   protector   más   eficaz   durante   los   15   días   de   almacenamiento.  biofilm   EFECTO  DEL  EMPACADO  CON  BIOFILMS  SOBRE  LAS  CARACTERÍSTICAS  FISICOQUÍMICAS  Y   SENSORIALES  DE  LA  FRESA   RESUMEN   El   objetivo   de   este   estudio   fue   evaluar   el   efecto   comestible   biofilms   la   base   de   yuca   de   las   propiedades   físico-­‐químicas   y   sensoriales   de   la   calidad   de   las   fresas   durante   el   almacenamiento.   but   there   is   no   statistical  difference  between  the  treatments.   Strawberries  with  biofilms  3%  showed  higher  pH  values  on  9  and  15  storage  days.   The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  evaluate  the  effect  of  cassava  based  edible  biofilms  on  physicochemical   and  sensory  properties  of  strawberries  quality  during  storage.   Alto   da   Jacuba.  Alto  da  Jacuba.   Professor   of   Agronomy   Department.  Ângela  Giovana  Batista2.  Fresas  biofilm  3%  mostraron  una  pérdida  de  pectina  total  de  15  días.   4 39100-­‐000.   Brazil.  Total  acids  levels  of   strawberries   on   the   third   day   of   storage   were   lower   for   biofilm   3%   strawberries.  Rodovia  MGT  367  –  Km  583.   nº   5000.  almidón.  biofilm.   Undergraduate   student   at   Biological   Sciences   Department.   3%   y   fresas   de   control   en   términos   de   estas   propiedades   físico-­‐químicas   y   sensoriales   de   la   preferencia   y   la   aceptación.  fisicoquímicas.  ya  que  su  índice  de  aceptación  más  alto  y  el  promedio  más   alto   en   el   análisis   descriptivo   cuantitativo.  because  do  not  showed  high  variations.   Brazil.   Diamantina-­‐MG.br   Nutritionist   and Researcher   at   Laboratory   of   Cerrado's   Biomass   Technology.  El  biofilm  fresas   1%  era  más  aceptado  por  los  panelistas.   3 39100-­‐000.   Rodovia   MGT   367   –   Km   583. Tecnología Postcosecha Vol 12(2):175-184 175 .  nº  5000.   Federal   University  of  Jequitinhonha  and  Mucuri  Valleys  -­‐  UFVJM.   el   9   y   15   días   de   almacenamiento.   Se   evaluaron   biopelículas   de   almidón   de   yuca   con   una   concentración   al   1%.  physicochemical.     ABSTRACT   Palabras  clave:  fresa.   nº   5000.  ya  que  no  mostró  grandes  variaciones.   Federal   University   of   Jequitinhonha   and   Mucuri   Valleys  –   UFVJM. Iber.     Keywords:  Strawberry.  Federal  University  of  Jequitinhonha  and  Mucuri  Valleys  –  UFVJM.com.  Diamantina-­‐MG.       Rev.   39100-­‐000.   The   use   of   cassava   starch  based  biofilm  influenced  the  physicochemical  and  sensory  properties  of  strawberries.   Los   niveles   de   ácidos   totales   de   fresas   en   el   tercer   día   de  almacenamiento  es  menor  para  las  fresas  biofilm  3%. (2011) EFFECT  OF  PACKAGES  WITH  BIOFILMS  IN  PHYSICOCHEMICAL  AND  SENSORY   CHARACTERISTICS  OF  STRAWBERRIES       Nísia  Andrade  Villela  Dessimoni  Pinto1*.   Brazil.   1* Professor  of  Nutrition  Department.   Gilmar  Vieira4  &  Enilson  de  Barros  Silva4.   Diamantina-­‐MG.  cassava  starch.  39100-­‐000.  pero  no  hay  diferencias  estadísticas  entre  los   tratamientos.   E-­‐mail:   2   nisiavillela@yahoo.  Fresas  con  biofilms  3%  mostró  valores  más   altos   de   pH.  Cosme  Damião  Barbosa3.  We  evaluated  cassava  starch  biofilms   with   concentrations   at   1%.  *Corresponding  author.   The   strawberries   biofilm   1%   were   more   accepted   by   the   panelists   because   its   higher   acceptability   index   and   the   highest   average   in   quantitative   descriptive   analysis.   Brazil.   Diamantina-­‐MG.   Federal   University   of   Jequitinhonha   and  Mucuri  Valleys  –  UFVJM.   Alto   da   Jacuba.  Rodovia  MGT  367  –  Km  583.

Effect of packages with biofilms in… Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto y Cols.   The   cultivation   of   strawberries   in   Brazil   has   increased   since   the   1960s   and   has   particularly   increased   in   regions   with   a   temperate   or   subtropical   climate   due   to   the   high   profitability   of   strawberry   cultivation   in   these  areas  and  the  intense  demand  for  labor   (Santos.  2002)..   2009).   This   study   therefore   was   done   to   evaluate   the   effect   of   using   biofilms   based   in   cassava   starch   on   the   physicochemical   characteristics   of   strawberries  during  fifteen  days  of  storage.   The   use   of   a   biopolymer   such   as   starch   can   be   an   interesting   solution   because   this   polymer   is   quite   cheap.   2007).   In  order  to  avoid  a  loss  of  postharvest  quality.   improving   the   visual   appearance   of   the   fruit.   Souza   et   al.   The   cassava   starch   is   considered  the  most  suitable  raw  material  for   the  development  of  edible  biofilms.  because  it   forms  tough  and  transparent  pellicles  (Hojo  et   al.       176 Rev.  prolonging  their  shelf  life  and  preventing   postharvest   losses.   2004..   unemployment   has   become   a   serious   social   problem   for   the   region.   Loss   of   water   in   this   fruit   results   not   only   in   weight   loss   but   also   in   a   decrease   in   sensory   quality   primarily   due   to   changes  in  texture  (Chitarra  &  Chitarra..   is   bright   and   transparent.1   million   tons.   a   pseudo   fruit   that   is   non-­‐ climacteric  and  has  a  pleasant  smell  and  taste   (Domingues.   The   acquisition   of   cassava   starch   film   is   based   on   the   principle   of   starch   gelatinization.   The   comestible   portion   of   the   plant   is   the   strawberry.   Faced  with  these  properties  of  based  starch   biofilms.   an   activity   undertaken   by   many   farmers   for   many   years   in   Datas   (a   city   in   the   High   Jequitinhonha   Valley)   and   the   surrounding   region.   2000)..   with   a   worldwide   production   of   3.   The   strawberry   is   a   highly   perishable   fruit.     The  characteristics  of  the  product  to  which   the  edible  film  will  be  applied  and  the  goal  of   film   application   will   determine   the   method   of   obtention  that  is  convenient  to  be  used  (Flores   et   al.   studies   about   cassava   starch   biofilm   have   suggested   that   their   using   were   great   to   preserve   the   original   characteristics   of   many   fruits  (Henrique  &  Cereda..   we   hypothesized   that   strawberries   would  be  better  preserved  with  this  protective   film.   Strawberries   are   produced   in  a  several  regions  of  the  world  and  function   as  a  small  fruit  group  of  economic  expression.  1996.  Henrique  &  Cereda.   however   they   do   have  the  potential  to  replace  the  conventional   packaging   in   some   applications..   This   has   caused   the   families   of   these   small   farmers   to   look   for   new   sources   of   income   and   has   spurred   the   development   of   strawberry  cultivation  and  processing.  2004)..  1999.   abundant.   and   can   be   removed   with   water   (Cereda  et  al.   2007).  1999.   biodegradable   and   edible  (Mali  et  al.  as   well  as  to  verify  their  sensory  properties.  Maciel  et  al.   The   starch   extracted   from   cassava   has   good   features   for   training   films.  as  in  the   High   Jequitinhonha   Valley.   This   biofilm   has   good   looks.   are   low   cost   compared   to   commercial   waxes.   They   are   not   meant   to   totally   replace   synthetic   packaging   films..   2000).  2005).   which   occurs   above   70°   C   with   excess   water.   forms   a   transparent   film   and   resistant   due   to   retrogradation   properties. Iber.  2003).   is   not   sticky.   besides   being   edible.   Biofilms   do   not   cause   risks   to   consumer   health   because   they   are   not   metabolized   by   the   body   and   because   their   passage   through   the   gastrointestinal  tract  is  innocuous  (Maia  et  al.   With   the   decrease   in   mining.   Once   cooled.   Nunes  et  al.   Edible   films   can   be   made   with   various   thicknesses   and   are   composed   of   different   natural  substances  and/or  synthetic  fibers  that   polymerize   and   insulate   the   food. (2011) INTRODUCTION   The   strawberry   plant   (Fragaria   x   ananassa   Duchesne)   is   an   herbaceous   perennial   and   belongs  to  the  family   Rosaceae  and  the  genus   Fragaria. Tecnología Postcosecha Vol 12(2):175-184 .   The   cultivation   of   strawberries   has   been   developing  rapidly  in  regions  with  small  farms   and  without  an  agricultural  tradition.

 The   resulting   solution   was   titrated   with   a   standardized   0.   3.  The   suspensions   were   heated   to   maximum   temperature  of  70  ±  5°  C  with  constant  stirring   until   gelation   of   starch.  C).   at   latitude   of   18°26'44".   Thirty   fruits   were   separated   for   physical  characterization.   Brazil.0   g   of   strawberries   and   added   20mL   of   distilled   water  and  three  drops  of  phenolphthalein.   After   receiving   the   treatments.   and   after   packed   on   plastic   trays   of   17.   and   dried   on   a   stainless   steel   screen   to   allow   for   drainage   or   runoff.   9   and   15   days   of   storage  and  sensory  characteristics  at  day  1.   they   were  disinfected  and  cleaned  by  immersion  in   chlorinated  water  at  10μg/L.   was   suspended   in   5   liters  of  distilled  water  the  following  amounts:   1%  starch  -­‐  50g.  manually.   The   fruits   were   immersed   for   2   minutes   in   these   suspensions.   177 Rev.   To   obtain   the   proposed   concentrations.  2005).   The   trays   with   fruits   and   their   treatments   (plots)   were   evaluated   with   respect   to   their   physicochemical   at   0.   which   occurred   between   15   and   20   min. Tecnología Postcosecha Vol 12(2):175-184 .   Total  Acidity:  To  determine  total  titratable   acidity   (TA).   B1   and   B3   strawberries  were  storage  at  2oC.  Minas  Gerais  state.   After   radon   selection   of   the   fruits.   7.   After   gelling   suspensions   at   rest   until   cooled   to   room   temperature.   The   formulations   of   cassava   starch   biofilm   were   obtained   by   heating   under   stirring   the   suspension  of  starch  in  water  with  a  volume  of   5   liters   completed   in   flasks.   1996).  Results  were  expressed   as   g   citric   acid/100   g   sample   according   to   the   analytical   norms   of   the   Institute   Adolfo   Lutz   (IAL.   Strawberries   from   the   control   group   received  no  biofilm. (2011) MATERIAL  AND  METHODS   Strawberries   of   the   Ventana   variety   were   collected  in  Datas  County.   properly   coded   (C.   The   trays   with   fruits   and   their   treatments   (plots)   were   evaluated   with   respect   to   their   physicochemical   and   sensory   characteristics  as  described  below.     Physicochemical  ratings   Physicochemical   and   chemical   evaluations   were  performed  as  follows:   Mass   loss:   Mass   loss   was   quantified   by   successive   determinations   of   the   masses   of   each   plot   (bins)   using   a   Shimadzu®   analytical   balance  during  the  storage  period.  The  longitudinal  and   transverse   diameters   of   the   fruits   were   measured   with   the   aid   of   a   digital   Stainless   Hardened®   caliper   and   weighed   using   a   Shimadzu  ®  precision  analytical  balance.   Approximately   17   kg   of   strawberries   were   collected   according   to   their   size   (medium).012mm   thick   and   stored   in   refrigerated   conditions   at   2   ±   0.  3%  -­‐  150g  (dry  material).   After   the   treatments   the   C.  Each  plate  with  about  8  pieces   of   strawberry.5  cm.   a   longitude   of   43°39'21"  and  an  altitude  of  1.   were   separated   into   three   portions   and   subjected   to   treatments   with   the   following   substances:  1)  without  coating  (the  control.   approximately   900   fruits   in   all.   UFVJM.     Preparation  of  fruits   The   strawberries.   a   3%   biofilm   solution   (B3)   or   water   (C).   B1   and   B3).   was   wrapped   with   PVC   (polyvinyl   chloride)   plastic   of   0.   The   biofilms   of   cassava   starch   were   obtained   by   gelation   by   gradually   increasing   the   temperature   to   70   ±   5°C.   the   strawberries   were   placed   on   a   stainless   steel   screen   to   allow   for   drainage   or   runoff   and   were   then   covered   on   trays   before   being   coded   and   stored.   Campus   JK.   and   3)   3%   biofilm   (B3).  for  two   minutes.   maturity   (approximately   70%   red)   and   degree   of   damage   according   to   the   specifications   for   the   classification   of   strawberries  under  the  Technical  Regulation  of   Strawberry   Identity   and   Quality   (MERCOSUL.   we   weighed   approximately   5.01   NaOH   solution   until   a   color   change  was  observed.231m  and  were   taken   to   the   Laboratory   of   Biomass   Technology   of   the   Cerrado. Iber.0  x  11.Effect of packages with biofilms in… Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto y Cols.   2)   1%   biofilm   (B1).   cooling   to   room   temperature   and   immersing   for   two   minutes   in   either   a   1%   biofilm   solution   (B1).5°   C   and   90%   ±   5%   RH.

3   (Ferreira.   The   results   of   the   ranking   test   were  analyzed  according  to  the  sum  of  orders   using  a  Friedman  test  (Carneiro  &  Minin.  color.   3.  The  results  of  the   physicochemical   analysis   were   analyzed   using   an   analysis   of   variance   (ANOVA)   in   the   statistical   program   Sisvar   4.  2005).   The   panelists   were   students   or   staff   of   UFVJM.   Soluble   Solids:   total   Soluble   Solids   (SS)   were  determined  in  fruits  by  filtering  the  pulp   with   cotton   and   reading   the   value   from   a   manual   refractometer   with   a   measurement   range  of  0-­‐32º  Brix  (IAL.   and   four   storage   periods:   0.   1994. Iber.     Experimental  design  and  statistical  analysis     We   used   a   randomized   design   (CRD).  The   panelists   gave   scores   for   the   following   attributes  using  a  scale  of  one  to  five  in  which   one  is  the  lowest  score  and  five  is  the  highest   score:  appearance.  2005).   et   al.  2005). Tecnología Postcosecha Vol 12(2):175-184 .1   grams.  smell  and   flavor  (ABNT.   means   were   compared  using  a  Student  Newman  Keuls  test   (SNK)  at  a  5%  probability.   the   difference   between   the   means   was   analyzed   using   the   Tukey   test   at   a   5%   probability.   Acceptability   Index:   The   Acceptability   Index   (AI)   was   used   to   calculate   the   percent   acceptance   of   the   strawberries   using   the   following  formula:   AI%   =   Average   acceptance   score   x   100/   Maximum  acceptance  score   Ranking   test:   Forty-­‐three   panelists   participated   in   this   study.     Rev.   Sensory   analyses   were   performed  at  day  1.  IAL.     RESULTS  AND  DISCUSSION   The   strawberries   (Fragaria   x   ananassa   Duchesne)   studied   by   Fernandes   Jr.  1998.   All   evaluations   were  performed  in  triplicate.   which   was   lower   than   that   of   the   strawberries  in  the  present  study  (Table  1).   we   used   randomly   selected   panelists   of   both   genders   who   were   between   18-­‐60   years   of   age   and   were   non-­‐smokers.   (1978).   When   results   were   significant.  Carneiro  &  Minin.   Total  and  soluble  pectin:  Total  and  soluble   pectin   were   identified   by   spectrometry   by   reaction   middle   with   carbazole   according   to   the  technique  of  Bitter  &  Muir  (1962).   and   the   treatments   were   arranged   in   a   3   x   4   factorial  design  (three  treatments:  1%  biofilm.   3%   biofilm   and   water.  2006)   and   the   results   were   interpreted   according   to   a   table   of   the   sum   or   orders   at   a   5%   probability   as   described   in   Roessler   et   al.   Description   of   attributes   (Descriptive   Quantitative   Analysis):   This   descriptive   quantitative   analysis   relied   on   the   participation  of  16  panelists  who  were  trained   in   descriptive   terminology   for   the   sensory   analysis   of   strawberries   based   on   the   description  of  ABNT  (1998)  and  IAL  (2005).   The   samples   were   coded  by  three  random  digits  and  were  served   one   unit   of   each   strawberry   group.   (2002)   displayed   an   average   mass   of   9.   according  to  IAL  (2005).   7   and   15   days).  2005).   Ascorbic  acid:  The  amount  of  ascorbic  acid   was   determined   by   titration   with   Tillmans   solution   using   ascorbic   acid   as   a   standard.  For  sensory  testing.Effect of packages with biofilms in… Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto y Cols.   and   signed   the   informed   consent   form   that   was   drafted   according  to  Resolution  196/96  of  the  Ministry   of   Health   proceeding   053/2009   of   the   Ethics   Committee   of   UFVJM.   2003).   The   volunteers   178 received   the   samples   that   were   coded   and   ordered   them   according   to   preference   (ABNT. (2011) pH:  pH  was  determined  in  fruits  by  reading   the   values   from   a   digital   Peagatek®   pH   meter   (IAL.  Results   were   expressed   as   mg   galacturonic   acid/100g   sample.  brightness.  as  follows:   Test   acceptability:   We   used   43   untrained   panelists   who   evaluated   strawberries   from   different  treatments  using  a  five-­‐point  hedonic   scale  (IAL.   had   no   relationship   to   the   researchers.  2005).     Sensory  Research   In   the   sensory   evaluation.   in   individual   booths.

  2001). Iber.   On   ay   0.05.   B3   -­‐   3%)   as   a   function   of   the   number  of  storage  days. Tecnología Postcosecha Vol 12(2):175-184 .117  ±  5.   but   on   the   15th   day   of   storage.   The  use  of  biofilms  also  influenced  the   physical   and   chemical   quality   of   strawberries.928   31.  Brazil.   The   average   pH   of   the   Ventana   cv.65   for   the   Dover   cv.   B1   strawberries   showed   higher   values   of   SS   compared   to   the   control   and   B3.25   to   3.59   to   3.   the   use   of   biofilms   at   3%   of   cassava   starch   provides   a   viable   alternative   to   prevent   the   loss   of   moisture   and   can   thus   preserve   the   quality  of  strawberries  during  storage.  Figure  3).85  in  five  cultivars   of   strawberries.05).   Figure   1.   B3   -­‐   3%)   as   a   function   of   the   number  of  storage  days.05).086  ±  7.   These   values   were   close  to  those  observed  by  Conti  et  al.       The   pH   of   fruits   is   commonly   used   to   determine   their   acidity   and   to   quantify   the   concentration  of  viable  hydrogen  ions  in  order   to   determine   the   quality   of   the   processed   products   (NUNES.     Figure   2.  This  water  loss  can  result  in  the   loss   of   mass   but   can   also   affect   the   appearance   and   the   textural   and   nutritional   qualities   of   strawberries   (Kader.723  ±  6.  The  mass  loss   of   strawberries   treated   with   3%   biofilm   (B3)   was  statistically  lower  (p<0.   179 o   Rev.   Minas   Gerais.Effect of packages with biofilms in… Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto y Cols.With   regard   to   the   number   of   days   of   treatment.   and  the  Sweet  Charlie  cv.648   27.   Fruits  treated  with  1%  and  3%  biofilm  showed   the   highest   pH   at   9th   and   15th   storage   days   (p<0.   Thus.   Mass   loss   (g)   of   control   strawberries   (C)   and   strawberries   treated   with   cassava   based   biofilms   (B1   -­‐   1%.   Soluble   solids   ( Brix)   of   control   strawberries   (C)   and   strawberries   treated   with   biofilms   (B1   -­‐   1%.       The   loss   of   mass   in   strawberries   could   be   related   to   the   loss   of   water   in   the   form   of   water   vapor.05)  than  B1  at  15th   storage   day.   the   strawberries   displayed   similar   values   in   all   treatments   (p<0.   and   were   also   close   to   the   results  of  Days  (2002).   pH   values   of   control   strawberries   (C)   and   strawberries   treated   with   cassava   based   biofilms   (B1  -­‐  1%.   Figure   3.  (2002).05).51.   Parameters   Mass  of  fruits  (g)   Longitudinal  diameter   (mm)   Transverse  diameter  (mm)   Average  ±  Standard   Deviation   16.   which  varied  from  3.   fruits   observed   in   this   study   ranged   from   3.58  to  3.  B3  -­‐  3%)  as  a  function  of  the  number  of   storage  days.  except   the   B1   ph   content   that   shows   the   similar   values  (p<0.   Physical   characteristics   of   strawberry   fruits   of   the   Ventana   cv.   But   there   were   no   statistical   differences  between  treatments  (Figure  2).054     The   strawberries   that   did   not   undergo   treatment   with   biofilm   lost   more   mass   than   the  controls  at  9th  day  (p<0.   (n=30)   from   Datas.   B1   obtained   significant   losses   (Figure   1).   2002).   which   is   a   major   cause   of   deterioration.   all   of   the   strawberries  showed  an  increase  in  SS.  Studies  of  strawberries   in   northern   Minas   Gerais   (Brazil)   found   pH   levels   between   3. (2011) Table   1.   Already   during   the   days   of   storage.

    result   suggests   that   organic   acid   is   used   during   metabolism  and  is  either  converted  into  sugars   or   serves   as   a   substrate   for   the   breathing   process   (Varoquaux   &   Wiley.100g )   of   control   strawberries   (C)   and   strawberries   treated   with   biofilms   (B1   -­‐   1%.  studied  by  Silva  (2007).   For   ascorbic   acid.   and   on   the   15th   day.  These  values  were  also  similar  to  the   results   produced   by   Virmond   &   Resende   (2007).   B3   -­‐   3%)   as   a   function   of   the   number  of  storage  days.   was   0.   10.  which   coincided   with   an   increase   in   SS   and   pH..  that  who  found  a  value  of  6.   increases   in   SS   during   storage   are   due   to   the   transformation  of  reserves  into  soluble  sugars   in   the   fruit   but   are   also   due   to   the   loss   of   water   vapor   through   transpiration   from   the   pulp.  Figure  5)..84oBrix   for   the   lower   Oso   Grande   cv.05).   being   the   lowest   among   the   treatments   (p<0.   The   ascorbic   acid  values  of  the  Ventana  cv.05.   -­‐1     The   ascorbic   acid   content   of   strawberries   can   vary   depending   on   the   cultivar.   Ascorbic   acid   (mg.05)  without   further  modifications  (Figure  4).75oBrix.   B3   showed   a   lower   value.   2007).  organic  acids.   The   average   level   of   TA   found   in   the   Ventana   cv.   According   to   Silva   (2007).13   mg   ascorbic   acid/100   g   pulp).   However   B3   showed   a   decrease   in   total  acidity  on  the  third  day  (p<0.100g )   of   control   strawberries   (C)   and   strawberries   treated   with   biofilms   (B1   -­‐   1%.  the   quality   of   the   fruit   and   the   factors   that   determine   their   flavor   (Hobson   &   Grierson.   (44.     Figure   5.   0.   amino   acids   and   some   soluble   pectins. Tecnología Postcosecha Vol 12(2):175-184 .   which   provide   sweetness   during   maturation   (Silva.  2008).   There   were   no   significant   differences   between   treatments   over   days   of   storage   (p>0.   These   solids   are   indicative  of  fruit  maturity  and.   This   180 Rev.   Total   acidity   (g.05).   which   was   within   the   range   described   in   the   literature.   vitamins.92   to   7.   2007).   The   average   values   observed   in   this  study  were  close  to  the  levels  reported  by   Mangnabosco  et  al.   -­‐1     There   was   a   decrease   in   the   TA   of   B3   strawberries  on  the  third  day  of  storage.   Strawberries   treated   with   biofilms   had   higher   values   of   average   soluble   pectin   as   compared   to   the   control   on   the   0   day   of   storage.  who  also  used  the   Ventana   cv.  therefore.13oBrix   for   the   Toyorrinho  cv.  were  lower  than   the  values  found  by  Silva  (2007)  for  the  Tudla   cv.10   mg   citric   acid/100   g   pulp  (Domingues.05. (2011) The   quantity   of   total   soluble   solids   is   important   in   determining   fruit   quality   and   indicates  the  quantity  of  sugars.42   to   1. Iber.  which  leads  to  a  greater  concentration  of   these   solids.   1993).90oBrix  in   strawberries   of   the   Oso   Grande   cv.   1997).  would  detect   significant   losses   of   the   ascorbic   acid   content   (Tosun  &  Yucecan.  there  were  decrease  on   the   soluble   pectin   values   for   both   treatments   (p  <0..Effect of packages with biofilms in… Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto y Cols.   and   ranged   from   5.   maturity   stage.   growing   conditions.   9.       Figure   4.   Perhaps.   duration   and   storage   conditions   (Silva.  Figure  7).  a  longer  storage  period.  2000).   Towards   the  days  of  treatment.   B3   -­‐   3%)   as   a   function   of   the   number  of  storage  days.54   mg   citric   acid/100   g   sample.   and   11.   there   was   no   statistical   difference   between   treatments   and   between   days  of  storage  (p>0.  (2008).06oBrix   for   the   Tudlla   cv.     Strawberries   treated   with   3%   biofilm   showed   decrease   in   total   pectin   on   the   15th   day   of   storage   (Figure   6).

    Preference   tests.   the   control   strawberries   (A)   were   similar   to   the   strawberries   treated   with   B1  and  B3  (p>0.   Antunes   et   al.53   mg/100g   soluble   pectin   and   754.56  mg/100g  total  pectin  on  the  first  day  of   storage.   the   texture   becomes   modified.   the   acceptance   test   indicated   that   the   strawberries   treated   with   1%   biofilm   were   preferred  by  the  panelists  (Table  2).44   a Acceptability   70.   2005).   B3   -­‐   3%)   as   a   function   of   the   number  of  storage  days.05).37   to   0.76   Index  (%)   a Sum   of   pairs   of   orders   followed   by   a   same   letter   do   not   differ   b according   to   a   Friedman   test   (p<0.  85%  identified   changes   in   texture   between   treatments   (different   concentrations   of   biofilm).   such   as   ordination.   the   protopectin   of   cell   walls   becomes   more   soluble   and.Effect of packages with biofilms in… Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto y Cols. Tecnología Postcosecha Vol 12(2):175-184 .   These   transformations   occur   not   only   during   maturation.   (2006)   found   reduced   levels   of   pectin   in   blackberries   with   increased   storage  time.   The   ranking   test   showed   that   the   use   of   cassava   starch   as   a   biofilm   for   strawberries   did   not   adversely   affect   the   preference   of   the   panelists.   Results   of   the   ranking   test   and   acceptance   tests   (n=   43)   of   strawberries   exposed   to   one   of   the   three   postharvest   treatments   with   biofilms.35   to   0.   providing   a   higher   quality   in   the   postharvest   life.   change   production   processes   and   to   formulate   new   products   (Carneiro   &   Minin.   96   b 3.   Tests   Results   Sum  of   a orders   Averages   b notes   Figure   7. (2011)   -­‐1 Figure   6.05.   In   the   remaining   days   of   storage.   Henrique   &   Cereda   (1999)   evaluated   the   sensory  attributes  of  strawberries  treated  with   biofilms   produced   from   cassava   starch   at   several   concentrations.   consequently.05).   B3   -­‐   3%)   as   a   function   of   the   number  of  storage  days.  the  strawberries  treated   with   1%   biofilm   (B1)   received   the   highest   scores. Iber.53   a 79   a 4.   unlike   the   results   of   the   present   study.   confirming   the   results   of   the   acceptance   test.   The   values   of   pectin   observed   in   the   present   study   were   close   to   those   reported   by   Silva   (2007).   but   also   during   storage   for   some   fruit   and   vegetables   (Chitarra   &   Chitarra.   In   the   181 Rev.   However.23   a 91   c 3.100g )   of   control   strawberries   (C)   and   strawberries   treated   with   biofilms   (B1   -­‐   1%.05).   2006).   Françoso   et   al.     In  ll  the  attributes.  Of  these  study  participants.   according   to   the   Tukey   test   (p<0.  by  studying  strawberries  treated   with   ionizing   radiation.   Acceptance   averages   followed   by   same   letter   do   not   differ   according   to   a   Tukey   test   (p<0.   there   was   no   significant   difference   between  the  scores  of  the  treated  and  control   strawberries   (p>0.   they   found   increased   levels   of   pectin.   According   to   these   authors.   In   terms   of   taste.  Figure  8).05).57   84.65   68.   -­‐1   A   B1   B3   Ranking  test   Acceptance     With   maturation.     Table   2.   who   studied   strawberries   stored   and   found   levels   of   total   pectin   ranging   from   0.   the   3%   biofilm   retained   the   color   of   strawberries   for   a   longer   period   of   time.   Soluble   pectin   (mg.45   mg/100g   for  soluble  pectin.   (2008)   found   574.   Total   pectin   (mg.   improve   products.   are   widely  used  in  food  industries  to  develop  new   products.   causing   fruits   to   gradually   become   softer.100g )   of   control   strawberries   (C)   and   strawberries   treated   with   biofilms   (B1   -­‐   1%.55   mg/100g   and   between   0.

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