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Lr|c I|tter||ng November 30ţ 2010
Sens|t|zat|on |n Sta|n|ess Stee|
Abstract
SLalnless sLeelsţ especlally ausLenlLlc Lypesţ are suscepLlble Lo a phenomenon known as senslLlzaLlon aL
elevaLed LemperaLures beLween 300Ŵ830¨ CŦ
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lrom Lhlsţ lnLergranular corroslon can occur and cause
falluresŦ ComposlLlonal ad[usLmenLs such as addlLlons of nlLrogenţ LlLanlumţ or nloblum can alLer Lhe
drlvlng forces behlnd senslLlzaLlonŦ Slnce Lhls process only occurs ln speclflc LemperaLure rangesţ lL
occurs durlng speclflc processes such as weldlngţ buL can be avolded uslng careful plannlngŦ
ueformaLlon can lead Lo dlfferenL properLles lncludlng desenslLlzaLlonŦ SenslLlzaLlon ls a unlque
occurrence and Lhere ls sLlll noL a perfecL LesL Lo deLecL and classlfy Lhe degree of lLŦ 1he deflnlLlonţ
prevenLlonţ and lnLrlcacles of Lhls evenL are dlscussedŦ
Introduct|on
SenslLlzaLlon ls a ma[or problem ln sLalnless sLeels LhaL affecLs Lhe alloy's durablllLyŦ Chromlum
addlLlons ln sLeel are whaL make Lhe alloy ºsLalnless" and lL ls Lhe maln conLrlbuLor Lo senslLlzaLlonŦ
SLalnless sLeel (SS) ls deflned by Lhe relaLlve amounL of chromlum ln lLs composlLlonŦ lL musL lnclude
more Lhan 10Ŧ3 welghL percenL (wL Ʒ) chromlumŦ
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CLher elemenLs are added Lo yleld dlfferenL
properLlesţ such as nlckelţ whlch can sLablllze Lhe ausLenlLlc (face cenLered cublc) sLrucLure of sLeel aL
room LemperaLureŦ ulLlmaLelyţ lL ls Lhe chromlum conLenL LhaL makes Lhe sLeel sLalnlessŦ Chromlum ls
exLremely reacLlve wlLh oxygen and wlll form a very Lhln chromlum oxlde layer on Lhe surface of
sLalnless sLeelŦ 1he fllm LhaL ls creaLed ls on Lhe order of nanomeLers ln slze and ls whaL proLecLs Lhe
underlylng meLal alloy from corroslon and furLher oxldaLlonŦ
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Chromlum allows sLalnless sLeels Lo be reslsLanL Lo harsh envlronmenLsţ buL as sLaLedţ lL ls also why
senslLlzaLlon occursŦ AL elevaLed LemperaLures chromlum carbldes
preclplLaLe aL graln boundarles (llgure 1)Ŧ 1hese carbldes (Cr
23
C
6
)
are much harder Lhan Lhe resL of Lhe alloy whlch can weaken Lhe
overall sLrucLureŦ AddlLlonallyţ Lhe chromlum carbldes form by
Laklng chromlum aLoms LhaL are already aL Lhe graln boundarlesŦ
1hls leaves Lhese reglons wlLh low chromlum conLenLŦ 1he locallzed
depleLlon of chromlum means Lhe chromlum oxlde fllm LhaL proLecLs Lhe alloy can no longer formŦ
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llgure 1Ŧ A mlcrograph of 316L SS afLer a heaL
LreaLmenL aL 700¨ C for 16 hoursŦ Carblde
formaLlons are apparenL ln black aL graln
boundarlesŦ
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SenslLlzaLlon ls a phenomenon LhaL occurs ln all four Lypes of sLalnless sLeelsţ buL lL ls lmporLanL Lo noLe
LhaL lL affecLs each Lype dlfferenLlyŦ 1he flrsL and mosL wldely used sLalnless sLeel ls ausLenlLlc SSŦ 1hls
varleLy of SS has a face cenLered cublc crysLal sLrucLureţ known as ausLenlLeţ whlch ls made posslble
Lhrough nlckel addlLlonsŦ lerrlLlc SSţ on Lhe oLher handţ ls body cenLered cublc ln crysLal sLrucLure and
has llLLle Lo no nlckel ln lLŦ MarLenslLlc SS ls slmllar Lo ferrlLlc SS ln composlLlonţ buL lL has hlgh levels of
carbon someLlmes above 1 wL ƷŦ LasLlyţ Lhere ls duplex SS whlch lncorporaLes boLh Lhe ferrlLlc and
ausLenlLlc sLrucLures LogeLherŦ
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A||oy Compos|t|on
As prevlously sLaLedţ sLeel LhaL has over 10Ŧ3 wL Ʒ chromlum ls deemed a sLalnless sLeelŦ ln reallLy mosL
grades of sLalnless sLeel lnclude 16 Lo 23 wL Ʒ chromlumŦ SenslLlzaLlon occurs when Lhe chromlum
depleLed zones (near graln boundarles) fall below 12 wL Ʒ chromlumŦ AL Lhls polnLţ Lhe alloy becomes
very suscepLlble Lo lnLergranular corroslonţ whlch enLalls preferenLlal aLLack of graln boundarles and
surroundlng areasŦ
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SenslLlzaLlon ls dlrecLly relaLed Lo Lhe depleLlon of chromlum Lo form carbldesŦ 1he
dlrecL soluLlon Lo Lhe problem would be Lo lower Lhe conLenL of carbonŦ Slnce chromlum ls Lhe soluLlon
Lo sLeel's corroslon problemsţ carbon ls Lhe only elemenL LhaL can be llmlLed ln quanLlLyŦ Carbon levels
generally lower Lhan Ŧ030 wL Ʒ leave alloys wlLh an lnsufflclenL amounL of carbon Lo form chromlum
carbldesŦ
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unforLunaLelyţ Lhls low amounL of carbon can lead Lo conslderably weaker properLles ln Lhe
sLeel so oLher elemenLs need Lo mlLlgaLe Lhe lmpacL carbon conLenL plays on sLrengLhŦ
A sLudy performed on 316L SS by ÞarvaLhavarLhlnl and uayal examlned Lhe effecLs of llmlLlng Lhe carbon
conLenL ln favor of nlLrogen addlLlonsŦ nlLrogen assumes carbon's role ln Lhe sLeel laLLlce Lo allow lL Lo
keeps lLs sLrengLhŦ 1helr sLudy lncluded SS plaLes wlLh nlLrogen conLenLs ranglng from Ŧ07ŴŦ22 wL Ʒ
nlLrogen and Ŧ023ŴŦ033 wL Ʒ carbonŦ 1he experlmenL showed LhaL senslLlzaLlon ln nlLrogen conLalnlng
316L SS occurred ln Lhe LemperaLure range of 330Ŵ700¨ CŦ 1hls ls a much smaller range Lhan Lhe
generally accepLed senslLlzaLlon LemperaLure range of 300Ŵ830¨ C found ln ausLenlLlc SSŦ nlLrogen
conLenL dld noL alLer Lhe LemperaLure rangeţ buL lL dld affecL Lhe crlLlcal coollng raLes of each sampleŦ
ÞarvaLhavarLhlnl noLes LhaL Lhelr experlmenL agrees wlLh oLher llLeraLure sLaLlng LhaLţ ºabove 0Ŧ16 wL Ʒţ
nlLrogen addlLlon ls deLrlmenLal from senslLlzaLlon polnL of vlewŦ" AL Lhls polnLţ chromlum nlLrldes
(Cr
2
n) can preclplLaLe and resulL ln senslLlzaLlonŦ Coollng raLes are exLremely lmporLanL when
conslderlng Lhe coollng of sLalnless sLeel afLer heaL LreaLmenLs and afLer weldlngŦ
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lnsLead of reduclng carbon conLenLţ oLher elemenLs can be added Lo sLablllze hlgher carbon conLenL and
allow sLeel Lo malnLaln lLs sLrengLhŦ ln uŦSŦ paLenL 4ţ408ţ709 1homas MŦ uevlneţ !rŦ descrlbes how
cerLaln alloylng addlLlons reLard senslLlzaLlon ln sLalnless sLeelsŦ LlemenLs such as LlLanlum or nloblum
reduce senslLlzaLlon effecLs ln SS because Lhey form carbldes preferenLlally over chromlumŦ 1he
addlLlon of Lhese elemenLs wlll noL guaranLee a SS ls reslsLanL Lo senslLlzaLlonŦ 1lLanlum addlLlons ralse
Lhe brlLLleŴducLlle LranslLlon LemperaLureŦ ln excessţ LlLanlum can lead Lo embrlLLlemenL ln Lhe alloy and
lncorrecL heaL LreaLlngţ even wlLh Lhe proper addlLlonsţ could sLlll cause senslLlzaLlonŦ uevlne's clalmţ ln
hls paLenLţ ls Lhe amounL of LlLanlum LhaL ls a happy medlum beLween embrlLLlemenL and senslLlzaLlon
reslsLance for ferrlLlc sLalnless sLeels used
ln preŴheaLer and reŴheaLer componenLs
of sLeamŴdrlven power planLsŦ lL also
lncluded Lhe composlLlons of all Lhe
elemenLsţ as shown ln llgure 2Ŧ 1lLanlum
can be used Lo sLablllze oLher Lypes of
sLalnless sLeelsţ buL Lhe speclflc amounL
requlred Lo prevenL senslLlzaLlon and
keep from embrlLLlemenL ls very alloy
speclflcŦ
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Jen Sens|t|zat|on Cccurs
SenslLlzaLlon occursţ as dlscussedţ durlng a LemperaLure range well above room LemperaLureŦ ulfferenL
Lypes of sLalnless sLeels have dlfferenL ranges and dlfferenL alloys wlll as wellŦ ln any case Lhe
senslLlzaLlon LemperaLure reglon ls encounLered prlmarlly durlng Lyplcal operaLlonţ heaL LreaLlngţ
weldlngţ and sLarLŴup/shuLŴdownŦ 1he onseL of senslLlzaLlon depends noL only on LemperaLureţ buL also
on Llme spenL ln LhaL rangeŦ
1yplcal operaLlon and heaL LreaLmenL depend on soak LemperaLure and LlmeŦ 1hls ls why meLallurglsLs
have creaLed LlmeŴLemperaLureŴsenslLlzaLlon dlagramsŦ uevlne's paLenL for reŴheaLer and preŴheaLer
plplng ln sLeamŴdrlven power planLs ls a prlme example of Lhe Lyplcal operaLlon caseŦ SenslLlzaLlon
occurs ln a speclflc LemperaLure rangeţ and lf a parL ls Lo operaLe wlLhln LhaL rangeţ Lhen lL has Lo be
proLecLedŦ As ls Lhe case ln any dlffuslonŴbased phenomenonţ senslLlzaLlon depends dlrecLly on LlmeŦ lL
Lakes Llme for aLoms Lo dlffuse ouL of soluLlon and Lo form LogeLher lnLo preclplLaLesŦ ln Lhe case of
llgure 2Ŧ 8ecommended composlLlon for a ferrlLlc SS Lo be used ln a
reŴheaLer/preŴheaLer appllcaLlonŦ
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Lyplcal operaLlonţ Lhe Llme Lo senslLlzaLlon for an alloy needs Lo be yearsŦ When referrlng Lo a heaL
LreaLmenLţ Lhe Llme Lo senslLlzaLlon needs Lo be longer Lhan Lhe soak LlmeŦ Cbvlouslyţ lf Lyplcal
operaLlon LemperaLure range can avold Lhe senslLlzaLlon LemperaLure range Lhere ls no problemŦ lL ls
also relevanL Lo polnL ouL LhaL anneals wlll never resulL ln senslLlzaLlon because Lhe anneal LemperaLure
ls hlgh enough where all of Lhe elemenLs are ln soluLlonŦ llgure 3 shows an experlmenLal LlmeŴ
LemperaLureŴsenslLlzaLlon
dlagram of Lype 316L SS wlLh
Ŧ22 wL Ʒ nlLrogen and Ŧ033 wL Ʒ
carbonŦ
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lf Lhls maLerlal were
used ln an appllcaLlonţ lL would
need Lo operaLe well below Lhe
330¨ C Lhreshold dlsplayed ln
Lhls charL aL 100 hoursŦ 1hls
LemperaLure canţ howeverţ be
used for heaL LreaLlngţ as long
as Lhe soak Llme ls much less
Lhan 100 hoursŦ
Coollng raLes are relevanL ln heaL LreaLmenLs as wellŦ lf an anneal ls carrled ouL aL a hlgh LemperaLure
and allowed Lo cool slowly enough LhaL lL reaches Lhe senslLlzaLlon reglonţ Lhen Lhe anneal was
worLhlessŦ uurlng Lyplcal operaLlonţ a parL may operaLe above Lhe crlLlcal senslLlzaLlon reglonţ buL when
shuL down occursţ lL may cool slow enough Lo become senslLlzedŦ AlLernaLelyţ when Lhe parL ls belng
sLarLed agalnţ lL may rlse slowly Lo Lhe operaLlonal LemperaLure and also be exposed Lo Lhe senslLlzaLlon
rangeŦ 1he processţ howeverţ LhaL ls mosL suscepLlble Lo senslLlzaLlon ls weldlngŦ lf a weld ls performed
aL Loo hlgh of a LemperaLure or does noL cool fasL enoughţ Lhen Lhe meLal could senslLlzeŦ Cenerallyţ
weldlng of sLalnless sLeels ls carrled ouL aL low LemperaLures Lo avold senslLlzaLlonŦ lL ls recommended
LhaL ºŧwhen weldlng sLalnless sLeel Lo use low heaL lnpuL and resLrlcL Lhe maxlmum lnLerpass
LemperaLure Lo around 173¨ Cŧ" Alsoţ rellevlng sLresses should be performed aL or below 430¨ CŦ
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MosL
senslLlzaLlon problemsţ lncludlng weldlngţ can be avolded by uslng low LemperaLuresŦ When an area ls
Lo be exLenslvely worked onţ Lhe area can be allowed Lo cool when lLs LemperaLure rlses Loo hlghŦ

llgure 3Ŧ LxperlmenLal LlmeŴLemperaLureŴsenslLlzaLlon dlagram for Lype 316L
SS wlLhŦ22 wL Ʒ nlLrogen and Ŧ033 wL Ʒ carbonŦ
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esens|t|zat|on
When senslLlzaLlon occursţ lL can only occur Lo Lhe equlllbrlum polnL beLween chromlum carbldes and
dlssolved chromlum and carbonŦ CbservaLlons have been made of deformaLlon's affecL on senslLlzaLlon
by 8amlrezţ Almanzaţ and MurrŦ 1helr sLudy was conducLed on Lype 316 SS wlLh 30Ʒ unlaxlal
deformaLlonŦ Age cycles were carrled ouL aL LemperaLures of 623¨ C and 670¨ C for 100 hours and boLh
showed LhaL Lhe degree of senslLlzaLlon was lncreased ln Lhe deformed samples as compared Lo nonŴ
deformed conLrol samplesŦ º1hese dlfferences ln klneLlcs are due Lo changes ln chromlum dlffuslvlLy
caused by enhanced dlslocaLlon plpe dlffuslon of chromlumŧ" or essenLlallyţ Lhe dlslocaLlon
arrangemenL lnLroduced by Lhe deformaLlon process enhanced Lhe dlffuslon of chromlumŦ
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ueformaLlon causes dlslocaLlons LhaL were once lsolaLed Lo lnLeracL and connecLţ Lhus allowlng channels
for dlffuslon Lo Lake placeŦ ln Lhe case of Lhe sample aged aL 670¨ Cţ Lhe degree of senslLlzaLlon reached
a maxlmum afLer 10 hours and Lhen began Lo decrease
(llgure 4)Ŧ uesenslLlzaLlon occurred unLll Lhe end of Lhe
LesL aL 100 hoursţ aL whlch polnL Lhe degree of
senslLlzaLlon equaled LhaL of Lhe conLrolŦ 1hls daLa
shows LhaL aglng wlll resulL ln Lhe same degree of
senslLlzaLlon regardless of deformaLlon processes when
enough Llme ls allowedŦ 1he LesL performed aL 623¨ C
dld noL show desenslLlzaLlonţ buL 8amlrez polnLs ouL
LhaL Lhe same Lype of convergenceţ ln degree of
senslLlzaLlonţ would have occurred afLer Lhe 100 hours
of aglng Lhe LesL was run forŦ
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Sens|t|zat|on Ana|ys|s
nondesLrucLlve analysls of all producLs belng made ls a very cruclal parL of sLeel producLlonŦ ÞroperLles
can be checked by machlnlng LesL pleces and performlng desLrucLlves LesLsţ buL defecLs such as cracksţ
seamsţ and Lears need Lo be checked for LhroughouL Lhe enLlre barŦ Slnce Lhe bar cannoL be cuL up and
examlned aL every secLlonţ nondesLrucLlve LesLs musL be runŦ 1he aforemenLloned defecLs can be
locaLed uslng ulLrasonlc lnspecLlon and eddy currenL LesLsŦ 8oLh lnvolve sendlng energyţ elLher sound
waves or elecLrlcal currenLţ Lhrough Lhe meLal Lo observe any klnd of alLeraLlon or abnormallLy ln Lhe
readlngŦ SenslLlzaLlon ls noL a problem Lo be Laken llghLly and musL be LesLed for LhroughouL Lhe barŦ
llgure 4Ŧ Comparlson of degree of senslLlzaLlon for nonŴ
deformed and deformed 316 SS aged aL 670¨ C
lllusLraLlng desenslLlzaLlonŦ
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An experlmenL conducLed by SLellaţ Cerezoţ and 8odrlguez used ulLrasonlc lnspecLlon LesLlng on Lype
304 SS Lo observe lf lL could accuraLely deLecL senslLlzaLlon and Lhe magnlLude of lLŦ Speclflcally Lhe
ulLrasonlc emlsslons were belng measured for aLLenuaLlons and Lhelr veloclLyŦ 1he slx dlfferenL heaLs
lncluded a conLrol (M1)ţ a carblde soluLlon LreaLed and furnace cooled speclmen (M2)ţ a carblde
soluLlon LreaLed and normallzed sample(M3)ţ and Lhree samples senslLlzed aL 800¨ C for dlfferenL
lengLhs of Llme (2ţ 6ţ 10 hours Ŷ M4ţ M3ţ M6)Ŧ 1he aLLenuaLlon measuremenLs (llgure 3) obLalned from
Lhe ulLrasonlc LesLlng appear Lo glve a good slgn of senslLlzaLlon and lLs degreeŦ 1he auLhors say LhaL Lhe
degree of senslLlzaLlon ºŧcan be esLlmaLed by comblned measuremenLs of aLLenuaLlon and ampllLude
of Lhe maln peaks on Lhe power specLraŧ" buL Lhey also sLaLe LhaL ºŧchromlum carblde preclplLaLlon
cannoL be dlrecLly ldenLlfled by ulLrasonlc aLLenuaLlon measuremenLŦ" veloclLy measuremenLs cannoL
allude Lo Lhe degree of senslLlzaLlonŦ
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1he experlmenL concernlng unlaxlal deformaLlon by 8amlrez eL alŦ used a Lechnlque called
elecLrochemlcal poLenLloklneLlc reacLlvaLlon (LÞ8) Lo evaluaLe Lhe degree of senslLlzaLlon presenL ln
speclmensŦ LÞ8 uses poLenLloklneLlc scans LhaL lead Lo characLerlsLlc peaks ln Lhe reacLlvaLlon reglon of
polarlzaLlon curves slgnlfylng senslLlzaLlonŦ PlsLorlcally Lhls LesL has evaluaLed senslLlzaLlon ln sLandard
ausLenlLlc sLalnless sLeelsţ buL Clhal and SLefec collecLed lnformaLlon on how LÞ8 works on oLher Lypes
of SSŦ 1he ma[orlLy of LesLs evaluaLed were carrled ouL Lo ldenLlfy Lhe suscepLlblllLy of dlfferenL sLalnless
sLeels Lo lnLergranular corroslon caused by senslLlzaLlonŦ LÞ8 readlngs of ulLraŴhlgh ausLenlLlc SS
speclmens could deLecL M
23
C
6
carbldes and ºesLlmaLe Lhe exLenL of preclplLaLlonŦ" 1he marLenslLlc SS
alloy (13Cr17nl2) LesLed showed Lhe reacLlvaLlon Lo passlvaLlon charge raLlo of Lhe LÞ8 LesL Lo be
dlfferenL Lhan normalŦ 1hls change ls vlndlcLlve of lnLergranular aLLack aL ausLenlLe gralns from Lhe
llgure 3Ŧ varlaLlon ln aLLenuaLlon aL 10 MPz frequency showlng an lncrease ln senslLlzed samplesŦ
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LemperlngŦ A marLenslLlc/ausLenlLlc duplex SS (Cr13nl6Mo) also showed preferenLlal aLLack aL
ausLenlLlc gralnsŦ ln ferrlLlc sLalnless sLeelsţ LÞ8 was used Lo evaluaLe senslLlzaLlon and flnd Lhe correcL
raLlo of carbon Lo nlLrogenŦ
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Cverallţ LÞ8 ls a very effecLlve LesLţ buL lL ls more of a laboraLory LesL Lhan
a fleld LesLţ and cannoL easlly be applled Lo a large producL such as bar or bllleLŦ
Conc|us|on
SenslLlzaLlon ls a deLrlmenLal occurrence ln sLalnless sLeels LhaL can lead Lo lnLergranular corroslon due
Lo locallzed chromlum depleLlon and carblde formaLlonŦ Alloylng elemenLs such as LlLanlum and
nloblum can sLablllze SS and prevenL a hlgh degree of senslLlzaLlonŦ uslng approprlaLe LemperaLures
and coollng raLes can proLecL agalnsL senslLlzaLlon durlng heaL LreaLmenLsţ Lyplcal operaLlonţ weldlngţ
and sLarLŴup/shuLŴdownŦ SLeels wlLh deformaLlon wlll show a hlgher degree of senslLlzaLlon lnlLlally aL
elevaLed LemperaLuresţ buL wlll evenLually desenslLlze Lo a level conslsLenL wlLh nonŴdeformed maLerlalŦ
LÞ8 ls Lhe mosL rellable Lechnlque for evaluaLlng senslLlzaLlonţ buL lacks large scale appllcablllLyŦ
ulLrasonlc LesLlng has poLenLlal Lo esLlmaLe senslLlzaLlon ln sLalnless sLeelsŦ


8

Jorks C|ted
1
ÞarvaLhavarLhlnlţ nŦţ and 8Ŧ kŦ uayalŦ ƍ1lmeŶLemperaLureŴsenslLlzaLlon ulagrams and CrlLlcal Coollng
8aLes of ulfferenL nlLrogen ConLalnlng AusLenlLlc SLalnless SLeelsŦƍ Iootool of Nocleot Motetlols
399 (2010)ť 62Ŵ67Ŧ LlecLronlcŦ
2
8amlrezţ LŦ MŦţ LŦ Almanzaţ and LŦ LŦ MurrŦ ƍLffecL of unlaxlal ueformaLlon Lo 30Ʒ on Lhe SenslLlzaLlon
Þrocess ln 316 SLalnless SLeelŦƍ Motetlols cbotoctetlzotloo 33 (2004)ť 79Ŵ82Ŧ LlecLronlcŦ
3
ƍSLalnless SLeelsŦƍ Metollotqlcol coosoltootsŦ AMCţ 11 SepLŦ 2007Ŧ WebŦ 27 novŦ 2010Ŧ
ƼhLLpť//wwwŦmaLerlalsenglneerŦcom/LŴSLalnlessŴSLeelŦhLmƽŦ
4
uevlneţ !rŦţ 1homas MŦ MeLhod of Maklng 1lLanlumŴSLablllzed lerrlLlc SLalnless SLeel for ÞreheaLer and
8eheaLer LqulpmenL AppllcaLlonsŦ Ceneral LlecLrlc Companyţ asslgneeŦ ÞaLenL 4ţ408ţ709Ŧ 11
CcLŦ 1983Ŧ LlecLronlcŦ
3
uysonţ !ohnŦ ƍAusLenlLlc SLalnless SLeelŦƍ CowelJloqŦ 1 lebŦ 2004Ŧ WebŦ 27 novŦ 2010Ŧ
ƼhLLpť//wwwŦgoweldlngŦcom/meL/ausLenlLlcŦhLmlƽŦ
6
SLellaţ !Ŧţ !Ŧ Cerezoţ and LŦ 8odrlguezŦ ƍCharacLerlzaLlon of Lhe SenslLlzaLlon uegree ln Lhe AlSl 304
SLalnless SLeel uslng SpecLral Analysls and ConvenLlonal ulLrasonlc 1echnlquesŦƍ Nu1 Ǝ í
lotetootloool 42 (2009)ť 267Ŵ74Ŧ LlecLronlcŦ
7
Clhalţ vladlmlrţ and 8udolf SLefecŦ ƍCn Lhe uevelopmenL of Lhe LlecLrochemlcal ÞoLenLloklneLlc
MeLhodŦƍ ílecttocblmlco Acto 46 (2001)ť 3867Ŵ877Ŧ LlecLronlcŦ