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GRADUATE PROGRAMME IN OPERATIONAL RESEARCH

EXAMINATIONS CONDUCTED BY THE OPERATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY OF INDIA General Information The Concept of O.R. The application of Operational Research Technique of complex problems of an organization involves taking into account the total system which influences the decision making process. The Operational Research not only considers all the factors in the environment and their interrelationships, but tries to present these in a quantified form so that the implications of the change in any of the factors can be easily assessed Operational Research is an integral part of the multidisciplinary area of Management Philosophy. The origin of Operational Research may be traced to the various scientific studies on military operations and logistic problems which were undertaken by teams of scientists and specialists in U.K. and U.S.A. during the Second World War. It was only after the war that this type of activity was extended beyond military context and have been known as ‘Operational Research’ or ‘Operations Research’. Recent developments in the field of computer technology have enabled Operational Research to integrate their models into information systems and thus make O.R. a part of decision making procedures of many organizations. Apart from application in military contexts, Operational Reasearch provides techniques for decision making in various industries, business organization, government, social service organizations and public utilities for dealing with such propblms as production planning and scheduling, finance and investment planning under risk, materials management, marketing and distribution, planning and manpower, traffic and transportation planning for national economy, health planning and hospital management, educational system and national integration. The Operational Research Society of India. The Operational Research society of India was established in 1957 with the objective of promoting Operational Research and associated activities in our country. Today, it has a membership of about 1000 with branches operating in various parts of the country. The Secretariat of the Operational Research Society of India is located at 39, Mahanirban Road, Kolkata 700029. The Society is affiliated to the International Federation of O.R. Societies (a World Organization). The members of the Society have been actively participating in conferences, seminars, conventions etc. in Operational Research and in other allied subjects held in India and abroad, assisting other organizations in training course in O.R. and conducting courses for various levels of executives. The first Annual Convention of the Society held in Kolkata in 1968 was a step forward in the growth of Operational Research in India. This along with the subsequent conventions, has served

This latter limitation will cease after two years of his registration for the examination. Inventory Theory.2 a very useful purpose in the exchange of views and generation of new ideas among Operational Research scientist and practitioners both in theory and in practice. Queuing Theory. Economists and Accountants engaged in such diverse fields as Industry. if any. Economics. A candidate can appear in as many new subjects as he may chose in Part I at any examination. 3.No. Engineers. Part II will have four compulsory papers involving O. . The fees are subject to revision. Control Processes. 7. Ministry of Human Resource Development in memo No. will have to register afresh.R. such as Linear and Non Linear Programming. business. 4. Graduate Programme in Operational Research: Nature of Examination This examination will have two parts (i) Part I subjects and (ii) Part II subjects. with the limitation that he will be allowed to appear in three new Part II subjects at a time. After qualifying in any three subjects in Part I. Part I will have basic subjects. in Marketing. Theory of Games and Statistical Decision Theory. and other institution for participation in the rapidly growing field of scientific endeavour continues to increase steadily. Mathematics.R. knowledge in this country. universities. the Society introduced its Graduate Programme Examination in Operational Research in 1973 and feels expansion of O.000/- The fees include the annual subscription to the quarterly journal of the society “OPSEARCH” issues already published in a year prior to the date of payment of publication is not guaranteed. Cybernetics and Econometrics. Dynamic Programming. Following are the categories of membership of the Society for which fees payable are as under: Sl. Statistics. Industrial Engineering and Computer Programming. 1. 2. To provide for such a participation on a large scale. There will be no limit to the number of back subjects in which one could appear in any examination in any part. F. Cost Accountancy and Introduction to Operational Research. namely. Reliability and Simulation. a candidate can appear in Part II in addition to part I subjects. Statisticians. 1843/78/T-7 dated 15th October 1980. Investment and Replacement Theory and two ELECTIVEs from a set of subjects namely Advanced Mathematics and Statistics. with all formalities and fees. The demand from persons specially Mathematicians. The annual fees cover a calendar year. 3. O.R techniques.) 300/600/6. Type of Membership Student Member Annual Member Life Member Subscription per Annum ( . The examination has been recognized by the Government of India. skipping one examination following the first examination he has appeared in Part I. Rules for the Examination System 1. Network Analysis. administration. A candidate who falls to clear both parts I and II in three years after registration. space research.

3 5. Introduction to O. Queuing Theory. Inventory Theory 3. 3. The list of books will be sent by registration. 5. Mathematics Statistics Economics Industrial Engg. THE COURSE STRUCTURE AND SUBJECTS Part I Candidates will be required to qualify as under in the following subjects: Subjects 1. The candidate intending to appear in May in a particular year should complete the formalities for registration and examination latest by December 31st of the previous year. The dates are subject to change to meet exigencies. Network Analysis. but will be duly intimated. on the basis of enrolment. investment and Replacement Theory Compulsory One paper with Total Marks 100 100 100 100 Qualifying Marks Time 40 40 40 40 - 3 hours DoDoDo - . Programme of Examinations Examinations in both Part I and II subjects will be held in the month of May on an all India basis in Kolkata and in other cities. One paper with Total Marks 100 100 100 50 50 100 100 Part II Qualifying Marks 40 40 40 15 15 Total =40 40 40 Time 3 hours DoDoDo DoDo - - Candidates will be required to qualify as under in the following subjects: Subjects 1. & Computer Prg. Department of Education as equivalent to Degree. Government of India. A candidate may also pay all the fees and submit all the forms at the same time together. Reliability and Simulation 4. Cost Accountancy 6. Announcement of the dates and programmes of these Examinations will be made sufficiently in advance. 4. The diploma conferred on completion of the two parts is recognized by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Linear and Non-Linear Programming 2.R. 2.

5.00 Rs. Government of India.00 Rs. is given and a candidate is required to qualify in all the papers as prescribed.only .one subject : : : Rs. pass 40.00 For back papers same fee for each paper as for first appearance. EXAMINATION FEE Registration Part I.4 Electives 5 & 6 either two subjects elected from the following: (One paper with Total marks 100 for each subject.Sc level (pass degree course) will have to appear for a qualifying examination in Mathematics along with the Part I subjects.100. whatsoever. Candidates passing all the subjects of both Part-I & Part II will be awarded appropriate Diploma as recognized by the Ministry of Human Resource Development.00 ASSESSMENT AND AWARD Examination results will normally be announced within two months from the commencement of an examination. Distinction will be awarded to candidates securing 60% or above in aggregate. Those Graduates who have not done mathematics up o the B. Hours 3) i) Advanced Mathematics and Statistics ii) Theory of Games and statistical Decision Theory iii) Dynamic Programmins iv) Control Processes v) Operational Research in Marketing vi) Cybernetics vii) Econometrics No exemption.000.400.100.400/. PROCEDURE FOR ENROLLMENT A candidate desirous of appearing in the Society’s Graduate Examination has to register his/her name with the society for the Examination he/she would be required to – 1) apply for registrations for the examination with the society in the enclosed form with a fee of Rs. A graduate of any recognized University passing with Mathematics as one of the subjects and an Engineering Graduate and of not less than 18 years of age is eligible to appear in the Graduate Programme Examination of the Society. Part III : Rs.one subject Part II.

(Rs. Distribution functions and probability density/frequency functions.for each part I paper) before the last dates specified. quadratic forms. matrix algebra. Descriptive Statistics Introduction. moments.5 2) send attested copies of University certificates/mark sheets as evidence of eligibility of appear. Sampling distribution of simple average. Basic concepts of statistical inference. point interval estimates. Discrete/ continuous random variables and probability distributions. The examination fees are good only for the specific examination on specific dates and will otherwise lapse automatically. Distribution theory-discrete and continuous distributions. simple cases of calculus of variation.100/. Payment will be accepted by demand draft drawn on any nationalized scheduled bank payable in Kolkata and crossed. vector spaces. independence etc. Finite differences. All the fees are non-refundable and non-transferable. in favour of “Operational Research Society of India”. method of least squares. least square . Statistics Elementary Probability Theory. Sampling Distributions/Statistical Inference Tests of Hypothesis. Mathematical expectations. For these examinations the last date for receiving applications for registration and for permission to appear is December 31 for the May examination. factorial polynomials. conditional probability. fundamental concepts and postulates. Sets and functions. interpolation. addition and multiplication laws. DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBJECTS (Syllabus) Part – I 1. Laplace’s transform. Distributions of more than one variable. Linear differential equations with constant coefficient. chisquare. variance. Measures of Central Tendency and of dispersion. probability/Moment-Generating functions. 3) Send attested copies of Higher Secondary Examination or its equivalent examination certificates or other certificates as evidence of age. Optimization of functions of several variables (classical theory). Probability as the study of chance events. variance. Z-transform. conditional/ marginal distributions etc. frequency distribution etc. Laws of Large Numbers and Central Limit theorem. Mathematics Different of parametric integrals. moments. 2. frequency and axiomatic approaches to probability. student’s T and F distribution. linear difference equations. Regression and correlation-linear and multiple linear. with the requisite examination fees. maximum likelihood. Fourier series. compilation and summarization of data histograms. 4) Apply for permission after or along with registration to appear in part I subjects in the printed form enclosed.

Unemployment and inflation. graphical and analytical techniques to study systems problems for better utilization of human and physical resources-methods of Improvement and time measurement. consumption function. B. interest rates. value analysis. The circular flow of income. Digital and analogue computers. Analysis of Variance One way and two way analysis of variance. job evaluation. systematic. Industrial Engineering & Computer Programming. general equilibrium of product and money market. Demand of money. Computer Programming. Application of Industrial Engineering techniques and principle in non-industrial areas to improve productivity. plant layout and material handling. income identities. Industrial Engineering Origin and development. 4. Economics Micro Economics Theory of Demand Technology and costs Market structure. use of binary coding. Work sapling. equilibrium of the Firm and the Industry. Macro-Economics National income accounting. 5. Merit rating. Basic concepts of hypothesis testing. Investment decision-discounting formulae. Welfare Theory. tests of significance of means. 3. the FORTRAN language.6 and method of moments. multiplier theory. Government taxes and expenditure. use of fiscal and monetary policies. wage payment and incentives. optimality in resource allocation. basic components of a computer system. Cost Accountancy . computer language and arithmetic. variances etc. Limitation of the market system-the need and method of market intervention. design and use of problem-oriented languages. A. complete programmes for some solved problems.

6. Direct materials cost variabces. extreme points. duality theory and applications sensitivity analysis and pricing problems. convex polyhedra. spheres and hyper planes. non-linear programming algorithms including beale’s. Materials issuance and accounting. Overheads. Linear and Non-linear Programming Convex sets. introducing to some Operational Research Techniques including linear programming. sensitivity analysis. Material control. dynamic programming. Direct Wages. Recording attendance. branch and bound techniques. basic concepts in and scope of Operational Research. cost-volume profit relationship. Zoutendijk’s method of feasible directions. time. Part II COMPULSORY SUBJECTS 1. assignment and transportation techniques. Stores keeping and material recording. Formulation of non-linear programming problem. penalty . Budget and budgetary control Standard cost. Purchasing and accounting. Introduction to Operational Research. Reconciliation of Cost and financial Accounts. Pseudo convex and quasi-convex function. preparation of factory pay-roll. integrated systems of cost accounting. duality theorem. Cost Audit.7 Cost systems. labour time pricing. Methods of costing. System and process. labour turnover. formulation of problems. Standard for administrative overheads. Pay-roll accounting. Marginal costing. variances manufacturing overhead cost variances. designs of models in O. Differential profits and special cost analysis. Emphasis on decision-making applications. the decomposition theoretic methods. process cost system product and pay-product costing. development of linear programming. convex and concave functions and their properties. Time keeping. overhead accumulation distribution and absorption. Deposition of variance. theory of games. generaliased Largrange multipliers. Stores ledger. Scrap. Control accounts and subsidiary ledgers. Presentation of information. queuing theory. inventory theory and simulation. Cost variance Reports. Employee remuneration and incentive. Manufacturing.R. Fixation of stores levels. administrative overhead selling and distribution overheads. Physical inventory. Elapsed. deriving solutions from models. Pricing stores issues. Wolfe’s and Rosen’s methods. wastage and spoilage. simplex method and related algorithm. Cost accounts. Administrative overhead variances standard for distribution cost distribution cost variance. the KuhnTucker optimality theorem. job order cost system. degeneracy. Uniform cost accounting and inter firm comparison.

if inventory system introduction to the mathematical theory of inventory control. posynominal programming. M/M/C. failure rates. basic concepts of geometric programming. 2. dynamic programming and stationary analysis of inventory problems. cost models and optimization. equipment maintenance. shortest foute problems decision trees. G/M/C. replacement in anticipation of failure. model initialization and auto correlated date selected applications. GI/M/1. replacement models for unbounded horizons and uncertain cost. single server and multi-server models. Reliability and Simulation Queuing systems. integrated approaches to production inventory and to maintenance inventory problems. Erlang and hyper exponential distributions. critical path method. mathematical programming methods of capacity expansion of firms and plant expansion under uncertainty. preventive replacement scheme the general renewal process markovian decision models in replacement theory. Investment and Replacement Theory. Probablisticconditional decision network analysis. Equilibrium pricing of capital assets under uncertainty and its implication for evaluating the performance of investment trusts and portfolios. . Queuing Theory. dynamic inventory models. effect of dividend policy. scheduling. Feed-back control in inventory management. extreme value distributions. multi-echelon problems. queuing characteristics and terminology. simulation models for strategy of investment in stocks. PERT. 4. inventory and traffic control problems. use of computer languages to programme simulation models. 3. validity of results. Role of simulation in system analysis. Equipment replacement policies in deterministic and stochastic cases. maintenance policies including calculus and dynamic programming formulations. Network Analysis. Inventory Theory The nature. optimal inventory policies in deterministic and stochastic models. periodic review models with stochastic demands. reliabilities and growth models. group replacement policy. single and multistage inventory models. planning and space scheduling problems. random number generation and testing time control flow diagram for simulation models statistical aspects of simulation analysis including validation variance reduction experimental design. channels in parallel and in series with limited and unlimited queues-M/M/1. Introduction to the theory of graphs. M/G/1. analysis of stochastically failing equipment including the reliability function. directed networks. uniqueness and characterization of solutions. use of Monte-Carlo methods to production planning. the maximum flow minimum cut theorem. Elements of reliability theory.8 function method. GI/GI/1 models. arrival and service processes. duality.

categorization of control process-optimal control. Control Processes The control processes approach to system analysis. applications to problems in engineering. Theory of Games and Statistical Decision Theory Mathematical formulation of conflict decision problems as a game. theory of utility functions. prediction theory. control and mathematical problems. inventory. games of sequence generation and prediction. linear operators. differential games. 4. Computation aspects of Dynamic Programming-approximations in functions space and policy space. Optimality criterion. types of control processes-finite. Dynamic Programming Basic concepts of Dynamic Programming. partial and multiple correlation. dam and storage. 3. Games against nature. Successive-approximations. normed spaces. probabilistic and adaptive cases. solution of problems in control process by methods of calculus of variation. the mini-max theorem and the value of game.9 ELECTIVE SUBJECTS 1. design and analysis of experiments. complete class theorems for decision function. games of timing. Pontryagins maximum principle. multiple decision rules – sequential decision problems – Applications to statistical inference. acceptance sampling. control theory and problems in economics. engineering design and optimal control problems. stochastic control and adaptive controls. Howard’s Algorithm. . dynamic programming and functional analysis. linear partial differential equations of first and second order. finite games and linear programming. scalar and multidimensional. and infinite discrete and continuous. selected applications in traffic flow. simultaneous and partial difference equations differential-difference equations. industrial. general structure of Dynamic Programming. Analysis of variance. linear functional. topological spaces. Advanced Mathematics and Statistics Selected topics of matrix algebra. management games for decision-making under conditions of competition and uncertainty. finite games of perfect information. extensive and normal forms of a game. introduction to stochastic process. 2. games with an infinite number of moves. Sequential Decision process-with and without discounting. Markov process. metric spaces. stochastic allocation and control problems. optimal strategies. Bayesian decision functions. operations research and economics. Problems in deterministic. stationary and ergodic process. simple types of functional equations. Problem formulation and solution. Applications to economic.

information transfer-statistics of the communication problems-application in industrial process. cost model. Applications in Economics: Forecasting models (with applications). measures of cost and availabilitymeasurement science in distribution decisions. Personal selling decisions: size of personnel. uncertainty model. Advertising decisions. black-boxes etc. Elements of information Theory: Shannon’s theory measurement of information. Elements of Network theory: graph theory-simple applications of network problems. Cybernetics (The emphasis will be primarily on the application aspect of cybernetics in operational research). scheduling and routing. elements of algebraic structure will be introduced). determination of advertising budget. Pricing decision: classical economic models. methodological considerations in the stochastic models for marketing. R. subsystem. limited-budget problems. profit model. decision model. stochastic models of consumer response. Markov models. marketing games. .Marketing Models (with applications)-use of simple differential equations.meaning of isomorphism and homomorphism-meta-system. implementation of new product decision. copy themes. prospective development in Operational Research in Marketing. learning models. Decision making in a company. competitive models. New product decisions – demand model. media mix. Distribution decision: nature of distribution system. Marketing in context of overall company strategy. concept of entropy.Planning Models (including appraisal of input model of leontief). allocation of sales effort over time and geographical areas. stabilitysensitivity-confilict between stability and sensitivity-stochastic and determinate systems. in Marketing Introduction: Methods of measurement. Models of market response. Management information Systems and marketing. concept of ergodicity (Birkhoff). static models. (Through emphasis will be on the physical concept. O. Cybernetic approach: Definition of Cybernetic system varieties. estimating demand relationships. Models of market structure.10 5. 6. Allocation of marketing budget. market simulations. Operational Research in Marketing-State of the art. concept of feedback. determination of advertising goals.

Syllabus for the Qualifying Examination in Mathematics [To be taken by Graduates without Mathematics of B. independent stochastic linear regressions. demand projections based on Engel Curve. recursive models. logarithmic and exponential functions etc.11 A few problems in Social Cybernetics: Analysis of conflicts (with game theoretic approach). lognormal and log logistic distribution. Monte-Carlo Studies. Econometrics Regression Methods. maxima and minima-conditions for existence and applications to simple cases. K-class estimators) and system methods (threestage least squares. Engel Curve analysis form household budgets-algebraic forms. differentials taylor’s and Maclurin’s theorems with different forms of remainders. full information). No spherical Disturbance and generalized least squares. Roles and mean value theorems. Integration as a sum and as the reverse process of differentiation. computational procedure. use of drummy variables. Qualitative and limited dependent variables. structural estimation single-equation methods (two-stage squares. Simultaneous equation systems. inverse functions. estimation methods. Applications. curvillinearity. moment of inertia of simple bodies. problem of adaptivization vis-à-vis optimization-hierarchy (Mesarovics models). Pareto. Analysis of size distribution. (probability models leading to pareto and lognormal distribution. multi-co linearity. methods of integration-integration by substitution. differential coefficients-interpretation as rate measurer. direct estimation of reduced forms. comparison of various estimatorsasymptotic properties. regressions. autoregressive linear regressiondistributed lag models. the multipliers. errors in variables. calculation of volume. trigonometric functions. surface. use of extraneous information. final forms. the Lorenz Curve.. Statistical demand analysis. 7. limited information. Classical least squares-refiew of theory. Stochastic regressors. the problems of identification-order and rank conditions for identify-ability: indirect least squares. concentration in business or industry). tests of non-sphericalness-the Durbir-Waston statistic. evaluation of standard definite integrals involving trigonometric functions. elementary properties of definite integrals. grouping methods. limits and continuity of functions. elasticity of demand. forecasting.. integration by parts. techniques of differentiation for products and quotients. . pooling of cross-section and time series data: the Cob-Web models. standard who intend to appear in the Graduate Programme in Operational Research Examination] Differential and Integral Calculus Functions of single variable. estimation of demand functions from time series data-the problems of identification etc. effect of household size and composition. standard forms. functions. successive differentiation. least squares bias.Sc. integration of rational fractions. the linear expenditure system. heteroseedastivity and auto correlated disturbances. the demand function. the specific concentration curve.

The intending candidate (a graduate diploma holder of the society) is to submit a synopsis (three copies) of the project to be undertaken together with the name and the Bio-data of the guide under whom the candidate proposes to write the dissertation along with a letter of consent of the proposed guide. A candidate who has registered for the Part-III programme of the Society is to complete the Part III programme of the Society in one year by writing a dissertation on a topic duly approved by the O. solution of first order differential equations of different type-variables separable. On unanimous recommendation for approval of the dissertation. different types of matrices. equality of matrices. Society of India. Laplace’s developments of determinants.12 Elementary Differential Equation Family of curves represented by differential equations. homogenous. addition and multiplication of determinants. The decisions to approve or reject a dissertation lies with the Society. degree and order of equation. where h(x) – constant. Society of India after a review by a panel of experts decides whether the proposed project could be undertaken or not. The O. The project could be on applied or theoretical problems a part of which should be on real life problems. use of the method of operators in finding the particular integral of second order equation of form f (D)y = h(x). multiplication and transportation of matrices.5000/. solution of linear equations by cramer’s rule. the candidate is supposed to appear for a vivavoce before an expert.to be paid by a Bank Draft in favour of ‘Operational Research Society of India’ payable in Kolkata along with the duly completed form.R. etc. enx cos bx. addition. . solution of second order differential equations with constant coefficients.R.R. xn. Algebra Determinants and their properties. adjoint of a determinant. the Society considers that its Part III programme has been completed and the candidate is offered the Post-Graduate Diploma in O. linear and exact. The examination fees for the Part III Programme is Rs. symmetric and skew symmetric determinants. Matrices-definitions. Part-III Only candidates who are diploma holders in Operational Research of this Society are eligible to pursue the Part-III offered by the Society (This Part is yet to be recognized). On his satisfactory performance at the viva-voce. minors and cofactors. applications to problems in different areas. Once the Society permits the candidate to carry out the project work he is supposed to submit three copies of the dissertation for adjudication by the panel of experts appointed by the Society.

300/. .6000/. Other graduates will bave to take the qualifying examination in mathematics. If the receipt is missing. 1.Sc.(a student member is not 6.A or B. will have to fill in two forms namely (i) membership form and (ii) examination registration form available in the website. A candidate who is not already a member of the society and is willing to register his/her name with the Society for the examination. Membership fee covers a calendar year. This membership will have to be continued. The candidate will have to enclose the photocopy of his/her graduation certificate and mark sheets with the examination registration form: The candidate will have to pay the following membership fee: Either Student Member – Annual Subscription entitled to get the quarterly journal OPSEARCH) or Member – Annual Subscription or Life Member : Rs. 2. The total amount of fees may be sent in a consolidated bank draft instead of multiple drafts for different items. level from any recognized university/ Institution. The examination fee (for Graduate Programme) may be paid along with the registration or thereafter within the due dates enclosing the prescribed form properly filled in. Payment in all cases will be crossed bank draft drawn in favour of ‘Operational Research Society of India’ payable in Kolkata.13 INSTRUCTION FOR CANDIDATES Please read the following instructions before filling in the Examination Registration form for the Graduate Programme in Operational Research Examination. The candidates has to become a member of the Society. 3.600/Rs. 7. 5. In case the person is already a member of the Society he/she has to mention the name of the branch attached to in the space provided in the examination registration form and enclose the receipt of membership subscription paid for the current year. Secretary or the Branch concerned needed. 4. a letter from the Hony. The candidate can enroll either as ‘Student Member’ of as ‘Member’. Persons willing to appear in Part I and Part II Examinations conducted by the Society should at least be either engineering graduates of graduates in other disciplines with Mathematics as one of the subject at B.(one time) : Rs.

A candidate can appear in as many new subjects as he may choose in Part I at any examination.14 Some Information and Rules 1. will qualify for Distinction. Government of India. 7. After qualifying in any three subjects in Part I. 5. if completed in two first attempts without back subjects. obtaining 60% in aggregate. Once a candidate obtains pass marks in a paper (40% with 15/50 in case of half paper). 6. If any. 2. Pass on obtaining a minimum of 40% in each subject. In case of Part II. with all formalities and fees. The Society organizes no correspondence course. The examinations on both Part I and Part II subjects will be held in the month of May every year. 9. 4. There will be no limit to the number of back subjects in which one could appear in anyexamination in any part. 10. A list of text and reference books will be supplied on registration. 11. the credit is stored for future. A candidate who fails to clear both parts I and II in three years after registration. will have to register afresh. a candidate can appear in Part II in addition to Part I subjects. The examination system is recognized by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Two Grades are offered: Distinction & Pass Those who will qualify in all the six subjects in one go at the first attempt in Part I and get 60% marks in aggregate will be awarded Distinction. 8. 3. . Details about dissertation is available on application.