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BN-EG-UE109 Guide for Vessel

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BN-EG-UE109 Guide for Vessel Sizing
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1. Scope 2. Introduction 3. Selection Criteria for Vapor-Liquid Separators 4. Design Criteria for Vapor / Liquid Separators 5. Design of Liquid / Liquid Separators 6. Com puter Program s 7. Appendices 1. Scope This document shall be used for the process design of vessels, how ever, for specific projects, these design rules may be superseded or modified by client requirements. Applicable design rules for a specific project shall be specified in the Design Basis and / or the General Information and Instructions (GII) for the project. 2.Introduction In general the function of a vessel in a process unit is to either provide hold-up time or to make a separation betw een the various phases of a mixed process stream. In this design guide rules are given for the dimensioning of vessels, w hich are used for the separation of mixed process streams. They can be divided into tw o categories: • Vapor / liquid separators, w hich are used to separate the vapor and liquid part of a mixed stream. • Liquid / liquid separators, w hich are used to separate the tw o liquid phases of a mixed stream. For both types of separators the design rules w ill be given in this design guide. 3. Selection Criteria for Vapor-Liquid Separators The configuration of a vapor/liquid separator depends on a number of factors. Before making a vessel design one has to decide on the configuration of the vessel w ith respect to among others: • Orientation • Type of feed inlet

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• Type of heads Factors that help to make the choice betw een the various alternatives are discussed in this chapter. 3.1 Orientation of the Vessel The selection of the orientation of a gas-liquid separator depends on several factors. Both vertical and horizontal vessels have their advantages. Depending on the application one has to decide on the best choice betw een the alternatives. Advantages of a vertical vessel are: • a smaller plot area is required (critical on offshore platforms) • it is easier to remove solids • liquid removal efficiency does not vary w ith liquid level because the area in the vessel available for the vapor flow remains constant • generally the vessel volume is smaller Advantages of a horizontal vessel are: • it is easier to accommodate large liquid slugs; • less head room is required; • the dow nw ard liquid velocity is low er, resulting in improved de-gassing and foam breakdow n; • additional to vapor / liquid separation also a liquid / liquid separation can be achieved (e.g. by installing a boot). The preferred orientation for a number of typical vapor / liquid separation applications are: Application Reactor Effluent Separator (V/L) Reactor Effluent Separator (V/L/L) Reflux Accumulator Compressor KO Drum Fuel Gas KO Drum Flare KO Drum Condensate Flash Drum Steam Disengaging Drum 3.2 Feed Inlet 3.2.1 Inlet Nozzle The feed nozzle size and the type of feed inlet device (if any) have an impact on the vapor / liquid separation that can be achieved. The feed nozzle is normally sized to limit the momentum of the feed. The limitation depends on w hether or not a feed inlet device is installed. 3.2.2 Inlet device Various inlet devices are available to improve the vapor / liquid separation. Among others the follow ing inlet devices may be installed: • a deflector baffle • a slotted tee distributor • a half-open pipe • a 90 ° elbow Preferred orientation Vertical Horizontal Horizontal Vertical Vertical Horizontal Vertical Horizontal

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low -pressure vessel 4. there are also many services w here there is normally no demister installed. a tangential inlet nozzle w ith annular ring can be used. How ever. maximum allow able pressure drop and fouling resistance. Normally the selected inlet device for a horizontal drum shall be: • a 90° elbow or a slotted diverter in case of an all liquid or vapor-liquid feed • a submerged pipe w hen the feed is a subcooled liquid and the mixing of liquid and blanket gas is to be minimized • tw o 90° elbow inlets in case of high vapor loads 3. but this shall not be done in the case of a tw o-phase feed. How ever. In case of a slug flow regime in the inlet piping. the vapor stream w ill still contain liquid in the form of droplets. cyclones. In some cases a submerged inlet pipe is installed. A separation device can reduce this entrainment significantly. The maximum size of these entrained droplets depends on the vapor upflow velocity. for example. in some cases other types of heads are used. These types how ever w ill not be further addressed in this design guide. seldom have mist eliminators. this type of head can either be flat or elliptical. 3. They are used for tw o reasons: • To minimize entrainment Of the drum services having such a requirement. and fiber beds. Wire mesh demisters are the most commonly used as separation device. Reflux accumulators. There are several other types of mist eliminators such as vanes. Design Criteria for Vapor / Liquid Separators 4. Selection criteria for these types of internals are the required efficiency.• a tangential inlet w ith annular ring • a schoepentoeter For vertical drums. w elded to the shell of the vessel. the application of a w ire mesh demister is preferred. turndow n ratio. or if a high liquid separation efficiency is required. They are used w hen conditions are not favorable for w ire mesh screens. suction drums for reciprocating compressors are the most notable examples • To reduce the size of a vessel The allow able vapor velocity in a drum can be increased significantly by using a w ire mesh demister. this w ill result in a smaller diameter of the vessel Major disadvantages of w ire mesh demisters are: • They are not suitable for fouling services • Their liquid removal decreases significantly at reduced throughput Although the size of the vessel often can be reduced by applying a w ire mesh demister. in case a high liquid removal efficiency is required. For the design of vessels the follow ing shall be used: . capacity.1 Definition of Levels In the sizing of vessels the proper definition of hold-up time and liquid levels is important.3 Internals After passing through the feed inlet. For horizontal drums normally a 90° elbow or a slotted diverter is installed. and shall be selected in consultation w ith the mechanical engineer • Hemispherical heads A hemispherical head should be considered for an extremely large. w hen sizing is governed by vapor-liquid separation criteria. preferably a deflector baffle or a half open pipe shall be selected. Depending on the pressure rating. high-pressure vessel • A dished head should be considered in the case of a large diameter. So. The major alternatives are: • Flat heads In case of small vertical vessels (diameter less than approximately 30”) often a flanged top head is used.4 Vessel Head Most vessels have 2:1 elliptical heads. w hich also serves to provide access to the vessel.

6 for the sizing of the demister mat 4.7-0. w hich have a foaming tendency. This volume consists of the standard hold-up plus additional volume in case of slug or trip-alarm levels.2. The height required for the liquid hold-up The liquid hold-up is defined as the volume betw een the High Liquid Level (HLL) and the Low Liquid Level (LLL). Therefore. reactor. For systems.25 m/s 0. settling under the influence of gravity. A derating factor of 0.1 Diameter of a Vertical Vessel The design of a vapor-liquid separator is based on the terminal settling velocity of a liquid droplet of specified size.2.08 m/s 0.2 Height of a Vertical Vessel The total vessel height is the sum of the follow ing contributions: 1.2 Vertical Vessels Upper end of the control span Low er end of the control span High Level Alarm. The level instrument requires an additional 50 mm. such as glycol and amine solutions. Typical hold-up times are: Service Feed to distillation column. 2.10 m/s The separator shall be large enough to handle the gas flow rate under the most severe process conditions.8 shall be used for Kt. the LLL is about 200 mm above the bottom TL of a vessel. For mechanical reasons. normally at 10% of the control span 4. the nozzle of this instrument should be at least 150 mm above the bottom tangent line.8 shall also be used for compressor suction knockout drums.1) w here The vapor handling capacity (Kt) depends on the type of service of the vessel.25 fps 0.HLL LLL HLA LLL 4.15 fps 0. The height required for the Low Liquid Level (LLL) The level instrument determines the LLL.08 m/s 0. a derating factor of 0.05 m/s 0. normally at 90% of the control span Low Level Alarm. This velocity is given by: (4. In case of doubt the instrument engineer shall be consulted on the minimum required LLL.25 fps 0.7-0. See paragraph 4. heater Recommended 5-15 hold-up min . Typical values are: Application Horizontal KO drum Vertical KO drum w ithout demister Vertical KO drum w ith demister Flare KO drum (essentially dry vapor) Flare KO drum (w et vapor) Kt 0.

The clearance betw een the High Liquid Level and the inlet nozzle The clearance betw een the HLL and the inlet nozzle shall be 0. Calculate the required liquid volume (V liq ) based on the selected liquid holdup time.3 m. The liquid volume is given by: (4. the clearance shall be: 0.15 times the vessel diameter. plus. additional volume shall be provided to ensure that the required vapor / liquid separation can still be achieved.1 for the sizing criteria of the inlet nozzle.3 times the vessel diameter. 3. w ith a minimum of 0.5.9 m to the demister.1. 4. ◦ With a demister.3 Horizontal Vessels 4.Flare KO drum Condensate Flash drum Fuel Gas KO drum 1)Fuel Gas KO drum 20-30 3-5 1) min min 1) As a minimum a Fuel Gas KO drum shall be sized to contain a slug of liquid equivalent to the content of 6 mtr inlet piping. the clearance shall be 0. The cross-sectional area of the vapor space is based on a maximum allow able vapor velocity given by equation 4. 5.7 times the vessel diameter w ith a minimum of 0. 0.45 times the vessel diameter.15 m for the clearance betw een the demister and the top TL The sizing is for a vertical vessel w ith and w ithout a demister is summarized in figure 4.3. The clearance betw een the inlet device and the top TL The required clearance betw een the inlet nozzle and the top TL depends on the presence of a demister.1 m for the demister.1 Size of a Horizontal Vessel The calculation of the diameter and the length of a horizontal vessel can not be separated. plus 0. See section 4. ◦ Without a demister. If slugs of liquid can be expected. w ith a minimum of 0.9 m.1. The sizing method consists of the follow ing steps: 1.2) . The sizing of a horizontal vapor / liquid separator is based on a trial-and –error method. w ith a minimum of 0. The diameter of the inlet nozzle The diameter of the inlet device depends on the inlet flow and on the type of inlet device. 4.

The total liquid cross-sectional area is given by: . but it shall be checked w ith the mechanical engineer w hether this is feasible. w hich determine the L/D ratio of a vessel.3) w here: D L/D the diameter of the vessel (m). The vessel diameter is given by: (4. As a first estimate.4) In Excel a special function is available for this calculation. Typically the LLL is set at 0. Calculate the cross-sectional area below the LLL . using the follow ing set of equations: (4. Calculate the total cross-sectional area required for the liquid by adding to the cross-sectional area below the LLL the area required for the liquid hold up. Recommended L/D ratio’s are: 2. Select the Low Liquid Level (LLL). 3. the design pressure is normally used to select this ratio. Select an L/D ratio and calculate the vessel diameter.1. assume that the liquid volume is 60 % of the total volume. the ratio betw een the length and the diameter (-). If there are no other factors.2 m.

The follow ing requirements are applicable for 90°elbow inlets: • The diameter of the elbow must be the same as the nozzle diameter. or the special function in Excel. • An impingement baffle should be installed opposite to the elbow to protect the drum shell. Limitations on HLL The HLL shall not be higher than 80% of the diameter. • The minimum distance betw een the elbow and the HLL is 150 mm (6”). 6. The sizing of the boot diameter shall satisfy the follow ing criteria: • The boot diameter shall not be more than 0.3 m. In case of a large required vapor area. • The elbow should be installed as close as possible to the tangent line considering reinforcement and fabrication requirements (150 mm).(4. Check the actual vapor velocity. Based on the application some additional criteria apply: A. the minimum height of the vapor space is 0. A thickness of ¼“ for the baffle plate is recommended.3 Boot When there is a chance that the liquid contains some w ater or other immiscible fluid a boot can be provided to collect the heavier fluid phase. 4. Based on the vapor space above the HLL. • Short radius elbow s shall be used.3. thereby reducing the required vapor space by 50%. or a half-open pipe can be used as inlet device for a horizontal vessel. Space for inlet device The vapor space must be sufficiently high to accommodate the feed inlet device. as they are easier to fabricate. tw o vapor inlet nozzles shall be considered. If a demister is installed. Determine the remaining vapor cross -sectional area. using similar formula’s as in step 4. A boot w ill only be selected if the follow ing criteria are satisfied: • "De-oiling" of the heavy liquid phase is not important • The ratio of the volumetric flow rates of the heavy and light liquid phase is smaller than 0. Calculate the HLL. 5. At least 150 mm shall be available betw een the bottom of the inlet device and the HLL 4. w ith 3“ straight pipe inside the drum.5) 4.6 m B.6) For horizontal vessels Kt shall be taken as 0. the actual vapor space must be calculated and compared against the maximum allow able vapor velocity.2 In all other cases overflow /underflow w eirs shall be used for proper liquid/liquid separation.3. The baffle diameter should be tw ice the inlet nozzle diameter.08 m/s). A 90°elbow is preferred.25 fps (0. w ith a minimum height of the vapor space of 0. Calculate maximum allow able vapor velocity using (4.5 times the vessel diameter • The minimum boot diameter depends on the diameter of the vessel. and shall be as listed below : .2 Feed Inlet Device for Horizontal Vessels Either a 90°elbow .

The high liquid level should be 200 mm below the bottom of the vessel. in most liquids the Stokes law can be applied to calculate the rising velocity of the bubbles. contact w ith the mechanical department is required 4.1 Degassing When good degassing of liquid is required. This results in: . but by the saddle support. The length of a boot shall be based on the follow ing criteria: • Typically.4. and be equipped w ith a vortex breaker • The light liquid phase outlet shall be located dow nstream of the boot and as close as possible to the tangent line of the vessel • The boot shall be located on the opposite side form the inlet. Because of the small size of the droplets. Therefore.4 Additional Criteria 4. Because of the small size of the bubbles. the distance betw een the bottom of the vessel and the bottom tangent line of the boot) should be at least 900 mm to allow a proper interface level control and to accommodate all the nozzles for the control instruments • The low liquid level for the liquid-liquid interface should be 200 mm above the bottom tangent line.This results in: Moreover. allow about 5 minutes hold up for the heavy phase • The length of the boot (i.Vessel Diameter (mm) D < 900 900<D<1400 D>1400 Min. the design settling velocity should be limited to 10 inch per minute even if a higher rate is calculated. in most cases the Stokes law can be applied to calculate the rising velocity of the droplets. This results in a distance betw een the low and high level of the liquidliquid interface of at least 500 mm Additional vessel requirements w hen providing a boot: • The light liquid phase outlet shall extend 100 to 150 mm above the bottom of the vessel.e. the dimensioning of the vessel shall also satisfy criteria for the separation of gas bubbles out of the liquid phase. The distance is not determined by process reasons. Boot Diameter (mm) 300 400 500 • The heavy liquid draw -off velocity shall not exceed 80% of the rising velocity of the light liquid. as close as possible to the tangent line.

the follow ing can be used as a guide: • For horizontal vessels. but also the follow ing momentum criteria shall be satisfied: Other momentum criteria are applicable for high vacuum units or other units w here the inlet velocity can be very high because of the low gas density.3 mtr or 1 ft) • For vertical vessels. 4.10) 4. the gas outlet nozzle shall be sized such that the pressure drop requirements betw een column and dow nstream system are met. to allow for the reduced vapor space for vapor/liquid disengagement. Company limits the dow nw ards liquid velocity to: (4. add the height of the foam above the high liquid level. Although there is no solid basis to do so.2 Foaming In case the liquid handled has a tendency to foam. 4.5 Sizing of Nozzles 4. but also the follow ing criterion shall be satisfied: In High Vacuum Units this criterion may result in a high outlet velocity. 4.For vertical vessels it shall be ensured that the dow nw ard liquid velocity in the vessel doesn't exceed the calculated rising velocity of the bubbles. For horizontal vessels it shall be ensured that the residence time below the low liquid level w ill allow the selected minimum size bubble to travel the distance betw een the vessel bottom and the low liquid level.2 Vapor Outlet Nozzle The diameter of the gas outlet nozzle should normally be equal to that of the outlet pipe. leading to a pressure drop w hich is too high. the design shall take this into consideration.3 Liquid Outlet nozzle . In that case.5.5. (typically 0.1 Feed Inlet Nozzle The internal nozzle diameter may be taken equal to that of the feed pipe.5.4.

.5. D2 etc. a flanged head may be considered in stead of a manw ay. Relief Valves RV1.4 the size of vents and drains on vessels shall be: Vessel volume Up to 17 m3 17 to 200 m3 200 to 400 m3 400 to 700 m3 700 m3 and above Drain Connection 2” 3” 3” 4” 6” Vent Connection 2” 3” 4” 6” 8” Additional to vents and drains vessels may be provided w ith steam out and utility connections. This can be done in tw o w ays: • Allow adequate liquid height above the outlet nozzle. the nozzles on a vessel shall be identified as follow s: Process nozzles N1. M2 etc. w here multiple nozzles for a single instrument shall be identified K1A\B\C etc Manw ays M1.5 Vents and Drains As defined in the Engineering Guide for the Preparation of Engineering Flow Diagrams (BN-EG-UE208). 4. • Install a vortex breaker Normally vortex breakers are provided on outlet nozzles that serve as outlet to a pump. para. 4. As an alternative to a manw ay. If the vessel diameter is 30” or less. and is often based on a liquid velocity of 1 m/s.2. Drains D1. N2. smaller vessels can be provided w ith an inspection hole. Instrument nozzles K1. 4. Steam out connections SO Utility connections UC .6 Nozzle Identification If not specifically defined for the project. w hich is normally 8”. N3 etc. K2. Vents V1.The diameter of the liquid outlet nozzle shall be chosen in relation to the outlet line size selected. the design shall include measures to avoid this. RV2 etc.4 Manw ay The size of a manw ay is usually 24”. K3 etc. 5. Normally these connections are 2”.V2 etc. For mechanical reasons manw ays should be smaller than one-half of the vessel inside diameter.5. As liquid circulating above the liquid outlet nozzle may result in vortex formation. unless internal devices require larger size for installation. For checking the required minimum liquid height above the outlet nozzle see graphs in Appendix I.5.

4.2 Demisters in Vertical Vapor / Liquid Separators For vertical vessels the details on demister installation and vessel sizing are given in para. The most commonly used types are: • Completely filled vessels w ith liquid draw -off via nozzles at the top and bottom of the vessel • Vessels also providing vapor space. tw o vertical and one horizontal demister can be installed in the vapor phase. except for the minimum length. • The design of the vessel remains the same as for a horizontal vessel w ithout mist eliminator. and one vapor outlet nozzle at the center of the vessel. the savings from the smaller diameter may be offset by the cost of the vertical demisters and the extra inlet. w hich is not specified from inlet to outlet nozzle but from inlet to demister pad. the relief valve protecting the vessel shall be mounted upstream of the demister pad to reduce the change of blockage in the relief valve inlet and to reduce pressure drop. Normally a demister pad is installed as mist eliminator.3 Demisters in Horizontal Vapor / Liquid Separators For horizontal vessels the follow ing applies for the use of demister pads. 4. providing adequate residence time to properly separate the required droplet size from both the liquid phases.6 m or 0. given by vendor rules.1 Sizing of Demister Pads The demister pad is sized based on a maximum allow able vapor velocity through the pad. Important: In case a vessel is provided w ith a demister pad.6. 4. Design of Liquid / Liquid Separators Normally.6 Mist Eliminators In case a high liquid separation efficiency is required. This setup reduces the required cross-sectional vapor area by 50%.2. w ith small low -pressure vessels.Horizontally installed demister pads: • The minimum clearance betw een the top of the vessel and the demister pad is the larger of 12” or half the length of the longer side of the pad.6. w ith overflow and underflow baffles. liquid / liquid separation is achieved in a horizontal vessel. For vertically installed demister pads: • The minimum thickness of the demister pad is 6” • The demister pad should extend from the top of the vessel to 0.13 how ever for separators operating under vacuum conditions vendor information shall be consulted. 4.1 m above the bottom. • In case the separation efficiency of the vessel should be very high. 5. 4. The demister thickness is normally 100 mm or 4”. A typical sizing rule for demister pads is given by equation 4. • The distance betw een the inlet device and the front face of the demister mat shall be at least 0.5 times the vessel diameter • The distance betw een the dow nstream side of the outlet nozzle and the rear face of the demister mat shall be at least 0. How ever. a mist eliminator can be installed to ensure the removal of smaller liquid droplets. terminated by an elbow or a half-open pipe. w hich are separating the liquid / liquid . The vessel requires an inlet nozzle at each end.6.5D. The area betw een the mat and the bottom of the vessel shall allow free passage of liquid. Also a mist eliminator can be installed to reduce the size of a vertical vapor / liquid separator.

and about identical hold-up times for both phases. The sizing of these horizontal vessels includes the sizing based on vapor / liquid separation as described before and the sizing of the liquid / liquid separation. plate packs. and often used as the accumulator of an ejector based vacuum system. In case there is only a very small amount of vapor flow ing through the vessel. 2. . w hile the latter is used w hen there is a chance of vapor formation. w hich ensure a proper hold up time of the tw o phases in the separating compartment. 5.g. e. Select vessel dimensions Initial vessel dimensions can be selected based on an overall liquid residence time. This results in: (5. Select vessel dimensions and interface levels (min.1) The required residence time must be calculated for both phases. in most cases the Stokes law can be applied to calculate the settling velocity of the droplets. Design rules for this type of separator shall be based on vendor information. to allow the selected droplet size to travel betw een the interface and the top or bottom of the vessel. e. w here the separation is enhanced by internals (e. Rules for the design of coalescor type liquid / liquid separators.g. 15 minutes. are not given in this design guide. Calculate the droplet settling velocity for both phases Because of the small size of the droplets. Initial high and low interface levels can be selected to get a hold-uptime for the larger of the tw o phases of approximately 3 minutes (for control purposes). one for the liquid / liquid separation and one each for the hold-up of the separated light and heavy phase. The liquid / liquid separators w ith a vapor compartment have three liquid compartments. Also the sizing of this type of liquid / liquid separator is based on trial and error and requires the follow ing steps: 1.The former type of separator is used w hen there is no chance of vapor formation. 5.g. w ith the interface at the normal level. it is required to check the required residence time of both phases against the actual at various interface levels. or a new size vessel. one of the tw o above mentioned criteria may be skipped. w ire mesh). Based on the outcome of the calculations a new set of (high and low ) interface levels can be selected.2 Liquid-Liquid Separators w ith Vapor Compartment A liquid / liquid separator w ith a vapor compartment is w ell know n. 80% of the diameter of the vessel. the High Liquid Level shall be taken at max. The sizing of this type of liquid / liquid separator is based on trial and error and requires the follow ing steps: 1. 15 minutes w ith a HLL at 80% of the vessel diameter. at the low and high interface level. In this section only the sizing for liquid / liquid separation is discussed. Because of the shape of the vessel. These compartments are separated by overflow and underflow baffles. These residence times must be compared w ith the actual residence time of both phases at the interface. e.1 Liquid-Filled Separators The sizing of a liquid filled liquid / liquid separator is based on the required residence time for: • separating small droplets of light fluid from the heavy phase fluid • separating small droplets of heavy fluid from the light phase fluid Based on the type of application.) Initial vessel dimensions can be selected based on an overall liquid residence time. and max.g.

the design shall be checked for possible changes in these densities.2 3 3 . the interface level w ill change w ith changes in fluid densities. These are: 6.100 mm) 5. A typical output is given in Appendix IV. In case there are only minor differences betw een the actual and required residence times. how ever this shall be checked to minimize pressure drop. For the same reason it is recommended to have the top of the heavy fluid overflow baffle adjustable (e. +/.g. 6. Check the liquid / liquid separation To check the liquid / liquid separation the droplet settling velocity for both phases must be calculated. Because of the small size of the droplets. adjustment of the overflow and underflow baffles (in height and / or location) w ill be sufficient. 6.The distance betw een heavy phase underflow and overflow normally is 200 mm. 4. This results in: 3 (5. Check vapor / liquid separation As a final check on the dimensions. the overall size of the vessel w ill have to be adjusted.2) w here V d settling velocity of the droplet (m/s) g gravitational constant (9. using the follow ing equation: H1 x ρh = Hh x ρh + (H2-Hh) x ρl Where: H1 the height of the heavy phase overflow baffle H2 the height of the light phase overflow baffle Hh the height of the heavy phase in the separation compartment ρh the density of the heavy fluid (kg/m3) ρl the density of the light fluid (kg/m ) As a starting value for H1 take it approximately 200 mm below H2. the vapor / liquid separation must be checked based on the vapor residence time and the settling velocity of the light fluid droplets to be removed from the vapor.81 m/s 2) Dd the droplet diameter (m) ρh the density of the heavy fluid (kg/m ) ρl the density of the light fluid (kg/m ) ηc the dynamic viscosity of the continuous phase (Pa s) Based on the calculated interface level and settling velocities the required residence time for the light and heavy fluid must be calculated and compared w ith the actual residence times. As this affects the separation. Because of the fixed overflow baffles. Position the baffles The overflow baffles must be positioned to get adequate hold up in the overflow compartments for proper control of the outgoing fluid.1 Depsep This program has been developed to size vapor \ liquid separators based on the "Company" rules. Select the heavy phase overflow baffle height and calculate the resulting interface By selecting the height of the heavy phase overflow baffle the liquid / liquid interface can be calculated based on a pressure balance. Based on the outcome of the calculations some of the assumed values have to be adjusted. Normally a hold up of approximately three minutes betw een a HLL and LLL is adequate. 3.2. in most cases the Stokes law can be applied to calculate the settling velocity of the droplets. Com puter Program s Various computer applications have been developed for the sizing of vapor \ liquid separators. in the case of larger differences.

Appendices I II III IV V Graphs Typical Vessel Calculations Typical Data Sheet DEPSEP Output SEPARATOR Output .This program.3. liquid level and type of head. has been developed to size vapor \ liquid separators based on "Company" rules. 6.3.) 6.2 Horizontal Vessel Liquid Level Calculates the liquid level in a horizontal vessel based on: • Vessel Diameter • Vessel Length • Liquid Volume • Type of Head (For a quick estimate refer to the 'Tools' section of the Red-Bag w ebsite.5 Segmental Area from Elevation Calculates the cross sectional area of a horizontal vessel below a given level based on: • Vessel diameter • Level height 7.3 Excel Functions In Excel a number of special functions have been developed to calculate vessel characteristics. 6. originally a Lotus 123 spreadsheet.1 Horizontal Vessel Liquid Volume Calculates the volume of liquid in a horizontal vessel based on vessel diameter.3. vessel length.3.3.3 Vertical Vessel Liquid Volume Calculates the volume of liquid in a vertical vessel based on: • Vessel Diameter • Vessel Length • Liquid Level • Type of Head 6. Some typical outputs are given in Appendix V. Among other the follow ing functions have been developed: 6.4 Vertical Vessel Liquid Level Calculates the liquid level in a horizontal vessel based on: • Vessel Diameter • Vessel Length • Liquid Volume • Type of Head 6.

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Typical Vessel Calculations .

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PROCESS DATA SHEETS FOR: B211 Benzeen Destillaat Vat .

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DEPSEP OUTPUT .

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SEPARATOR OUTPUT .

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