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Activities 9-11

Coverage of the Preliminary Exam 1st sem 2013-2014

Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes, polyhydroxy ketones or compounds that breakdown into
polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones upon hydrolysis. Classification 1. Monosaccharide is a group of carbohydrates that have a single polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone unit that cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler units. Examples are as follows: Group Carbon Number Specific examples Trioses 3 Glyceraldehyde Tetroses 4 Erythrose Pentoses 5 Rybose, Arabinose Hexoses 6 Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Mannose, Altrose 2. Oligosaccharide is a group of carbohydrates that are composed of 2 or more (max of 10) monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds, a special type of covalent bond. Ex. Sucrose- composed of Glucose and Fructose

*The glycosidic bond can be cleaved by water through hydrolysis resulting to individual units. The most abundant oligosaccharides are disaccharides composed of only two monosaccharides. Examples and their composition are as follows: Disaccharide Product upon Hydrolysis Lactose Glucose + Galactose Maltose 2 Glucose Sucrose Glucose + Fructose 3. Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers that contain 20 or more monosaccharide units that are again linked by glycosidic bonds. Examples are cellulose, starch and glycogen.

Part of DNA and RNA 5. polysaccharides generally form colloidal dispersion (e. 4. Cell-cell and cell-molecule recognition processes Characteristics 1. Potential reducing agent: Monosaccharides may have a free carbonyl group that can reduce other elements or compounds. starch) but cellulose as a special case is insoluble due to very high molecular weight. Varied physical appearance:  Mono and disaccharides are white crystalline substances  Starches are amorphous powder  Celluloses are fibrous 2. *Sweetness can be measured with sucrose as a standard Sugar Sweetness Fructose 173% Sucrose 100% Glucose 74% Maltose 33% Lactose 16% 3. Differing taste: Mono and disaccharides are sweet while starches and celluloses are tasteless.Functions 1.Tests carbohydrates based on the properties of functional groups and the differences between structures that may be a basis for identification if applicable. Structural components of membranes 6. . Varied solubility: (In water) Mono and oligosaccharides are soluble.g. TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES . Primary energy source 2. Energy reserve 3. Supply of Carbon atoms for biosynthesis 4.

HCl Indication of Positive Result Violet Ring @ junction Green Color Brick Red ppt. This test results to the formation of osazones upon reacting of reducing sugars with the compound Phenylhydrazine (chemical formula C6H5NHNH2) at boiling point. FeCl3. HC2H3O2 Resorcinol. Black ppt. concentrated H2SO4 Anthrone (a keto-form of 9hydroxyanthracene) CuSO4. was developed by Emil Fischer. The formation of osazone involves the formation of a phenylhydrazone at Carbons 1 and 2 of the aldose or ketose. also known as phenylhydrazine test. The difference in the structure of the monosaccharides is caused by the diverse groups attached to the firest and second carbons of the sugar molecules. Red ppt. .Type of Test General Test Name of Test Molisch Test Anthrone Test Benedict’s Test Nylander’s Test Barfoed’s Test Seliwanoff’s Test Aniline Acetate Test Bial’s Test Reagents α-naphthol. Needle-shaped crystals of monosaccharides show that the position of the first and second carbons does not matter in crystal formation. Red solution Pink color Blue green color Test for Reducing Sugar Test for Ketoses Test for Pentoses FORMATION of OSAZONES Osazone test. HCl Aniline Acetate. HCl Orcinol. KOH CuSO4. NaOH Bi(OH)2NO3.