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# In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm ( i/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ AL-gə-ri-dhəm) is a stepby-step procedure for calculations.

Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. An algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for [3] [4] calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the [5] instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of [6] well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarilydeterministic; some algorithms, [7] known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input. Though al-Khwārizmī's algorism referred to the rules of performing arithmetic using HinduArabic numerals and the systematic solution of linear andquadratic equations, a partial formalization of what would become the modern algorithm began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") posed by David Hilbert in 1928. Subsequent [8] formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" or "effective [9] method"; those formalizations included the Gödel–Herbrand–Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation 1" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936–7 and 1939. Giving a formal definition of [10] algorithms, corresponding to the intuitive notion, remains a challenging problem.
Contents
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1 Informal definition 2 Formalization

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2.1 Expressing algorithms

3 Implementation 4 Computer algorithms 5 Examples

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5.1 Algorithm example 5.2 Euclid’s algorithm

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5.2.1 Example 5.2.2 Computer language for Euclid's algorithm 5.2.3 An inelegant program for Euclid's algorithm 5.2.4 An elegant program for Euclid's algorithm

5.3 Testing the Euclid algorithms 5.4 Measuring and improving the Euclid algorithms

6 Algorithmic analysis

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6.1 Formal versus empirical

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6.1.1 FFT speedup

7 Classification

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7.1 By implementation

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7.2 By design paradigm 7.3 By field of study 7.4 By complexity

8 Continuous algorithms 9 Legal issues 10 Etymology 11 History: Development of the notion of "algorithm"

o o o o o o o o   

11.1 Origin 11.2 Discrete and distinguishable symbols 11.3 Manipulation of symbols as "place holders" for numbers: algebra 11.4 Mechanical contrivances with discrete states 11.5 Mathematics during the 19th century up to the mid-20th century 11.6 Emil Post (1936) and Alan Turing (1936–37, 1939) 11.7 J. B. Rosser (1939) and S. C. Kleene (1943) 11.8 History after 1950

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References

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14.1 Secondary references

15 Further reading 16 External links

Informal definition
For a detailed presentation of the various points of view around the definition of "algorithm", see Algorithm characterizations. For examples of simple addition algorithms specified in the detailed manner described in Algorithm characterizations, see Algorithm examples. While there is no generally accepted formal definition of "algorithm," an informal definition could [11] be "a set of rules that precisely defines a sequence of operations." which would include all computer programs, including programs that do not perform numeric calculations. For some [12] people, a program is only an algorithm if it stops eventually. For others, a program is only an algorithm if it performs a number of calculation steps. A prototypical example of an algorithm is Euclid's algorithm to determine the maximum common divisor of two integers; an example (there are others) is described by the flow chart above and as an example in a later section. Boolos & Jeffrey (1974, 1999) offer an informal meaning of the word in the following quotation: No human being can write fast enough, or long enough, or small enough† ( †"smaller and smaller without limit ...you'd be trying to write on molecules, on atoms, on electrons") to list all members of an enumerably infinite set by writing out their names, one after another, in some notation. But humans can do something equally useful, in the case of certain enumerably infinite

in a form in which they could be followed by a computing machine. Stored data is . . Many computer programs contain algorithms that detail the specific instructions a computer should perform (in a specific order) to carry out a specified task. the arguments . written to an output device. Thus. Authors who assert this thesis include Minsky (1967). But various authors' attempts to define the notion indicate that the word implies much more than this. Savage (1987) and Gurevich (2000): Minsky: "But we will also maintain. an algorithm is a computational process defined by a Turing machine". .. when an algorithm is associated with processing information. symbols + and = . with Turing . can be chosen from 0 to infinity. to find. for arbitrary finite n. Formalization Algorithms are essential to the way computers process data. The concept of algorithm is also used to define the notion of decidability.. Thus an algorithm can be an algebraic equation such as y = m + n— two arbitrary "input variables" m and n that produce an output y. such as calculating employees' paychecks or printing students' report cards. that any procedure which could "naturally" be called effective. or by a human who is capable of carrying out only very elementary operations on symbols. [13] The term "enumerably infinite" means "countable using integers perhaps extending to infinity. stems the unavailability of a definition of algorithm that suits both concrete (in some sense) and abstract usage of the term.. in a "reasonable" time. something on the order of (for the addition example): Precise instructions (in language understood by "the computer") "good" [15] [14] for a fast.Turing's informal argument in favor of his thesis justifies a stronger thesis: every algorithm can be simulated by a Turing machine . Boolos and Jeffrey are saying that an algorithm implies instructions for a process that "creates" output integers from an arbitrary "input" integer or integers that.. That notion is central for explaining how formal systems come into being starting from a small set of axioms and rules. Such instructions are to be given quite explicitly. efficient. can in fact be realized by a (simple) machine. equipped with the necessary internally contained information and capabilities) [17] [18] decode. and "effectively" produce. as it is not apparently related with our customary physical dimension. an algorithm can be considered to be any sequence of operations that can be simulated by a Turing-complete system. the time that an algorithm requires to complete cannot be measured.. data is read from an input source. and/or stored for further processing. in theory. . Inlogic." Thus. [20] Typically.. and then process arbitrary input integers/symbols m and n.sets: They can give explicit instructions for determining the nth member of the set. [19] Gurevich: ". output-integer y at a specified place and in a specified format. . according to Savage [1987]. From such uncertainties. [16] process that specifies the "moves" of "the computer" (machine or human. Although this may seem extreme. in its favor are hard to refute". that characterize ongoing work.

or as a form of rudimentary machine code or assembly code called "sets of quadruples" (see more at Turing machine). and are described as starting "from the top" and going "down to the bottom".. any conditional steps must be systematically dealt with. and it attempts to describe a task in discrete. an idea that is described more formally by flow of control. Instructions are usually assumed to be listed explicitly. For some such computational process. At this level we do not need to mention how the machine manages its tape or head. including natural languages. Expressing algorithms Algorithms can be expressed in many kinds of notation. this discussion of the formalization of an algorithm has assumed the premises of imperative programming. In practice. It derives from the intuition of "memory" as a scratchpad."  3 Formal description: . but are often used as a way to define or document algorithms. That is. the state is stored in one or more data structures. flowcharts. as flowcharts (see more at state diagram). For some alternate conceptions of what constitutes an algorithm see functional programming and logic programming. There is a wide variety of representations possible and one can express a given Turing machine program as a sequence of machine tables (see more at finite state machine. There is an example below of such an assignment. Unique to this conception of formalized algorithms is the assignment operation. pseudocode. state transition tableand control table). So far. and are rarely used for complex or technical algorithms.prose to describe an algorithm. case-by-case. Representations of algorithms can be classed into three accepted levels of Turing machine [21] description:  1 High-level description: ". At this level we do not give details of states or transition function. flowcharts and control tables are structured ways to express algorithms that avoid many of the ambiguities common in natural language statements. Because an algorithm is a precise list of precise steps.. Pseudocode. the criteria for each case must be clear (and computable).. Natural language expressions of algorithms tend to be verbose and ambiguous. "mechanical" means."  2 Implementation description: ".regarded as part of the internal state of the entity performing the algorithm. setting the value of a variable. Programming languages are primarily intended for expressing algorithms in a form that can be executed by a computer. This is the most common conception. programming languages or control tables (processed by interpreters).prose used to define the way the Turing machine uses its head and the way that it stores data on its tape. ignoring the implementation details.. the order of computation is always critical to the functioning of the algorithm. the algorithm must be rigorously defined: specified in the way it applies in all possible circumstances that could arise.

or in a mechanical device. gives the Turing machine's "state table". the unconditional GOTO (rectangle). For an example of the simple algorithm "Add m+n" described in all three levels see Algorithm examples. and HALT (rectangle). "lowest level". The three structures are made of the primitive conditional GOTO (IF test=true THEN GOTO step xxx) (a diamond). thehuman brain implementing arithmetic or an insect looking for food). various assignment operators (rectangle). In computer systems. Computer algorithms Flowchart examples of the canonicalBöhm-Jacopini structures: the SEQUENCE (rectangles descending the page). such as in a biological neural network (for example. . Implementation Most algorithms are intended to be implemented as computer programs.114). However. Nesting of these structures inside assignment-blocks result in complex diagrams (cf Tausworthe 1977:100. in an electrical circuit.Most detailed. an algorithm is basically an instance of logic written in software by software developers to be effective for the intended "target" computer(s) for the target machines to produce output from given input (perhaps null). the WHILE-DO and the IF-THEN-ELSE. algorithms are also implemented by other means.

For the general concept of "a god". . . . One criterion . . i. . procedure and the notion of function computable by algorithm. .' by which I mean that it's the smallest possible program for producing the output that it does" [23] Chaitin prefaces his definition with: "I'll show you can't prove that a program is 'elegant'"—such a proof would solve the Halting problem (ibid). see an index of pages . This is true. Minsky describes a more congenial variation of Lambek's "abacus" model in his "Very Simple Bases [31] for Computability". "good" (fast) programs : The notion of "simplicity and elegance" appears informally in Knuth and precisely in Chaitin: Knuth: ". the free encyclopedia This article is about the term "God" in the context of monotheism and henotheism. etc" [22] Chaitin: " . important to distinguish between the notion of algorithm.e. (ii) discrete. Melzak's and Lambek's primitive [28] models reduced this notion to four elements: (i) discrete. Other criteria are adaptability of the algorithm to computers. its simplicity and elegance. distinguishable locations. a "discrete deterministic mechanical device" that [27] blindly follows its instructions. and (iv) a list of instructions that are effectiverelative to the capability of the [30] agent. [29] indistinguishable counters (iii) an agent."Elegant" (compact) programs. Algorithm versus function computable by an algorithm : For a given function multiple algorithms may exist. see Deity. Rogers observes that "It is . For God in the context of specific religions. i. .we want good algorithms in some loosely defined aesthetic sense.e. even without expanding the available instruction set available to the programmer. Computers (and computors). An example that uses Euclid's algorithm appears below. . a program is 'elegant. Minsky's machine proceeds sequentially through its five (or six depending on how one counts) instructions unless either a conditional IF–THEN GOTO or an unconditional God From Wikipedia. The same function may have several [24] different algorithms".. mapping yielded by procedure. is the length of time taken to perform the algorithm . . Unfortunately there may be a tradeoff between goodness (speed) and elegance (compactness)—an elegant program may take more steps to complete a computation than one less elegant. . models of computation : A [25] computer (or human "computor" ) is a restricted type of [26] machine.

For other uses. see God (disambiguation). see Existence of God. Part of a series on God General conceptions  Agnosticism  Apatheism  Atheism   Deism Henotheism  Ignosticism   Monotheism Panentheism  Pantheism   Polytheism Theism  Transtheism Specific conceptions  Creator  Demiurge .beginning in "God in". For discussion of the existence of God.

 Devil   Father Great Architect  Monad   Mother Supreme Being  Sustainer   The All The Lord  Trinity  Tawhid  Ditheism   Monism Personal  Unitarianism In particular religions   Abrahamic Bahá'í  Christianity .

  Islam Judaism  Ayyavazhi  Buddhism   Hinduism Jainism  Sikhism  Zoroastrianism Attributes  Eternalness  Existence  Gender   Names "God"  Omnibenevolence   Omnipotence Omnipresence .

 Omniscience Experiences and practices  Belief  Esotericism  Faith  Fideism   Gnosis Hermeticism  Metaphysics   Mysticism Prayer  Revelation  Worship Related topics  Euthyphro dilemma   God complex Neurotheology  Ontology .

In deism.  Philosophy Problem of evil  Religion   Religious texts Portrayals of God in popular media  V  T  E God is often conceived as the supreme being and principal object of faith. In Hinduism. while in Judaism it is common to refer to God by the titular names Elohim or Adonai. Common among these are omniscience (infinite knowledge). the name Allah ("the God") is used. God is the universe itself.[5] and Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. the source of allmoral obligation. In Arabic. omnibenevolence (perfect goodness).[1] Many notable medieval philosophers and modern philosophers have developed arguments for and against the existence of God.[4] Waheguru in Sikhism. and different names are attached to different cultural ideas about who God is and what attributes he possesses. and the "greatest conceivable existent". Muslims regard a multitude of titular names for God. omnipotence (unlimited power). Theologians have ascribed a variety of attributes to the many different conceptions of God. God is the creator and sustainer of the universe. divine simplicity.[3] Other religions have names for God.[6] Contents [hide] . God is the creator (but not the sustainer) of the universe. God has also been conceived as being incorporeal (immaterial). the name "Allah" has connotations with Islamic faith and culture. Baha in the Bahá'í Faith. a personal being. In pantheism. and eternal and necessary existence. Monotheism is the belief in the existence of one God or in the oneness of God.[2] There are many names for God. and Jehovah are sometimes used in Christianity as vocalizations of YHVH. Brahman is often considered a monistic deity. while Yahweh. In the Hebrew Bible "I Am that I Am". omnipresence(present everywhere). and because of the predominance of Islam among Arab speakers.[1] In theism. and the "Tetragrammaton" YHVH are used as names of God. for instance.

2 Theism. The English word itself is derived from the Proto- .1 Oneness 2.  1 Etymology and usage 2 General conceptions o o o   2. a well-known example of the depiction ofGod the Father in Western art Main article: God (word) The earliest written form of the Germanic word God (always.3 Relationship with creation 5 Theological approaches 6 Non-theistic views of God o      6.3 Other concepts 3 Existence of God 4 Specific attributes o o o   4.2 Gender 4. deism and pantheism 2. capitalized[7]) comes from the 6th century Christian Codex Argenteus.1 Epitheta 4.1 Anthropomorphism 7 Distribution of belief in God 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links Etymology and usage Detail of Sistine Chapel frescoCreation of the Sun and Moon byMichelangelo (c. in this usage. 1512).

the capitalized form of God continues to represent a distinction between monotheistic "God" and "gods" in polytheism. can at best only play a supportive role in one's personal path to salvation. the One and Only.Germanic * ǥuđan. and caste. which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".[citation needed] Oneness Main articles: Monotheism and Henotheism Monotheists hold that there is only one god.[12] Allāh (Arabic: allāh) is the Arabic term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God" (with a capital G).[8] The Germanic words for God were originally neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism. with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or later Vishnu and Hari. God is also given a proper name. Most linguists[who?] agree that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhutó-m was based on the root * ǵhau(ə)-.[9] In the English language. And there is none like unto Him.[10][11] The English word "God" and its counterparts in other languages are normally used for any and all conceptions and. the term remains an English translation common to all. whether they know it or not. particularly Śakra and Brahma. the word became a masculine syntactic form. including gods. it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Absolute.[16] General conceptions Main article: Conceptions of God There is no clear consensus on the nature of God. sect. Yahweh. when the word "LORD" is in all capitals.[17] The Abrahamic conceptions of God include the monotheistic definition of God in Judaism. Conceptions of God in the latter developments of the Mahayana tradition give a more prominent place to notions of the divine. and the Islamic concept of God. is especially emphasized in Hinduism[18] and Sikhism. but in Judaism. The same holds for Hebrew El. while " ʾilāh" (Arabic: ‫ إل ه‬ellāh) is the term used for a deity or a god in general. In many translations of the Bible. in spite of significant differences between religions.[19] Islam's most fundamental concept is tawhīd (meaning "oneness" or "uniqueness"). Divinity was recognized by the historical Buddha. the Eternal. God is described in the Qur'an as: "Say: He is Allah. Allah.[13][14][15] God may also be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God. other sentient beings. thetetragrammaton (written YHWH). nor is He begotten. He begetteth not. and may claim that the one true god is worshiped in different religions under different names. The dharmic religions differ in their view of the divine: views of God in Hinduism vary by region. the trinitarianview of Christians. However."[20][21] Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of . ranging from monotheistic to polytheistic to atheistic. in origin the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity. The view that all theists actually worship the same god.

or benevolence. Thus. monotheism or polytheism. that God is omnipotent and eternal.the Trinity and divinity of Jesus. God is beyond all comprehension or equal and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. respectively. Most theists hold that God is omnipotent. In Islam.[22] Henotheism is the belief and worship of a single god while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities. Open Theism. Deism. objectively.f. although this belief raises questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the world. omniscience. Pandeism and Panendeism. and are not expected to visualize God. by contrast.[24] It holds that God is both transcendent and immanent. due to the nature of time.e. and Pantheism A blank map of the observable universe Theism generally holds that God exists realistically. God is simultaneously infinite and in some way present in the affairs of the world. Muslims are not iconodules. Common in Deism is a belief that God has no interest in humanity and may not even be aware of humanity. personal and interacting with the universe through for example religious experience and the prayers of humans. deism and pantheism Main articles: Theism. and benevolent. omniscient. God's omniscience does not mean the deity can predict the future. c. family resemblance. Some theists ascribe to God a self-conscious or purposeful limiting of omnipotence.[25] Not all theists subscribe to all the above propositions. . and does not literally answer prayers or cause miracles to occur.[24] Catholic theology holds that God isinfinitely simple and is not involuntarily subject to time. and independently of human thought. comparing it to polytheism. thus..[25] In this view. i. that God created and sustains everything.[23] Theism..[26][27] Deism holds that God is wholly transcendent: God exists. asserts that. God is not anthropomorphic. but does not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary to create it. "Theism" is sometimes used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods. but usually a fair number of them.

particularly from their founder The Baal Shem Tov — but only as an addition to the Jewish view of a personal god. Christian and Muslim theologian philosophers. whereas Panentheism holds that God contains.[35] and Al-Ghazali. the origin and purpose of the universe.combine Deism with the Pantheistic or Panentheistic beliefs discussed below. Existence of God Main article: Existence of God Countless arguments have been proposed in attempt to prove the existence of God. in which Ivan Karamazov rejects God on the grounds that he allows children to suffer. is a delusion. [28][29][30] Pandeism is proposed to explain as to Deism why God would create a universe and then abandon it. some views of Hinduism except Vaishnavism which believes inpanentheism. the distinctions between the two are subtle. the Argument from Desire proposed byC. Some non-theists avoid the concept of God. the Universe.[citation needed] Nontheism holds that the universe can be explained without any reference to the supernatural. and as later chapters will show. The God Delusion.[31][32] Pantheism holds that God is the universe and the universe is God. Jewish mysticism. In his book. Others such as Richard Dawkins see the idea of God as entirely pernicious. and the "greatest conceivable existent". Dawkins writes: "God." In modern times. a pernicious one. which is related to theodicy. Theosophy.[36] Some of the most notable arguments are the 5 Ways of Aquinas.[citation needed] It is also the view of the Liberal Catholic Church.[citation needed] Other concepts Dystheism. some more abstract concepts have been developed. a personal being. Sikhism. along with many varying denominations and individuals within denominations. . but is not identical to. such as process theology and open theism.[34] God has also been conceived as being incorporeal (immaterial).[2] respectively. or to a supernatural being. other non-theists understand God as a symbol of human values and aspirations.[1] These attributes were all supported to varying degrees by the early Jewish. One such example comes from Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov. some divisions of Neopaganism and Taoism. the source of all moral obligation. paints a pantheistic/panentheistic view of God — which has wide acceptance in Hasidic Judaism.[33] Another example would be Theistic Satanism. not in the original pantheistic sense that denies or limits persona to God. whilst accepting that it is significant to many. The contemporaneous French philosopher Michel Henry has however proposed a phenomenological approach and definition of God as phenomenological essence of Life. Kabbalah. including Maimonides.[31] and as to Pantheism. is a form of theism which holds that God is either not wholly good or is fully malevolent as a consequence of the problem of evil. in the sense defined.S.[35] Augustine of Hippo.

[40] Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking and co-author Leonard Mlodinow state in their book. "God exists.E.[citation needed] Specific attributes Epitheta Main article: Names of God It is difficult to distinguish between proper names and epitheta of God.[38] St. "no one knows whether God exists" (agnosticism[47]).[48][49] (which is actually a plural word). Famed pantheist philosopher Baruch Spinoza would later carry this idea to its extreme: ―By God I understand a being absolutely infinite. This is known as the firstcause argument for the existence of God. One of them is elohim. empirical. these proofs are heavily debated. and that entity is called God. and that "God exists and this can be proven" (strong theism). God. [41] Some theologians. Throughout the Hebrew and Christian Bible there are many names for God that portray his nature and character. Aquinas spends a section of his treatise on God refuting St.‖ For Spinoza.Lewis. inductive.. and the Ontological Argument formulated both by St. deductive. of which each one expresses an eternal and infinite essence. and without invoking any divine beings. are highly controversial among theists. while others revolve around perceived holes in evolutionary theory and order and complexity in the world. the whole of the natural universe is made of one substance. "God almost certainly does not exist"[45] (de facto atheism[46]).[50] A third notable name is El Elyon. Anselm's proof. then the question has merely been deflected to that of who created God. that it is reasonable to ask who or what created the universe.[37] Even among theists. Anselm and Descartes. and inductive types. Nature. Some definitions of God are nonspecific. Some. that it is possible to answer these questions purely within the realm of science. or its equivalent. and subjective types. Arguments against the existence of God typically include empirical.[39] His proof for the existence of God was a variation of the Ontological argument. argue that the existence of God is not a question that can be answered using the scientific method. Arguments for the existence of God typically include metaphysical. There are numerous variations on these positions.[51] . In this view it is accepted that some entity exists that needs no creator. such as the scientist and theologian A. a substance consisting of infinite attributes. Anselm's approach was to define God as. Both authors claim however.[44] There are many philosophical issues concerning the existence of God. which means ―The Most High God‖.[42][43] AgnosticStephen Jay Gould argues that science and religion are not in conflict and do not overlap. but this cannot be proven or disproven" (weak theism). but if the answer is God. Another one is El Shaddai. McGrath. Conclusions reached include views that: "God does not exist" (strong atheism). "that than which nothing greater can be conceived". The Grand Design.e. i. meaning ―God Almighty‖. such as the Ontological Argument. while others can be self-contradictory.

[59][60] He is viewed as a personal God and there are no . Namely. in Classical western philosophy the gender of this oneand-only deity is most likely to be an analogical statement of how humans and God address."[58] Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God. in a sexual way.[55] God is usually characterised as male in Biblical sources. and a mother hen in Matthew 23:37 and Luke 13:34. Thus. each other. has list of titles and names of Krishna. Isaiah 66:13. Relationship with creation See also: Creator deity and Worship God the Father by Cima da Conegliano. or located at a specific point in the universe.God is described and referred in the Quran and hadith by certain names or attributes. except: female in Genesis 1:2627. c.[56][57] Psalm 123:2-3. Psalm 131:2. meaning "Most Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam). 1515 Christian theologian Alister McGrath writes that there are good reasons to suggest that a "personal god" is integral to the Christian outlook.[52] Vaishnavism. Isaiah 42:14. In most monotheistic religions. in Classical western philosophy. This does not imply that God is human. the gods are more likely to have literal sexual genders which would enable them to interact with each other. and even with humans. Isaiah 49:15. meaning "Most Compassionate" and Al-Rahim. "To say that God is like a person is to affirm the divine ability and willingness to relate to others. but that one has to understand it is an analogy. the most common being Al-Rahman. God is seen as begetter of the world and revelation which corresponds to the active (as opposed to feminine receptive) role in sexual intercourse. Gender Main article: Gender of God The gender of God can be viewed as a literal or as an allegorical aspect of a deity who. a tradition in Hinduism.[53][54] In polytheistic religions. and relate to. a mother in Hosea 11:34. transcends bodily form. a mother eagle in Deuteronomy 32:11-12. Deuteronomy 32:18. and Luke 15:8-10. there is no comparable being for God to relate to in a literal gender-based way.

An example of syncretism is the New Age movement. Another view is religious pluralism. A fourth approach is syncretism. it is considered a sin to anthropomorphize God.e. Latin America .[61] Adherents of different religions generally disagree as to how to best worship God and what is God's plan for mankind. A pluralist typically believes that his religion is the right one. In Islam. if there is one. One view is taken by exclusivists. such as clergy. who believe they are the chosen peopleor have exclusive access to absolute truth. but does not deny the partial truth of other religions. An example of a pluralist view in Christianity is supersessionism. an example being universalism: the doctrine that salvation is eventually available for everyone.. i. to contact God. where everybody is seen as equally right. There are different approaches to reconciling the contradictory claims of monotheistic religions. A reciprocal nature is mentioned in the hadith qudsi. Theological approaches The Name of God written in Arabic calligraphy by 17th-century Ottoman artist Hâfız Osman. which adherents of other religions do not. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from America latina) "Latin American" redirects here. For Latin American people.intermediaries. "I am as My servant thinks (expects) I am". see Latin Americans. the belief that one's religion is the fulfillment of previous religions. A third approach isrelativistic inclusivism. Theologians and philosophers have ascribed a number of attributes Latin America From Wikipedia. mixing different elements from different religions. generally through revelation or encounter with the Divine.

980 sq mi)[citation needed] Population 589.018.501 km2(8. Time Zones UTC-2 to UTC-8 Largest cities [2] 1. Guaraní. Mexico City São Paulo Buenos Aires Rio de Janeiro Bogotá Lima Santiago . 3. Nahuatl.French. Aymara.078[1] Pop.Mayan languages. Portuguese. Quechua. 2. Italian. 6. density 27 /km2 (70 /sq mi) Demonym Latin American Countries 19[citation needed] Dependencies 1[citation needed] Languages Spanish.069.Area 21.German and others. 4. 5.134. 7.

10.3 Bureaucratic authoritarianism 2.e.1 Brazil's participation in World War II 2.4 U.9% of the Earth's surface or 14.[citation needed] almost 3. Portuguese: América Latina. those derived from Latin) – particularly Spanish and Portuguese. 296).5 World wars (1914–1945)   o 2.8 Cuban missile crisis 2. and variably French – are primarily spoken.8.5.4 Consolidation and liberal-conservative conflicts (1825–1900) 2. Relations 2.3 Independence (1804–1825) 2. As of 2010.7 Washington Consensus .5 Cuban Revolution 2.27 trillion at PPP).1 Economy 2.6. 9.16 trillion United States dollars (6.2 Involvement in World War II 2.1% of its land surface area.2 European colonization 2.[6] According to Phelan (1968.6. its population was estimated at more than 590 million[5][not in citation given] and its combined GDP at 5.7 Alliance for Progress 2. p.2 Reforms 2. Contents [hide]  1 Etymology and definitions o  1. Caracas Medellin Guadalajara Latin America (Spanish: América Latina or Latinoamérica.6.1 Subdivisions 2 History o o o o o 2.6.880. a magazine "dedicated to the cause of PanLatinism".S.000 sq mi). the term "Latin America" was first used in 1861 in La revue des races Latines.069.6.[3][4]Latin America has an area of approximately 21.6.6.5.6..500 km2 (7. French: Amérique latine) is a region of the Americas where Romance languages (i.1 Pre-Columbian history 2.6 Cold War (1946–1990)         o 2.6 Bay of Pigs Invasion 2.

3 Literature 5.6 Metropolitan economies 4.6 Crime and violence 4 Economy o o o o o o o  4.3 Religion 3.4 Poverty and inequality 4.5 Trade blocs 4.1 Ethnic groups 3.2 Film 5.2 Language 3.4 Migration 3.7 Tourism 5 Culture o o o o     5.9 The return of social movements 2.8 Turn to the Left 2.o o o  2.10 Commodity boom and increasing relations with China 3 Demographics o o o o o o  3.3 Environment 4.1 Art 5.1 Size 4.5 Education 3.2 Standard of living 4.4 Music and dance 6 Bibliography 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Etymology and definitions .

Cuba. the capital of a French speaking province in Canada. Guyana. and in the Caribbean. who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models. and install Maximilian of Habsburg as emperor of the Second Mexican Empire.[12] In contemporary usage:  In one sense. rather than cultural aspects.[citation needed] thus including: English-speaking countries such as Belize.Jamaica. Vincent and the Grenadines. who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race". therefore.[7] The idea was later taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid. Papiamento – a predominantly Iberian-derived creole language – is spoken by the majority of the population. French Guiana. St. as a way to include France among countries with influence in America and to exclude Anglophone countries.and late-nineteenth century. dependency theory. transform France into a cultural and political leader of the area. Saint Kitts and Nevis and the Bahamas. a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Grenada. Antigua and Barbuda. for example. Latin America refers to territories in America where the Spanish or Portuguese languages prevail: Mexico. but rather to France. Aruba. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s. French-speaking Haiti and Martinique. St. which was characterized by formal or informal colonialism. the Dominican Republic. Lucia. and the Dutchspeaking Curaçao. as in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas.)[15] As such. St. celebrates the cultural ties between Quebec and the other people who speak a Romance language in the Americas. (See. Dominica. in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier.The Parc de l'Amérique-Latine inQuebec City.[16][17][18] . and that it could. most of Central and South America. Maarten and Suriname.[8] The term was first used in Paris in an 1856 conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao[9] and the same year by the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo in his poem "Two Americas. therefore. (In the former Curaçao and Aruba. defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires. and played a role in his campaign to imply cultural kinship of the region with France. ally itself with "Latin Europe" in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe".) This definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region. Trinidad and Tobago.[11] This term was also baptized[clarification needed] in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines. Hispanic America and Brazil. some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase "Latin America and the Caribbean" instead.[10] The term Latin America was supported by the French Empire ofNapoleon III during the French invasion of Mexico. Latin America is. "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". and Puerto Rico – in summary.[14]  Particularly in the United States. Barbados. Latin America is coterminous with Iberoamerica ("Iberian America"). the term more broadly refers to all of the Americas south of the United States. Guadeloupe.[13] By this definition.

Considering this definition. Central America. the influence of African cultures is strong (e. geographical location and British-inspired political institutions are generally deemed too closely intertwined with the rest of Canada. Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous. and hence the name of the region) is spoken: Spanish. distinctive culture. politics. Guatemala.. demographics and culture. economy. Bolivia. since its history.e..g. Amerindian languages. the Caribbean and South America. is technically part of Latin America as well. If defined as all of the Americas south of the United States. Native American cultures and. the basic geographical subregions are North America. and in other areas..Quebec. It may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic America and Portuguese America. History .[citation needed] Subdivisions The 4 common subregions in Latin America Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography. in substantial portions of Latin America (e.[19] The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. which remains faithful to the original usage. and French.[20] the latter contains further politico-geographical subdivisions such as the Southern Cone and the Andean states. But this region is rarely considered so. Latin America designates all of those countries and territories in the Americas where a Romance language (i. highland Peru. and the creole languages based upon these. and Paraguay). Portuguese. the Caribbean basin – including parts of Colombia andVenezuela) – and the coastal areas of Ecuador and Brazil. are predominant.g. in Canada. languages derived from Latin. In a more literal definition. to a lesser extent.

By the first millennium AD/CE. Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas. people spread to all parts of the continents. History of Central America. One of the New Seven Wonders of the World. The Chibchas of Colombia.Guatemala. plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. of the same era. mountains.Main article: History of Latin America See also: History of North America. Mexico. History of South America. Over the course of millennia.000 years ago and there is some disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Its occupation dates to some 14. near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. theQuechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia and Perú were the three indigenous groups that settled most permanently. Archaeological site of Chichén-Itzá inYucatán. The earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde. South America's vast rainforests. . These groups are in the circum Caribbean region. a sedentary group from the coast of Ecuador. the forefathers of the more known Valdivia culture. and History of the Caribbean Pre-Columbian history Main articles: Settlement of the Americas. and Pre-Columbian era Parque Nacional Tikal in Peten. The earliest settlements in the Americas are of the Las Vegas Culture[21] from about 8000 BC and 4600 BC. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibchas (or "Muiscas" or "Muyscas") and the Tairona groups.

and Inca. The European powers of Spain and Portugal colonized the region. which gave Spain all areas to the west. . Hernándo Cortés seized the Aztec elite's power with the help of local groups who did not favor the Aztec elite. European colonization Main articles: European colonization of the Americas.Caribs. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas. until its downfall in part by the Spanish invasion. the Aztecs and Incas. and Francisco Pizarro eliminated the Incan rule in Western South America. One of the New Seven Wonders of the World. and Portuguese colonization of the Americas Romantic Painting of Christopher Columbus arriving to the Americas Primer desembarco de Cristóbal Colón en América. by Dióscoro Puebla 1862.A view of Machu Picchu. which along with the rest of the uncolonized world. The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations. Toltecs. with the last two greatcivilizations. a pre-Columbian Inca site in Peru. and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). emerging into prominence later on in the early fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries. the indigenous elites. respectively. Spanish colonization of the Americas. Tupi. With the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus' voyages. was divided into areas of Spanish and Portuguese control by the line of demarcation in 1494. lost power to the heavy European invasion. such as the Incas and Aztecs. The golden age of the Maya began about 250. Maya. including the Aztecs.

Due to the lack of written records. such as smallpox and measles. By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal had been joined by others. including France. Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common.The Colonial city of Granada in Nicaragua. by the end of the colonial period. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations and mines. eventually becoming the only official religion of the Americas during this period. and. people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. with the Roman Catholic Church becoming the major economic and political power to overrule the traditional ways of the region. Central and South America. Spanish American wars of independence. ultimately extending from Alaska to the southern tips of thePatagonia. customs and government were introduced. wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans. but some put the figures as high as 85% and as low as 25%. Independence (1804–1825) Main articles: Latin American wars of independence. specific numbers are hard to verify. is one of the most visited sites in Central America. Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases. and Brazilian Declaration of Independence . European culture. in occupying large areas of North.

Liberator ofVenezuela. Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point. In 1804. following a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'ouverture on the French colony of Saint-Domingue. Chile andPeru. The victors abolished slavery. the second oldest nation in the New World after the United States. By the end of the eighteenth century. Colombia. The Liberator of Argentina. Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as other European powers took their place. Also. Resentment grew among the majority of the population in Latin America over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government. such as Miguel Hidalgo y . the newly independent Haiti. as well as the dominance of native Spaniards (Iberian-born Peninsulares) in the major social and political institutions. Peru and Panama José de San Martín. Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America. Haiti became the first Latin American nation to gain independence. Ecuador.Bolivia. compelling Criollo elites to form juntas that advocated independence. the emperor of Brazil. Pedro I. further fueled the independence movement by inspiring the leaders of the movement. notably Britain and France.Simón Bolívar.

Later on Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela by 1812. (December 2009) World wars (1914–1945) See also: Pan-Americanism Brazil's participation in World War II After World War I. The immigrants held high positions in government and the armed forces. Russians and other western Europeans who aided the Nazi war machine. the country realized it needed a more capable army but didn't have the technology to create it. He even let German Luftwaffe build secret air forces around Brazil. had gained independence from Spain. with Iturbide as emperor.[22] It was not a secret that Vargas had an admiration for Hitler's Nazi Germany and its Führer. He reached out to Germany. It was recently found that 9. Brazil President. Their main goal was to contain the inner rebellions in Brazil. in which Brazil was an ally of the United States. around 500 to 1. Many Italian and German people immigrated to Brazil many years before World War II began thus creating a Nazi influence. They tried to assist the army by bringing them up to the European military standard but constant civil missions did not prepare them for World War II. went to Argentina. and the rest to Paraguay and Uruguay.000 to Chile. between 1. and other Libertadores in South America. This alliance with Germany became Brazil's second best trade alliance behind the United States. Great Britain.000 are thought to have made it to Brazil. In 1919. but he knew that he could never favor the Nazis because of their racism towards the large black population in Brazil. and the United States to act as trade allies. Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders. You can help by adding to it. Ukrainians. including those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico in the year 1810. a military officer. Most. and by providing them with considerable munitions and troops. such as Simón Bolívar "The Liberator". perhaps as many as 5. In the same year in Mexico.Costilla of México. This First Mexican Empire was short-lived.000.500 and 2. Getúlio Vargas. Consolidation and liberal-conservative conflicts (1825–1900) This section is empty. including Croats. José de San Martín of Argentina. with initial victories for the advocates of independence. Agustín de Iturbide. the independence movement regained strength. all Spanish America. and was followed by the creation of a republic in 1823. the French Military Mission was established by the French Commission in Brazil. except for Puerto Rico and Cuba. and France. Italy. Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and José de San Martín of Argentina. . and by 1825. Eventually these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops by 1810.000 war criminals escaped to South America. wanted to industrialize Brazil allowing it to be more competitive with other countries. France. led a coalition of conservatives and liberals who created a constitutional monarchy. Brazil achieved independence with a constitutional monarchy established in 1822. Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities.