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as a part of route surveying, especially for roads and highways. Suppose, for example, that a volume of cut must be removed between two adjacent stations along a highway route. If the area of the cross section at each station is known, you can compute the average-end area (the average of the two cross-sectional areas) and then multiply that average end area by the known horizontal distance between the stations to determine the volume of cut. To determine the area of a cross section easily, you can run a planimeter around the plotted outline of the section. Counting the squares, explained in chapter 7 of this traman, is another way to determine the area of a cross section. Three other methods are explained below. AREA BY RESOLUTION.— Any regular or irregular polygon can be resolved into easily calculable geometric figures, such as triangles andABH and DFE, and two trapezoids, BCGH and CGFD. For each of these figures, the approximate dimensions have been determined by the scale of the plot. From your knowledge of mathematics, you know that the area of each triangle can be determined using the following formula:

Where: s = one half of the perimeter of the triangle, and that for each trapezoid, you can calculate the area using the formula:

When the above formulas are applied and the sum of the results are determined, you find that the total area of the cross section at station 305 is 509.9 square feet. AREA BY FORMULA.— A regular section area for a three-level section can be more exactly determined by applying the following formula:

10-4).3/2)(29. hl and hr. .71 square feet. dl and drare the center-line distances of the left and right slope stakes.— Figures 10-6 and 10-7 are the field notes and plotted cross sections for two irregular sections. To Figure 10-7. you get the following results: A = (40/4)(8. Applying the formula for station 305 + 00 (fig.2+ 12.Figure 10-4.3)+ (9.—Cross-section plots of stations 305 and 306 noted in figure 10-6. AREA OF FIVE-LEVEL OR IRREGULAR SECTION.8+ 35. are the vertical distances of the left and right slope stakes above grade. Figure 10-5.3)= 507.—A cross section plotted on cross-section paper. W is the width of the highway.—Cross section resolved into triangles and trapezoids. In this formula. and c is the depth of the centerline cut or fill.

as shown in figure 10-7. A point on the grade line itself has a Y coordinate of 0. First. 10-8). let’s consider station 305 (fig. Plot the cross section.Figure 10-6. consider the point where the center line intersects the grade line as the point of origin for the coordinates. Then. write down the coordinates. For explanation purpose. The algebraic sum of the resulting products is the double area of the cross section. starting at a particular point and going successively in a clockwise direction. After writing down the coordinates. you should use a method of determining area by coordinates. vertical distances below the grade line are negative Ycoordinates. as indicated by the direction of the arrows (fig. Similarly. and any point on the center line itself has an Xcoordinate of 0. distances to the left of the center line are negative X coordinates. Proceed with the computation as follows: . and be sure that the X and Y coordinates have their proper signs. determine the area of sections of this kind. 10-6). Vertical distances above the grade line are positive Y coordinates. as shown in figure 10-8.—Field notes for irregular sections. horizontal distances to the right of the center line are positive X coordinates. you then multiply each upper term by the algebraic difference of the following lower term and thepreceding lower term.

.35 square feet.080. the area of the cross section at station 306 (fig.Since the result (1. By similar method.40 square feet.70 square feet) represents the double area. 10-7) is 408. or 540. the area of the cross section is one half of that amount.

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