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UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST Samson Road, Caloocan City HOMEWORK NO. 1 UNDAMPED, SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM ENGINEERING VIBRATION SUBMITTED TO: R. TAVARES, RME NERIDA, JAYVEE L. 08 JULY 2013 1. The spring is successively loaded with mass and the corresponding (static) displacement is recorded below. Plot the data and calculate the spring's stiffness. Note that the data contain some error. Also calculate the standard deviation. 10 1.14 11 1.25 12 1.37 13 1.48 14 1.59 15 1.71 16 1.82 m(kg) x(m) Solution: Free-body diagram: kx k m mg 20 From the free-body diagram and static equilibrium: 2 kx = mg (g = 9.81m / s ) k = mg / x µ= Σki n = 86.164 #(k i " µ) m 15 2 10 0 1 2x Plot of mass in kg versus displacement in m Computation of slope from mg/x m(kg) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 x(m) 1.14 1.25 1.37 1.48 1.59 1.71 1.82 k(N/m) 86.05 86.33 85.93 86.17 86.38 86.05 86.24 The sample standard deviation in computed stiffness is: σ=√ ∑ = 0.164 ˙ + kx = 0 and plot the result for at least two periods for the case with ωn = 2 r 2. Derive the solution of m x ad/s, x0 = 1 mm, and v0 = 5 mm/s. Given: m˙ x + kx = 0 Solution: Assume: x(t) = ae n (1) ˙(t) = aren x ˙ x(t) = ar e 2 n Substitute into equation (1) to get: mar2en = kaen = 0 mr2 + k =0 r=±√ i thus there are two solutions: x1 = c 1 (√ ) , and x2 = c2 = 2 rad/s ( √ ) where ωn = √ The sum of x1 and x2 is also a solution so that the total solution is: X = x1 + x2= c + c2 Substitute initial conditions: x0 = 1mm, v0 = √ mm/s X (0) = c1+c2 = x0 = 1⇒ = 1 - c1, and v(0) = x(0) = 2ic1 -2ic2 = vo = √ mm/s ⇒ -2c1 + 2c2 = √ i Combining the two expressions (2 equations in 2 unknowns): -2c1 +2-2c1= √ i ⇒ c1 = Therefore the solution is: X= ( √ √ ) +( √ ) Using the Euler formula to evaluate the exponential terms yields: X=( ⇒ √ ) (cos2t + I sin2t) √ ( √ √ √ ) (cos2t - I sin2t) 2 x (t) 0 5 10 2 3. The amplitude of vibration of an undamped system is measured to be 1 mm. The phase shift from t = 0 is measured to be 2 rad and the frequency is found to be 5 rad/s. Calculate the initial conditions that caused this vibration to occur. Assume the response is of the form x (t ) = A sin(ωn t + ). Given: A = 1mm = 2 rad, ω= 5 rad/s Solution: For an undamped system: x (t) = A sin(ωn t + ) = 1 sin(5t + 2) and v (t) = X (t) = A cos(ωn t + ) = 1 sin(5t + 2) = 5 cos (5t +2) Set t = 0 in these expressions yields: x (0) = 1 sin(2) = 0.9093 mm v (0) = 5 cos(2) = -2.081 mm/s 4. To design a linear, spring-mass system it is often a matter of choosing a spring constant such that the resulting natural frequency has a specified value. Suppose that the mass of a system is 4 kg and the stiffness is 100 N/m. How much must the spring stiffness be changed in order to increase the natural frequency by 10%? Given: m =4 kg k = 100 N/m Natural frequency is ωn = √ = 5 rad/s Solution: Increasing this value by 10% requires the new frequency to be 5 x 1.1 = 5.5 rad/s. Solving for k gi ven m and ωn yields: 5.5 = √ ⇒ k = (5.5) (4) = 121 N/m 2 Thus the stiffness k must be increased by about 20%. 5. An automobile is modeled as a 1000-kg mass supported by a spring of stiffness k = 400,000 N/m. When it oscillates it does so with a maximum deflection of 10 cm. When loaded with passengers, the mass increases to as much as 1300 kg. Calculate the change in frequency, velocity amplitude, and acceleration amplitude if the maximum deflection remains 10 cm. Given: M1 = 1000 kg M2 = 1300 kg k =400,000N/m Solution: X max = A =10 cm ωn1= √ ωn2= √ =√ =√ = 20 rad/s = 20 rad/s Δω = 17.54 – 20 = -2.46 rad/s Δf = = = 0.392 Hz V1= Aωn1 =10 cm x 20 rad/s = 200 cm/s V2= Aωn2 =10 cm x 17.54 rad/s = 175.4 cm/s Δv 175.4 – 200 = -24.6 cm/s a1= Aωn1 = 10 cm x (20 rad/s) = 4000 cm/s 2 2 2 2 2 2 a1= Aωn2 = 10 cm x (17.54 rad/s) = 3077 cm/s Δa = 3077 – 4000 = -923 cm/s 2