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# Carmona, Kristian Loesch N.

BSMT 3-DELTA 1) Explain what is blockage factor and what does the effect of the ship. - as per definition from the maritime dictionary, blockage factor means the ratio between the ship’s maximum underwater cross sectional area and the cross sectional area of the waterway where the ship is passing. When such blockage factor increases, it has the capability to give heavy vibration throughout the ship’s hull. This means that the ship will experience shaking all throughout its hull. Another one is that the helmsman or the coning officer will also have difficulty in steering the ship. The speed limit is also reached so that even if the RPM is increased the canal speed does not increase and lastly, the bow wave and stern wave increase in height which results in the trough under the ship’s quarter to become deeper that the stern is pulled down towards the bottom, causing the rudder and propeller to both hit the seabed.

2) What is the difference between bank cushion and suction effect and what are the actions to be taken? - Bank cushion is the effect on a ship approaching a steep underwater bank at an oblique angle. As water is forced into the narrowing gap between the ship's bow and the shore, it tends to rise or pile up on the landward side, causing the ship to sheer away from the bank. Bank suction occurs at the stern of a ship in a narrow channel. Water rushing past the ship on the landward side exerts less force than water on the opposite or open water side. This effect can actually be seen as a difference in draft readings from one side of the vessel to the other, and is similar to the venturi effect seen in squat. The stern of the ship is forced toward the bank. If the ship gets too close to the bank, it can be forced sideways into it. The same effect occurs between two vessels passing close to each other. These effects increase as speed increases. Therefore, in shallow water and narrow channels, navigators should decrease speed to minimize these effects. Skilled pilots may use these effects to advantage in particular situations, but the average mariner's best choice is slow speed and careful attention to piloting.

Explain what blockage factor is and what does the effect of the ship: ->The blockage factor is the ratio between the ship’s maximum underwater cross -sectional area and the cross-sectional area of the waterway where the ship is passing. the “canal speed” does not increase. The effects of an increased blockage factor are heavy vibrations of the ship’s hull.Limbaga. the rudder should be put at a larger angle towards the bank. the smaller the clearance is where the displaced water must pass and the faster will be the flow of the displaced water for a given speed of the ship. Kin Brail B. Next is to give the engine a higher RPM in order that the flow of the discharge current from the propeller will be stronger. and the increase in height of the bow and stern wave. 2. use the rudder to steady the ship. the actions to be taken are reducing the speed of the ship and the readiness to use the rudder and engine when approaching a narrow part of which it is likely to occur. What is the difference between bank cushion and suction effect and what are the actions to be taken? -> In nautical navigation. which appears at the stern. When anticipating bank cushions and suction effects. resulting in the troug h under the ship’s quarter to become deeper. BSMT -3 Delta 1. Lastly. difficulty of steering the ship. The bigger the blockage factor. speed limit reached so that even if the RPM is increased. . after moving away from the bank. a force acting on the bow of a ship in a manner which forces the ship away from the bank in a restricted channel. especially where the banks are steep. it is a force which opposes bank suction while the bank suction is when the ship moves bodily towards the bank. But when the ship is already affected by the bank cushion and suction effects.