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REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
Secondary Education Modernization Programme

SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM Forms 1–3

Health and Physical Education

Curriculum Planning and Development Division, Ministry of Education September 2008

© Ministry of Education Published in 2008 by the Curriculum Planning and Development Division Ministry of Education Rudranath Capildeo Learning Resource Center Mc Bean, Couva Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

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Table of Contents
Minister’s Foreword A Note to Teachers Acknowledgements Part 1: The National Curriculum for Forms 1–3 Background The Curriculum Design and Development Process Curriculum Underpinnings Education Policies That Impact on the Curriculum Essential Learning Outcomes The Core Curriculum Subjects Language Across the Curriculum Curriculum Implementation References Part 2: The Health and Physical Education Curriculum Introduction Vision Statement Rationale Philosophy Goals of the Health and Physical Education Programme Physical Education Standards Connections to the Core Curriculum Purpose and Organization of the Curriculum Guide Physical Education Policy Health and Physical Education Standards Framework for Health and Physical Education Curriculum Content iii v vii

1 3 5 6 8 12 13 14 17

21 21 22 23 24 25 26 29 30 31 39 51

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Part 3: Teaching and Assessment Strategies Strategies for Implementation Sample Lessons Evaluation Part 4: Bibliography Bibliography 77 78 83 87 ii .

Minister’s Foreword
The Government of Trinidad and Tobago, in its Vision 2020 Draft National Strategic Plan, has articulated a vision of “a united, resilient, productive, innovative, and prosperous nation with a disciplined, caring, fun-loving society comprising healthy, happy and well-educated people and built on the enduring attributes of self reliance, respect, tolerance, equity and integrity” (p. 9). Five developmental pillars have been identified to achieve this goal: Developing Innovative People Nurturing a Caring Society Governing Effectively Enabling Competitive Business Investing in Sound Infrastructure and Environment The Ministry of Education is one Ministry that is expected to play a pivotal role in developing innovative people. We therefore accept as one of our primary responsibilities, the establishment of an education system that will nurture imaginative, innovative, and eager learners. It must also facilitate the seamless progression of learners from early childhood education up to the tertiary level. Graduates of the system must emerge as creative, committed, and enterprising citizens who are prepared intellectually, and who have the will to become global leaders. A critical contributor to this process is the national curriculum. These Curriculum Guides represent the core subjects of the national curriculum at the lower secondary level. They describe the formal content and process by which students at this level will gain the knowledge and skills that contribute to the achievement of our national goals. We expect that teachers will use these Guides to implement a school curriculum that is diversified, relevant, and of high quality, meeting the varied learning needs, interests, and abilities of all students. We expect, too, that students will be taught in ways that suit their own learning preferences. The curriculum will also connect them to their national heritage, help them to understand the issues facing their world today, and prepare them to meet the challenges and opportunities of the future. On behalf of the entire education community, I congratulate and thank all those educators—curriculum personnel, teachers, editors, and others—who have worked together over the eight years of development and revision to produce these Curriculum Guides for secondary schools. The nation owes you a debt of gratitude. I urge you to continue to be shining lights in your communities as we move forward together to achieve our goals.

Esther Le Gendre Honourable Minister of Education

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A Note to Teachers
These Curriculum Guides have been developed by educators, including practising teachers, for teachers. They are intended to assist you to prepare students to meet the rapidly changing demands of life in the 21st century, while ensuring that they acquire the core of general knowledge and experience essential for later education and employment. The new curriculum that they represent is designed to guide the adoption of a more student-centred approach to instruction, and the provision of learning opportunities that are relevant to today’s students and inclusive of varied learning needs and interests. Since the beginning of the curriculum development process, we have seen profound changes in the use of technology in education and there is no doubt that similar shifts will take place in the coming years. The challenge for us as educators is to find ways to make our approach to teaching flexible, progressive, and responsive, so that we embrace and motivate change where it benefits learners. This entails becoming lifelong learners ourselves and creating environments that provide necessary community support and foster professional development. The Guides embody the culmination of seven years of development and revision activity. The national curriculum will, however, be regularly reviewed to ensure that it continues to meet the needs of all students and matches the goals of society. Your input in this process is vital and we welcome and encourage your ongoing feedback. Instructional decisions must be based on sound, contemporary educational theory, practice, and research. These documents will serve as important guides for the development of instructional programmes to be implemented at the school and classroom levels. They are organized in several parts. Part 1 is common to all and provides the general philosophy and aims in which every subject is anchored. Part 2 is specific to each subject and includes specific outcomes and sample activities and strategies that may be used to achieve them. The rest of the document is designed to suit the particular needs of each subject area. All the Guides include suggested assessment strategies and recommended resources. We in the Curriculum Planning and Development Division are confident that the new National Curriculum Guides for Forms 1–3 will contribute significantly to enhanced teaching and learning experiences in our secondary schools and, consequently, the achievement of personal learning and national educational goals.

Sharon Douglass Mangroo Director of Curriculum Development August 2008

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The staff of the School Libraries Division actively joined in workshops. past and present: Ms. Student Support Services.Acknowledgements The Ministry of Education wishes to express its sincere appreciation to all those who contributed to the curriculum development and revision processes from 2000 to the present. provided technical assistance and planned. led the curriculum development sub-component and coordinated the curriculum development and revision activities. Arnott West. Ms. and Ms. Mr. and Educational Research and Evaluation provided support as needed. Mrs Sharon Douglass Mangroo. Roslyn Elias. Patricia Worrell devoted time. Dr. Ms. facilitated research. energy. Schools Supervision. Stephen Joseph. organized. Officers of the Divisions of Educational Services. and knowledge to editing the several versions of the documents. Ms. Lynda Quamina-Aiyejina. Editors. Robert Sargent guided the early curriculum development process. vii • • • • • • • • • • . Director of Curriculum Development. Avril Ross. and contributed to the infusion of information technology into the curriculum. Lloyd Pujadas. The principals of the pilot schools generously contributed teachers and participated in regular meetings to provide valuable feedback on field tests. and Ms. Patricia Sealey. The Curriculum Officers and members of the Curriculum Writing Teams brought their knowledge. Maurice Chin Aleong. Renee Figuera. Dr. past and present. The principals of non-pilot schools kindly released teachers to take part in writing activities. • • The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and its staff The staff of the Coordinating Unit of the Secondary Education Modernization Programme (SEMPCU). skills and practical experiences of teaching and learning to the curriculum development workshops and skilfully synthesized all to produce these documents. Teachers throughout the secondary school system responded to requests for comments and other forms of feedback. The Administrative staff of the Curriculum Development Division spent long hours typing and retyping the documents. Mr. and conducted the various exercises over the years. They include Mr.

Curriculum Reviewers Name Janice Celestine Marguerite Codallo Anna Maria Frederick Lavaughn McClatchie Inshan Mohammed June Roach School/Institution Point Fortin Junior Secondary School Belmont Junior Secondary School Siparia Junior Secondary School Diego Martin Secondary School Tableland High School San Fernando Government Secondary School Physical Education and Sport Officers Marilyn Agard Toussaint Bachan Boochoon Anthony Creed Alexander Smith Veronica Samuel Marjorie Thomas viii .

Part 1 The National Curriculum for Forms 1–3 .

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talented and knowledgeable workforce will stimulate innovation driven growth and development. selfrenewing. The richness of our diverse culture will serve as a powerful engine to inspire innovation and creativity. the reform of the education system is driven by several local. in its Vision 2020 Draft National Strategic Plan. self-renewing. regional and international perspectives. resilient. welleducated people aspiring to a local culture of excellence that is driven by equal access to learning opportunities. This National Model has three (3) foci as follows: i. the Government has articulated five developmental pillars: Developing Innovative People Nurturing a Caring Society Governing Effectively Enabling Competitive Business Investing in Sound Infrastructure and Environment The Ministry of Education has been identified as one of the champions for developing innovative people. caring. has articulated a vision of “a united. happy and well-educated people and built on the enduring attributes of self reliance. …Nationally. innovative. To ensure an alignment of the education system to government’s strategic plan Vision 2020 which mandates that the education system produces caring and innovative citizens 1 . equity and integrity…” Towards the achievement of this Vision.” In conjunction with other key ministries. high-quality education system. the Ministry of Education has been charged with the realization of the following goals: The people of Trinidad and Tobago will be well known for excellence in innovation. Trinidad and Tobago will have a seamless.Background From the Ministry of Education’s Corporate Plan 2008–2012 (p. respect. and prosperous nation with a disciplined. tolerance. fun-loving society comprising healthy. productive. We are committed to a seamless. 4) The Government of Trinidad and Tobago. A highly skilled. high-quality education system underpinned by a National Model for Education. Central to the realization of this pillar is “A highly skilled.

To build a strong sense of nationalism and patriotism in our citizens. the Secondary Education Modernization Programme (SEMP). To ensure that the education system produces citizens with a sense of democracy. The specific recommendations for the improvement of secondary education led to discussions with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) for loan funding arrangements for a programme. in 1996. 2 . to modernize secondary education in Trinidad and Tobago. (p. the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The curriculum guides for Forms 1–3 in eight subject areas are among the products of the programme and contribute to this outcome. adopted the report of the National Task Force on Education as educational policy. 7) The Secondary Curriculum In its commitment to comprehensive reform and expansion of the secondary school system.ii. respect for the rights of others and elders and with the ability to contribute meaningfully to the social and economic development of the country iii. One of the intended outcomes of this programme was improved educational equity and quality.

members of denominational school boards. the Curriculum Development Division of the Ministry of Education embarked on a design and development programme consonant with accepted approaches to curriculum change and innovation. and Caribbean Union College. It seeks to provide personally satisfying experiences for each student. Donaldson Technical Institute. the desirable outcomes of secondary school education in Trinidad and Tobago. Its philosophical assumptions are mainly constructivist. As the student moves from one level to another. essential learning outcomes consisting of skills. Curriculum Development The first stage of the curriculum development process consisted of consultations with stakeholders from a cross-section of the national community. These consultations focussed on the philosophy. John S. and values that students must acquire at the end of five years of secondary schooling. San Fernando Technical Institute. the Education Policy Paper. the eight subjects to form the core. The result of these consultations was agreement on: ƒ the concept of a “core. curriculum officers. guidance counsellors. The curriculum is student-centred and growth oriented. members of the business community. ƒ ƒ In Stage 2 of the process. The result of the study was the identification and articulation of a set of desirable outcomes and essential exit competencies to be possessed 3 . the executive of the Trinidad and Tobago Unified Teachers’ Association (TTUTA). parents. goals. Curriculum Design This curriculum displays a learner-centred design. Its major orientation is to curriculum as self-actualization. representatives from The University of the West Indies (UWI). attitudes. librarians. the officers of the Curriculum Development Division studied the reports of the consultations. activities also expand to allow new insights and approaches to dealing with and integrating new knowledge. and school supervisors. principals. knowledge. Valsayn Teachers’ College. The School Libraries Division and the Division of School Supervision assisted the Curriculum Development Division in this task.” that is. and learning outcomes of education. students. Consultations were held with primary and secondary school teachers. the reports of the Curriculum Task Force and the Task Force for Removal of Common Entrance.The Curriculum Design and Development Process In order to achieve the outcomes defined by the underpinning philosophy and goals. as well as newspaper articles and letters to the editor on education during the preceding five years.

All learning opportunities. subject content. a survey was conducted among teachers. Teachers from eight subject areas were drawn from these schools to form curriculum writing teams for each subject. The draft curriculum guides for Forms 1 and 2 were approved by Cabinet for introduction into schools on a phased basis in September 2003. workshops. As in the original curriculum development exercise. and assessment strategies to support the outcomes. all teaching and learning strategies. 10 existing schools were identified to pilot the new curriculum. 4 . Teachers with specific subject or curriculum development skills from other schools were also included in the teams. learning. followed by focus group meetings. and teaching. revision—the final stage—was carried out by teams of practising teachers led by officers of the Curriculum Development Division. The draft guides for Form 3 were completed and introduced in the following year. At the same time. work began on a new assessment and certification system. Curriculum Revision As implementation proceeded. in order to concretize feedback before embarking on the revision process. At Stage 3. Introduction of the new guides was accompanied by professional development and training for principals and teachers. and reviews by UWI lecturers and other stakeholders. The Ministry also began to supply new and/or upgraded facilities for teaching and learning. In 2007.by all students on leaving school. feedback was sought by the Curriculum Development Division through school visits. and all instructional plans are to contribute to the realization of these outcomes and competencies. The outputs of this phase included learning outcomes specific to each subject that contribute to the fulfilment of the national outcomes. and educational technology.

Curriculum Underpinnings The national curriculum has been informed by a wealth of available curriculum theories and processes. The learner and learning process 4. has shown that the curriculum is core to the development of innovative people. The philosophical concerns and educational goals that shaped the curriculum also formed the basis for the dialogue with stakeholders in which the Curriculum Development Division engaged. The essential learning outcomes help to define standards of attainment for all secondary school students. An internal analysis of the education system. This curriculum is aimed at attaining six essential learning outcomes. Society and culture 3. these areas represent the foundation on which the national curriculum is built. 5 . Educational philosophy and understandings about the nature of knowledge 2. and dynamically evolving curriculum. together with research conducted in international forums. The major forces that influence and shape the organization and content of the curriculum include: 1. with the aim of developing a coherent. Learning theories 5. culturally focussed. The nature and structure of subject matter to be learned Thus. The six outcomes identified help to define universally accepted goals that have been developed and underscored by other educational jurisdictions and that have been agreed to be essential.

The curriculum must articulate with the goals of national development and be supportive of the aspirations of individuals and their personal development. 3. Inclusive Education Policy The Ministry of Education is committed to “support the delivery of inclusive education in all schools by providing support and services to all learners. These include the National Model for Primary and Secondary Education in Trinidad and Tobago. skills. the ICT policy.tt. and dispositions necessary for functioning in an interactive. accessible. attitudes. and organizational structures that are conducive to and supportive of effective learning and teaching and healthy development. Though the policy has not yet been formally issued. values. 2. The Policy statements are summarized as follows: 1. services. and by taking appropriate steps to make education available.moe. these statements are worthy of consideration at all stages of the curriculum cycle. The curriculum must be so managed as to ensure the provision of a quality curriculum experience for all students at all levels of the system.gov. though some are still in the process of formalization. 4. resources. and Quality Standards.Education Policies That Impact on the Curriculum There are several Ministry of Education policies that impact on the national secondary curriculum. Standards for the Operation of Schools. 5. interdependent society. Continuous quality management must support all curriculum and related activities at every level of the system. Copies of these documents may be obtained from the Ministry offices or the website at www. there must be equitable provision of requisite facilities. It must provide opportunities for every student to be equipped with the knowledge. Ongoing research and professional development activities must equip education practitioners for continued effective practice. teachers are therefore required to give due regard to the following principles: 6 . acceptable and adaptable to all learners. Three other policies that have direct impact on the development and implementation of the curriculum are discussed in some detail below.” An inclusive curriculum is acknowledged to be the most important factor in achieving inclusive education. National Curriculum Policy A Draft National Curriculum Policy has been approved by Cabinet for consultation with stakeholders. In planning and teaching the school curriculum. At every level of the system.

Account should be taken of diverse cultures. Curriculum Content and Learning Resources • • • Curriculum and content must increasingly maximize the use of ICT. Students with special needs should be given additional instructional support in negotiating the regular curriculum. learning. Assessment strategies must be appropriate to the way the curriculum is designed and delivered. The degrees of differentiation exercised will depend on the levels of student attainment. and assessment should be planned to allow all students to participate fully and effectively.• The National Curriculum Guides set out what most students should be taught at lower secondary school but teachers should teach the required knowledge and skills in ways that suit students’ interests and abilities. Varied approaches to teaching. • • • • ICT in the Curriculum The following statements are taken from the Ministry of Education’s ICT in Education Policy (pp. strengths. beliefs. as well as to each student’s individual learning profile and stage of development. This means exercising flexibility and drawing from curricula for earlier or later class levels to provide learning opportunities that allow students to make progress and experience success. and interests that exist in any classroom and that influence the way students learn. not a different one. thus maximizing students’ opportunities for achieving success. 28–29). The guiding principle of equity is to supply students who need it with additional help to achieve set standards. but not to lower the standards. ICT integration and ICT competency measures across the curriculum shall be driven through the development and delivery of an ICT-infused curriculum. ICT must be integrated into the development and delivery of the curriculum. Continuous formative evaluation must be used to identify learning needs and to shape instruction. Suitable technology must be used in instruction to facilitate learning and enhance success. 7 .

cultural identity. demonstrate understanding of the economic role of the arts in the global village society. perceptions. demonstrate understanding of the contribution of the arts to daily life. for example: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ use various art forms as a means of formulating and expressing ideas. and attitudes that will constitute a platform for living in the Trinidad and Tobago society and making informed choices for further secondary education. perceptions. The essential learning outcomes are described more fully below. their content. demonstrate understanding of the ideas.Essential Learning Outcomes The learning outcomes which have been deemed essential are in the areas of: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Aesthetic Expression Citizenship Communication Personal Development Problem Solving Technological Competence The achievement of these essential learning outcomes by all students is the goal that every core curriculum subject must facilitate. learning. and assessment strategies are the means to fulfil this end. and the suggested teaching. and they should respond positively to its various forms. and diversity. It is expected that by the end of the third year of secondary school. Aesthetic Expression Students recognize that the arts represent an important facet of their development. 8 . students’ achievement in all six areas will result in a solid foundation of knowledge. and feelings. Students. and feelings of others as expressed in various art forms. They demonstrate visual acuity and aesthetic sensibilities and sensitivities in expressing themselves through the arts. The core curriculum subjects. skills.

political. ƒ ƒ ƒ Communication Students use their bodies. as well as the contribution of our many peoples and cultures to society. demonstrate understanding of their own cultural heritage and cultural identity. such as museums. and that of others. symbols. demonstrate understanding of the social. pluralistic. for example: ƒ ƒ explore. cultural. multi-ethnic environment. and economic systems in the global context. and other expressions of the multicultural reality of society. examine issues of human rights and recognize and react against forms of discrimination. demonstrate understanding of facts and relationships presented through words. and apply those understandings to the process of planning for the future. and anti-social behaviours. demonstrate understanding of Trinidad and Tobago’s political. and express their own ideas. language. reflect on. and democratic society. numbers. and act accordingly. graphs. economic. learning. and thus to communicate more effectively. for example: ƒ ƒ ƒ demonstrate understanding of sustainable development and its implications for the environment locally and globally. and environmental development in the local and global context. and charts. Students. and economic forces that have shaped the past and present. determine the principles and actions that characterize a just. galleries. social. Citizenship Students situate themselves in a multicultural. peaceful. the symbols of the culture. and understand clearly the contribution they must make to social. 9 .ƒ demonstrate understanding of the significance of cultural resources. tools. Students. and feelings. violence. and various other media to demonstrate their deeper understandings of synergies inherent in the exchange of ideas and information. perceptions. theatres.

demonstrate coping. and accurately for a variety of audiences. for example: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ demonstrate preparedness for the transition to work and further learning. critically reflect on and interpret ideas presented through a variety of media. logically. both independently and in cooperative groups. deal effectively with change and become agents for positive.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ demonstrate sensitivity and empathy where necessary in communicating various kinds of emotions and information. Problem Solving Students have a range of problem-solving strategies and apply them appropriately to situations they encounter. Students. and interpersonal skills. concisely.” continually enlarging their knowledge base. 10 . discriminate among a wide variety of career opportunities. They demonstrate critical thinking and inquiry skills with which they process information to solve a wide variety of problems. demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between health and lifestyle. and interpret information critically to make informed decisions. reflect critically on ethical and other issues. interpret and evaluate data. and challenging themselves in the pursuit of a healthy and productive life. present information and instructions clearly. display intellectual curiosity. an entrepreneurial spirit. make appropriate decisions and take responsibility for those decisions. and initiative. expanding their horizons. use a variety of strategies and perspectives flexibly and creatively to solve problems. management. for example: ƒ ƒ acquire. and express their conclusions in everyday language. Personal Development Students “grow from inside out. process. work and study purposefully. Students. effective change.

and in the world at large. describe. in society. and draw conclusions. adapt. identify. distinguish facts from opinions. identify. ask questions. describe. and interpret different points of view. evaluate. demonstrate understanding of ethical issues related to the use of technology in local and global contexts. for example: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ locate. understand and use various technologies. and share information using a variety of sources and technologies. and reformulate problems. 11 . formulate. observe relationships. and question their own assumptions and those of others. make inferences.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ formulate tentative ideas. demonstrate understanding of the impact of technology on society. solve problems individually and collaboratively. create. Students. and demonstrate an understanding of the role of technology in their lives. frame and test hypotheses. demonstrate understanding of existing and developing technologies and use them appropriately. Technological Competence Students are technologically literate.

A minimum time allocation is recommended for each core subject. will make the final decision as to time allocation. of Periods 5 2 4 4 At the end of Form 3. 12 . The subjects and the recommended time allocations are as follows: Subject English Language Arts Science 4 Spanish Social Studies 4 4 No. The principal. Level I.The Core Curriculum Subjects The core curriculum subjects are those for which every student is required to demonstrate achievement of the stated outcomes in Forms 1–3. according to the needs of the students and the resources available at any given time. as instructional leader of the school. of Periods 6 Subject Mathematics Health and Physical Education Technology Education Visual and Performing Arts No. Additional subjects that contribute to students’ holistic development and further their interests and aspirations may also be offered thereafter. students will be assessed for the National Certificate of Secondary Education (NCSE).

to express personal beliefs. and they will learn about language. Language is linked to the thinking process. which occurs when students use the major modes of language—listening. they will learn through language. Internationally Accepted English. However. In addition. differs from the target language and language of instruction. that is. Language plays a major role in learning. and to explore and gain insight into and understanding of literature. among them: to communicate with others. The exponential growth in information and the use of information and communication technologies provide opportunities for students to become critical users of information. Three simultaneous uses of language for learning are envisaged as students experience the national curriculum: students will learn language. the Creole. speaking. and so on. Language development and use in this context is also addressed in all subject areas. thus. reading. competently. The national curriculum is predicated on the assumption that since students’ language development takes place across the curriculum. and effectively is fundamental to the learning outcomes expressed in the national curriculum. the natural language of the student. ideas. and writing—to achieve various purposes. their own learning. feelings. the student of Trinidad and Tobago functions in a bidialectal context. Language is a uniquely human capacity. Students use their own language as a tool for interpreting the content of the curriculum and for mastering it. and its use allows students to reflect on and clarify their own thought processes and. they must be taught to use the target language as effectively and effortlessly as they would their natural language. 13 . The philosophical position taken in the national curriculum is that both languages are of equal value and worth. and both must be respected.Language Across the Curriculum The development of language skills and the ability to understand and use language correctly. the development process must be addressed in all subject areas. Students will develop and use patterns of language vital to understanding and expression in the different subjects that make up the curriculum. for cognitive development in various subjects of the curriculum.

and standards Plan and develop curriculum Provide leadership in identifying curriculum goals and determining the process for development of curriculum materials Lead writing teams (which include teachers) Monitor implementation Provide teacher support Facilitate teacher professional development for curriculum implementation Advise on processes and materials for effective implementation and student assessment Evaluate curriculum Make major decisions concerning the school curriculum. determining the appropriate sequence and time allocation according to the learning needs of their students. Some of these are outlined in the table below. In implementation. and systematically providing feedback to curriculum teams for use in revising and improving the guides. continually assessing student learning. such as assigning resources Provide guidelines for Instructional Planning Teams Cooperate on tasks necessary for effective implementation. each with specific roles and responsibilities. heads of departments. development of materials to individualize the curriculum. as described in the curriculum guides. and teachers. Teachers translate those objectives into units of study. principals. student assessment and evaluation curriculum officers • • • • • • • • School Curriculum Council Principal/Vice Principal and Heads of Departments Teachers • • • Instructional Planning Teams/School Instructional Committees 14 . specialist curriculum officers. The new Curriculum Guides provide sample teaching and assessment strategies. The system advocated by the Ministry of Education involves stakeholders. teachers are expected to use the formal curriculum. units of study.Curriculum Implementation Implementation of the curriculum is a dynamic process. requiring collaboration of the developers (curriculum teams) and users (teachers). to plan work and teach in a manner that accomplishes the objectives described. identification and development of learning materials. A curriculum development system provides support for the tasks of curriculum implementation. goals. such as: yearly work plans. System Component National Curriculum Advisory Council/ Committee Curriculum Planning and Development Division (Head Office and District-based) Members Stakeholders • Role Advise on curriculum policy. but it is also the role of the professional teacher to select and use sound teaching practices.

observation. The School Curriculum Council usually consists of the Principal and/or Vice Principal and Heads of Department. units. for instance: • encourage teachers to identify challenges and try new ideas. societies and committees. debating society. the Council may. cricket team. The roles of instructional teams and the individual teachers are described in the following tables: Roles of School Instructional Committees Develop/Revise/Evaluate work programmes Determine resource needs Identify/Develop instructional materials Conduct classroom action research Integrate and align curriculum Identify and develop appropriate assessment practices Develop reporting instruments and procedures (student and teacher performance) Keep records 15 . The School Curriculum Council develops a School Curriculum that must be in alignment with the National Curriculum.. year plans. • ensure availability of learning materials. for example. The duties of the Council include the development of school culture. In performing evaluation functions. It also provides support for curriculum work and performs evaluation functions. fund allocation. • evaluates the school programme of studies. • develop timetables to allow for development of curriculum materials. for example. It includes the formal or written curriculum. and curriculum in alignment with the national curriculum and culture.Curriculum Implementation at School Level The “School Curriculum” refers to all the learning and other experiences that the school plans for its students. student books. • assesses the hidden curriculum (including discipline policies. goals. Guides. • provide instructional leadership. In providing support for curriculum work. as well as the informal curriculum. vision. • ensure that appropriate strategies are formulated to promote student success. Cadets). which is comprised of other developmental opportunities provided by the school. formal and informal discussions with different stakeholders). test scores. such as those offered by student clubs.g. physical environment). and sporting organizations (e. instructional materials. the Council: • monitors the curriculum (using.

and where appropriate Select appropriate assessment strategies Monitor/Assess student learning and keep records Evaluate student performance Evaluate classroom programmes Conduct action research Collaborate with colleagues 16 .Roles of Individual Teachers Develop/Revise instructional programme Individualize curriculum to suit students’ needs and interests Develop/Evaluate/Revise unit plans Develop/Select appropriate learning materials Select appropriate teaching strategies to facilitate student success Integrate the curriculum as far as possible.

Trinidad and Tobago. (2005a). (2008).References Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad: Author. primary and secondary). Trinidad: Author. Inclusive education policy. (2006). Trinidad: Author. Trinidad and Tobago. Education policy paper (1993-2003) (White paper). Green paper for public comment: Draft quality standards for education in Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry of Education. Ministry of Education. (2005b). Trinidad and Tobago. Port of Spain. Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad: Author. Port of Spain. Draft policy for information and communications technology in education. Curriculum policy: Preprimary to secondary education. Task Force for the Removal of the Common Entrance Examination. Ministry of Education. The national model for education in Trinidad and Tobago (Early childhood. Ministry of Education. draft 5. Trinidad and Tobago. draft. Trinidad: Author. Ministry of Education. draft. Port of Spain. Trinidad and Tobago. National Task Force on Education. Trinidad: Author. Quest for excellence: Quality standards for education in Trinidad and Tobago: A Ministry of Education Green Paper – first revision. Ministry of Education. Port of Spain. Port of Spain. 17 . (2005c). Ministry of Education. Port of Spain. Port of Spain. Trinidad: Author. (1994). Student Support Services Division. Draft corporate plan 2008–2012. Trinidad and Tobago. Port of Spain. Trinidad: Author. (2008). Trinidad and Tobago. Port of Spain. Trinidad: Author. Report. (2007). (1998).

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Part 2 The Health and Physical Education Curriculum .

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and emotional wellbeing. intellectual. the goals of personal integration and social development are also given high priority in this curriculum. social. However. Human movement activities constitute the subject matter of the physical education curriculum. 21 . to enhance their physical. The curriculum emphasizes the need to translate short-term results into lifestyle changes. and attitudes. values. which will help them to develop the relevant knowledge. skills.Introduction The curriculum in Health and Physical Education presents students with a multitude of possibilities. as well as the creativity. Vision Statement All students will experience a well-structured Health and Physical Education programme. Health and Physical Education has always been focused primarily on promoting health-related fitness and the development of motor skills.

but will also give all students opportunities for achieving success. healthy lifestyles and improving their health status. Students are also encouraged to be sensitive about gender issues and issues affecting the differently abled. Health and Physical Education fosters the holistic development of students of varying abilities. These can be set at levels that challenge all students. The Health and Physical Education curriculum therefore focuses on the health of individuals and the factors that influence their movement skills and physical activity levels. This curriculum has been planned to develop social and scientific understandings about movement. and interests through a structured programme of psychomotor activities. low levels of fitness. leisure pursuits. obesity. Students who experience the curriculum will be given opportunities to learn about and practise ways of maintaining active. The individual who has been exposed to this curriculum will have the knowledge. including the differently abled. and the development of the individual’s capacity to take a productive role in the society. which has led to more sedentary lifestyles. The curriculum includes the study of movement and physical activity. healthy lifestyle fosters personal growth. The Health and Physical Education curriculum seeks to provide satisfying experiences for all students from Form 1 to Form 3. Scientific content to be studied includes anatomy. and attitudes necessary to incorporate physical activity into regular routines. and poor movement/skill development are all too common. skills. Students are growing up in a world of rapid change. and belongs within the core curriculum for secondary education. In addition. the enhancement of well-being. and career requirements throughout life. As a result. Emphasis is placed on understanding how the body moves and the socio-cultural influences that regulate movement. health and physical fitness. 22 . capabilities.Rationale Health and Physical Education is an integral part of general education. physiology. The curriculum offers stimulating and varied activities that are appropriate to students’ age and ability. and acquisition of the relevant skills. striving for an active. This will impact on how movement and patterns of participation in physical activity are valued by students. Health and Physical Education programmes provide opportunities for all students to be physically active and to develop appreciation for and enjoyment of movement.

• • • • • 23 . encourage participation in physical fitness activities that promote health and wellness. It should foster competencies and beliefs that are necessary for a healthy lifestyle. facilitate lifelong learning by helping students to appreciate the importance of knowledge. be structured in a sequential and progressive manner that will facilitate the assessment of the all-round development of students. should: • provide activities that are responsive to the divergent needs of all students in the psychomotor. contributing members of society. responsible. cognitive. offer enjoyable activities that are appropriate to the physical and mental abilities of students. therefore. and problem-solving and critical thinking skills. A Health and Physical Education programme. It is the belief of the curriculum planners that Health and Physical Education must contribute holistically to the development of all students. research techniques.Philosophy The philosophy of Health and Physical Education is informed by the national education philosophy. thus enabling students to become independent. create opportunities for the development of positive attitudes and values that will enable students to function effectively in a culturally diverse society. and affective domains.

4. 24 . and decisionmaking. intellectually. develop basic life skills. 8. develop and display teamwork skills necessary to engage in cooperative physical activities. 3. 2. 6. develop an awareness of and an appreciation for a safe and healthy environment. acquire and use skills for creative and efficient movement in a variety of appropriate situations and circumstances. demonstrate proficiency in various sporting disciplines. emotionally. 9.Goals of the Health and Physical Education Programme The Health and Physical Education programme provides opportunities for students to: 1. spiritually. 5. value and enjoy engaging in regular and structured physical activity for the promotion of healthy lifestyles. integrate Health and Physical Education with other core subjects. develop and display appropriate leadership qualities. acquire basic survival skills. morally. 10. 7. problem-solving. and socially. including critical thinking. develop physically.

Physical Education Standards The Essential Learning Outcomes described in Part 1 help to define standards of attainment for all secondary school students. Achieve and maintain a healthenhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • • • Essential Learning Outcomes Personal development Technological competence Problem solving Communication 2. Alignment of Physical Education Standards to the Essential Learning Outcomes Content Standards 1. Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • • • • Citizenship Communication Problem solving Personal development Citizenship Problem solving Technological competence • 4. Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • Aesthetic expression Citizenship Communication Personal development Problem solving Technological competence 3. Exhibit safety principles and practices • • 25 . The Health and Physical Education Curriculum will assist students in achieving these outcomes through the realization of the Physical Education Content Standards. which have been directly aligned to these Essential Learning Outcomes.

engage in critical analysis of gender issues as they relate to Health and Physical Education. promote the sporting achievement of all persons. • • • Social Studies The Health and Physical Education programme is linked to the Social Studies curriculum because it helps students to: • • • • • develop a focus on the interaction between them and the natural. regardless of gender. develop an understanding of the links between the environment. and synthesizing information related to Health and Physical Education from a variety of sources.Connections to the Core Curriculum Health and Physical Education is an integral part of the secondary education core curriculum. and cultural environment in which they live and work. and the health of the community. develop the ability to critically analyse media messages that may impact on their lifestyles and their behaviour as consumers. social. 26 . so that they may participate and communicate more effectively in physical education programmes and activities. gain perspectives on equity in sport. Language Arts Health and Physical Education directly contributes to students’ language development because it provides students with opportunities to: • develop an understanding of language specific to the field of Health and Physical Education. in fact. the individual. assessing. It is. directly connected to all other subjects in the core curriculum. practise the terminology and discourse styles used by persons involved in Health and Physical Education. develop skills for locating.

• • • • • •

experience success and enjoyment, and thus sustain their participation in a wide variety of physical activities; develop positive relationships and self-confidence through participation in a wide variety of physical activities; develop mechanisms for acceptable release of emotion and stress through participation in a wide variety of physical activities; attain and demonstrate desirable social standards of effective, positive citizenship; develop respect for authority; develop knowledge and understanding of, and respect for, the customs, values, and traditions of other cultures.

Visual and Performing Arts Health and Physical Education is closely linked to Visual and Performing Arts because it helps students to: • • enhance their artistic and creative expression through movement experiences; enhance their appreciation of music, dance, and dramatic expression through their involvement in Movement Education and Dance.

Technology Education Health and Physical Education is linked to Technology Education because it provides students with opportunities to: • • • use a variety of technologies to assist, monitor, and deliver appropriate physical activity; recognize the importance of technological changes in all aspects of their lives, and relate these to Health and Physical Education; develop motor skills and manipulative skills required for Technology Education.

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Science The connections between Science and Health and Physical Education are generally focused on: • • understanding the nature of natural systems, including the functioning of the human body, and appreciating the importance of such understanding to survival and health; developing an understanding of scientific principles that are related to human movement and healthy body functioning.

Mathematics Health and Physical Education is linked to Mathematics because it helps students to: • • • enhance their skills in measurement and construction through the marking and drawing to scale of playing areas such as courts, fields, and so on; improve their numeric and calculation skills through their involvement in the different aspects of scoring used in sport; develop skills in collecting, processing, and recording data.

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The Purpose and Organization of the Curriculum Guide
The section of the curriculum guide that follows is specific to Health and Physical Education, and serves as a source of ideas to support teachers’ use of their creativity to prepare, deliver, and evaluate their programmes. The vision statement, rationale, philosophy, and goals described earlier in the document form the basis on which the rest of the curriculum is developed. The policy statement informs users of the document about requirements that must be met in planning and implementing all Physical Education programmes. The Physical Education Standards emanate from the curriculum goals and are aligned to the Essential Learning Outcomes. They are intended to guide teachers and administrators as they plan and monitor school curricula. The content standards describe the knowledge and skills to be developed through the curriculum. They define the programme of study that has been designed for the subject. They also identify the critical behaviours to be learned in a programme of Physical Education. The performance standards are derived from the content standards, and focus on students’ competence in applying and demonstrating what they know and can do in Physical Education. They define the levels of learning that are considered satisfactory for each form, from 1 to 3. The learning outcomes specify what students will know and be able to do as a result of a learning activity, or sequence of activities. These are expressed as knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students will develop. The framework has been conceptualized as a termly/yearly course of work for each form. The curriculum content provides teachers with a detailed description of the scope and suggested sequence for the treatment of various topics, organized in a sequential and progressive format. These constitute the content from which individual school programmes may be developed. The suggested teaching strategies, sample lessons, and evaluation techniques provide the tools that will assist teachers in implementing their programmes. The teaching strategies maximize learning while evaluation ensures that objectives are met and measures the success of the delivery of the curriculum.

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Suitably adapted physical education programmes shall be included as part of individual education plans for students with chronic health problems or other special needs. 30 . self-management skills. • Health-Related Fitness Testing Health-related fitness testing must be integrated into the curriculum as an instructional tool. • Teaching Staff Physical education shall be taught by specialists who are certified by the Ministry of Education. motor skills. • Exemptions Exemptions from Physical Education practical classes shall be permitted if a physician states in writing that physical activity will jeopardize the student’s health and well-being. attitudes. developmentally appropriate curriculum must be implemented to help students develop the knowledge. • Assessment All students must be regularly assessed for attainment of Physical Education learning objectives. equipment. and confidence needed to adopt and maintain a healthy lifestyle. • Facilities Policy makers/school administrators shall endeavour to ensure the provision of adequate spaces. facilities. and supplies that are necessary to achieve the objectives of the physical education programme. • Intra-Mural and Extra-Mural Programme A well-structured programme of co-curricular and extra-curricular activities should be established in schools to ensure that students are provided with the opportunities to further enhance the skills acquired in the Physical Education programme.Physical Education Policy Curriculum planning and implementation should be informed by elements of the proposed Physical Education National Policy that refer to: • Instructional Programme Design A sequential.

Health and Physical Education Standards .

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structure. structure. and workings of the circulatory and respiratory systems • show the relationship of the circulatory and workings of the skeletal and muscular systems • demonstrate knowledge of the effects of respiratory systems to other systems • understand the effects of physical activities digestive and nervous systems and other systems • understand the effects of physical activities physical activities on the skeletal and muscular systems Performance Standard Display habits and practices that will impact positively on a healthy lifestyle Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate understanding of the relationship between wellness and lifestyle on the circulatory and respiratory systems on the digestive and nervous systems Performance Standard Undertake the responsibility to develop a healthy lifestyle Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • apply habits and practices to attain a healthy lifestyle Performance Standard Set achievable goals to maintain a healthy lifestyle Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • understand the effects of substance abuse on health and performance • incorporate specific health behaviours to attain short-term and long-term goals 33 . structure. and Form 2 Performance Standard Demonstrate an understanding of the human body in relation to movement Form 3 Performance Standard Apply knowledge of anatomy and physiology to achieve and maintain a high level of physical fitness and wellness Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • understand the functions. and workings of the digestive and nervous systems • understand the relationship between the Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • understand the functions.Content Standard 1: Achieve and Maintain a Health-Enhancing Level of Physical Fitness and Wellness Form 1 Performance Standard Understand some aspects of the structure and functions of the human body in relation to movement Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate basic knowledge of the systems of the human body • understand the functions.

and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • apply the knowledge of physical fitness to enhance performance Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate an understanding of the principles of training 34 .Form 1 Performance Standard Demonstrate understanding of the relationship between regular participation in physical activities and health-enhancing levels of physical fitness Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • understand the concept of physical fitness • recognize the fitness requirements for different physical activities Form 2 Performance Standard Participate regularly in physical activities to achieve a health-enhancing level of physical fitness relative to one’s lifestyle and needs Form 3 Performance Standard Apply the principles of training to improve performance during physical activity.

Content Standard 2: Apply Concepts and Principles for the Development and Performance of Motor Skills Form 1 Performance Standard Demonstrate an understanding of basic movement concepts Form 2 Performance Standard Apply movement concepts with proficiency Form 3 Performance Standard Demonstrate an understanding of relationships between movement concepts and skill performance Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • apply movement concepts in technically sound gymnastic performances • display proficiency when carrying out Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • create sequences using basic movement concepts • perform basic gymnastic skills in simple Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate competency in movement through the use of apparatus • execute gymnastic skills with competency • apply movement concepts to enhance routines • demonstrate creative and rhythmic creative gymnastic routines • apply movement concepts in contemporary creative and folk dance sequences • demonstrate an appreciation for various folk expressions of simple movement patterns • demonstrate basic swimming techniques • apply basic water safety skills and social dance • demonstrate proper swimming strokes • demonstrate basic life-saving skills dances • demonstrate basic swimming strokes • demonstrate basic life-saving skills Performance Standard Demonstrate basic skills in outdoor activities Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate an appreciation for outdoor activities Performance Standard Demonstrate competency in outdoor education skills Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • display simple outdoor techniques efficiently • apply safety measures in outdoor activities Performance Standard Apply outdoor education skills in orienteering Learning Outcome Students will be able to: • demonstrate orienteering skills 35 .

Form 1 Performance Standard Apply fundamental motor skills in modified game situations Form 2 Performance Standard Apply principles of movement to enhance specialized motor skills in modified game situations Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • understand and appreciate the history of specific games/athletics • apply motor skills that reflect good Form 3 Performance Standard Establish connections between movement principles. and efficiency • execute strategies and rules in modified game situations strategies of games/athletic activities game/athletic situations 36 . rules. rules. and strategies to enhance performance of motor skills Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • understand and appreciate the history of specific games/athletics • apply motor skills with proficiency while Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • understand and appreciate the history of specific games/athletics • apply perceptual motor concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills • demonstrate basic motor skills with technique and the ability to select the best response in a given situation • apply appropriate strategies and rules in participating in game/athletic situations • make connections between skills.

and procedures and stay on task • display self-confidence in physical activity settings Performance Standard Engage in appropriate interpersonal relationships Performance Standard Engage in positive interpersonal relationships sportsmanship Performance Standard Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of positive group dynamics on the achievement of group goals Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • apply effective teamwork and cooperation skills to achieve collective goals Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • interact positively with others in group settings Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of teamwork to achieve collective goals • demonstrate and encourage respect for others 37 .Content Standard 3: Exhibit Responsible Personal and Social Behaviour Form 1 Performance Standard Demonstrate and take responsibility for appropriate personal behaviour Form 2 Performance Standard Demonstrate positive personal behaviour Form 3 Performance Standard Demonstrate an understanding of the correlation between responsible personal behaviour and healthy interpersonal relationships Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • show initiative and self-esteem in physical activity settings • demonstrate and promote good Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate a willingness to follow rules. instructions. instructions. and procedures and stay on task Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • readily follow rules.

• demonstrate awareness of measures to Form 2 Performance Standard Demonstrate understanding of safety rules in physical activities Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • appreciate the importance of rules in physical activities Performance Standard Practise safety principles in the care and prevention of minor injuries Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • apply first aid skills to athletic injuries • practise safety measures for the prevention Form 3 Performance Standard Apply safety rules and procedure in a variety of situations Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • apply safety rules in relation to specific activity settings Performance Standard Apply safety principles and practices to the care and prevention of athletic injuries Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • apply first aid skills to athletic injuries • apply safety measures for the prevention of of injuries injuries • maintain appropriate control in relation to avoid injuries rehabilitation protocol 38 .Content Standard 4: Exhibit Safety Principles and Practice Form 1 Performance Standard Display awareness of basic safety rules when performing physical activities Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • observe safety rules for different physical activities Performance Standard Demonstrate basic knowledge of the care and prevention of injuries Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • demonstrate awareness of first aid skills in the treatment of minor injuries.

Framework for Health and Physical Education Forms 1–3 .

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weight transference. relationships. jumping Basic techniques of sprinting Starts – crouch. effort Movement activities – weight bearing. forward drive. bounce. body shape History of netball Passing – overarm.Form 1 — Term 1 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • • Definition of wellness Dimensions of wellness Features of a healthy lifestyle Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Meaning of Movement Education Development of movement concepts – space awareness. chest. flight. body awareness. standing Relays – baton passing Jumps – long. pull to leg Bowling – basic overarm bowling action History of track and field Definition of track and field Areas of track and field General principles of walking. high Throws – shot 41 . running. underarm Catching History of football Passing using inside of the foot Receiving using the inside of the foot Kicking – low drive History of cricket Batting – forward defence. throwing.

handstand Rolls – forward and backward Cartwheel.Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • • Procedures/rules Instructions Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • Safety rules: . stepping. headstand.environment . pivoting Rules relating to skills in passing and footwork History of basketball Passing – javelin.equipment . lob. round-off Foot work in netball – stopping.protective gear Reinforcement: benefits of safety rules • Form 1 — Term 2 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • • Definition of fitness Components of fitness Factors affecting fitness Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • • • Meaning of gymnastics Balances – crouch balance. two-handed passes Catching Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • Sharing with others 42 .

soft tissue . long barrier Catching – close. high catching Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • Respect for others Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • Type of injuries .hard tissue 43 .Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • • • Application of appropriate emergency responses Definition of first aid Components of a first aid kit Form 1 — Term 3 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • • • Nutrition and health Definition of nutrition – sources and uses of food Assessment of fitness level Fitness needs in major sports Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • • • • • Astride vault Offensive and defensive skills in netball Strategies in modified game situations Dribbling in basketball – static and dynamic Rules relating to skills in passing and dribbling Strategies in modified game situations Basic dribbling in football Rules relating to skills in passing and dribbling Strategies in modified game situations Fielding in cricket – underarm throw.

positional play Rules of the game Scoring Dribbling in basketball Footwork – pivot Shooting – lay up Trapping in football Throw in Discus throw Creative dance Folk dance Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • Self-discipline/commitment .participation .Form 2 — Term 1 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • • Nutritional principles Weight management Stress management Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weight bearing and weight transference using apparatus Through vault Shooting in netball Court craft – areas of the court.followership .leadership 44 .

basic wicketkeeping Dismissals.Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • • • Safety practices in given activities Safety implications of warm up and cool down Importance of protective gear Form 2 — Term 2 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • Cardio-respiratory endurance – energy system. overhand throw. forearm/bump/dig Underarm. benefits of cardio-respiratory endurance exercise. cardio-respiratory fitness tests Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Forward roll on the box Backward defence and attack strokes in cricket. overarm serve Javelin throw Back stroke in swimming Shallow dive Dry rescue techniques – reach. line and length Two hand collecting. signals Brief history and skills of volleyball Lead-up activities Overhead/set. running between wickets Basic bowling – direction. skim catch. rope throw Basic techniques of map reading Hiking Camping Safety rules 45 .

teachers .official . off spin Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • • Cooperation Respect .peers . cool down Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • Passing in football – lofted Goalkeeping Shooting in basketball – set shot History of hockey Passing and receiving – push Dribbling Bowling in cricket – leg spin.self-expression Acceptance of varying roles and responsibilities as members of groups .feedback .group leader .individual differences 46 . overload.Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • • Communication skills .group leader .manager Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • Initial procedure in the event of an injury Form 2 — Term 3 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • Cardio-respiratory endurance programme Principles of physical fitness – warm up.

block Scoring and rules of the game Game situation Passing in hockey – hit. flick Hurdling – basic technique 47 .Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • • Methods of self-protection when treating injuries Treatment of basic injuries Form 3 — Term 1 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • • • • • Digestive system Definition of drugs Reason for drug use Effects of smoking. alcohol Frequently abused drugs Effects of drugs on human body and sports performance Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gymnastic routines Neck spring Overarm spring Officiating in netball Game situation The field of play in football Officiating Game situation Offensive and defensive skills in basketball Officiating Areas of court/playing areas Game situation Offensive and defensive skills in volleyball – spike.

and so on Scale interpretation 48 . backhand.• • Dance etiquette Social dance Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • • • Leadership skills Conflict resolution Setting goals Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • Environmental awareness Form 3 — Term 2 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • • • Training programmes – periods of training FITT principles Phases of a training session The nervous system Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hitting across the line of the ball in cricket – pull. volley History of badminton Major skills – serve. striking: forehand. sweep. backhand Overarm Orienteering skills Types of maps – contour. cut Game situation Goalkeeping in hockey Basic rules Modified game situation History of tennis Lead-up activities Striking – forehand. serve. rainfall.

• • • Compass features Choice of route Breaststroke in swimming Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • • • • • Etiquette Fair play Self-control Teamwork Inclusive behaviour Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • • Advanced first aid Strategies for emergency situations and long-term management of injuries Form 3 — Term 3 Standard 1 – Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and wellness • • Major forms of cardiovascular disease Protection against cardiovascular disease Standard 2 – Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills Game situations in: • • • • • • • netball football cricket basketball volleyball Overhand clear. smash in badminton Modified game situation 49 .

• • • • Serving in tennis Volleying Modified game situation Contemporary dance Standard 3 – Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour • • Cooperative problem solving Achieving team goals Standard 4 – Exhibit safety principles and practices • Apply safety principles and practices in simulated situations 50 .

Curriculum Content .

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• The Skeletal System: • Observation of models of systems • Match the common names with the structure. joints connective tissues workings different systems scientific names of some parts of the skeleton • Place correct labels on diagrams of parts of the skeletal system • Outline the functions of the muscular • The Muscular System: • Review video clips of sports . and workings of the skeletal.structure – air passages.Standard 1: Achieve and Maintain a Health-Enhancing Level of Physical Fitness and Wellness Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • acquire basic knowledge of Topic/Skills • An overview of body systems Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Class discussion • Research • Group work Suggested Assessment • State the major body systems. muscular. lungs.structure – types . diaphragm . pulse. digestive. blood. blood pressure . respiratory.functions .workings • The Circulatory System: men and women in action • Research • Group work • Individual work • Class discussion • Research system • Identify types of muscles and give examples of where they are found • Outline the functions of the circulatory .workings • The Respiratory System: system • Measure and record personal data such as pulse rate and blood pressure in journal • Use chart to compare results of heart rates according to age and gender • Outline the functions of the respiratory .functions .workings system • Explain the effects of physical activity on the circulatory and respiratory systems 53 .structure – heart. and nervous systems - functions structure – major bones.functions . blood vessel. circulatory. their main organs and main functions • Complete crossword puzzle on body the systems of the human body • understand the functions.

functions . muscular. digestive. muscular. respiratory. digestive.structure . circulatory. respiratory. respiratory. circulatory. and nervous systems • show the interrelatedness of skeletal.workings – ingestion. and nervous systems are dependent upon the functions of other systems 54 . circulatory. circulatory. respiratory. and nervous systems and present findings in scrapbook/portfolio • State how the functions of one system the skeletal. muscular. muscular. digestive. and nervous systems men and women in action • Research • Group work • Individual work • Measuring heart rates • Plenary session • Research activity on the skeletal.Learning Outcomes Topic/Skills • The Digestive System: Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Class discussion • Research • Group work • Viewing animated objects Suggested Assessment • Label parts of the digestive system • Complete a crossword puzzle on the . digestive. absorption • The Nervous System: digestive system • Draw and label the main parts of the - functions structure – nerves. dendrites central nervous system workings nervous system • Demonstrate and give examples of voluntary and involuntary actions • demonstrate knowledge of • The effects of physical activity on the • Viewing video clips of sports • Research the effects of physical the effects of physical activities on the skeletal.

balance. diet.emotional .diet & eating habits. rest.intellectual • Behaviours that affect wellness: • apply habits and practices to physical activity healthy diet stress management heredity environment adequate health care • Group work • Explain how exercise. and other factors contribute to healthy living • Prepare a student journal on lifestyle management Healthy lifestyle practices: • Nutrition – nutrients. function. • Research • Identify the components of a healthy achieve a healthy lifestyle diet • Explain the functions of nutrients • Prepare a portfolio on nutrition • Apply nutritional principles to develop healthy sources • Nutritional principles – variety.Learning Outcomes • demonstrate an Topic/Skills • Meaning of wellness/lifestyle • Dimensions of wellness: Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Class discussion Suggested Assessment • Complete questionnaires based on understanding of the relationship between wellness and lifestyle self-perceptions of wellness and a healthy lifestyle • Projects • Identify the dimensions of wellness . physical activity & exercise • Stress management – social support. relaxation techniques • Guided discovery a healthy lifestyle • Produce a student journal on lifestyle • Cooperative learning management 55 . moderation • Weight management .physical .

atherosclerosis .stroke • Protection against cardiovascular • Group work cardiovascular diseases • Discuss ways in which cardiovascular diseases can be prevented • understand the concept of diseases: .avoid tobacco .Learning Outcomes • understand the effects of Topic/Skills • Definition of drugs • Reasons why some athletes take Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Class discussion Suggested Assessment • Define drugs • Classify various drugs • Outline the harmful effects of substance abuse on health and performance drugs • Types of drugs frequently abused drugs on human behaviour • Explain the effects of performance enhancing drugs • Projects • Define the major forms of • incorporate specific health • Major forms of cardiovascular behaviours to attain shortterm and long-term goals diseases: .health-related fitness .heart attack .exercise regularly .diet fitness 56 .hypertension .eat healthy .sport-related fitness • Factors affecting fitness: .the environment .stress .manage blood pressure .practise anger management • Definition of physical fitness • Components of fitness: • Research • Use key words to define physical physical fitness fitness • Guided discovery • Demonstrate various components of .

continuous .circuit 57 .goals • Cardio-respiratory endurance – • Cooperative learning • Guided discovery • Peer observation • Cardio-respiratory endurance component of simple physical activities • Perform tests to determine fitness • apply the knowledge of level • Explain how energy is produced in the physical fitness to enhance performance of physical activities energy production • Benefits of cardio-respiratory body • Present findings on benefits based on endurance group research • Use the results of fitness tests to programme: .setting goals .fitness tests .Learning Outcomes • recognize the fitness needs Topic/Skills • Assessment of fitness levels: Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Cooperative learning Suggested Assessment • Identify the predominant fitness of different physical activities .determining frequency of training .assessment of cardio-respiratory fitness • demonstrate an • Principles of training: • Teacher guidance • Class discussion • Problem solving • Station teaching monitor fitness levels • Develop a cardio-respiratory fitness programme • Explain some principles and methods understanding of principles of training .fitness programme .choosing sports and activities .progression • Methods of training: of training .fartlek .specificity .

human body .sport performance the human body and sport performance • Training programme: • Class discussion • Identify a training programme for a training to further develop programmes to enhance fitness levels - periods of training pre-season competition/peak-season off-season • Problem solving particular season • Phases of a training session: • Explain the phases of a training - warm up fitness skills cool down session • Plan a simple training session • Station teaching 58 .Learning Outcomes • apply the knowledge of the Topic/Skills • Effects of training on: Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Teacher guidance Suggested Assessment • Describe some effects of training on principles and methods of training to optimize performance • incorporate principles of .

forward .handstand • Rolls: . and group • Perform movement skills competently .crouch balance .backward • Cartwheel. using apparatus • perform basic gymnastic skills in simple routines • Meaning of gymnastics • Balances: weight-bearing/weight-transference activities and in flight • Individual.headstand . pair. round-off • Astride vault work using various apparatus • Execute basic gymnastic skills and routines 59 .Standard 2: Apply Concepts and Principles for the Development and Performance of Motor Skills Learning Outcomes Students will be able to: • create sequences using Topic/Skills • Meaning of Movement Education • Development of movement concepts: Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Research project • Class discussion • Guidance Suggested Assessment • Demonstrate movement concepts in basic movement concepts - space awareness body awareness relationships effort physical education activities • Weight bearing on different body parts • Weight transference using different • Peer tutoring • Observation • Perform weight-bearing activities on different body parts • Perform activities showing body parts • Different methods of take-off and landing • demonstrate competency in • Body shape in held positions and in • Demonstration transference of weight using different body parts • Perform sequences of jumps movement using apparatus flight • Weight bearing and weight • Practice exploring different methods of take-off and landing • Demonstrate different body shapes in transference.

elements. and types of dance • Dynamic awareness: • Research project • Outline the history of dance • Explain how to perform different types rhythmic expressions of simple movement patterns • apply movement concepts to weight time space flow • Demonstration • Practice of dance • Creative dance patterns: • Create and perform simple dance enhance creative and folk dance sequences - contracting and extending rising and falling advancing and retreating moving and stopping sequence • demonstrate an appreciation for various folk dances • Creative dance • Folk dance • Perform simple folk dance 60 .Learning Outcomes • execute gymnastic skills with Topic/Skills • Forward roll on the box • Through vault Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies Suggested Assessment • Perform forward roll on the box competency • Guidance • Peer tutoring • Neck spring • Overarm spring • Observation • Perform vaults over partner and • apply movement concepts in vaulting box • Perform skilled routines in gymnastics • Observe and analyse performances • Perform the neck spring and overarm • Routines involving gymnastic skills presenting technically sound gymnastic performances • demonstrate advanced gymnastic skills spring • demonstrate creative and • History.

reach .Learning Outcomes • apply movement concepts in Topic/Skills • Contemporary dance • Social dance • Dance etiquette Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Demonstration Suggested Assessment • Perform contemporary and social contemporary and social dance dance patterns • Guidance • Demonstrate dance etiquette • Demonstrate safe practices in and • Peer tutoring • apply basic water safety skills • demonstrate basic lifesaving • Basic water safety rules and skills • Dry rescue techniques: around the pool skills .rope throw • Floating • Front crawl • Backstroke • Shallow dive • Breaststroke • Practice • Research project • demonstrate basic swimming techniques • demonstrate basic swimming • Observation • Exhibit the ability to float for at least 15 seconds strokes • Demonstrate the front crawl across the pool • Perform the backstroke across the • demonstrate proper width of the pool • Perform the shallow dive • Perform the breaststroke across the swimming strokes width of the pool 61 .

Learning Outcomes • demonstrate simple outdoor Topic/Skills • Basic techniques of map reading • Hiking • Camping Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Guidance • Group work • Demonstration Suggested Assessment • Applying safety measures in planning education techniques efficiently and implementing a simple outdoor activity • apply safety measures in • Demonstrate proper safety rules in • Safety rules • Observation outdoor activities outdoor activities • demonstrate orienteering • Orienteering skills • Types of maps: • Complete a simple orienteering • Practice skills contour rainfall scale interpretation choice of route course • Set a map using a compass • Identify features of different types of maps • Construct a map of a defined area to a given scale 62 .

group work • Play in different positions • Identify and explain rules • Oral/written quiz on rules relating to • apply appropriate strategies and rules in game situations Areas of court Playing position/areas Rules relating to skills Rules of the game Offensive and defensive strategies skills • Select suitable offensive or defensive strategies in game situations • Make appropriate judgements and • Drills/practice • make connections between • Selection of skills and strategies in skills.Learning Outcomes • understand and appreciate Topic/Skills • History of netball Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Research Suggested Assessment • Present research on history of netball the history of specific games/athletics • apply perceptual motor • Direction. and strategies of team/athletic activities normal game situations • Officiating • Scoring use them in varying circumstances in a game situation • Officiate in various roles as umpires. foot/eye • Demonstration • Drills/practice • Passing: • Observation of netball games • Discussions • Demonstration of netball • Demonstrate netball skills • Demonstrate perceptual motor concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills • show proficiency in their coordination abilities while performing netball skills competently • Apply netball skills effectively in motor skills while participating in game/athletic situations .stopping . hand/eye.stepping . scorers. and timekeepers 63 .underarm • Catching • Foot work: . rules.chest .pivoting • Shooting • • • • • skills • Guidance • Viewing video clips modified/normal game situations • Differentiate one playing area from the other • Research .overarm .bounce . balance.

balance.low drive . hand/eye. and timekeepers 64 .lofted pass Dribbling Receiving – using the inside of the foot Trapping with various parts of the body Throw in Goalkeeping competently • Apply football ball skills effectively in modified/normal game situations • Identify the different playing areas and playing positions • Explain and demonstrate rules • make connections between skills. scorers. and strategies of team/athletic activities • • • • Playing positions Rules relating to skills Rules of the game Strategies of offensive and defensive play • Selection of skills and strategies in normal game situations • Officiating relating to passing and dribbling • Select the appropriate strategies in normal game situations • Apply the skills and rules successfully in a game situation • Officiate in various roles as referees.Learning Outcomes • understand and appreciate Topic/Skills • History of football Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Research • Observation of football Suggested Assessment • Present research on history of football the history of specific games/athletics • apply perceptual motor • Direction. rules.inside of the foot . foot/eye games • Discussions • Demonstrate perceptual motor concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills • apply motor skills with coordination abilities while performing basketball skills • Demonstration • Practice • Video presentation • Demonstrate individual football skills • Passing: proficiency while participating in game/athletic situations • • • apply appropriate strategies and rules in game situations • • • .

two-hand collecting .skim catch • Basic wicketkeeping • Rules of the game • Identify and explain basic rules • Oral/written quiz on rules • Apply rules successfully in game situations 65 . balance.close and high catching .underarm throw .Learning Outcomes • understand and appreciate Topic/Skills • History of cricket • Direction.overhand throw .long barrier . hand/eye. foot/eye Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Demonstration • Guidance • Practice • Viewing video clips Suggested Assessment • Present research on the history of the history of specific games/athletics • apply perceptual motor cricket • Demonstrate perceptual motor coordination • Batting: concepts • apply motor skills with abilities while performing cricket skills • Demonstrate individual cricket skills proficiency while participating in game/athletic situations - forward defence forward drive pull to leg backward defence attack competently • Research – group work • Running between wickets • Bowling: • Drill/practice • Apply cricket skills effectively in - basic overarm bowling action direction – line and length leg spin off spin modified/normal game situations • Fielding: • apply appropriate strategies and rules in game situations .

group work and rules in game situations • Drill/practice skills competently • Apply volleyball skills effectively in modified/normal game situations .underarm .overarm 66 . balance.dismissals .Learning Outcomes • make connections between Topic/Skills • Selection of skills and strategies in Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies Suggested Assessment • Select the appropriate strategies in skills. and strategies of team/athletic activities normal game situations • Umpiring: normal game situations • Officiate in various roles as umpires. rules.signals • understand and appreciate • History of volleyball • Direction. foot/eye • Demonstration • Guidance scorers • Present research on the history of the history of volleyball • apply perceptual motor volleyball • Demonstrate perceptual motor concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills • apply appropriate strategies coordination • Practice • Viewing video clips abilities while performing volleyball skills • Demonstrate individual volleyball • Pass – overhead/set • Forearm/bump/dig • Service: • Research . . hand/eye.

spike .flick Dribbling Receiving Goalkeeping • Demonstrate perceptual motor abilities while performing hockey skills • Demonstrate individual hockey skills competently • Playing positions 67 . and strategies of team/athletic activities • Rules relating to specific skills • Rules of volleyball • Strategies of offensive and defensive • Identify and explain basic rules • Small-group work • Guidance • Demonstration • Practice • Multimedia presentations • Oral/written quiz on rules of volleyball • Select the appropriate strategies in play • Selection of skills and strategies in modified/normal game situations • Apply the skills and rules successfully normal game situations • Scoring • understand and appreciate • History of hockey in game situations • Officiate in various roles. rules. balance. scorers the history of specific games/athletics • apply perceptual motor • Present research concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills • Direction.block • make connections between skills. such as umpires. hand/eye.hit . foot/eye • • • • coordination Passing: .Learning Outcomes Topic/Skills • Offensive and defensive skills: Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Research – group work • Class discussion Suggested Assessment .

Learning Outcomes • apply motor skills with Topic/Skills • Rules relating to skills • Rules of the game • Strategies of offensive and defensive Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Research – group work • Class discussion Suggested Assessment • Apply hockey skills effectively in proficiency while participating in game/athletic situations • apply appropriate strategies modified/normal game situations and rules in game situations • make connections between play • Selection of skills and strategies in • Small-group work • Guidance • Demonstration • Identify and explain basic rules • Oral/written quiz on rules relating to skills. hand/eye. foot/eye • Practice • Present research • Demonstrate perceptual motor the history of tennis • apply perceptual motor concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills • demonstrate motor skills with coordination • Lead-up activities • Ground strokes: • Multimedia presentations abilities while executing tennis skills • Demonstrate individual tennis skills competently efficiency - forehand backhand serve volley • Identify and explain basic rules of • Basic rules tennis 68 . and strategies of team/athletic activities normal game situations • Officiating passing and dribbling • Select the appropriate strategies in • understand and appreciate normal game situations • History of tennis • Direction. balance. rules.

umpires 69 . smash • Practice • Apply badminton skills in modified game situations • apply basic rules in modified game situations • Basic rules • Modified game situation • Multimedia • Identify and explain basic rules of badminton • Apply the skills and rules successfully in game situations • Scoring • Officiate in various roles such as scorers. forehand overhead. balance.Learning Outcomes • understand and appreciate Topic/Skills • History of badminton • Direction. foot/eye Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Research – group work • Class discussion • Small-group work • Guidance Suggested Assessment • Present research on the history of the history of badminton • apply perceptual motor badminton • Demonstrate perceptual motor concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills • apply motor skills while coordination abilities while performing badminton activities • Demonstrate individual badminton • Serve • Striking: • Demonstration participating in modified game situations skills competently forehand backhand. backhand overhead. hand/eye.

shot .discus .standing Baton passing Jumps: .crouch .high Throws: .long . foot/eye Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Research – group work • Class discussion • Small-group work • Guidance • Demonstration Suggested Assessment • Differentiate between track and field the history of track and field • apply perceptual motor events • Demonstrate perceptual motor concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills coordination • General principles of: abilities while performing basketball skills • Identify and explain the basic • Apply motor skills with walking running throwing jumping principles of track and field activities orally or in writing • Demonstrate track and field skills proficiency while participating in game/athletic situations • Basic techniques of running .sprinting • Starts: competently • Practice • Execute correct techniques in • • • • • Apply appropriate rules in . hand/eye. balance.javelin Hurdling applying skills game situations • Rules relating to skills • Explain and demonstrate basic rules of track and field activities 70 .Learning Outcomes • understand and appreciate Topic/Skills • History of track and field • Direction.

self-expression . and procedures.official .dance movement education • Responsibilities of: actions • Listen to the comments of peers on their performance in their role • Identify and analyse the problem in • Show initiative and exhibit .teachers .cooperation with leaders’ directives/ suggestions • Display self-confidence in • Communication skills: physical activity settings • Assignment/tasks • Role play • Problem solving • Observation • Use a checklist to reflect on their .feedback .group leader .participation .manager • Leadership skills • Conflict resolution • Goal setting physical activity settings • Suggest solutions to problems self-esteem in physical activity settings 71 .leaders/officials • Self-discipline: participate in small-group activities .Standard 3: Exhibit Responsible Personal and Social Behaviour Learning Outcomes Topic/Skills Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies Suggested Assessment Students will be able to: • readily follow rules. and stay on task - uniform attendance change rooms classroom playing area equipment practical activities rules • Develop pledges and contracts • Keep individual record of adherence to rules and procedures • Assume assigned roles and • Instructions from: .commitment . • Procedures/rules: • Role modelling • Feedback • Peer tutoring • Group work • Peer work • Identify the important functions of instructions.

Learning Outcomes • demonstrate and promote Topic/Skills • Appropriate behaviour Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies behaviours Suggested Assessment • Complete checklist on appropriate good sportsmanship .fair play .etiquette .self-control • Sharing with others • Group work • Pair work • Assignments/tasks • interact with others in group • Reflect on sharing experiences in a settings journal • demonstrate and encourage • Respect: • Modify rules of a game to encourage respect for others - peers group leader teacher individual differences inclusion • Role play • Demonstration • Work together to organize a class • apply effective teamwork and cooperative skills to achieve collective goals • Cooperation • Teamwork • Problem solving • Inclusive behaviour tournament in a game of choice • Problem solving 72 .

Standard 4: Exhibit Safety Principles and Practices Learning Outcomes Topic/Skills Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies Suggested Assessment Students will be able to: • appreciate the importance of • Safety rules: • Group work • Explain safety rules of some physical rules in physical activities • apply safety rules in relation - equipment environment – weather conditions playing areas protective gear activities • Presentations • Demonstration on injury • Develop safety rules for specific to specific activity settings • Reinforcement • Benefits • Practise safety measures for • Safety practices in given activities • Safety implications of warm up and physical activity settings at school treatments • Peer tutoring to enhance • Identify possible injuries that might the prevention of injuries students’ skills • Dramatization • Discussions • Displays on safety practices result from inappropriate safety practices • Demonstrate proper procedure in cool down • Importance of protective gear • Environmental awareness warming up and cooling down • Design posters that display safety measures 73 .

hard tissue • Initial procedure in the event of an injury • Treatment of basic injuries • Methods of self protection when treating injuries • maintain appropriate control • Strategies for emergency and long• Discussions • Presentations • Practical observation • • Research • Describe ways to manage soft tissue in relation to rehabilitation protocol term management of injuries injuries 74 .soft tissue .Learning Outcomes • apply first aid skills to athletic Topic/Skills • Application of appropriate emergency Suggested Teaching/Learning Strategies • Practical observation Suggested Assessment • Put together a first aid kit • Demonstrate first aid skill identified on injuries responses • Definition of first aid • Contents of a first aid kit • Type of injuries: task cards .

Part 3 Teaching and Assessment Strategies .

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Teachers select an instructional strategy/methodology based on the nature of the content. role play. and the characteristics of the learner. the objectives of the teacher. research Interactive instruction Experiential learning Independent study 77 . reports. Strategies/methodologies need to take into account students’ age. range of abilities. problem solving. The Physical Education programme is designed for students to learn through interaction with one another in different situations. which is called a teaching strategy/methodology. interviews. investigation. gender. conceptual development. games. guest speakers. and previous learning experiences. lectures Observation. panels Field trips. Each teaching strategy assigns different roles to the learner and the teacher for one or more teaching functions. This section provides suggestions about instructional approaches and related teaching strategies. surveys Projects. debates. teachers should use a variety of teaching strategies to help students to achieve intended learning outcomes. special needs. cultural background. reflective discussions Discussion. lesson overviews. computer-assisted instruction. physical development. Approaches Direct instruction Indirect instruction Suggested Strategies Demonstrations. In an effort to provide a stimulating learning environment.Strategies for Implementation Teaching functions are usually performed within an instructional framework.

) Using two-hand chest pass.) Activities Jogging the lines of the basketball court Stretching exercises Teaching Points Keep head up (don’t look at ball) Bend back and slightly bend knees Introduction (5 min.on the spot . one leader passes to all players. 4 markers Headings Warm up (5 min.Sample Lesson Content Standard: Apply concepts and principles for the development and performance of motor skills Performance Standard: Apply fundamental motor skills in modified game situations Learning Outcome: Demonstrate basic motor skills with efficiency while participating in modified games/athletics Lesson Topic/Theme: Dribbling Previous Knowledge: Students can bounce a ball Objective of Lesson: Students will be able to dribble the basketball with the correct technique. using either hand while on the move Class: Form 1 Age Range: 11+ Time: 45 minutes Materials: 1 basketball each.using dominant and nondominant hand at different levels 78 .) Individual Work Dribbling: . then next player becomes leader – all players have turn as leader Passing and free bouncing of balls up and down the court Spread fingers and cup hand Push the ball from the waist Keep ball in front. but at the side of body Main Activity/Skill Development (20 min.

Dribbler must call out number of fingers while dribbling If partner changes hands. sit. students dribble while a leader signals where to go Teaching Points Move forward. lie. Game Situation/Skill Application Modified Game Modified game of basketball (3 vs 3) using both sides of the court – two games can be played at the same time Play only on the half assigned Move ball by passing or dribbling If dribbling. sideways. pass the ball after no more than 5 steps. dribbler must also change At least three different numbers must be shown before changing hands Group Work Signal dribble In small groups.Headings Activities Partner Work Flash fingers One player dribbles while partner holds up fingers on one hand. back. etc. Penalty – a free pass is taken from the sideline by the opposing team Conclusion/Closure Students review what they did during the lesson 79 .

spasm. ace bandage. They are asked to write an advertisement for the radio or television designed to persuade people to buy their booklet. strain. clammy. Activity #3: Students take the information that they used to act out the first aid procedures. temperature. asphyxiation. laceration. vomiting. Students are told that they must use the new vocabulary in their advertisements. and include it in an illustrated booklet for others to use. They act out the steps for each procedure. heat exhaustion. fracture.Sample Lesson Content Standard: Exhibit safety principles and practices Performance Standard: Demonstrate basic knowledge of the care and prevention of injuries Learning Outcomes: Demonstrate basic first aid skills in the treatment of minor injuries Lesson Topic/Theme: First aid booklet Previous Knowledge: Students have been introduced to first aid vocabulary and to the items in a first aid kit Class: Form 1 Age Range: 11+ Objectives: Students engage in a hands-on activity to create their own first aid booklet Materials/Resources: Basic paper supplies to make booklet Procedure: The following words will be presented to the students for discussion: sprain. As they are acting out the steps. 80 . burn Introductory Activity Students discuss the definitions of the selected words. unconscious. pressure. students should use the new vocabulary in giving their instructions. using a dictionary where necessary Main Activity Activity #2: The students read the procedures for each of the first aid treatments presented in the text. using each of the words in sentences that they share around the circle of the small group. elevate. seizure. nausea. Activity #4: Students are asked to pretend they are the publishers of the best booklet on first aid. while other group members take notes on the directions. cramp. wound. stitches. splint. faint. dizzy.

• Have the centipedes race each other over short distances.Sample Lesson Content Standard: Exhibit responsible personal and social behaviour Performance Standard: Engage in positive interpersonal relationships Learning Outcome: Demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of teamwork to achieve collective goals Lesson Topic/Theme: Team-building games Class: Form 2 Age Range: 12+ Objectives: Students work together to meet a goal Warm up: Fitness related activities: arm circles. 5. • One line stands still while the other line takes a step to one side. push ups. 81 . then they stand up. 4. and so on. • Have students bend down and cross their arms between their legs. See how many students can stand up while interlocked. leg stretch. When more than 2 students are trying to stand up. Activities Activity #1: Mass Stand-Up • • • • • Two students sit back to back with their elbows locked. except those on the ends. then grab one hand of the student behind them on the right and one hand from the student behind them on the left. they should start by locking arms and sitting as close to one another as possible. each line standing back to back. the students have become a centipede. Expand the number of students to 3.) • In this position. The students should then stand up quickly at precisely the same moment. jumping jacks Procedure: Students are told that cooperation is required to complete each task and teamwork is necessary in every activity. waist twists. Emphasis is placed on accomplishing the tasks. (Everyone in both lines. should be holding the hands of two different students. Activity #2: Centipede Race • Divide the class into 4 or 6 groups of 6 and position each group in 2 lines. Each of the activities is considered a group game.

(Students can be facing different direction when finished. Discuss the role of cooperation and teamwork in completing each one of the activities. the next student backs over the first and lies down. working with teammates to achieve a common goal).e. facing outward with linked elbows. Activity #5: Amoeba race • Divide students into groups of 10 to 12. students have zipped and unzipped the zipper. • Group members line up in a single line. check understanding. and provide feedback: 1. Closure: Review the lesson with students.g. • After the last student lies down. have each group try to untangle themselves into a circle without disconnecting hands. form a circle. • Have two students in the middle of a circle and a third student on their shoulders. and so on until all group members are lying down. 2. • The remaining students. Use the following ideas to reinforce learning. students’ arms pointing toward the centre of the circle and clasping the hands of two different group members who are not next to them in the circle.) Activity #4: Zipper • Divide the class into groups of 10 to 12.. • On a signal.Activity #3: Entanglement (knots) • Divide the class into groups of 8 to 10 • Have each group make a tight circle. • When the activity is completed. • The nucleus (i.. • This continues down the line until all students are connected. the person on top of shoulders in middle) can now guide the amoeba in racing other amoebas. 82 . each student bending over and reaching between their legs with the left hand to grasp the right hand of the student behind. • The last student in line lies down. • Zippers can race other zippers. he or she immediately gets back up and the process is reversed. Discuss the social benefits of participating in such games (e.

These can be applied to practical activities as well as to areas that lend themselves to research tasks. and facilitates accurate and recordable judgements of both student performance and programme effectiveness. Evaluation in Physical Education has traditionally been based on performance tasks that readily accommodate the movement skill approach. Therefore. then. mastery. and grouping. Assessment also informs planning. teaching. for example. The challenge. Summative evaluation is carried out at the end of a longer period of instruction. and assessment. 83 . and addresses larger concerns such as programme goals. This process is based on an underlying principle that all students can achieve a measure of success in Physical Education. that teachers should have a repertoire of evaluative strategies that will not only enhance curriculum delivery but will also effect positive change and promote confidence in the programme. The purpose of assessment in Physical Education is to monitor student progress in order to provide feedback to students. Formative evaluation is done during the course of instruction and it informs student achievement of objectives as well as short-term instructional decisions such as practice time and feedback to students.Evaluation The process of evaluation is the key to providing a framework that supports effective delivery and the attainment of goals in teaching. is to be able to vary the strategies so as to ensure assessment of the full range of students’ abilities. other methods such as portfolios. and reporting. or displays can also be used to better evaluate performances. presentations. It is essential. There are basically two forms of evaluation that a teacher may engage in during the course of a programme. monthly. measurement. however. It incorporates procedures that include testing. and annually. termly.

and communicating findings and conclusions Journals and learning logs Comparing and contrasting Researching Research notes Investigating Timelines Digital presentations Exploring issues Analysis and evaluation of students’ performances Situational response to stimuli or prompts Application of skills and processes Video tagging of response plays in the physical environment (e. interpersonal skills. personal skills Cooperative and collaborative working with others Performing leadership roles Demonstrating relationship with nature and environment Demonstrating understanding of the environment Planning and conducting research. drills Peer tutoring Role plays Video tapes and other ICT Group performances Competitions Debates Creation of movement sequences Demonstration of safety. conduct. work samples. and technologies • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Investigation Students research themes or topics that require them to plan. skills.and peer assessment Student portfolios Tests. open-ended tasks Oral presentations Projects/assignments Role play Student self. and to demonstrate conceptual understandings. techniques. moving into space) Performance of set plays Attitude surveys Concept maps Demonstration of skills in simulated and real contexts Dialogue Individual discussions with students Journals and logs Open-ended questioning. and management skills in the physical sense Performance-related assessment tasks enable students to create practical and/or theoretical health and physical education projects using a range of skills. processes..g.Types of Assessment Performance Performance-related assessment tasks enable students to perform physical skills/tactics and strategies. and communicate the results of an investigation • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Methods of Recording Data Performance. skills/strategies Field work Games. written material Practical skills Response Students apply their knowledge and skills in analysing and responding to a series of stimuli or prompts 84 .

Part 4 Bibliography .

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healthy living: Physical and health education curriculum. Thousand Oaks. Elementary physical education. Canberra. PA: Author. L. Nova Scotia.. Alexander. S. Carnes. Sport education in physical education program. Halifax. Wisconsin’s model academic standards for physical education. CA: Corwin Press. & Stefonek. Zakrajsek. Health and physical education curriculum framework. Department of Education and Training. (2003). Canberra. Restructuring around standards: A practitioner’s guide to design and implementation. P. Nova Scotia. T. (1994). WI: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.. Wyoming physical education content and performance standards. D. (1997). Foundation for active. Foriska. Harrisburgh. safety and physical education. Department of Education. (1998). Academic standards for health. WY: Author. F. Australia: Australian Sport Commission. Grady. IL: Human Kinetics Pub. Edmonton. Alberta: Author. (2002). T. K. Cheyenne. Madison. Australian Capital Territory. Quality lesson plans for secondary physical education (2nd ed. Department of Education and Culture.Bibliography Alberta. (2003). J. Nikolay. Champaign. Wyoming State Board of Education.. (1982). (1995). 87 . (1997).. A. & Pettigrew.. Author. Pennsylvania Department of Education.). E. & Taggart. Australia: Author.