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-2SECTION A Answer ALL questionsin this section. You must write your answers in the spacesprovided on the question paper. 1. (a) molecules may be joined by either cr or B linkages. Carbohydrate joined by an a-t-4 glycosidic linkage. Figure I shows2 glucosemolecules
H

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i

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H C -O

CH" OH C -OH

cH2 oll
OH

HO

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C _C

C -C

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Figure 1. Two glucose molecules (i) Using an o-1-6linkage, attach a third glucose molecule in Figure 1. [ 2 marks] Name ONE example of a carbohydrate that is made up of components with BOTH an a-l-4 glycosidic linkage and an a,-1-6linkage.

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(ii)

Ilmark] (iii) Distinguishbetweenan 'cr glycosidic linkage' and a 'B linkage'.
Il mark] (iv) Comment on the difference in function between a carbohvdrate with ct linkaees and a carbohydrate with B linkages.

[ 2 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 22107020/CAPE/2008

a protein found in silk. Write your answer in the table below. fibroin. is made up of ct helices. t I [ 2 marks] t t I I I (ii) In contrast to keratin. cr helixes I p pleated 2 I I T [ 2 marks] Figure 2 showsanothertwo structuralbondsfound in proteins' H-C-H t I T I I I I Sidechain dH otcyslelne rl TI-C-H + S F__ \qr s\ H -C _H H -C -H t l-B Figure 2. Describe the ct helix bond in keratin. is made up of B pleated sheets. A [ 2 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 22107020/CAPE/2008 T . Comment on TWO differences in physical properties of these proteins. a protein found in hair. Structural bonds in proteins Identify the TWO bondslabelledA and B as shownin Figure2.I I I = I i -J- (b) (i) Keratin.

""! I -4- I I (c) Outlineanexperiment to determine experimentally thepresence in chick peas. [ 2 marks] (ii) Distinguishbetweenthe terms "chromatin' and 'chromosome'. of catalase [ 3 marks] Total 15 marks (a) Briefly outline the role of DNA in geneticinheritance.. Chromatin Chromosome [ 4 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 22LO7020tCAPEl2008 I .

lfq i)') )i\iJ. Diagrams showing two phasesin Meiosis I [ 6 marks] Total 15 marks t GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 22t07020/CAPE/2008 .:: T T I Figure 3.I I I I I I I I 5- (b) StateTHREEreasons why mitosis is importantinthe lifecycleof aeukaryotic organism. [ 3 marks] (c) Figure 3 shows two phasesof the early stagesofMeiosis I. 2. J. l. DRAW three consecutive phasesto illustrate the MAIN changes that occur between the two phases shown. In the labelled boxes provided in Figure 3. t I I I I l IV fnfiiij ii.

label TWO features of the embryo sac. [ 2 marks] GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 22rO7020/CAPE/2008 . Incomplete LS through a carpel (i) Draw on the diagram in Figure 4 a) b) (ii) (iii) the ovule the path taken by the germinating pollen grain. Identify ONE role for EACH of the features in (ii) above.-6- 3. 4 I {1 fl $ Figure 4. [ 2 marks] I lmark] [ 2 marks] l ii On Figure 4. (a) Figure 4 represents an incomplete longitudinal section (LS) through a carpel just prior to fertilization.

I B {t I ii [ 3 marks] Total 15 marks 22107020/CAPE/2008 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . Ilmark] . Il mark] (d) Methods exist for the artificial propagation of plants utilizing small amounts of plant materials. . t fi !l !t I lma rk ] (c) (i) Plants can also be propagated non-sexually.$ s (ii) State ONE disadvantage to the plant in having this feature. [ 2 marks] (ii) StateONE advantage of the mechanisms you identified in (c) (i). Discuss THREE advantages of these methods over the natural methods of non-sexual propagation. (i) State the term used to describe this reproductive feature.1 (b) The pawpaw has male and female flowers which are borne on different plants. Suggest TWO mechanisms that occur NATURALLY in plants to aid NON-SEXUAL propagation.

[ 6 marks] With reference to animal populations. (ii) [ 2 marks] (iiD Comment on evidence that supports the theory that a symbiotic relationship existed between eukaryotic cells and chloroplasts and mitochondria. Define the terms 'tissue' and'organ'. and which established symbiotic relationships with eukaryotic cells. Include in your answer the benefits that BOTH the eukaryotic cells and the symbiont [ 4 marks] received. Total 15 marks GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 22rO7020/CAPE/2008 . Total 15 marks (a) According to the biological species concept. (b) (i) (ii) [ 2 marks] Use the dicotyledonous root to distinguish between the levels of organization [ 5 marksl found in tissues and organs.-8- SECTION B in this section. most biologists define species in relation to their breeding behaviour. While there are several ways in which the term may be defined. Define the term 'symbiosis'. (ii) [ 4 marks] According to Darwin and Wallace the mechanism for speciation is natural [ 3 marks] selection. outline the processby which a new species (b) (i) may arisefrom a previouslyexisting one. You'must write your answersin the answerbooklet Answer ALL questions provided. mitochondria and chloroplasts are organelles which are thought to have evolved from prokaryotes. a species representsthe lowest taxonomic group which is capable of being defined with any degree of precision. (i) State ONE definition of a species in terms of breeding behaviour' [ 2 marks] (ii) Discuss the limitations of defining a'species' in terms of breeding. Comment on the basis of this mechanism. (a) According to the endosymbiont theory. (D Describe TWO features of mitochondria and chloroplasts that support the theory [ 2 marks] that they have evolved from prokaryotic cells.

[ 3 marks] (b) The inhibition of the production of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulatrng hormone by oestrogen and progesterone is the basis of one contraceptive method in females. [ 4 marks] (ii) Explain how these hormones function in males as compared to females. [ 4 marks] In addition to similarities. Discuss TWO significant differences with respect to the timing of oogenesis and speflnatogenesrs. [ 4 marks] (c) Total 15 marks END OF TEST 22107020/CAPE/2008 . Comment on why the same principles CANNOT be applied to develop a male hormonal contraceptive.-9- (a) (i) State the functions of EACH of the following in oogenesis in humans: a) b) c) gonadotrophin releasing hormone luteinising hotrmone follicle stimulation hormone. differences exist between oogenesis and spermatogenesis.