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Guido Adler's "The Scope, Method, and Aim of Musicology" (1885): An English Translation with an Historico-Analytical Commentary

Author(s): Erica Mugglestone and Guido Adler Reviewed work(s): Source: Yearbook for Traditional Music, Vol. 13 (1981), pp. 1-21 Published by: International Council for Traditional Music Stable URL: . Accessed: 09/10/2012 13:02
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by Erica Mugglestone Introduction of Austro-German In 1884 a triumvirate music historians, Friedrich Chrysander, PhilippSpitta,and Guido Adler,foundedthefirst journal of musicology,'thenewestfledgeling amongstthesciences,2 namely,the Musikwissenschaft [MusicologyQuarterly].The Vierteljahrsschrift ffir firstissue opened with a paper written the scope, by Adler, defining methodand aim of thenew science.This provedto be a potent formative influence on the establishment and development of the academic disciplineof musicologyin Europe and elsewhere, notably the United States of America,an influence thatis strongly feltto thepresent day. Thus, in theNew Grove Dictionaryof Music and Musicians (1980: s.v. "Musicology," by Vincent Duckles, et al.), its importanceis made evidentin thatit is summarised as thestillextantmodel of musicology. accessibleto a It is thepurposeof thispaper to render Adler'sthought the historicalcontextin which the wider readershipby: 1) sketching its themes, and assumptions; 2) indicating metaphors paper was written; of the text. a translation in a sense, its metalanguage;3) providing Withregardto thefirst two of theseaspects,commentary is directed is made to determine Adler's solelyat thepaper in question.No attempt overallphilosophyof history or thedevelopment of his thought beyond of all his assessment 1885; such would be the aim of a comprehensive writings.And with respect to the third of the above aspects, in thetext, carewas takento adhereas closelyas possibleto the translating withregardto itssemantic content. Thus, forexample,theterm original Tonkunstis translated as 'tonal art', ratherthanapplyingthe generally term'music'in itsstead, in orderto retain,ifat all possible,some of the connotationsthatare implicitin Adler's use of the term,as well as to of an interpretation thatmight not be justified. preventthe imposition However, with respectto Adler's syntax,it was deemed advisable to break down lengthy sentences and paragraphsintoshorter units,and to utilisepunctuation and othertypographical in orderto clarify formating and promoteease of comprehension. Wherenecessary, Adler's thought notes elucidate problemsencounteredin translation.For purposes of clarification, occasionallythe originalGermanword is given in square and alternative translations. brackets,as are also interpolations

moved to Vienna afterthedeath of in 1855.structure (form).Occidental and as suchitis confined an artform. by means of of its species. the year of publication of the paper in of Viennaas an to theUniversity question.and what he calls moodin orderto date it historically substance/aesthetic content.thatis. of the threeaspects of musicology outlineof thehistorical and aim. developas a self-conscious mentof thescienceof music. He beginswitha brief method. of music had the history universities ment. at the Vienna Handelsgericht even servingbriefly [Court of Trade or In 1880 in musichistory.2 / 1981 YEARBOOK FOR TRADITIONAL MUSIC HistoricalContext in Moravia (thenstillpartof the Guido Adlerwas bornat Eibenschiitz now known as Ivancice in Czechoslovakia) Austro-Hungarian Empire. The focus is on music viewed solely as a product. Nine yearslaterthefamily of musicand composition his father. Throughout As Hanslick's modernmusicalscholarship.becoming at theUniversity musichistory historyat Prague in 1885.Nevertheless. in other of similardepartments model forthesubsequentestablishment in 1927. its scope. He remainedthereuntilhis retirement universities.Adleroccupiedan important position. The datingof a work is necessaryto the determination .and his paper mustbe read in terms Themes.withinthe Austro-German lagged behind the other arts in becoming establishedas an entity Adlerwas veryconsciousof the of generalhistoriography. as thestudyofmusicto thatofmusicperceived Adlerlimits Essentially to a studyofEuropean. ofabstracting rulesof successivestages-such as thepragmatics through procedure in composition. on thehistory dissertation of In 1882 Adlerwas appointedas a Privatdozent lecturer] [unsalaried ofmusic a professor ofVienna. The to be appliedis thatof analysis.4 arts. the law at and studied a University takingup legal career. Two years later he categoriesof Westernliturgical witha as a university his Habilitation[accreditation lecturer] completed of harmony.Threeyearslaterhe returned of he theInstitute Here founded of music Ordinarius [professor] history.3 which became a Music Historyas a centrefor musicologicalresearch. music. but decided to pursuehis interest Commerce]. restof Europein establishing musicaland academic successorin Vienna. especially discipline fledgeling of thisspecific context.Metaphorsand Assumptions in terms in Adler'spaper maybe summarised The sequenceof thought named in its title.and he studiestheworkof methodology art in termsof notation. on thebasic historical he was awarded a doctoratewith a dissertation music up to 1600.fromits inception art. or the development of notational symbols-to its modern culminationin a study of the works of art themselves. and Austriahad led the thenineteenth Germany century.and his careercoincidedwith the most productiveperiod in at the time of his appointAustro-German musicology. underBruckner of Vienna. and in his teenshe studiedtheory He intended and Dessoffat the Vienna Conservatory. independent thefine vis-a-vis in of the status academia.

Using thisknowledge. endeavour. and organic and thefirst two are mentioned chemistry.In 1799 WilliamSmithwas digging wereto be foundin the England. the artisteand the audience. sciences. by Adler. ascertaining framing was "only the firststage of a process whose second stage was the of laws". determine thestylistic laws governing From this Adler derives his dichotomous schematisationof the discipline of musicology." The former facts.Wales. Collingwood defines positivism as "philosophyacting in the service of natural science" (1980:126). and stratigraphic part of Scotland.both in termsof the contemporary composer.shaped thatapplied in othernaturalsciences. developed in comparative anatomical The development study. Adler as somewhatakin to that of a perceivesthe role of the musicologist of thefaith'.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'SMUSICOLOGY/ 3 to place it withinthe historicalprocess. first.The aim of musicological of the in the closingmottoas 'the discoveryof truth and advancement beautiful'.It is also expressedas one of didactics. a not unusualquasi-religious and defender point 'promoter he recallsto mind of view in thenineteenth and in thisrespect century. the view of the positivists.each ofwhichis discussedin terms systematic research he sumsup and itsauxiliarysciences. to what is suggested in thearticleon musicology in theNew Contrary Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (ibid. Adler's styleorientated methodology is not a part of the "cultural-historical forit is essenagainstpositivism". namely.which he divides into an historicaland a ofitssubject-areas section. and "consistedof states thatnaturalscience. and to enable the researcher thecreationof art.). . it is as well to outlinebriefly in thenaturalsciencesin the developments nineteenth centuryand to relate these to his text. The comparative method. At around the same time.and builtup a geologicmap of England. two things: laws.secondly. the emphasis here lies in the preference. the researchof the laws of art of diverse periods and their the historian of art utilisesthe organiccombinationand development.this taking"the highestprecedence". "to attain his main task.he devised a table of units. Rapid strideswere made especially in the sciences of geology.To quote Adler.6 of the science of geology owed much to such a use made of palaeoncanal beds in tologicalobservation.and noticedthatthesame typeoffossils same type of rock strata. whichwere to be framed from "through generalising discovery of laws was thegoal of scientific The framing thesefactsby induction". that is. by same methodologyas that of the investigator the inductivemethod . of the scienceof art and thatof the analogy betweenthe methodology naturalsciences". emphasis"thatwas "in parta protest tially positivistic in outlook. In order to show how Adler's thinking was shaped by the natural bothin hisuse ofmetaphor and as theparadigms ofhismethod.the"actualfocalpointofall music-historical of thelaws of art of different work" is the "investigation periods".and again.5Indeed. Schumann'simaginative conceptof the Davidsbiindler. of nature. Georges Cuvier and AlexandreBrongniart observed that fossilsare generallythe similarly .

but differ fromone fairly markedly bed to another.was applied in particularby Linnaeus to tracing classifying plantsand animals. but also contributing to biological research therecognition of theantiquity of lifeon earth. "Aesthetics"). As Kuhn states (EncyclopaediaBritannica. Moreover.. s. in should be noted thathis empirical methodowed muchto contemporary arthistorical style-critical writings. in a sense.whichoriginated the seventeenth century. one is thus studying recordforthesame purpose.In by validating thisway itsupported theconceptof evolution.7 determining AlthoughAdler's views on the artistas creativegenius 'buildinga reflect standardninetemplein thegrove'. which. the musical fossil tological datingof rock strata. in 1864 Hippolyte Taine "proposedthatstylesofartshouldbe studiedin the same way as the kindsof plantsare studiedby thebotanistand as subject to evolutionary development.and on musicas an artform. It is therefore that Adler's metaphorical language is rich in images of organicgrowthand decay. His own research led himto regard experience thepalaeologicaldatingof a workof artas thefirst stepin musicological In a sense.Adler was to make the study of the historyof music scientific. provide the dynamicsof cause and effect.Earlyhypotheses possiblelinesof continuousdescentbetweenspecies and generafinallyfloweredin the of evolutionpermeated the conceptof naturalevolution.The dynamics in history. processes. century not surprising in biology. unfolding plan whichis carried became a logical sequence of successivecharacteristic 'ideas'.4 / 1981YEARBOOKFORTRADITIONAL MUSIC same in corresponding beds of rock. becoming an ally not only of stratigraphy.Palaeontologythusprovideda vistaintopast aeons.themodern conceptofspecies.withParry's comparing Style in Musical Art. approach as "primarily statingthat he himself"stressedthe scientific side" (1934:172).and his framing thelaws of musical'naturalselection'. nineteenth world-view.In thisway theyseparatedtheTertiary strataof north and central Franceintonaturalunitsand arranged thesein chronological sequence. In Fichte's is the hands. and of historical theperiodisation ofhistory.thesequencesuggesting As regards in biology.derivedfromJohann century Gottlieb idealistic ofhistory. His style-critical methodbegins conceptof musichistory withan anatomicaldissectionof a work of art in orderto ascertainits of stylistic laws can. whichin itsturn changed palaeontologyfroma practicalrule-of-thumb techniqueinto a fullyfledgedscience."In Germanythisapproach was . the concept of a geological stratumis associated with anothercommonplacenineteenth notion. teenth aesthetic century equated with species. Fichte claimedthateach Fichte's philosophy has a character ofitsown whichis concretely embodied periodofhistory in a singleidea. In establishingmusicology as an academic discipline. theKantiannotionthathistory ofa 'natural' out through humanagency. thisprocedureis analogous to the palaeoninvestigation. and that his is evolutionist.and above all. he described Parry's artistic". 14thed.thatof dating. Der Stilin derMusik (1911).by virtueof theirlogic. published in the same year. In attempting his own book.

The modernscienceof .only theymay be assumed to be based on primitive-aesthetic thencan one speak of a musicalknowledgeas well as an art ofworking with tonal material. thenwith instruments thatmeasure pitch-at first when one takesaccountof theorganicrelationpitch-. in his view. by manymediaeval writers. It shouldclarify therelationship betweenmusicalartand theartof poetry. as long as the tonal productswell up. and should delimitthefieldappropriateto tonal art. and astronomy geometry.and was bothhistorical trendsand principlesrunning discipline sought to grasp underlying individuals and their that to speak of a 'tonal art' insteadof music was.The symbols particular fortonesare developed. both logical and justifiable.and the rankingof scientia musicaewitharithmetic.This accountsforthe importance of the musical canon amongstthe Greeks. The history adopted by such art historians of stylesin the visual arts came to be termedKunstwissenschaft (the and theoretical in approach. and the imagination organisestheirproductin such a way that norms. that momentwhen a tone is comparedand measuredaccordingto its this is done by ear. unclear and so longalso there can be no questionofa tonalart. The moreadvanced thefirst. The scienceof art)."As long as naturalsong breaksforth and withoutreflection.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'S MUSICOLOGY / 5 as Burckhardt and Wdlfflin.the scholar of art now confronts theinvestigation of theproductsof art.also have a tonal science. It has rather than through studying epochs.Only in unorganised. for a time tonal production is muzzledand curbedby theserulesand measures. the teachingof the mathematicaldetermination of intervals. at thatmoment ships between several tones and tonal phrases bound into a unified whole. regarding sciences. THE SCOPE. Within a shorttimethedemands[on thescience]increase. The genuine. All peoples ofwhomit can be said thatthey have a tonalart. defineand explain the tonal material. been pointedout thatAdlershoweda deep awarenessofdevelopments in the sciencesof art and musicas sister thefieldof art history. and once more the demands on the science alter. even if not always a developed musicologicalsystem. untilit again paves for itselfa pathway. In the beginningthe science endeavoursespecially to determine.and their pitchand durationare measuredand regulated more accurately.that is.The tasks of musicologyvary accordingto the state of development of the tonal art.and theyoungstudent of tonalartand tonal science is presentedwith a complex systemof musical maxims whichhave been abstracted from tonalproducts.true artist carries on working is classedamongsttheliberalarts. Indeed. METHOD AND AIM OF MUSICOLOGY Guido Adler Musicology originatedsimultaneouslywith the art of organising fromthe throatfreely tones. themoredevelopedis thesecond.

the pragmatics to on theinstruments be the to the way it has been set or firstonly as poetry.thatis. which. If it is not writtenin our notation. fingering Auffiihrbarkeit]-can of the intensity be used in this instance. must be gone into. the realisation[Ausfiihrung]-better or realisation[Aus.thenthisis critically Should thecomposition examined. Whichare then or features thosefactors whichwill guide thescientific of a examination tonal work? If a work of art is underconsideration. have are establishedand special particulars When the main features natureofthework. but is today. Withthiswe approach-for theworkof art originated. of their succession. Togetherwith this. inverted themanagement of consonancesand dissonances.thenone to theindividual been ascertained according can addressthequestion. which are to be found in the parts.then in reference and combinedwiththemelody.and placed in relation to the whole. or placed in oppositionto each other. and accidentals. it mustfirst of all be defined longerthecase.and the way in which the themesand and determined. Then thestructural nature of the work of art is examined.transitions. thentheway in which the If the compositionis purelyinstrumental.the way it is employedand broken down into segments. theprosodiccharacteristics of the textoffers further clues with respectto The treatment important theevaluationof thework. of theperiodwhen namely. namely.contrasted mentalsound-groups and blended. of the[instrumental] volumeof soundat different points.thetonalnatureof individualvoices and onlythenthatofthewhole-as was customary for a timein theMiddle Ages. We begin with the rhythmic features:has a time signaturebeen whichspecies12 of artdoes thepiecebelong. The individualpartsare examinedwithrespectto cadences. whether themes are augmented or diminished.further. . are considered have a text.6 / 1981 YEARBOOK FOR TRADITIONAL MUSIC art will base its researchabove all on theworks of art. in relation to themusical-rhythmic elements. are handled.The way in which the individualvoices move in termsof one anotheris thenpursued. motivesare carriedthrough. theway in whichtheinstruinstrumentation and -bodies" are unitedand separated. the relationship betweenmain and subsidiary whichspeciesaccordingto theperception and in our view. theimitation distribution ofthemes and motives depending on theirentries at different and thedifferent time-intervals pitch-levels.withjustice. criteria forthedeterminaAlreadyin thisprocesssignificant tionof thetimeof originof theworkmaybe gained. Thereafter the mustbe clarified: also therange [ambitus] and polyphonicconstruction of thevoices.etc. the adoption of a cantus firmus.and if so.the mannerof performance. The instrumentor instruments mustbe examined.oder involvedin performance still.9it must be transcribed.thedistribution voice types. how are these temporal relationships of theirperiodicrecurrence?10 groupedand what are thecharacteristics One could justas well beginwithtonality.their or free and resolution preparation entry.Here one mustgo intotheaccentuation.

may be seen as the touchstoneof criticalreflection..13 creative periodof thecomposer[des Tonsetzers an altogether accurate The older thework.whether served the composer [Tondichter] as the basis of the work of art.14 The determination of themood-substance the [des Stimmungsgehaltes] aestheticcontent. is eitherchronologicalor regional. as regards theiridentityand theirdifferences. thisor thatcomposer. .thiscountsas thesole point. at a timeto which.however. of individualartists who have particiation given to the lifeand effect pated in thissteadydevelopment.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'SMUSICOLOGY/ 7 definitive decision about the period of originof the us-the important work. therefore. And even then. in theirmutual withoutspecial considerconcatenationand theirreciprocalinfluence. despite the outward it yet does not wholly correspondto the analogous characteristics.thisaspect can be perceived have been can bear thestampof a past artistic epochs epoch. one will notice particular features in the work which betray that. in generaloutline. and herewe can distinguish: or theepoch generally.i. Scientifically speaking. words.the objects of investigation of thisscienceis to be constructed.17 cities.and schools regions.either it can be attributed to morespecifically theschool. In such a case we mustdistinguish.and in the latter case further oder Tondichters].thealpha and omega Frequently. in musicoThese are.even if only on a verydiminished as the earth'scrustwas fashionedout of formations belongingto different epochs. One says thenthatthework is createdin themannerof this or thatperiod or school. of criticalanalysis. and even when a poeticsubject. One can comparethecoursesofartistic scale. between the period of actual originand that to which the work belongs by its nature. or finally directly to a particular a particularartist. the summing-up logical and regional. subdivides15 into an historicand a systematic It consequently of music organisesitself16 The history accordingto epochs-large and small-or accordingto no longerbelongs. Here too one only when the other determinations musical mood-substance. word and tone. (a) theperiodin whichit was created. Just withgeologicalstrata. attemptsto grasp firstof all the specifically effort to try to translate thisinto However. it would be a courageous undertakingto articulate scientifically the between the analogy. so also thetotalpictureof an age revealsa distinctiveartistic mostcases itwillbe a futile as textor only as idea. the historyof music looks at artisticcreationsas such. In the final and highestinstance. This is appropriate works in which the likely to be relativelyeasier in musical-dramatic action offers a firmer basis [forsuch apperception]. section. mood-substances to both parts. of course. (b) it can also happen that a work originated accordingto itsnature.e. the harderit is to affix date to theperiod of origin.or chronoof art. Fromthisthesystem logicalresearch. territories. it belongs by virtueof its structure to and of the which age spirit texture.

etc. In the explicationof the laws of art of a particular period. theyreflect this aspect can the division into theoreticaland practical music be as is no such thing senseof theword. It is probablynot overall [iibersichtlichen] to how mention here names and terminology necessary frequently shifted are arbitrarily and misused. As theory a theory theoretical music. features different featureswhich are suited to placing them in distinct villanella.praeambulam. one must in thepracticeof thatare discerned betweenthoseprinciples distinguish because thetheoreticians. suite.withreference withintheirlimitations.As alreadymentioned. ricercar. artand thosethatare taught of history at a certaindistance. of simple melody.which takes the highestprecedence. In theactual strict is usuallyin of music.and thatof metric regards development. notation determine and stipulate symbolsespecially.frottola. It has seldomoccurredthata theoretician and then it was usually a blunderwhich the art practicesof the day .and in this way excellentinsights[viewpoints]may be gained towards an art-historical evaluation.MUSIC 8 / 1981YEARBOOKFOR TRADITIONAL The subjectsof thehistorical sectionare as follows: themusical (1) theknowledgeof notations. have.and on theotherhand.The motet. to thebeautyattainable attainsdifferent stageswhich. proceeding of works of art graduallygrows. the epoch of mensuralnotation. the structure normslatentin from thesimplest theartistic thesis. to specific their belong. particular. Only withregardto and tonal a cultures. periods. most part. relationto the art itself. there approved. how.Occidentalmusic.but rather withcontemporary conflict practice. systems pass away withdisappearing to a limband so growsorganically. proceeding the tonal productsbecome more and more complicated. of the laws of art of different (3) the investigation periods.The tonal productsof a particular period mutually in common. so that one can already achieve an historical categorisation-perhaps thechief--of European. symphony (in the modern sense)."'a division that roughlyapproximatesthe subdivisioninto Roman. only followin thefootsteps on whatis past.. how. and Renaissance epochs as applied in the field of architecture. musicalforms. has pulledahead of history.The mediaeval symbolsstand in intimate theproduction.intotheepoch of theneumes. on theone hitupon thenot veryapt term 'theoretical music'. Gothic.madrigal. to which many French music researchersin clingstillto thisday.this is the actual focal point of all taskof thescholarof art music-historical work. cannotbe overstepped. art as manifold art changewiththegenerations. One can say thatthelaws of as thechangesare. of historical (2) the summing-up usuallycalled groups [categories].according to thediversity ofnotationalsymbols. little by little.sonata. how chain of cells attachesitself of progressive elementsstandingoutside the mainstream developmentperish because they are notviable. forthe as theory. The mostsatisfying from thebeginnings is to demonstrate and establish how. categories.

and the rules of in the ensuingusage. was also generallyleft to the practisingmusicians. Frequentlyworks of art place on the demandsto whichhe can do justiceonlyafter a long periodof performer theperforming artistes let themselves be guided. above all.with regardto the use of ornamentation. with its ancillary sciences. chronology.In thebeginning in theirrendering. and philology.It may also happen thattheory to be foundunitedin one person. Intimately instrumentation connected germinated withthehistory of orchestration is thehistory of musicalinstruments as regards their constructionand usage-a subsidiary sphere of the historical sectionof musicology. namely. generallyby theirinstinct.Then we mustdecidewhether he really operatesin the spiritof his age or in thatof a past epoch. and finally. In recent times biographical studieshave disproportionately pushed their way into thefore- . The explanation of the various ways in which art is practised. at a specific develops. On occasion the exerciseof on the productionof art.This feature owed its appearance to natural and unnaturalimpulses.and. and was. retaintheworksof art themselves at the centreof connected and practiceare impossibleproposition.the long beforemusicwas ready to take up chromaticism. (4) thebiographyof composers[Tondichter] as well as thestatistics ofmusicalassociationsand artinstitutions. in the seventeenth and first half of the eighteenthcenturies. and in the fieldof the productionof art. depleteof nourishment The instrumentalrealisation of polyphonic compositions with different at thetimeof theflowering of instrumental instruments. diplomatics. library and archival knowledge. despite its ingeniousness. graduallythe interpretationbecomes clearerand moreestablished. threatened to smotheror thehealthytree. attempt remained isolated. on the one hand detractedfrom. This is techniquehas acted as an influence in vogue.To singleout but one instance:Hieronymus to introduce musicacoloratain thesecondhalfof thethirteenth century. which are likewiseorganically linkedwithmusic. music.thetaskof investigating is made easier.or on the otherhand extended. palaeography. A great numberof auxiliarysciencesare affiliated to thissectionof musicology: (1) general history.which are inextricably (2) the historyof literature. Performing juncture. connectedwith music research. bibliography. however. creative activity. Vocal and instrumental intimately techniques have changed with the progressof art. As a result.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'S MUSICOLOGY / 9 ofMoravia wanted ignored. like a creeperor parasite. which have even particularlythe case with instruments thesame way as in vocal works the musical tone is inseparablefromtheword. and in thisway a tradition artisteshave taken a mustalways. In the first thelaws of artof theperiodconcerned instance. (3) historyof the mimeticarts (orchestics and dance). study.musical palaeography and bibliography are especiallyimportant ancillarysubject-areas.

the formation and foundationof the tone system.only those aspects should be examinedwhichstand in a director indirect to the artistic relationship temperament [Artung] -a guidelineobservedby some excellent biographies.whichit has already sometimesbeen termed(even if not. thecriteria ofwhich (b) [viewed]withregardto thebeautiful or finally are beingdetermined.whichis reallyspeculative. thesumming-up and clarification (2) harmony.the models whichhe studiedand whose stylehe has absorbed.theinfluence of the environment on his artisticoutlook.and are either: and foundedas such. the artisticposition he affected hisemotional occupies. to the best of my It explainsthepeculiarknowledge. or (a) clarified in art.besides theproductsof art of thecomposerin question.thoseeventswhichhave profoundly life. thatis. finally. well as. (b) a music-aesthetical section. The objectsofinvestigation ofcritical research determine herethesubdivisioninto: thatis. and contemporary connecting tones and tonal progressions. thesumming-up and clarification ofall therules. of the tonal thatis.homophonicand polyphonicmusic.Such aspects include the physicalnatureof the artist. withreference to a paedagogical-didactic (c) [explicated] purpose.19 whereas theyconstitute o'yv an ancillary fieldof musicology-even thoughan important one. (3) melody.with thisprecisesignification). One could call thissection"Melik". and so themedium ofthematic attains. properties in relation to thedynamics theabsolutemusicalrhythm of all bodies and themetreand prosodyof languages. the resultsderivingfromboth of the aforementioned subdivisions yield the investigationof the internal of therhythmic thereciprocity and harmonic elements relationships. that is. of theworksofart.through is. (1) rhythm.the way in which he composes. ways of propertiesof successive tonal development thesetwo conceptsdo not always entirely coincide-are systematically organised. the unifiedoverviewof the tonal materialof each culturalepoch.his education. (c) a music-paedagogical In this subdivisionthose laws of art which have emergedfromthe historical as the highest-I say highestand not latest.and may be divided into threeparts: (a) a music-theoretical section. his attitudetowardsthe other his ethicaland culturalstandpoints.thatis.10 / 1981YEARBOOKFORTRADITIONAL MUSIC front of scholarly attention and have even been regarded as Xar' in realityonly musicology . normsand laws affecting thetemporal of musicalworks. .and section. In thisfield. This restson the historicalsection. ities of monophonic. The second main subdivisionin musicologyis thatof the systematic section. thescientific study--that of thesignificance and rankof musicalideas in a work investigation of art-the consideration of theso-calledmusicalart forms. to be sure.

with the mindsof theperceiving subjects. the researcher occupy himself. latter. Some of themostimportant pointsare hereextracted: of music. withtheworks of art. and to get to the bottom of goals.stillothersaffect ofwhichon thedevelopment constructional theinfluences elements. used by Fetisto describe"theinvestigation neither for historical nor for aesthetic artisticproductsand theirchanges". therefore. Are there also tonal to nature.what is thebeautifulin musicand how is thisrelatedto the all generalconceptof the beautifulin art? Throughthisdetermination are at the are not demonstrable. Is theeffect when (a) originand effect necessarily greater themeans of expression becomes richer and multifarious? (b) the relationshipof tonal art to nature. musicology. also in anotherway: must Are those tonal productswhichdo not everywork of art be beautiful? to of not also works of art? For these the criteria beautiful correspond example.besides thepurelymusical the progressof art outsideof the specific factors.what is at stakeis therecognition a workas an artistic thatcharacterise make a work of the sense thata certaintechnicalskill is requiredin order to but do theycorrespond as a result also to thedemandsof them. are these only pathological manifestations or are theyalreadyworks of art? They are. thus. but also for other only for the determination theses directly or indirectlyconnected therewith.suffices of different scientific fields. absolutelymusical.thisonly mixesup the terms .*The elevation of demandsthat and rulesto theaforementioned height principles specific on the one hand. to the field of aesthetics. tonal productsin which thesecriteria as inartistic.and polyphonic tonal with "Melik"is either structures. of art cannotbe overlooked. the contrition. theirreciprocalrelationships must be the ultimateaim of aesthetics. * The expression of "Philosophyof Music".Is everytonalproducta work of art?Generally are those which bear the criteriaof the beautifulin art in themselves the prevenient designatedas works of Goethe maintained? thatare contrary systems of music to culture. and foundationof the highestlaws of art lead. comparison lead. of The formation to thecomparisonof individualnorms.which in total thatcomplexusually characterised of tonal constitute as the aesthetics art. however. to be sure. of the beautifulin art. same timedesignated One could pose the question. the requiemlitaniesin parallel seconds and fourths-as they in in theAmbrosianliturgy were customarily sung in Italy. perform in art?20 not thebeautiful These questionsare of thegreatest significance.particularly of anguish and Milan. Therefore questionmustbe answered. thosefeatures speaking.or is connected prosodyand metre.only product.Theirevaluationand necessity. of thecriteria that Above all. and on the otherhand.Two confront the researcher.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'S MUSICOLOGY / 11 the abstractionsfrom the various mono. however. whichcase it extendsthe object of examination to diction.and the national (c) the relationship economicrelationships of a people.

theonly possibleor named is not necessarily The seriesof disciplines this of thedidacticsection.thatis. Here we mustalso discuss the transitionsinto theamorphousand thefortuitous (accordingto Goethe's designation). and cleave asunderlarge multitudes as. If the laws are establishedin abstractoand foundedin thenaturalsciences.. Accordingly. more thedidacticmethodsused in vocal and instrumental training. supreme? of manywho of theseand similarissues arouses the interest settlement of them lies latentin artand and theresolution are otherwise indifferent. the structure intervals and various rhythms. to its abilityto express.whilst some speak of an ethical basis for musical feeling. does or does theactionreign The theword or thetonepredominate.chamber.21those areas in which it is connectedto or divorcedfromthe otherarts. Modern philosophers also pose the question concerningthe position music takes in relation to metaphysics. .A moreexactorganisation underthegeneraltheory to be would individualdisciplines seem.Even if theoryof harmonyas superfluous. hostilezealots. [there instrumental music. opera.** ** This subjectwill be treatedmorefullyin a special paper. as ethics stands in immediate (f) the ethical effects relationto music. theteaching thecombination tenets concerning of or successivecombination thesimultaneous point. the natureof musical knowledge. or thelocalitywhereit is practised.theprogress theseinstances would have to be subsumed altered. a theory of urgently required. etc. or thepurposeswhichit serves. or what is genuinechurchmusic?" Furtheris thequestionof] thestrife about rankbetweenvocal and more. whichcan be regarded as thetouchstone Beside thesescientific questionsthereare some musical issues of the of musicand artfriends day whichdisturbthesouls of art-enthusiastic into enemycamps. which was already stimulated by Plato and Aristotle. [forexample].or the musico-political question: in the musical drama. a theoryof harmony. theatre. of tonal art. however. and put together of opposed to delimitation othersounds or noise. concerning and furthertwo or moreindependent voices. for example.For two centuries even thebest arrangement has been valid.for example. subdivisionwe may As the thirdmain subsectionof the systematic name musical paedagogy and didactics.thentheymustbe sifted this with a didactic purpose in mind. science. even as damaging.the (e) thelimitsof tonal artwithreference of sound materialsthatmay be utilised.which comprisesthebasis of providesthe generalrudiments of scales. etc.12 / 1981 YEARBOOK FOR TRADITIONAL MUSIC (d) thesubdivisionof tonalart accordingto thenatureof its origin.concerthall. of all theseconsiderations. the musical tapeworm:22 "when did the apogee of religioustonal art thenthebasic tenets materially withinthe of music.thatis.both accordingto the older as well as the more modern philosophers. would not be of thediscipline are accepted. and only in recenttimesdoes one regardthe hierarchy indeed. the ofcounterofharmonies.

in particular thefolksongsof and territories. Manifold otherareas of knowledgemay also be touchedupon.In thisway scientific fashionsthebasis on which the disciplineis taught. the theory of musical which may be regardedas a part of generallogic.He followsall paths thatthe auxiliary researcher and the palaeographerhave levelled. the prohibitionof consecutive fifths to rule. .and the practical counterpart thereof. and stand partiallyin the interchange of ideas. as itstaskthecomparing of tonalproducts. Here. particularly -psychology. observedby morefree-wheeling research practice. as an ancillaryfieldto the musical paedagogical subdivision.but in the manuscript fieldof [musical]notationhe musttreadcertainbypathslyinga littleto one side of thebroad mainstream. withoutgoing into researchand deepersubstantiation based (generally on the natural sciences).turnsto the investigation the grounds-perhaps the physiologicalnatureof the ear. It teaches. the prohibition's application. purpose in mind. considering dependence upon the alterationof the partials-and thus reaches a detaileddetermination as to whichcases justify theuse oftheprohibition of consecutivefifths. in thoseareas concerning aural sensation. -physiology. withan ethnographic variouspeoples.and then. A new and very rewarding adjacent fieldof studyto the systematic subdivisionis 'musicology'. Here experience willbe theteacher.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'S MUSICOLOGY / 13 The relationshipof this paedagogical subdivision to the abstract scientific one can be generally as thesystem of didacticsbeing expressed satisfied to selectthenormsand rulesnecessary forlearning theart. -grammar. unnecessary The methodology of musicologicalresearch dependson thenatureof the subject under investigation. metreand poetics. [whichone may describeas] thedownright primary It pursuesthegraduallimitation of way ofcombining sequencesoffifths. intocorrelation withthis bringing history to thisaspect thefactthatat one timeno one paid attention prohibition harmonic -indeed. areas which it is considered to mention(see Table I). In palaeographical matters. namely. -and.In historical themusicresearcher utilises matters. [differences] The auxiliarysciencesof systematic are: musicology -acousticswithits associated field. thatis.countries. grouping and orderingthese according to the variety of in theircharacteristics. particularlyin those areas concerningthe mental conceptualisationof tones and interval relationships.but harmony when writing seeks also strictly to account for the groundsunderlying thisprohibition and enquiresof theperiod of its introduction.mathematics. philologicaland literary anew every pathway that the science in question has laid out. generalpaedagogics. for example.and to presentthe propositionslaid down and establishedby the science. or is not and in which cases it is superfluous.having resolvedtheprevenient of its connection historical with the question. the researcher as a method of applies every means usually characterised researchin thehistorical sciences. thinking. comparative This takes musicology.

caPLO/rTLXr (Arithmetic) . *** For 9EQPHTIKON (Theoreticalor speculativesection) B. artists). Historyof musical C. sciences: Auxiliary GeneralHistorywithPalaeography. sequence of Overview of the EntireConstruction*** appears thus: MUSICOLOGY I. of musicalassociations.schools of art.Diplomatics. /Ierptj? (RvOytm (Harmony) (Rhythm) (Metrics) dv (Physical-scientific) uvaOr b. and ArchivalScience. wvauxr? (Physics) a. Library Bibliography.thesynoptictable accordingto Aristides overviewof theGreek whichcontainsthemostcomprehensive Quintilianus. A. D. Historyof MimeticArtsand Dance. empires. As theyare in the presented works of art of every epoch.Statistics Biographies institutes and performances. Ways of practising art. Musical palaeography (notations). peoples. Historyof Literature Liturgical History. SYSTEM OF MUSIC I. Historical instruments. re(vuL6vu (Special-technical) e. A.14 / 1981 YEARBOOK FOR TRADITIONAL MUSIC TABLE 1 In Tabular Form. Basic historical categories(Grouping of musicalforms). cities. given. As taught by the of the theoreticians age in question. 1. systemof musicaldidactics.Chronology. of composers. 3. dp/ovuwx?d. and Philology. 2. c. HISTORICAL (Historyof musicaccordingto epochs. purposesof comparison.

The complexof and indirectly directly relatedquestions. etc. "Musicology" and (Examination comparisonfor ethnographic purposes). Oroxptrtx-q (Poetics)(Instrumental (Singing) (Dramatic action) performance) . Harmony(tonal). Grammar. g. Auxiliarysciences: Acousticsand mathematics. Psychology(tone perception. Theoryof composition. Aesthetics of tonal art. 6p?apvteX k. 4. and poetry. Qa irgtXvxdv praxis) (Melodic (Rhythmic composition) composition or applied rhythm) h. ro(lqats i. Xpjrxdv f. (Establishing and A. Physiology(tone sensation). IlPAKTIKON.fAIAETTIKON or practical (Didactic section) C.metrics. 5v6pOorolda AtxrJ l. tone-judgement. Vocal & instrumental teaching methods. 2. Orchestration.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'S MUSICOLOGY / 15 II. Melody Coherence25 of tonal & temporal. Investigation of these founding laws in: 1. Rhythm (temporal). C. perceiving withrespectto the of the ascertaining of the criteria musicallybeautiful. yjtXoroda Performance (Theoryofcomposition) D. Musical paedagogicsand didactics(The compilationof these laws withrespectto teaching purposes). SYSTEMATIC of thehighest laws in theindividualbranchesof tonal art). Comparisonand evaluationof these laws and their relationto the subjects. Theoryof harmony. Aesthetics. Counterpoint. 3. II. 5. 3. 6. 1. B. tone-feeling). Scales. Logic (musicalthinking). 1. D. Paedagogics. 2. 2.

he educatesthedisciplesto hislife'stask theoretician and accompanies the inspiredcreatoras a lifelong companion. The artist builds his templein thegrove.everyhistorian of art.the researchof the laws of art of diverse periods and theirorganic combinationand development. and in this way makes it more or brought accessibleto thepublic. . of thenthehistorian in orderto conquera new territory.thenhe directs it onto thepropercourse. Should the scholar of art observe that matters are not turning out in the best ofart. his forefathers art does not allow the old to become desertedand desolate.The of arttillstheearth. To attain his main task. the true frienddoes not content himself. Ifthebuilding interests is already erected. however. mustlistento the lifepulse of theartistic forms and would not wish to kill themwithhis probe.on thecontrary. the correctpracticethathas should-also keepitflexible must-or rather becomelaw.and onlytheway in thegrovewherefragrance is newly revived.then it in orderto preserve it forfuture he buttresses Withthese generations.then the historianof art protectsand defendsit and repairsthe damaged portions. but at the withhis armyof thedual taskof assisting. the ofthescience emphasisherelies in theanalogybetweenthemethodology of art and thatof the naturalsciences. A more preferred. whilstmanyphilologists have succeededsplendidly and have veeredoff thepath of life. however. up ofhypotheses detailedexplicationof theforegoing is reserved fora special paper. Unfortunately. rather whicheach is treateddiffers. They codify.from sectionsare neglected and others givenconcreteconceptions.however.Should it become quite dilapidated.and saves it in thisway it or withdraws surrounds forperiodsthatwill once again show the properappreciationof it. namely. time and again. Artand thescienceof art do not existin separatecompartments. particular The setting is also notinconceivable. fromfreelygrowingflowers. From several thatwhichis commonand separatesthoseaspects exampleshe extracts whichdiffer. by preference the inductivemethod. Should it be stormed down.they When the artistabandons the regionof with regardto life'sexigencies. same timetakesupon himself a hand in in theoccupation[oftheterritory] theartist by lending helpers.16 / 1981YEARBOOKFORTRADITIONAL MUSIC however.the of artutilisesthesame methodology historian as thatof theinvestigator of nature. thenhe it a certaindistance. The science attainsits goal to its fullestextentonly when it remainsin livingcontactwithart.He arranges and organises the whole. he will have to proceed with a litle more caution because. thelivingflower One of his loveliesttasks. theboundariesof whichare sharply it is farmoreone and thesame field. to keep fresh thenecessary kingdom by arousingand furthering gardenof theearthly on art have endeavouredto mostof thewriters interest. that has been shown. The setting laws of art and their up of thehighest practicalutilisation in musicalpaedagogicsrevealthesciencein unmediated contactwiththe actual life of art. withdrawfromthisexaltedduty. Ultimately theyare the guardiansof order. and utilisesalso themethodof abstraction in which.

young builder." "Concerning Besides the pursuitof its absolute endeavours-as a consequenceof whichit regardsitself as an end in itself. for example.littleby littlein . 1863). [Yearbooks for Musical Science] (Leipzig: Breitkopf wrote: Chrysander One should neverforegotheconviction that. Should it actually occur that reflection and research take theupperhand. in restoring. and so attainmastery.on ne doit aux mortsque la verites"24 a implies.namely.thenit is impossible performing ofart. and so allows oneselfto be guided by predetermined and sympathies whose distortions stainmanya page in thehistory ofwriters antipathies.Above all.23 unstablegroundand is unable to withstand thewind and weather.through will then he either to fail helpfulparticipation.the scienceitself in termsof theproperevaluationof thetasksimmediately at hand.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'SMUSICOLOGY/ 17 making the newly acquired soil arable. mentof thepresent ofart.that which is created by the spirit. thenthiswould forthetime demonstrate thathistorical had strengthened.thespiritual be shieldedand defended of art beyond thegrave. not concerning itself about its widerpractical utilisation-thesciencewill thencontribute to theproper and evaluationof thevariousepochs of art. As a result. And.that. in view of the confusionin the contemporary state of the arts and the evident vacillationin artistic it will contribute also to theimproveproduction.Voltaire'sexpression "son doit des egards aux vivants. children thetruth ofhislife'scourse. altogether completethe or the building will soon collapse because it stands on building. about art. result theestablishment basis. to themostimportant of thesupremelaws withintheindividualbranchesof art. In the Introduction to theJahrbiichern musikalische Wissenschaft fair & Hirtel.will artist. however. Should the latter.long been recognised as highly advantageousto the of works of art. the most importantbasic tenet should be: thelivingas the dead. His experiences serve to advise the refusesuch overconfidence. beingmerely appreciation This has. As by the historian of judgement in thecase of thedeceased artist is easy.just as one shows particular towards one person. mustgrow in strength. apperception If thescienceofartkeepswithin itsnaturalboundsand unites withthe artistsin specifictasks.and on that comprehension ofitsinvestigations. it has been explained above that the creation of art is impossiblewithouta knowledgeof art.quiteapartfrom thefactthata genuine creative production power allows itselfto be guided and educatedbut not suppressed. it is independence to retain the same attitude also with to obligatory respect the living artist. and setting up the equipment needed to construct a new work. and arranging historical forit to jeopardisethe works. it mustlimititself however. as. It has been asserted situation thattheincipient expansion of the science of art is a certainsign of the decline of art. From the cradle to the grave the researcher of art accompanies the ofthelatter. nothing but the truth. towardsanotherone acts just as inconsiderately. consideration greater danger.despiteitsapparentcourteousness. However.

thisfieldof thecourseofgaining insight. But. 1883. more as an adjunctto otherscientific disciplines.but also a and even an historical and physical-mathematical. that musical science should ever attain or inner theheight ofthatofthegraphic perfection arts-because music in its essence is too elusive thanthatin its fielda sciencecould evolve which could meetthehighest demands-is an illusion.the preresuccessful quisitesfortheresearcher's overcoming of these problems are too unique. howeverthatmay be.the more comprehensive the expertise. The more sincerethe will. value: Discoveryof theTrue and Advancement of theBeautiful. the solutionsto whichmustand will be found. everydeed thatpushesus closerto it. towardsa unitary fieldtheoryof musicology May the presentattempt contribute towardsmeeting theseneeds! Everystepthatleads to thisgoal. at theRoyal Academy of theArtsin Berlindeclares: The science of art.18 / 1981YEARBOOKFORTRADITIONAL MUSIC naturaldevelopment. a sectionin And. until place foritself now it has scarcelybeen attempted anywhereto withinthe world of bring to public recognition. the more meaningfulthe product.theunification diverse directionsof the science of art into an thiswillhave to fact. As it has not only a philosophical. will.intovarious otherindependent fieldsof science. Furthermore. independent occur in the short or long term. Nevertheless. because itlacks thepowerto standon itsown is considered. as if it had been written Spitta'sFestredeon "Art and the Science of Art".he commented further: Concerning The main cause of doubt generally adduced. few branchesexcepted. more effective the consequence. highest .and it is only its object of researchthat enables it to claim a underthe sun. it reaches. the more who share in the the more profoundthe effect[result].given on March 21.even amongstscholars. grappleswith all the difficulties Withoutthe backing of a firmtradition. namely.which bears the undertaking. of the scienceand societyat large. to elucidatethe foregoing. the signifies progressin our human insight. it is certain that here great scientifictasks lie ahead. The research material is too rich and important. fluctuating in its methodand oftenquestionablein its results. philosophicalside. than that it could notbe assumedthatthescienceofartwould achieve a recognised place amongst its sister sciences.still of the beginner. again be unified.

in Adler'sview. By usingtheterm fortheemerging academicdiscipline. The first took up theappointment. paper by Professor NOTES had been in existence since the second quarterof the 1. The verbgliedert indicates ofmusicacts likea living that. by Strunk This interpretation is impliedby his imagery.The conceptof periodicity involves of the translation. speakingworld. forexample. organism . 3.Adlermay have had the 'sisterscience' of literaryhistoryin mind. still used the older term'musikalische in the titleof the Chrysander Wissenschaft' in itstitle. the second chair of musicologyto be foundedin the Germanwas establisheda year earlierat Strassburg [Strasbourg]. 8. regularand irregular linguistics and religion. and was fairly established by mid-century. Stylistic laws reveala terms thathe perceivedhistory. The verb periodisirt has no Englishequivalent. The termMusikwissenschaft nineteenthcentury. and its derivativeand compound formations. The Germanword Klang has theconnotation of timbre.the musicalformsthemselves grow. The word Gattungwas similarly translated as 'species'-see Adler (1934). hence theformat recurrence. whereJakobsthal 4. 15. in Darwin's theoryof evolution lay in his attributing to The essentialoriginality which naturetheprocessofselection by meansof theconceptofsurvivalof the contextof the openinghistorical outlineof thedevelopment of thescienceof music. a proliferation century 10. Adler was referring to pre-nineteenth centurysystemsof notation. The termTonsetzer difficulties. 12. is used as a synonym 13. or die because theyare not fitto survive.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'S MUSICOLOGY / 19 of this The authorgratefully acknowledgestheconsiderable help givenin thepreparation Dieter Christensen of Columbia seemedappropriate to translate theword in terms of thiscontext. like chains of cells. 16. synchronic with the of musicology. conceiving speaking of the investigationof stylisticlaws. and musicas an art. theopeningsentence maybe interpreted as meaning that the concept of 'tonal art' is a modern one. thehistory in theprocessof organisation. is in thissense thatit was thefirst in itsoriginal word 'science'is used throughout senseof 'anysystematised 2. development 9. The comparativemethodwas the ubiquitoustool of scholarshipin the nineteenth otherthanthephysical and was applied in fields and naturalsciencesas well. 7. suggests it is not unreasonableto speak of thisprocessof selectionas in some way 'natural'. Adler's imagery is thoroughly Darwinian. However. implying 'natural'division. a meaning'to fall into more than one part'. or have been using a commonplace Romanticnotion of the composeras poet. It is not thecomposerwho selects. where the of art. It is no accident that the term Kunst [art]. mottonow reads: 'through understanding 6. thenew journalsettheseal of journalhe foundedin 1863. The word used is Meisterin the sense of a 'master craftsman'. even thoughthe lattertermlacks such a connotation. The English body of knowledge'.In is itself a metaphorical view of nature. in fact.It approval on itsacceptanceas thedesignation to do so. to have an effect on art'. presents Did he mean a 'compositor of tones'. This was.The twentieth has witnessed of notationalsystems. century. art in general. This can be perceivedmore clearlyin Adler's inaugurallectureof 1898. Adler uses the word zerffillt.As muchof Adler'smetaphorical language ofa livingorganism. Nevertheless. The word Tondichter for'composer'. but is an indefinite concept which is best translated as 'sound'.or a personwho sets words to music? 14. it as havingsome kindof mind. AlthoughAdler used the word Tonkunst. 5. outweighby a factorof two the termMusik and its derivativeand Adlerconsistently relatesthescienceofmusicto thescienceof compoundformations.

The phrasemeans 'par excellence'. 14thed. by theskeletalframework." "Umfang." by Loren Corey Eiseley.thelatterif heardbetweenthebass and an uppervoice."by WilliamHenryWalsh. The Germanlanguageis particularly richin wordsfordifferent kindsof sounds." by C.They are like thetapeworm (head). Carner. reprint ed. The words used hereare Klang. 19. EncyclopaediaBritannica." Wollen und wirken: aus dem Leben eines Musikhistorikers. Adler uses the term Cohdirenz which has the meaning of a 'natural or logical connection'. OUP paperback 1956. motionin parallelsecondsand fourths was anathematic. Schall.meaning thusindicating Adler'sunderlying 'empires'. (1973). "Comparative Anatomy. "Style-Criticism. 1938 Adler.R. fiirMusikwissenschaft "Musikund Musikwissenschaft. 1980. is put on beforethewalls are clad. 22. Vierteljahrsschrift 1: 5-20. pp. indicatingthat these questions in havinga beginning persist. "Philosophy. London: Joseph WilliamsLtd. F.G.and nothing but the truth to thedead'.D. 1946 The Idea of History. 21."by Helmut Kuhn. Historyof." by Chester Ray Longwell. Collingwood. Stevens. The word used is Taktbezeichnung. 18. Engel.H. In themuscialtheory of tonalmusic."by Sewall Wright. thought. 24. and Gerliusch. S. "Darwin.which suggests relationshipsof a more nature.thetermTerritorien is replacedwiththeterm Reichen. 1900-1950. "Musicology").20 / 1981 YEARBOOK FOR TRADITIONAL MUSIC 17.This word is closer to his thought thanthatof 'correlation'-as used in the translationof the table given in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980: s. but no end in sight as theykeep growing a tail.indicates '. 'One owes respectto theliving."Neue Zeitschrift fiirMusik 111: 16-22. In wooden framehouses." by Florence Moog. "Science." In Of Men and Music. meaning literally a late stagein theconstruction of stoneor brickbuildings. wheretheouterwalls have to be completedto theheight at whichtheywill supporttherafters beforetheroofis theroofis supported and put on. Adler uses the word Bandwurmmetaphorically. Musical Quarterly 20 (2): 172-176. "Darwinism. .. 20. "Evolution." Jahrbuch derMusikbibliothek Peters5: 29-39.v.Guido 1885 1898 1934 1935 The Birthand Developmentof the Geological Sciences. 25. arbitrary PUBLICATIONS CONSULTED Adams. Leipzig: Universal. In theattachedtable.Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press."by Sir Gavin de Beer. therefore.secondsand fourths are dissonant.v. The phrase'unter Dach bringen 'to bringundertheroof'. 14-16.Mosco 1944 "A Pioneer of Musicology: Guido Adler. Vienna. "Aesthetics. Methode und Ziel der Musikwissenschaft."Geology. Baltimore: The Williams& WilkinsCo. 23. 1950 "Die Entwicklung der Musikwissenschaft.

1980 ed." by F. und Gegenwart. H. George to theHistoryof Science.) Studienzur Musikgeschichte: fiirGuido Adler zum 75 Geburtstag: Festschrift Vienna: Universal. 1949-.Bertrand 1945 A History of WesternPhilosophy. Kiihn. S. 1924-5 "Guido Adlers Methode der Musikgeschichte. "Adler. et al. 16 vols. wissenschaft Heinz. 1930 . Baltimore: Introduction 1927-31 Carnegie Institution (The Williams& WilkinsCo.E. und Hirtel. Ausgewahlte Autisitze von WalterWiora."Musical Quarterly 1: 1-16. Russell. The New Grove Dictionaryof Music and Musicians. Tutzing:Hans Schneider. ische Musikzeitschrift W.Hellmut. Osthoff." Osterreich1 (6): 185-187. "Aesthetics Sparshott." by Mosco Carner.v." Zeitschrift fiir Musik7: 500-503. R. 1883 Die Davidsbiindleraus Robert Schumann'sSturm-und Drangperiode. New York: Touchstone (Simon & Schuster). Editedby StanleySadie. "Musikwissenschaft. in 5. 209-218.MUGGLESTONE GUIDO ADLER'S MUSICOLOGY / 21 Ficker.v. F. Edited by WalterWiora. 1969 "Guido Adlers Musikhistorikals historischesDokument. Gustav Jansen. Guido. Die Musik in Geschichte AllgemeineEnzyklopidieder Musik. in Deutschland. Fischer."by VincentDuckles. Leipzig: Breitkopf eds.Rudolfvon 1946 "Guido Adlerund die WienerSchulederMusikwissenschaft.and Mahling. 1972 Historische und Systematische Musikwissenschaft." by WalterWiora and Hans Albrecht." Acta "Die Anfinge der Musikgeschichtsschreibung 1933 Musicologica 5 (3): 97-107.Waldo Selden 1915 "On Behalfof Musicology. Pratt."Musicology. 3 vols. S. pp.Christoph-Hellmut. 20 vols." In Die Ausbreitungdes Historismusfiberdie Musik. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse. of Music. Editedby Friedrich Blume. Sarton.