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FORMATION EVALUATION

BASED ON LOGGING DATA

Pradyut Bora Senior Geologist Geology & Reservoir Deptt.

Outline

Objective Quick look log interpretation


Deterministic log analysis method Shale effects Shaly sand models

Formation Evaluation & Objective


The fundamental questions that has to find answers during Formation evaluation
What kind of rock is present ? reservoir or non-reservoir rock? If Reservoir rock exists. Are any hydrocarbon present ?

Type of hydrocarbon present whether oil or gas?


How much hydrocarbon is there ? (pay thickness, porosity, saturation etc. and finally the estimation of reserve)

Formation Evaluation & Objective


Well logs contains key information about the formation drilled in different petrophysical measurements. i.e. Prospective zones of hydrocarbon. Reservoir type and thickness. Estimation of Porosity, permeability. Fluid type present in the pores and saturation level.

Objective: To economically establish the existence of producible hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil & gas).

Basic Logging Tools and their Measurements


Electrical Logs: measure the electrical properties of the formation alongwith the formation fluids. Gamma Ray Logs: measure the natural radioactivity of the formation. Self Potential Log: measures the potential difference in milli-volts between an electrode in the borehole and a grounded electrode at surface.

Density Logs: measure electron density of the formation which is related to formation density.
Neutron logs: measure hydrogen index of the formation.

Sonic Logs: measure the elastic or (sound) wave properties of the formation. Caliper Logs: measure the size or geometry of the hole.

Basic Logging Tools & Interpretable Parameters


Log Type Physical Measurement Voltage (V) V and Current (I) Current Derived Parameter Rt Rt Rxo Interpreted Parameter Sw Sw Sxo

Resistivity -Induction -Laterolog -Micro Laterolog


Acoustic - Sonic

Transit Time
Electron Hydrogen Natural Radioactivity mV (in)

PHIs, ITT
RHOB, PHID PHIN None None Dh, Volume

Lithology
Lithology Lithology Vsh Vsh

Nuclear - Density - Neutron


Auxiliary -Natural GR -Self Potential -Caliper

Petrophysical Interpretation

Qualitative: Assessment of reservoir properties, fluid type form log pattern. Quantitative: Numerical estimation of reservoir properties viz. % of oil, water etc.

Identification of Reservoir and Non-Reservoir Rocks From SP & GR logs


RESERVOIR ROCKS Low Gamma Ray Good SP development NON RESERVOIR ROCKSHigh Gamma Ray Flat SP development
Reservoir Rocks: Porous & Permeable rock

Sand grain

Sand grain

Sand Shale

Qualitative Interpretation Of Well Logs


Quick-look hydrocarbon detection

Composite Log
Gamma Ray Caliper Resistivity Density Neutron

Low GR SP Deflection Indicates Reservoir Rocks

RHOB-NPHI SHOWS VERY GOOD CROSSOVER INDICATING GAS


G A S

High Resistivity
G A S

O I L

Rgas>Roil>Rwater

Qualitative Interpretation Of Well Logs

Sand Top
G A S O I L

Rgas>Roil>Rwater

Gas-Oil contact

W A T E R

Oil-Water contact
RHOB-NPHI GOOD CROSSOVER INDICATE GAS

Integration of drill-cutting sample , Side-wall core data, nearby well data is important to confirm the predication of fluid type. Advanced logging tools are also used to record sometimes to ascertain the fluid type.

Quantitative Interpretation of Well logs


Estimation of effective porosity & permeability.
Estimation of volume of clay fraction. Estimation of hydrocarbon saturation. Determination of the depth and thickness of net pay. Estimation of reserves of hydrocarbon.

Estimation of Porosity
From Neutron, Density and Sonic Logs
POROSITY () = VOL. OF PORE SPACE / BULK VOL. OF ROCK EFFECTIVE POROSITY (e) = VOL. OF INTERCONNECTED PORE SPACE / VOL. OF ROCK

Inter particle Porosity

Estimation of Porosity From Neutron, Density and Sonic Logs

Estimation of Porosity By using Cross-plots From Neutron, Density and Sonic Logs

Estimation of Hydrocarbon Saturation


Can not be measured directly but inferred from determination of WATER SATURATION (Sw) from RESISTIVITY and POROSITY logs. Sw Fraction of pore space occupied by water. Sh Fraction of pore space occupied by hydrocarbon.

Sw+Sh=1 or Sh=1-Sw

oil water

Water Saturation Estimation


Objective: whether the pores of the formation is completely saturated with formation water or the pore space is partially saturated with oil/gas.

Sw = 100%

Current travels along the path of least resistance which is measured as wet resistivity (Ro). Ro

As the porosity changes the value of Ro consistently changes.

Sand grains
Rw : Formation water resistivity

water

Water Saturation Estimation

Rw
Sw= 100%, Rt= Ro Sw<100%, Rt>Ro

Ro = Resistivity of the formation with pores 100% saturated with water Rt = Actual resistivity of formation measured

Water saturation can be expressed as a function of Rw, Ro, Rt and porosity.

Archies Equation
For Water Saturation (Sw) Estimation

a x Rw Sw = m x Rt

1/2

Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) Estimation

Measured various ways:


Direct laboratory measurements of formation water sample.

From water salinity value by using chart.


From Self Potential log. From resistivity log using Archies equation.

Rw Estimation: From salinity & temperature chart


Resistivity of NaCl Solution (at certain temperature)
Given (1)Salinity= 10000 ppm @ 70 0 F

Enter salinity at Y-axis (right) Temerature at X-axis Resistivity value at Y-axis(left)


Resistivity= 0.6 0hm.m

(2) Salinity= 10000 ppm @ 150 0 F

Resistivity= 0.3 0hm.m

Rw Estimation: From Self Potential Log


SP current develop due to difference in salinity between formation fluid and the borehole fluid (Mud).
Liquid Junction Potential Membrane Potential

Clean sand line Shale Base line


SP Curve

The movement of ions, which causes the SP phenomenon is possible only in formation having a certain minimum permeability. The first step is to compute the Static SP (SSP), which is the ideal SP response for thick clean water bearing zone (shale free).

Sand Shale

SP scale is 15 mV/div.

SSP= -45 mV

Rw Estimation: From SP Log Total Electrochemical emf (Ec) for the two phenomena:
SSP = -K Log aw/amf -----1 SSP= Static SP aw, amf = chemical activities of formation water & mud filtrate respectively K= a constant =71 at 77F, varies directly proportion to absolute temperature For NaCl solutions, Chemical activities are inversely proportional to resistivity, but not for all type of waters. So terms Rweq & Rmfeq are used, which, by definition aw/amf=Rmfe/Rwe

Hence, SSP = -K Log Rmfeq/Rweq -----2 Calculation of Rmfeq: if Rmf>0.1 ohm m at 75 F, then Rmfeq = 0.85 Rmf if Rmf< 0.1 ohm m at 75 F, the use Chart SP-2 to find Rmfe

Estimating Rw from SP-Basic parameters

Rw Estimation: From SP Log


Rweq Ohm-m

0.025

Rweq=0.025 ohm-m Rw = 0.31 ohm m

Rw Estimation: From Resistivity Log


Archies equation solve for Rw

Rw= (Rt x Sw2)/ 2 For clean water bearing sand: Sw=1 Hence, Rw = Rt x 2
Read Rt from log. Calculate porosity () from porosity log. Find Rw.
G A S O I L

Sw= 1

W A T E R

Ro= Rt

Quicklook Summary of Estimation of Water saturation (Sw) by using Archies Equation

Clean (Shale Free) Formation

Shaly Formation

No sand/ reservoir is practically clean and free of any clay or other fine minerals. When the volume of clay is >15%, formation is termed as shaly. Shale contains water that affects Sw evaluation because its reduce the true resistivity of the formation. Porosity and permeability is also affected due to presence of shale.

SHALE DISTRIBUTION

Clean Formation (No Shale Increase of Rt with the increase of Oil saturation

Shaly Formation Decrease of Rt with the increase of Shaliness at constant saturation.

Steps of Shaly Sand Analysis


1. 2.
3.

Determination of volume of shale (Vsh). Determination of effective porosity (phie).


Calculation of effective water saturation (Swe) using corrected porosities and shaly sand water saturation equation.

Gamma ray Log - Shale volume evaluation


Gamma ray log is an indicator of shaliness of sand

GRShale

GRLog
GRlog- GRClean

V Shale =
GRShale- GRClean

80- 20
V Shale =

180- 20

GRClean

Self Potential Log - Shale volume evaluations


SP log is an indicator of shaliness of sand

SPLog

SPShale

SPClean

Vsh Correction- Effective porosity Estimation


Effective Porosity from Density porosity b = e* f +Vcl*clay+(1- e-Vcl)* ma
e= ma - b ma - f Vsh ma - sh ma - f

e, f

Vsh , sh
1- e-Vsh ma

Effective Porosity from Neutron porosity e= N Vsh* sh where, cl is the neutron porosity against clean shale

Shale and Saturation Evaluation The Archie equation has changed to take into account the shale effect. To estimate the volume of clay in the reservoir rock to eliminate their effect in porosity and water saturation computation. There are many equation for shaly formation evaluation has developed.

Saturation Estimations Equations for Shaly Sand

Building Petrophysical Model (Elan plus Software)


Reconstruction of subsurface rock formations along with fluid saturation using log data.

Initially Petrophysicist make a preliminary assumption of possible rock type & fluid present from the log response Low GR, High density(2.7), low porosity(<0.3) --- ? Limestone Low GR, very low density, very high porosity ---- ? Coal High GR, moderate neutron porosity, high density --- ? Shale High resistivity zone sitting over low resistivity zone against a sand --- Oil above water ? Density Neutron crossover ---- ? Gas
Finally the modeling software solve a model using the input data. The model shows the Lithology and Fluid saturation in quantitative terms.

Petrophysical Interpretation
Inputs
Measurements Rsistivity, Density GR, SP Parameters Rw, Rmf, MW, BHT Model Generation Model generation Outputs

Model Satisfactory

Sand% Clay% e % Sw (% of ) Oil (% of e) Gas (% of e)

Model Doubtful
Volumes (variables) Quartz, Clay, coal Oil, water, gas

Interpreted Model

Outputs:

Lithology
Reservoir thickness Porosity

Gas/oil/water %

Some definitions
Gross thickness: Thickness of a zone between two geological Horizons or markers Net Thickness: Thickness of certain facies, say sand , within that zone (thickness after GR or Vclay cut-off) Net Reservoir Thickness: Thickness of that part of net thickness which have certain amount of porosity to be a reservoir (thickness after Vclay & Phie cutoff) Net Pay thickness: Thickness of that part of net reservoir which have certain amount of oil saturation to be termed as pay (thickness after Vclay & Phie & Sw cutoff)

CUT OFF TO ESTIMATE NET PAY


H1
Net reservoir
Net thickness

Net pay

Gross Thickness

H2
0----------Vcl-----------1 0-----------Phie- -----0.5 1-----------Sw----- -----0

Cut off values

Vclay>0.4

Phie<0.10

Sw>0.6

Well to Well Correlation: Sand Correlation


Well-A Well-B Well-C Well-D Well-E

-Lateral extent of sand body -Sand development pattern

Reserve of Hydrocarbon

Reserve (OIP) = Area X Net pay thickness X Average Porosity X (1-water saturation)

Conclusion
Preliminary assumption of rock and fluid type form well logs helps in building effective Petrophysical model of a formation. Effective use of these Formation Evaluation techniques require high level of integration. Use of Shaly sand method is primarily important, if not performed it may possible to overlook a productive reservoir.

Shaly Formation Equations

Shaly Formation Equations

Permeability Estimation
Permeability generally controlled by matrix grain size and resulting pore throat diameters. For same porosity, smaller the grain size, greater the surface area => decrease in permeability All lithologies exhibit increasing permeability with increasing porosity Logs cannot measure permeability of formation directly

Permeability is measured in laboratory using core plug or from well test data Relationship can be obtained between log derived porosity and permeability

Permeability Estimation
Since irreducible water saturation increases with internal surface area, Willie and Rose (1950) proposed a relationship between permeability, porosity & irreducible water saturation:
P, Q, R = constants to be calibrated from core PQ K= S R measurements wi Most widely used version of above equation for sandstone is Timur Equation (1968) 2.25 0.5 K = 100 S wi

Calibration is required for log derived Swi and computed K with core measurements to effectively use such equation

Permeability Estimation

Permeability Estimation

NET PAY MAP (OIL ISO PAY MAP)

Mud Invasion Profile Due to the effect of


drilling fluid (mud). The hydrostatic pressure of the mud column is always kept higher than the formation pressure. This creates invasion of the mud filtrate into the formation around borehole.
Depth of invasion mainly depends on the permeability of the formation

Estimation of Movable HC
For un-invaded zone: Sw= [FRw/Rt]0.5 Sh= 1-Sw-------A
For invaded zone: Sxo= [FRmf/Rxo]0.5 Shr= 1-Sxo-------B Movable hydrocarbon saturation:

Shm= A-B = Sh-Shr = [1-Sw]-[1Sxo] = Sxo-Sw

Spontaneous Potential Logs: Principles


SP current develop due to difference in salinity between formation fluid and the borehole fluid (Mud)

The SP curve is a recording vs. depth of the difference between potential of a movable electrode in the borehole and the fixed potential of surface electrode

SP Log: Principle
Electrochemical Component : Membrane Potential
Less saline Borehole fluid: Low NaCl Soln. Shale: Acts as a membrane* permits movements of Na+ (Cataions) High saline formation water : High NaCl concentration

Shale: Impervious
Na+

Porous & Permeable bed

Due to layered clay structure and charges on the layer, Shales are permeable to Na+ cations but impervious to Cl- anions When shale separates NaCl solution of different salinities, Na+ cations (+ve charges) move through the shale from more concentrated to the less concentrated solution. This movement of charged ion is an electric current and the force causing them to move constitutes a potential across the shale.

Mud

SP Log: Principle
Liquid Junction Potential
Na+ & Cl- ions can transfer from either solution to the other In the edge of the invaded zone, mud filtrate and formation water are in direct contact. Since Cl- ions have more mobility than Na+, the net result is a flow of ve charges from more concentrated soln. to less concentrated soln. It is equivalent to current flow in opposite direction Total Electrochemical emf Ec for the two phenomena: Ec= -K log aw/amf
Aw & amf are chemical activity of the two soln. at formation temp. Chemical activity of soln. is roughly proportional to its salt content (i.e conductivity) K= Coefficient proportional to absolute temp; for NaCl mud filtrate and formation water condition, K= 71 @ 25 C

Resistivity log: Focusing Electrode Logs


Dual Laterolog Current path is focused as a horizontal sheet into the formation
One electrode send an electric current from on the sonde directly into the formation. The return electrodes are located either on surface or on the sonde itself. Two guard electrodes focus the current into the formation and prevent current lines from fanning out or flowing directly to the return electrode through the borehole fluid.

The voltage at the main electrode is constantly adjusted during logging in order to maintain a constant current intensity. This voltage is therefore proportional to the resistivity of the formation.

Resistivity log: Focusing Electrode Logs


Laterolog Dual Laterolog

LLS

LLD

Induction Logging
Required when mud is non conductive (OBM) High frequency alternating current is sent through a transmitter coil It creates a alternating magnetic field which creates a secondary current in the formation This current flow in circular ground loop path co-axial with the transmitter coil The ground loop current induce magnetic field which induce signal in the receiver coil Receiver signal is proportional to the conductivity of the formation

Sonic Log
It is measurement of time (t) taken by compressional sound wave to travel 1 foot in the formation
The basic configuration of the tool consist of one transmitter (emits compresional sound wave) & two receivers

Porosity Measurements: Sonic Log


Sonic travel time gives idea of porosity in the formation Density measured by log is the density of the fluids in the pores + density of the matrix

tlog = *tfluid + (1- )* tmatrix

tlog - tmatrix = tFluid - tmatrix

Fluid (t Fluid)

1-

Matrix (t matrix)

Porosity from Density Log: Hydrocarbon Correction in clean sand


Since the density tool reads the flushed zone, Water saturation= Sxo Hydrocarbon saturation is 1-Sxo
The hydrocarbon corrected density porosity is
ma - b = b = (1-Sxo) h + *Sxo*w+(1- )* ma [(1-Sxo) h + Sxo*w] ma
Sxo, w

1-Sxo, h
1- ma

1-

Clean Sand Model

GAMMA RAY LOG


Gamma Rays are high-energy electromagnetic waves which are emitted by atomic nuclei as a form of radiation Gamma ray log is measurement of natural radioactivity in formation verses depth. It measures the radiation emitting from naturally occurring U, Th, and K.

It is also known as shale log.


GR log reflects shale or clay content. Clean formations have low radioactivity level.

Correlation between wells, Determination of bed boundaries, Evaluation of shale content within a formation, Mineral analysis,
Depth control for log tie-ins, side-wall coring, or perforating. Particularly useful for defining shale beds when the sp is featureless GR log can be run in both open and cased hole

Spontaneous Potential Log (SP)


The spontaneous potential (SP) curve records the naturally occurring electrical potential (voltage) produced by the interaction of formation connate water, conductive drilling fluid, and shale The SP curve reflects a difference in the electrical potential between a movable

electrode in the borehole and a fixed reference


electrode at the surface Though the SP is used primarily as a lithology

indicator and as a correlation tool, it has other


uses as well: permeability indicator, shale volume indicator porosity indicator, and

measurement of Rw (hence formation


water salinity).

Neutron Logging
The Neutron Log is primarily used to evaluate formation porosity, but the fact that it is really just a hydrogen detector should always be kept in mind It is used to detect gas in certain situations, exploiting the lower hydrogen density, or hydrogen index The Neutron Log can be summarized as the continuous measurement of the induced radiation produced by the bombardment of that formation with a neutron source contained in the logging tool which sources emit fast neutrons that are eventually slowed by collisions with hydrogen atoms until they are captured (think of a billiard ball metaphor where the similar size of the particles is a factor). The capture results in the emission of a secondary gamma ray; some tools, especially older ones, detect the capture gamma ray (neutron-gamma log). Other tools detect intermediate (epithermal) neutrons or slow (thermal) neutrons (both referred to as neutron-neutron logs). Modern neutron tools most commonly count thermal neutrons with an He-3 type detector.

The Density Log

The formation density log is a porosity log that measures electron density of a formation

Dense formations absorb many gamma rays, while low-density formations absorb fewer. Thus, high-count rates at the detectors indicate low-density formations, whereas low count rates at the detectors indicate high-density formations.
Therefore, scattered gamma rays reaching the detector is an indication of formation Density. Scale and units:

The most frequently used scales are a range of 2.0 to 3.0 gm/cc or 1.95 to 2.95 gm/cc across two tracks. A density derived porosity curve is sometimes present in tracks #2 and #3 along with the bulk density (rb) and correction (Dr) curves. Track #1 contains a gamma ray log and caliper.

Resistivity Log
Basics about the Resistivity: Resistivity measures the electric properties of the formation, Resistivity is measured as, R in W per m, Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity, The ability to conduct electric current depends upon: The Volume of water, The Temperature of the formation, The Salinity of the formation

The Resistivity Log: Resistivity logs measure the ability of rocks to conduct electrical current and are scaled in units of ohmmeters. The Usage: Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used to:
Determine Hydrocarbon versus Water-bearing zones, Indicate Permeable zones, Determine Resisitivity Porosity.

Acoustic Log
Acoustic tools measure the speed of sound waves in subsurface formations. While the acoustic log can be used to determine porosity in consolidated formations, it is also valuable in other applications, such as: Indicating lithology (using the ratio of compressional velocity over shear velocity), Determining integrated travel time (an important tool for seismic/wellbore correlation), Correlation with other wells Detecting fractures and evaluating secondary porosity, Evaluating cement bonds between casing, and formation,

Detecting over-pressure,
Determining mechanical properties (in combination with the density log), and Determining acoustic impedance (in combination with the density log).

Electrical tools widely used today


FMI
Pad with 25 buttons
Microresistivity imaging portion of STAR tool Alternate pads offset from each other

6 alternately offset electrical imaging pads

Powered standoff centralises tool

CBIL is attached to lower end of tool string

STAR

EMI

Understanding Depositional facies :Integration of Core and Image Log Information

Core

Image Log 2d View

3D View

Field Development : Sand Correlation

FIELD DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES:PETROPHYSICS


Petrophysical Analysis

Barekuri 1

Detailed Petrophysical Analysis for Reservoir


Characterization

HC Fluid typing
Re-visiting Old Wells for possible Upsides

FIELD DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES

Clay Typing Analysis

Facies Analysis using Core

Major Inputs for Reservoir Modelling

Resistivity of Common Rocks & Fluids


Though earth material is composed of a whole lot of rock forming minerals, in sedimentary rock, the number of minerals actually encountered mainly are few.

Resistivity of few rock forming minerals are


Quartz Calcite Dolomite 1010 ohm m 107 ohm m 108 ohm m

Clay minerals 1-10 ohm m Clays are good conductor by virtue of cation exchange on their surfaces and their resistivity varies as a function of mineral species and size of surface area Formation water resistivity controlled by salt concentration and temperature: 200 ppm NaCl (Drinking water) 35000 ppm NaCl (Sea water) 150000ppm NaCl Oil/gas 26 ohm-m 0.18 ohm-m 0.055 ohm m 108 ohm m

Porosity from Neutron Log


N against Clay
Change of Neutron porosity in the same sand due to change in fluid type

N against Gas bearing sand( 6%)

N against Light oil bearing sand ( 10%)

N against water bearing sand ( 17%)

Porosity from Density Log


blog = * f+ (1- )* ma
= ma - blog ma - f

From Log, blog =2.2 gm/cc ma=2.65 for sandstone f=1 gm/cc for water 2.65 2.2
blog 2.2 gm/cc

=
=

2.65 - 1

0.45
1.65

d= 0.27 = 27%

Porosity & Lithology from Density & Neutron Cross Plot

Porosity Measurements: Sonic Log


Sonic travel time gives idea of porosity in the formation.

Wyllie time average equation


tlog = *tfluid + (1- )* tmatrix

tlog - tmatrix = tFluid - tmatrix

Fluid (t Fluid)

1-

Matrix (t matrix)

Study of Depositional Environment

Log Signature Analysis

Estimation of Hydrocarbon Saturation


(Sonic, density, Neuton logs)

F=1/m (m=2 , 2.15)

Rw (SP or Resistivity log) Rt (Laterolog, Induction log)

Sw=(F*Rw)/Rt

Sh= 1-Sw

Sedimentology

Borehole Structure image applications Petrophysics


- Structural dip - Fault detection - Porosity typing - Permeability heterogeneity - Flow baffles / barriers - Diagenetic effects

- Facies analysis

- Ichnofabric analysis
- Depositional environment - Palaeocurrents - Sandbody geometry - Sequence stratigraphy

- Fracture description
- In situ stress

- Correlation - Integration with seismic

- Net sand & thin beds


- Input to reservoir models

Core Analysis Data & Its Application:


Data Vert. Permeability

Supplementary Tests Use


Define coning probability and gravity drainage potential

Core-Gamma log

Define lost core and depth relation of core with down-hole Gamma Ray logs
Refine density log calculations

Grain Density Water Chloride

Define connate water salinity in OB cores and degree of flushing in WB cores Estimate reservoir gravity from correlations based on retort oil gravity

Oil Gravity

General Log Response of Different Formations of Upper Assam

DEPTH (M)
0 - 1700 1700 2100

FORMATION
ALLUVIUM GIRUJANS TIPAMS & SURMA

LITHOLOGY
UNCONSOLIDATED SAND/CLAY

SOFT MOTTLED CLAY WITH THIN SANDSTONE BANDS


MEDIUM TO FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE MUDSTONE, COAL AND FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE. OIL BEARING

2100 2600

Sub Surface Geology

Upper Assam Basin

2600 3000

BARAILS

3000 - 3400 3400 3470 3470 3530

KOPILIS PRANGS NARPUHS

SPLINTERY SHALE WITH VERY FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE


LIMESTONE SPLINTERY SHALE AND SILTSTONE LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE, HARD SHALE AND CARBONACEOUS SHALE COARSE GRAINED SANDSTONE WITH SHALE OIL BEARING GRANITE BASEMENT ROCK

3530 - 3640

LAKADONG

3640 - 3700 3700 -

LANGPAR BASEMENT

Girujan

Prang Narpuh Lakadon g Langpar

Kopilis

Barails

Tipams

Girujan Formation
Lithology is mainly Clay with thin sand bands GR serrated but helps to identify lithology Mixed type clay, high in montmorillonite
Thickness varies, increases in SE direction Low formation water salinity (200-600 ppm) Low Density (2.2 gm/cc)

Girujan Log Response

Tipam Formation
Lithology is mainly thick sand (>100m) with intervening shale, sands are silty

Abundance of radioactive material Difficult to differentiate lithology from GR log Shales are made up of mainly montmorrilonite, kaolinite clay Illite present at deeper zone Formation water salinity increases downwards (1000 to 2000 ppm)

Tipam Log response

Barail Formation
Barail is divided into two
Mainly Shale facies

High density calcareous bands Kaolinitic /Illite type of clay Coal bands

Thin channel sands


Lower Arenaceous unit Kaolinite dominant clay Formation water salinity- 2500-3500 ppm Thick sand with fining up sequence

Arenaceous Unit

Argillaceous Unit

Upper Argillaceous unit

Barail Log response (Argillaceous)

Barail Log response (Arenaceous)

Kopili Formation
Monotonous shale, splintary in nature, deposited in shallow marine condition Thin silty sand present Regionally extensive Characterized by high GR, Mixed type of clay

Highly enlarged borehole due to unstable nature of the formation Formation water salinity 3600-4000 ppm

Kopili Log response

Prang Formation

Limestone bands with splintary shale and siltstone.


Low GR, no SP deflection, high resistivity Low neutron porosity, high density (2.71 gm/cc) Laterally continuous, good marker bed

Prang Log Response

Narpuh Formation
Lithology similar to Kopili formation Splintary shale and siltstone (sand facies in type area) More sandy towards NE part of the basin (Baghjan Mechaki) Kaolonite Illite dominant clay.

Narpuh Log Response

Lakadong Member
Highly variable lithology Broadly subdivided to three distinct units: Upper calcareous zone

Middle sandy zone


Bottom carbonaceous zone

Clay type is mainly kaolinite


Sands are clean low GR Shales are Hot at bottom zone! GR upto 200 API

Formation water salinity 3500-4000 ppm


Thickness varies from 120-160m

Lakadong Log Response

Lakadong Top calcareous zone

Lakadong Middle Sand zone

Lakadong Bottom Carbonaceous zone

Langpar Formation

Development of thick sand body


Blocky to fining up sequence Fluvial to near shoe facies Shales show high resistivity Devoid of coal / carbonaceous shale Thickness increases to east & southeast direction

Langpar Formation

Geological Time Scale

DEPTH (M)
0 - 1700 1700 2100

FORMATION
ALLUVIUM GIRUJANS TIPAMS & SURMA

LITHOLOGY
UNCONSOLIDATED SAND/CLAY

SOFT MOTTLED CLAY WITH THIN SANDSTONE BANDS


MEDIUM TO FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE MUDSTONE, COAL AND FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE. OIL BEARING

2100 2600

Sub Surface Geology

Upper Assam Basin

2600 3000

BARAILS

3000 - 3400 3400 3470 3470 3530

KOPILIS PRANGS NARPUHS

SPLINTERY SHALE WITH VERY FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE


LIMESTONE SPLINTERY SHALE AND SILTSTONE LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE, HARD SHALE AND CARBONACEOUS SHALE COARSE GRAINED SANDSTONE WITH SHALE OIL BEARING GRANITE BASEMENT ROCK

3530 - 3640

LAKADONG

3640 - 3700 3700 -

LANGPAR BASEMENT

Girujan

Prang Narpuh Lakadon g Langpar

Kopilis

Barails

Tipams

Girujan Formation
Lithology is mainly Clay with thin sand bands GR serrated but helps to identify lithology Mixed type clay, high in montmorillonite
Thickness varies, increases in SE direction Low formation water salinity (200-600 ppm) Low Density (2.2 gm/cc)

Girujan Log Response

Tipam Formation
Lithology is mainly thick sand (>100m) with intervening shale, sands are silty

Abundance of radioactive material Difficult to differentiate lithology from GR log Shales are made up of mainly montmorrilonite, kaolinite clay Illite present at deeper zone Formation water salinity increases downwards (1000 to 2000 ppm)

Tipam Log response

Barail Formation
Barail is divided into two
Mainly Shale facies

High density calcareous bands Kaolinitic /Illite type of clay Coal bands

Thin channel sands


Lower Arenaceous unit Kaolinite dominant clay Formation water salinity- 2500-3500 ppm Thick sand with fining up sequence

Arenaceous Unit

Argillaceous Unit

Upper Argillaceous unit

Barail Log response (Argillaceous)

Barail Log response (Arenaceous)

Kopili Formation
Monotonous shale, splintary in nature, deposited in shallow marine condition Thin silty sand present Regionally extensive Characterized by high GR, Mixed type of clay

Highly enlarged borehole due to unstable nature of the formation Formation water salinity 3600-4000 ppm

Kopili Log response

Prang Formation

Limestone bands with splintary shale and siltstone.


Low GR, no SP deflection, high resistivity Low neutron porosity, high density (2.71 gm/cc) Laterally continuous, good marker bed

Prang Log Response

Narpuh Formation
Lithology similar to Kopili formation Splintary shale and siltstone (sand facies in type area) More sandy towards NE part of the basin (Baghjan Mechaki) Kaolonite Illite dominant clay.

Narpuh Log Response

Lakadong Member
Highly variable lithology Broadly subdivided to three distinct units: Upper calcareous zone

Middle sandy zone


Bottom carbonaceous zone

Clay type is mainly kaolinite


Sands are clean low GR Shales are Hot at bottom zone! GR upto 200 API

Formation water salinity 3500-4000 ppm


Thickness varies from 120-160m

Lakadong Log Response

Lakadong Top calcareous zone

Lakadong Middle Sand zone

Lakadong Bottom Carbonaceous zone

Langpar Formation

Development of thick sand body


Blocky to fining up sequence Fluvial to near shoe facies Shales show high resistivity Devoid of coal / carbonaceous shale Thickness increases to east & southeast direction

Langpar Formation

Geological Time Scale