You are on page 1of 137

FORMATION EVALUATION

BASED ON LOGGING DATA

Pradyut Bora Senior Geologist Geology & Reservoir Deptt.

Outline

• Objective • Quick look log interpretation
• Deterministic log analysis method • Shale effects • Shaly sand models

Formation Evaluation & Objective
The fundamental questions that has to find answers during Formation evaluation
• What kind of rock is present ? reservoir or non-reservoir rock? • If Reservoir rock exists. Are any hydrocarbon present ?

• Type of hydrocarbon present – whether oil or gas?
• How much hydrocarbon is there ? (pay thickness, porosity, saturation etc. and finally the estimation of reserve)

    Prospective zones of hydrocarbon. permeability. . i. • Objective: To economically establish the existence of producible hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil & gas). Fluid type present in the pores and saturation level.Formation Evaluation & Objective • Well logs contains key information about the formation drilled in different petrophysical measurements.e. Estimation of Porosity. Reservoir type and thickness.

Sonic Logs: measure the elastic or (sound) wave properties of the formation. Caliper Logs: measure the size or geometry of the hole.Basic Logging Tools and their Measurements Electrical Logs: measure the electrical properties of the formation alongwith the formation fluids. Neutron logs: measure hydrogen index of the formation. Self Potential Log: measures the potential difference in milli-volts between an electrode in the borehole and a grounded electrode at surface. . Density Logs: measure electron density of the formation which is related to formation density. Gamma Ray Logs: measure the natural radioactivity of the formation.

Basic Logging Tools & Interpretable Parameters Log Type Physical Measurement Voltage (V) V and Current (I) Current Derived Parameter Rt Rt Rxo Interpreted Parameter Sw Sw Sxo Resistivity -Induction -Laterolog -Micro Laterolog Acoustic . PHID PHIN None None Dh. Volume Lithology Lithology Lithology Vsh Vsh Nuclear .Sonic Transit Time Electron Hydrogen Natural Radioactivity mV (in) PHIs. ITT RHOB.Density .Neutron Auxiliary -Natural GR -Self Potential -Caliper .

• Quantitative: Numerical estimation of reservoir properties viz. fluid type form log pattern. .Petrophysical Interpretation • Qualitative: Assessment of reservoir properties. water etc. % of oil.

.

Identification of Reservoir and Non-Reservoir Rocks From SP & GR logs RESERVOIR ROCKS – Low Gamma Ray Good SP development NON RESERVOIR ROCKSHigh Gamma Ray Flat SP development Reservoir Rocks: Porous & Permeable rock Sand grain Sand grain Sand Shale .

Qualitative Interpretation Of Well Logs Quick-look hydrocarbon detection Composite Log Gamma Ray Caliper Resistivity Density Neutron Low GR SP Deflection Indicates Reservoir Rocks RHOB-NPHI SHOWS VERY GOOD CROSSOVER INDICATING GAS G A S High Resistivity G A S O I L Rgas>Roil>Rwater .

Side-wall core data. nearby well data is important to confirm the predication of fluid type. Advanced logging tools are also used to record sometimes to ascertain the fluid type. .Qualitative Interpretation Of Well Logs Sand Top G A S O I L Rgas>Roil>Rwater Gas-Oil contact W A T E R Oil-Water contact RHOB-NPHI GOOD CROSSOVER INDICATE GAS Integration of drill-cutting sample .

. • Estimation of volume of clay fraction. • Determination of the depth and thickness of net pay.Quantitative Interpretation of Well logs • Estimation of effective porosity & permeability. • Estimation of hydrocarbon saturation. • Estimation of reserves of hydrocarbon.

OF ROCK EFFECTIVE POROSITY (Øe) = VOL. OF ROCK Inter particle Porosity . OF PORE SPACE / BULK VOL.Estimation of Porosity From Neutron. OF INTERCONNECTED PORE SPACE / VOL. Density and Sonic Logs POROSITY (Ø) = VOL.

Density and Sonic Logs .Estimation of Porosity From Neutron.

Estimation of Porosity By using Cross-plots From Neutron. Density and Sonic Logs .

Estimation of Hydrocarbon Saturation Can not be measured directly but inferred from determination of WATER SATURATION (Sw) from RESISTIVITY and POROSITY logs. Sw+Sh=1 or Sh=1-Sw oil water . • Sh – Fraction of pore space occupied by hydrocarbon. • Sw – Fraction of pore space occupied by water.

Sw = 100%  Current travels along the path of least resistance which is measured as wet resistivity (Ro). Sand grains Rw : Formation water resistivity water .Water Saturation Estimation Objective: whether the pores of the formation is completely saturated with formation water or the pore space is partially saturated with oil/gas. Ro  As the porosity changes the value of Ro consistently changes.

Water Saturation Estimation Rw Sw= 100%. Rt= Ro Sw<100%. . Rt and porosity. Rt>Ro Ro = Resistivity of the formation with pores 100% saturated with water Rt = Actual resistivity of formation measured Water saturation can be expressed as a function of Rw. Ro.

Archie’s Equation For Water Saturation (Sw) Estimation a x Rw Sw = Фm x Rt 1/2 .

– From Self Potential log. – From water salinity value by using chart. – From resistivity log using Archie’s equation. .Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) Estimation • Measured various ways: – Direct laboratory measurements of formation water sample.

m .Rw Estimation: From salinity & temperature chart Resistivity of NaCl Solution (at certain temperature) Given (1)Salinity= 10000 ppm @ 70 0 F Enter salinity at Y-axis (right) Temerature at X-axis Resistivity value at Y-axis(left) Resistivity= 0.m (2) Salinity= 10000 ppm @ 150 0 F Resistivity= 0.6 0hm.3 0hm.

The first step is to compute the Static SP (SSP). – Liquid Junction Potential – Membrane Potential • Clean sand line Shale Base line SP Curve The movement of ions. which causes the SP phenomenon is possible only in formation having a certain minimum permeability.Rw Estimation: From Self Potential Log • SP current develop due to difference in salinity between formation fluid and the borehole fluid (Mud). • Sand Shale SP scale is 15 mV/div. which is the ideal SP response for thick clean water bearing zone (shale free). SSP= -45 mV .

85 Rmf if Rmf< 0. but not for all type of waters. SSP = -K Log Rmfeq/Rweq -----2 Calculation of Rmfeq: if Rmf>0. the use Chart SP-2 to find Rmfe .1 ohm m at 75° F. varies directly proportion to absolute temperature For NaCl solutions. by definition aw/amf=Rmfe/Rwe Hence.1 ohm m at 75° F. So terms Rweq & Rmfeq are used. Chemical activities are inversely proportional to resistivity. amf = chemical activities of formation water & mud filtrate respectively K= a constant =71 at 77°F. then Rmfeq = 0. which.Rw Estimation: From SP Log Total Electrochemical emf (Ec) for the two phenomena: SSP = -K Log aw/amf -----1 SSP= Static SP aw.

Estimating Rw from SP-Basic parameters .

31 ohm m .Rw Estimation: From SP Log Rweq Ohm-m 0.025 ohm-m Rw = 0.025 Rweq=0.

Rw Estimation: From Resistivity Log Archie’s equation solve for Rw Rw= (Rt x Sw2)/ Φ2 For clean water bearing sand: Sw=1 Hence.  Find Rw. Rw = Rt x Φ2  Read Rt from log.  Calculate porosity (Φ) from porosity log. G A S O I L Sw= 1 W A T E R Ro= Rt .

Quicklook Summary of Estimation of Water saturation (Sw) by using Archie’s Equation .

Clean (Shale Free) Formation .

Shale contains water that affects Sw evaluation because its reduce the true resistivity of the formation.Shaly Formation • • • • No sand/ reservoir is practically clean and free of any clay or other fine minerals. Porosity and permeability is also affected due to presence of shale. When the volume of clay is >15%. formation is termed as shaly. .

SHALE DISTRIBUTION .

Clean Formation (No Shale Increase of Rt with the increase of Oil saturation .

Shaly Formation Decrease of Rt with the increase of Shaliness at constant saturation. .

. Determination of effective porosity (phie). 2. Determination of volume of shale (Vsh).Steps of Shaly Sand Analysis 1. Calculation of effective water saturation (Swe) using corrected porosities and shaly sand water saturation equation. 3.

20 V Shale = 180.GRClean V Shale = GRShale.GRClean 80.Shale volume evaluation Gamma ray log is an indicator of shaliness of sand GRShale GRLog GRlog.20 GRClean .Gamma ray Log .

Self Potential Log .Shale volume evaluations SP log is an indicator of shaliness of sand SPLog SPShale SPClean .

Φe-Vsh ρma Effective Porosity from Neutron porosity Φe= ΦN – Vsh* Φsh where.Φe-Vcl)* ρma Φe= ρma .Effective porosity Estimation Effective Porosity from Density porosity ρb = Φe* ρf +Vcl*ρclay+(1.ρf Vsh ρma . Φcl is the neutron porosity against clean shale .Vsh Correction. ρf Vsh .ρb ρma . ρsh 1.ρsh ρma .ρf Φe.

• To estimate the volume of clay in the reservoir rock to eliminate their effect in porosity and water saturation computation.Shale and Saturation Evaluation • The Archie equation has changed to take into account the shale effect. . • There are many equation for shaly formation evaluation has developed.

Saturation Estimations Equations for Shaly Sand .

Building Petrophysical Model (Elan plus Software) • Reconstruction of subsurface rock formations along with fluid saturation using log data.? Limestone Low GR. high density --.3) --.Oil above water ? Density Neutron crossover ---. The model shows the Lithology and Fluid saturation in quantitative terms.? Shale High resistivity zone sitting over low resistivity zone against a sand --. High density(2. • Initially Petrophysicist make a preliminary assumption of possible rock type & fluid present from the log response Low GR. moderate neutron porosity. very low density.? Gas Finally the modeling software solve a model using the input data. low porosity(<0. .7).? Coal High GR. very high porosity ---.

BHT Model Generation Model generation Outputs Model Satisfactory Sand% Clay% Φe % Sw (% of Φ) Oil (% of Φe) Gas (% of Φe) Model Doubtful Volumes (variables) Quartz.Petrophysical Interpretation Inputs Measurements Rsistivity. coal Oil. SP Parameters Rw. Density GR. water. Clay. Rmf. MW. gas .

Interpreted Model Outputs:  Lithology  Reservoir thickness  Porosity  Gas/oil/water % .

Some definitions
Gross thickness: Thickness of a zone between two geological Horizons or markers Net Thickness: Thickness of certain facies, say sand , within that zone (thickness after GR or Vclay cut-off) Net Reservoir Thickness: Thickness of that part of net thickness which have certain amount of porosity to be a reservoir (thickness after Vclay & Phie cutoff) Net Pay thickness: Thickness of that part of net reservoir which have certain amount of oil saturation to be termed as pay (thickness after Vclay & Phie & Sw cutoff)

CUT OFF TO ESTIMATE NET PAY
H1
Net reservoir
Net thickness

Net pay

Gross Thickness

H2
0----------Vcl-----------1 0-----------Phie- -----0.5 1-----------Sw----- -----0

Cut off values

Vclay>0.4

Phie<0.10

Sw>0.6

Well to Well Correlation: Sand Correlation
Well-A Well-B Well-C Well-D Well-E

-Lateral extent of sand body -Sand development pattern

Reserve of Hydrocarbon Reserve (OIP) = Area X Net pay thickness X Average Porosity X (1-water saturation) .

if not performed it may possible to overlook a productive reservoir. • Use of Shaly sand method is primarily important.Conclusion • Preliminary assumption of rock and fluid type form well logs helps in building effective Petrophysical model of a formation. • Effective use of these Formation Evaluation techniques require high level of integration. .

.

.

Shaly Formation Equations .

Shaly Formation Equations .

.

Permeability Estimation • • • • Permeability generally controlled by matrix grain size and resulting pore throat diameters. For same porosity. smaller the grain size. greater the surface area => decrease in permeability All lithologies exhibit increasing permeability with increasing porosity Logs cannot measure permeability of formation directly • • Permeability is measured in laboratory using core plug or from well test data Relationship can be obtained between log derived porosity and permeability .

R = constants to be calibrated from core PΦQ K= S R measurements wi Most widely used version of above equation for sandstone is Timur Equation (1968) Φ2. Willie and Rose (1950) proposed a relationship between permeability.Permeability Estimation  Since irreducible water saturation increases with internal surface area.25 0.5 K = 100 S wi Calibration is required for log derived Swi and computed K with core measurements to effectively use such equation . Q. porosity & irreducible water saturation: P.

Permeability Estimation .

Permeability Estimation .

NET PAY MAP (OIL ISO PAY MAP) .

Mud Invasion Profile Due to the effect of drilling fluid (mud). The hydrostatic pressure of the mud column is always kept higher than the formation pressure. Depth of invasion mainly depends on the permeability of the formation . This creates invasion of the mud filtrate into the formation around borehole.

Estimation of Movable HC For un-invaded zone: Sw= [FRw/Rt]0.5 Shr= 1-Sxo-------B Movable hydrocarbon saturation: Shm= A-B = Sh-Shr = [1-Sw]-[1Sxo] = Sxo-Sw .5 Sh= 1-Sw-------A For invaded zone: Sxo= [FRmf/Rxo]0.

Spontaneous Potential Logs: Principles • SP current develop due to difference in salinity between formation fluid and the borehole fluid (Mud) • The SP curve is a recording vs. depth of the difference between potential of a movable electrode in the borehole and the fixed potential of surface electrode .

Mud . This movement of charged ion is an electric current and the force causing them to move constitutes a potential across the shale. Shales are permeable to Na+ cations but impervious to Cl. Shale: Acts as a membrane* permits movements of Na+ (Cataions) High saline formation water : High NaCl concentration Shale: Impervious Na+ Porous & Permeable bed Due to layered clay structure and charges on the layer. Na+ cations (+ve charges) move through the shale from more concentrated to the less concentrated solution.anions When shale separates NaCl solution of different salinities.SP Log: Principle • Electrochemical Component : Membrane Potential Less saline Borehole fluid: Low NaCl Soln.

mud filtrate and formation water are in direct contact. Chemical activity of soln.ions can transfer from either solution to the other  In the edge of the invaded zone.  It is equivalent to current flow in opposite direction Total Electrochemical emf Ec for the two phenomena: Ec= -K log aw/amf Aw & amf are chemical activity of the two soln.e conductivity) K= Coefficient proportional to absolute temp. at formation temp.SP Log: Principle Liquid Junction Potential  Na+ & Cl. to less concentrated soln. K= 71 @ 25 C . is roughly proportional to its salt content (i. for NaCl mud filtrate and formation water condition. the net result is a flow of –ve charges from more concentrated soln.ions have more mobility than Na+.  Since Cl.

The return electrodes are located either on surface or on the sonde itself.Resistivity log: Focusing Electrode Logs Dual Laterolog Current path is focused as a horizontal sheet into the formation One electrode send an electric current from on the sonde directly into the formation. . Two guard electrodes focus the current into the formation and prevent current lines from fanning out or flowing directly to the return electrode through the borehole fluid. The voltage at the main electrode is constantly adjusted during logging in order to maintain a constant current intensity. This voltage is therefore proportional to the resistivity of the formation.

Resistivity log: Focusing Electrode Logs Laterolog Dual Laterolog LLS LLD .

Induction Logging Required when mud is non conductive (OBM) High frequency alternating current is sent through a transmitter coil It creates a alternating magnetic field which creates a secondary current in the formation This current flow in circular ground loop path co-axial with the transmitter coil The ground loop current induce magnetic field which induce signal in the receiver coil Receiver signal is proportional to the conductivity of the formation .

Sonic Log – It is measurement of time (Δt) taken by compressional sound wave to travel 1 foot in the formation – The basic configuration of the tool consist of one transmitter (emits compresional sound wave) & two receivers .

Φ)* Δtmatrix Δtlog .Porosity Measurements: Sonic Log – Sonic travel time gives idea of porosity in the formation – Density measured by log is the density of the fluids in the pores + density of the matrix Δt Δtlog = Φ*Δtfluid + (1.Δtmatrix Φ= ΔtFluid .Δtmatrix Φ Fluid (Δt Fluid) 1-Φ Matrix (Δt matrix) .

ρh 1. Water saturation= Sxo Hydrocarbon saturation is 1-Sxo The hydrocarbon corrected density porosity is ρma .Φ ρma Φ 1-Φ Clean Sand Model . ρw 1-Sxo.ρb Φ= ρb = Φ(1-Sxo) ρ h + Φ*Sxo*ρw+(1.Φ)* ρma – [(1-Sxo) ρh + Sxo*ρw] ρma Sxo.Porosity from Density Log: Hydrocarbon Correction in clean sand Since the density tool reads the flushed zone.

• • • • • • • Correlation between wells. • • • It is also known as shale log. Determination of bed boundaries. side-wall coring. or perforating. Depth control for log tie-ins. Evaluation of shale content within a formation. and K.GAMMA RAY LOG • • • Gamma Rays are high-energy electromagnetic waves which are emitted by atomic nuclei as a form of radiation Gamma ray log is measurement of natural radioactivity in formation verses depth. Mineral analysis. GR log reflects shale or clay content. Clean formations have low radioactivity level. It measures the radiation emitting from naturally occurring U. Particularly useful for defining shale beds when the sp is featureless GR log can be run in both open and cased hole . Th.

. and shale • The SP curve reflects a difference in the electrical potential between a movable electrode in the borehole and a fixed reference electrode at the surface • Though the SP is used primarily as a lithology indicator and as a correlation tool.Spontaneous Potential Log (SP) • The spontaneous potential (SP) curve records the naturally occurring electrical potential (voltage) produced by the interaction of formation connate water. shale volume indicator porosity indicator. it has other uses as well: – – – permeability indicator. and – measurement of Rw (hence formation water salinity). conductive drilling fluid.

or hydrogen index The Neutron Log can be summarized as the continuous measurement of the induced radiation produced by the bombardment of that formation with a neutron source contained in the logging tool which sources emit fast neutrons that are eventually slowed by collisions with hydrogen atoms until they are captured (think of a billiard ball metaphor where the similar size of the particles is a factor). exploiting the lower hydrogen density. detect the capture gamma ray (neutron-gamma log). The capture results in the emission of a secondary gamma ray. especially older ones. • • . Other tools detect intermediate (epithermal) neutrons or slow (thermal) neutrons (both referred to as neutron-neutron logs). some tools.Neutron Logging • The Neutron Log is primarily used to evaluate formation porosity. Modern neutron tools most commonly count thermal neutrons with an He-3 type detector. but the fact that it is really just a hydrogen detector should always be kept in mind It is used to detect gas in certain situations.

Track #1 contains a gamma ray log and caliper. whereas low count rates at the detectors indicate high-density formations.The Density Log • The formation density log is a porosity log that measures electron density of a formation • Dense formations absorb many gamma rays. Thus. A density derived porosity curve is sometimes present in tracks #2 and #3 along with the bulk density (rb) and correction (Dr) curves. Therefore. high-count rates at the detectors indicate low-density formations. .95 to 2.95 gm/cc across two tracks. scattered gamma rays reaching the detector is an indication of formation Density. while low-density formations absorb fewer. Scale and units: • The most frequently used scales are a range of 2.0 to 3.0 gm/cc or 1.

. Determine Resisitivity Porosity. • The Salinity of the formation The Resistivity Log: Resistivity logs measure the ability of rocks to conduct electrical current and are scaled in units of ohmmeters. The ability to conduct electric current depends upon: • The Volume of water. The Usage: Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used to: Determine Hydrocarbon versus Water-bearing zones. R in W per m. Resistivity is measured as.Resistivity Log • • • • • Basics about the Resistivity: Resistivity measures the electric properties of the formation. • The Temperature of the formation. Indicate Permeable zones. Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity.

it is also valuable in other applications. Evaluating cement bonds between casing. Determining mechanical properties (in combination with the density log). and Determining acoustic impedance (in combination with the density log). . such as: Indicating lithology (using the ratio of compressional velocity over shear velocity). Correlation with other wells Detecting fractures and evaluating secondary porosity. Determining integrated travel time (an important tool for seismic/wellbore correlation). and formation.Acoustic Log • Acoustic tools measure the speed of sound waves in subsurface formations. • • • • • • • • Detecting over-pressure. While the acoustic log can be used to determine porosity in consolidated formations.

Electrical tools widely used today FMI Pad with 25 buttons Microresistivity imaging portion of STAR tool Alternate pads offset from each other 6 alternately offset electrical imaging pads Powered standoff centralises tool CBIL is attached to lower end of tool string STAR EMI .

Understanding Depositional facies :Integration of Core and Image Log Information Core Image Log 2d View 3D View .

Field Development : Sand Correlation .

FIELD DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES:PETROPHYSICS Petrophysical Analysis Barekuri 1  Detailed Petrophysical Analysis for Reservoir Characterization  HC Fluid typing  Re-visiting Old Wells for possible Upsides .

FIELD DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES Clay Typing Analysis Facies Analysis using Core Major Inputs for Reservoir Modelling .

Resistivity of Common Rocks & Fluids
 Though earth material is composed of a whole lot of rock forming minerals, in sedimentary rock, the number of minerals actually encountered mainly are few.

Resistivity of few rock forming minerals are
Quartz Calcite Dolomite 1010 ohm m 107 ohm m 108 ohm m

Clay minerals 1-10 ohm m Clays are good conductor by virtue of cation exchange on their surfaces and their resistivity varies as a function of mineral species and size of surface area  Formation water resistivity controlled by salt concentration and temperature: 200 ppm NaCl (Drinking water) 35000 ppm NaCl (Sea water) 150000ppm NaCl Oil/gas 26 ohm-m 0.18 ohm-m 0.055 ohm m 108 ohm m

Porosity from Neutron Log
ΦN against Clay
Change of Neutron porosity in the same sand due to change in fluid type

ΦN against Gas bearing sand( ≈6%)

ΦN against Light oil bearing sand ( ≈10%)

ΦN against water bearing sand ( ≈17%)

Porosity from Density Log
ρblog = Φ* ρf+ (1- Φ)* ρma
Φ= ρma - ρblog ρma - ρf

From Log, ρblog =2.2 gm/cc ρma=2.65 for sandstone ρf=1 gm/cc for water 2.65 – 2.2
ρblog 2.2 gm/cc

Φ=
Φ=

2.65 - 1

0.45
1.65

Φd= 0.27 = 27%

Porosity & Lithology from Density & Neutron Cross Plot

Porosity Measurements: Sonic Log
– Sonic travel time gives idea of porosity in the formation.

Δt

Wyllie time average equation
Δtlog = Φ*Δtfluid + (1- Φ)* Δtmatrix

Δtlog - Δtmatrix Φ= ΔtFluid - Δtmatrix

Φ
Fluid (Δt Fluid)

1-Φ

Matrix (Δt matrix)

Study of Depositional Environment .

Log Signature Analysis .

2.15) Rw (SP or Resistivity log) Rt (Laterolog. Induction log) Sw=(F*Rw)/Rt Sh= 1-Sw .Estimation of Hydrocarbon Saturation Φ (Sonic. Neuton logs) F=1/Φm (m=2 . density.

Fault detection .Porosity typing .Permeability heterogeneity .Ichnofabric analysis .Input to reservoir models .Sandbody geometry .Correlation .Structural dip .Diagenetic effects .In situ stress .Palaeocurrents .Sedimentology Borehole Structure image applications Petrophysics .Net sand & thin beds .Integration with seismic .Sequence stratigraphy .Flow baffles / barriers .Facies analysis .Fracture description .Depositional environment .

Permeability Supplementary Tests Use Define coning probability and gravity drainage potential Core-Gamma log Define lost core and depth relation of core with down-hole Gamma Ray logs Refine density log calculations Grain Density Water Chloride Define connate water salinity in OB cores and degree of flushing in WB cores Estimate reservoir gravity from correlations based on retort oil gravity Oil Gravity .Core Analysis Data & Its Application: Data Vert.

General Log Response of Different Formations of Upper Assam .

3400 3400 – 3470 3470 – 3530 KOPILIS PRANGS NARPUHS SPLINTERY SHALE WITH VERY FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE LIMESTONE SPLINTERY SHALE AND SILTSTONE LIMESTONE.DEPTH (M) 0 . OIL BEARING 2100 – 2600 Sub Surface Geology Upper Assam Basin 2600 – 3000 BARAILS 3000 .3640 LAKADONG 3640 .3700 3700 - LANGPAR BASEMENT . SANDSTONE.1700 1700 – 2100 FORMATION ALLUVIUM GIRUJANS TIPAMS & SURMA LITHOLOGY UNCONSOLIDATED SAND/CLAY SOFT MOTTLED CLAY WITH THIN SANDSTONE BANDS MEDIUM TO FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE MUDSTONE. COAL AND FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE. HARD SHALE AND CARBONACEOUS SHALE COARSE GRAINED SANDSTONE WITH SHALE OIL BEARING GRANITE BASEMENT ROCK 3530 .

Girujan Prang Narpuh Lakadon g Langpar Kopilis Barails Tipams .

increases in SE direction • Low formation water salinity (200-600 ppm) • Low Density (2. high in montmorillonite • Thickness varies.Girujan Formation • Lithology is mainly Clay with thin sand bands • GR serrated but helps to identify lithology • Mixed type clay.2 gm/cc) .

Girujan Log Response .

kaolinite clay Illite present at deeper zone Formation water salinity increases downwards (1000 to 2000 ppm) .Tipam Formation • Lithology is mainly thick sand (>100m) with intervening shale. sands are silty • • • • • Abundance of radioactive material Difficult to differentiate lithology from GR log Shales are made up of mainly montmorrilonite.

Tipam Log response .

Barail Formation • Barail is divided into two • Mainly Shale facies • High density calcareous bands • Kaolinitic /Illite type of clay • Coal bands • Thin channel sands – Lower Arenaceous unit – • Kaolinite dominant clay • Formation water salinity.2500-3500 ppm • Thick sand with fining up sequence Arenaceous Unit Argillaceous Unit – Upper Argillaceous unit – .

Barail Log response (Argillaceous) .

Barail Log response (Arenaceous) .

splintary in nature. deposited in shallow marine condition Thin silty sand present Regionally extensive Characterized by high GR. Mixed type of clay • • Highly enlarged borehole due to unstable nature of the formation Formation water salinity 3600-4000 ppm .Kopili Formation • • • • Monotonous shale.

Kopili Log response .

high density (2. good marker bed . Low GR. high resistivity Low neutron porosity. no SP deflection.71 gm/cc) Laterally continuous.Prang Formation • • • • Limestone bands with splintary shale and siltstone.

Prang Log Response .

.Narpuh Formation • • • • Lithology similar to Kopili formation Splintary shale and siltstone (sand facies in type area) More sandy towards NE part of the basin (Baghjan – Mechaki) Kaolonite – Illite dominant clay.

Narpuh Log Response .

Lakadong Member • • Highly variable lithology Broadly subdivided to three distinct units: – Upper calcareous zone – Middle sandy zone – Bottom carbonaceous zone • • • Clay type is mainly kaolinite Sands are clean – low GR Shales are Hot at bottom zone! – GR upto 200 API • • Formation water salinity 3500-4000 ppm Thickness varies from 120-160m .

Lakadong Log Response .

Lakadong Top calcareous zone .

Lakadong Middle Sand zone .

Lakadong Bottom Carbonaceous zone .

Langpar Formation • • • • • • Development of thick sand body Blocky to fining up sequence Fluvial to near shoe facies Shales show high resistivity Devoid of coal / carbonaceous shale Thickness increases to east & southeast direction .

Langpar Formation .

Geological Time Scale .

.

OIL BEARING 2100 – 2600 Sub Surface Geology Upper Assam Basin 2600 – 3000 BARAILS 3000 .3700 3700 - LANGPAR BASEMENT .DEPTH (M) 0 .3640 LAKADONG 3640 .1700 1700 – 2100 FORMATION ALLUVIUM GIRUJANS TIPAMS & SURMA LITHOLOGY UNCONSOLIDATED SAND/CLAY SOFT MOTTLED CLAY WITH THIN SANDSTONE BANDS MEDIUM TO FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE MUDSTONE. SANDSTONE. COAL AND FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE.3400 3400 – 3470 3470 – 3530 KOPILIS PRANGS NARPUHS SPLINTERY SHALE WITH VERY FINE GRAINED SANDSTONE LIMESTONE SPLINTERY SHALE AND SILTSTONE LIMESTONE. HARD SHALE AND CARBONACEOUS SHALE COARSE GRAINED SANDSTONE WITH SHALE OIL BEARING GRANITE BASEMENT ROCK 3530 .

Girujan Prang Narpuh Lakadon g Langpar Kopilis Barails Tipams .

increases in SE direction • Low formation water salinity (200-600 ppm) • Low Density (2.2 gm/cc) .Girujan Formation • Lithology is mainly Clay with thin sand bands • GR serrated but helps to identify lithology • Mixed type clay. high in montmorillonite • Thickness varies.

Girujan Log Response .

sands are silty • • • • • Abundance of radioactive material Difficult to differentiate lithology from GR log Shales are made up of mainly montmorrilonite. kaolinite clay Illite present at deeper zone Formation water salinity increases downwards (1000 to 2000 ppm) .Tipam Formation • Lithology is mainly thick sand (>100m) with intervening shale.

Tipam Log response .

Barail Formation • Barail is divided into two • Mainly Shale facies • High density calcareous bands • Kaolinitic /Illite type of clay • Coal bands • Thin channel sands – Lower Arenaceous unit – • Kaolinite dominant clay • Formation water salinity.2500-3500 ppm • Thick sand with fining up sequence Arenaceous Unit Argillaceous Unit – Upper Argillaceous unit – .

Barail Log response (Argillaceous) .

Barail Log response (Arenaceous) .

Mixed type of clay • • Highly enlarged borehole due to unstable nature of the formation Formation water salinity 3600-4000 ppm .Kopili Formation • • • • Monotonous shale. splintary in nature. deposited in shallow marine condition Thin silty sand present Regionally extensive Characterized by high GR.

Kopili Log response .

Prang Formation • • • • Limestone bands with splintary shale and siltstone. no SP deflection. high density (2.71 gm/cc) Laterally continuous. Low GR. good marker bed . high resistivity Low neutron porosity.

Prang Log Response .

Narpuh Formation • • • • Lithology similar to Kopili formation Splintary shale and siltstone (sand facies in type area) More sandy towards NE part of the basin (Baghjan – Mechaki) Kaolonite – Illite dominant clay. .

Narpuh Log Response .

Lakadong Member • • Highly variable lithology Broadly subdivided to three distinct units: – Upper calcareous zone – Middle sandy zone – Bottom carbonaceous zone • • • Clay type is mainly kaolinite Sands are clean – low GR Shales are Hot at bottom zone! – GR upto 200 API • • Formation water salinity 3500-4000 ppm Thickness varies from 120-160m .

Lakadong Log Response .

Lakadong Top calcareous zone .

Lakadong Middle Sand zone .

Lakadong Bottom Carbonaceous zone .

Langpar Formation • • • • • • Development of thick sand body Blocky to fining up sequence Fluvial to near shoe facies Shales show high resistivity Devoid of coal / carbonaceous shale Thickness increases to east & southeast direction .

Langpar Formation .

Geological Time Scale .