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Advanced Rocket Propulsion Antimatter Propulsion

G.Dinesh Kumar1, S.Gnanasekar 2 Department of Aeronautical Engineering Hindustan University 1 Abstract
In our day to day life cost of fuel (aviation) is being increased. For launching satellite, we need to spend more money to avoid that we planned to introduce advanced antimatter propulsion. In this paper we are going to deal about propulsion power which ions created using collision between electron and positron. This is one of type of ion propulsion. Power produced by this type of propulsion is very higher than the any other type of propulsion. Types and latest innovations of antimatter propulsion rockets are reviewed. Advantages and the disadvantages of the antimatter propulsion are discussed.


INTRODUCTION Antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. Furthermore, mixing matter and antimatter can lead to the annihilation of both in the same way that mixing antiparticles and particles does, thus giving rise to high-energy photons (gamma rays) or other particleantiparticle pairs. ORIGIN OF ANTIMATTER There is considerable speculation as to why the observable universe is apparently almost entirely matter, whether there exist other places that are almost entirely antimatter instead, and what might be possible if antimatter could be harnessed, but at this time the apparent asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics. The process by which this asymmetry between particles and antiparticles developed is called baryogenesis. Origin of Antimatter was discovered by the following scientists: o In 1930 Paul Dirac discovered that the antimatter should exist In 1932 Carl Anderson discovered Positron In 1950 physicist at the Lawrence Radiation laboratory used the Beaverton accelerator to produce antimatter

Annihilation is the principle behind Antimatter Propulsion. The colliding particles matter and antimatter is converted into radiant energy in the form of gamma rays. The collision between an electron and a anti-electron have a combined rest mass of 1.02 MeV SEARCH FOR ANTIMATTER Search for antimatter in space is been conducted by High energy particle detectors used in satellites. One of the detectors is called Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) installed in Space Station. It found a cloud of antimatter in galactic center. The search was based on the detection of Gamma Rays from annihilation process. ALPHA MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER This High energy particle detector was first used in discovery shuttle. It consists of Consist of a 6-layer 'silicon micro strip track detector' surrounded by permanent magnet. It has a precision of a few hundredth of a millimetre. It detects the presence of antimatter when an atom deflected by field and mass is measured for analyzing nuclei. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANTIMATTER ENGINE The following are some engines that are propelled by Antimatter: o Matter-Antimatter Engine. o Positron Based Engine o Solid Core Antimatter Rocket o Plasma Core Antimatter Rocket o Beam Core Antimatter Rocket o Gas Core Antimatter Rocket

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ANTIMATTER ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEM There are different types of antimatter rocket propulsion system o Solid Core Antimatter Rocket o Plasma Core Antimatter Rocket o Beam Core Antimatter Rocket o Gas Core Antimatter Rocket LATEST INNOVATIONS The latest innovations are o I.C.A.N. MICRO FUSION/FISSION PROPULSION o AIMSTAR ANTIMATTER ROCKET I.C.A.N (Micro Fusion/Fission Propulsion) ICAN stands for Ion Compressed Antimatter Nuclear.ICAN scheme uses pellets that contain uranium fission. The fusion fuel mixture is roughly 1:9 in ratio.The engine consists of pellet which is bombarded by compressing ion beams. AIMSTAR Antimatter Rocket AIMSTAR stands for Antimatter Initiated Micro fusion. It makes use of existing or near-term antimatter technology.AIM Star engine would require about 28 micrograms of antimatter. It has an upper specific impulse of about 61,000 seconds. ADVANTAGES o Very high specific impulse o large amount of energy from a small amount of fuel o can able to achieve long flight in a short period o Higher energy density and specific impulse DISADVANTAGES o Very high risk of gamma radiation o very difficult to produce antimatter o complicated engine designs o Difficult to store o Gamma ray penetration is difficult o Low thrust. CONCLUSION Due to the highest specific impulse of this propulsion, we can achieve up to 40% of light speed, we need a reliable method of producing large amount of antimatter. The need for an advanced method of storing the antimatter for a few more nanoseconds. Positron engine perform better by additional heating