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The collision between the Indian subcontinent and the Eurasian continent, which started in Paleogene time and continues today, produced the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, a spectacular modern example of the effects of plate tectonics. Nepal lies completely within this collision zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2,400 km (1,500 mi)-long Himalayas.  The Indian plate continues to move north relative to Asia at the rate of approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) per year.  Given the great magnitudes of the blocks of the Earth's crust involved, this is remarkably fast, about twice the speed at which human fingernails grow. As the strong Indian continental crust subducts beneath the relatively weak Tibetan crust, it pushes up the Himalayan mountains. This collision zone has accommodated huge amounts of crustal shortening as the rock sequences slide one over another. As such Nepal is prone to frequent earthquakes, a major earthquake happening within every 100 years.  Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows via several great rivers (the Indus to the Indian Ocean, and the Ganges andBrahmaputra river system) to the Bay of Bengal. 
The dramatic differences in elevation found in Nepal result in a variety of biomes, from tropical savannas along the Indian border, to subtropical broadleafand coniferous forests in the Hill Region, to temperate broadleaf and coniferous forests on the slopes of the Himalaya, to montane grasslands and shrublands and rock and ice at the highest elevations. At the lowest elevations is the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. These form a mosaic with the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests, which occur from 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to 3,300 ft) and include the Inner Terai Valleys. Himalayan subtropical pine forests occur between 1,000 and 2,000 metres (3,300 and 6,600 ft). Above these elevations, the biogeography of Nepal is generally divided from east to west by the Gandaki River. Ecoregions to the east tend to receive more precipitation and to be more species-rich. Those to the west are drier with fewer species. From 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900 to 9,800 ft), are temperate broadleaf forests: the eastern and western Himalayan broadleaf forests. From 3,000 to 4,000 metres (9,800 to 13,000 ft) are the eastern and western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. To 5,500 metres (18,000 ft) are the eastern andwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows.
Main article: Politics of Nepal Nepal has seen rapid political changes during the last two decades. Up until 1990, Nepal was a monarchy under executive control of the King. Faced with a communist movement against absolute monarchy, King Birendra, in 1990, agreed to a large-scale political reform by creating a parliamentary monarchy with the King as the head of stateand a Prime Minister as the head of the government. Nepal's legislature was bicameral, consisting of a House of Representatives called the Pratinidhi Sabha and a National Council called the Rastriya Sabha. The House of Representatives consisted of 205 members directly elected by the people. The National Council had 60 members: ten nominated by the king, 35 elected by the House of Representatives, and the remaining 15 elected by an electoral college made up of chairs of villages and towns. The legislature had a five-year term but was dissolvable by the king before its term could end. All Nepali citizens 18 years and older became eligible to vote. The executive comprised the King and the Council of Ministers (the cabinet). The leader of the coalition or party securing the maximum seats in an election was appointed as the Prime Minister. The Cabinet was appointed by the king on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Governments in Nepal tended to be highly unstable, falling either through internal collapse or parliamentary dissolution by the monarch, on the recommendation of the prime minister, according to the constitution; no government has survived for more than two years since 1991. The movement in April 2006 brought about a change in the nation's governance: an interim constitution was promulgated, with the King giving up power, and an interim House of Representatives was formed with Maoist members after the new government held peace talks with the Maoist rebels. The number of parliamentary seats was
The ruling granted full rights for LGBT individuals. with a president as head of state. While appointing Ministers. "We have no other option but to go back to the people and elect a new assembly to write the constitution. on 19 July. Dahal resigned over on-going conflicts with regard to the sacking of the Army chief. The legislature is composed of 601 members. saw Parmanand Jha win election as Nepali vice-president. On 4 May 2009. the interim parliament passed a bill making Nepal a federal republic. the country has been in a serious political deadlock with one of the big issues being the proposed integration of the former Maoist combatants. Since Dahal's resignation. Babu Ram Bhattarai became third Prime Minister after the election of constituent assembly. On August 2011. from amongst the members of the LegislatureParliament. into the national security forces. In this way the legislative has control over the Singha Durbar.  Government  Nepal is a multi-party system federal republic. Ram Baran Yadav of the Nepali Congress party defeated Maoist-backed Ram Raja Prasad Singh with 308 of the 590 votes cast. the Maoist party led the results but did not achieve a simple majority of seats.The legislative controls over the finance of the country. all the laws are made in the parliament. The responsibility of issuing general directives. Executive: The executive power of Nepal is vested in the Council of Ministers. announced that he would resign on the election of the country's first president by the Constituent Assembly. Khanal was forced to step down as he could not succeed in carrying forward the Peace Process and the constitution writing. Maoist Dr. Among them.  On 24 May 2012. One of the main obstacles has been disagreement over whether the states which will be created will be based on ethnicity. He left on 11 June. The Prime Minister appoints the Ministers. If the government does not work properly.  On 27 May 2012.Legislative can raise questions to any work of the government. Maoist leader Prachanda (Pushpa Kamal Dahal) was elected Prime Minister of Nepal.  The new parliament adopted the 2007 bill at its first meeting by an overwhelming majority. Elections for the constitutional assembly were held on 10 April 2008. but neither of the contenders for president received the required 298 votes and a second round was held two days later. on the recommendation of the concerned political party.also increased to 330. The decision was based on a seven-person government committee study. In April 2007.  Koirala submitted his resignation to the new president after Yadav's swearing-in ceremony on 23 July." he said in a nationally televised speech. the country's Constituent Assembly failed to meet the deadline for writing a new constitution for the country. After passing the bills by the majority. The Interim Constitution of Nepal. who had served as Acting Head of State since January 2007. The first round of voting. controlling and regulating the administration of Nepal lie in the Council of Ministers. and King Gyanendra was given 15 days to leave the Royal Palace in central Kathmandu. it becomes the law. and enacted through Supreme Court's ruling November 2008. Jhala Nath Khanal of CPN (UML) was elected the Prime Minister.  On 26 June. In this way. Constituent assembly is working as the legislature of Nepal at present. legislative can withdraw its support and government is dissolved. Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai announced that new elections will be held on 22 November.All the bills are presented in the parliament. Legislative passes the annual budget according to which the government spends money in various tasks. the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) joined the interim government of Nepal. Nepals's Deputy PM Krishna Sitaula resigned. the first since the country's transition from a monarchy to a republic. The Prime Minister of Nepal is the head of the Government. including the right to marry  and now can get citizenship as athird gender rather than male or female as authorised by Nepal's Supreme Court in 2007. also known as the People's Liberation Army. 240 members are directly elected by the people from 240 constituencies. the Prime Minister shall appoint them. 335 members are elected through proportional basis and 26 members are nominated by the cabinet. the prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala. After his approval.  After Dahal. In December 2007. On 15 August 2008. 2063 has defined three organs of the government. Legislative: The Legislature-Parliament of Nepal is unicameral.  Nepal is one of the few countries in Asia to abolish the death penalty  and the first country in Asia to rule in favor of same-sex marriage. the seat of Nepalese government .
The Supreme Court is also the ultimate interpreter of the constitution. District Court is the Court of first instance upon which Court of Appeal hear appeal. In accordance with a long-standing treaty. India has been remilitarising the "porous" IndoNepali border. one Administrative Court. The five regions and 14 zones are: Eastern Region (Purwanchal) Koshi Mechi Sagarmatha Central Region (Madhyamanchal) Bagmati Janakpur Narayani Western Region (Pashchimanchal) Dhawalagiri Gandaki Lumbini Mid-Western Region (Madhya Pashchimanchal) Bheri Karnali Rapti Far-Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal) Mahakali Seti Administrative subdivisions of Nepal Foreign relations and Military  Main articles: Nepalese Armed Forces and Foreign relations of Nepal Nepal has close ties with both of its neighbours. However. The Indian Army maintains seven Gorkha regimentsconsisting of Gorkha troops recruited mostly from Nepal. are under the supreme court. Zones of Nepal. the Court of Appeal and the District Courts. since the Government of Nepal has been dominated by Socialists and India's by more right-wing parties. Subdivisions  Main articles: Regions of Nepal. Judiciary: The Constitution provides three tiers of Court which include the Supreme Court of Nepal. There is no distinction between Criminal and Civil court except some basic procedures. one Labor Court. one Debt Recovery tribunal and one Debt recovery Appeal Tribunal and one special court are functioning under the respective laws.executive. These institutions are under the judicial control of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court is the Apex Court. According to these provision there are four Revenue Tribunals. and Districts of Nepal Nepal is divided into 14 zones and 75 districts.  Nepal established relations with the People's Republic of China on 1 August 1955. and relations since have been based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Nepalese citizens may work in India without legal restriction. All courts and judicial institutions except the constitutional assembly court. Each district is headed by a permanent chief district officer responsible for maintaining law and order and coordinating the work of field agencies of the various government ministries. There are 16 Court of Appeal and 15 Districts in Nepal. in order to stifle the flow of Islamist groups. grouped into five development regions. Indian and Nepalese citizens may travel to each other's countries without a passport or visa. In addition to these regular courts there is provision in constitution to establish special types of courts or tribunals for the purpose of hearing special types of cases by the law. Nepal has aided . India and China.
signals and operations. which includes the Nepalese Army Air Service. per-capita per day.  At this measure of poverty the percentage of poor people declined from 53. Nevertheless. and water buffalomeat.  While agriculture and industry is contracting. The standard-issue battle rifle of the Nepalese army is the Colt M16.  A member of the Nepalese Quick Reactionary Force (QRF) Economy  Main article: Economy of Nepal Nepal's gross domestic product (GDP) for 2012 was estimated at over $17. and China has provided economic assistance for Nepali infrastructure. the contribution by service sector is increasing.  In a recent survey.2 million (2004) on its military—1.  Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce. then it's predicted that Nepal will halve the current poverty rate and eradicate it within the next 20 years. However.1%. Its workforce of about 10 million suffers from a severe shortage of skilled labor. real GDP growth is estimated to increase to almost 5 percent for 2011/2012. .2 percent of the population in 2011 from 64. the income distribution remains grossly uneven. but Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas.8% in 2010/2011. This is a considerable improvement from the 3. female soldiers have been barred from participating in combat situations and fighting in the frontlines of war. electricity.1% in 2003/2004 to 24. which means that Nepal has made significant improvement in sectors like nutrition.5 percent GDP growth in 2010/2011 and would be the second highest growth rate in the post-conflict era. Nepal has assisted in curbing anti-China protests from the Tibetan diaspora. Nepal has performed extremely well in reducing poverty along with Rwanda andBangladesh as the percentage of poor dropped to 44. Inflation has been reduced to a three-year low to 7 percent.  The spectacular landscape and diverse. and grain.1 percentage points per year. exotic cultures of Nepal represent considerable potential for tourism.5% of its GDP. child mortality. So if the progress of reducing poverty continues in this rate. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years.  The proportion of poor people has declined substantially in recent years. The percentage of people living below the international poverty line (people earning less than US$1. and industry 15. rice.921 billion (adjusted to Nominal GDP). Both countries have cooperated to host the 2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Remittances are estimated to be equivalent to 25–30 percent of GDP. services comprise 48.  However. The contribution of growth by consumption fueled by remittances has declined since 2010/2011. Much of the equipment and arms are imported from India. financial and other services. services 18% and manufacturing/craft-based industry 6%. headquarters.5%. wheat. Nepal spends $99. sugarcane. Everest.  In 2010.25 per day) has halved in only seven years. root crops.3%.7 percent in 2006–4.  With a higher poverty line of US$2 The trading of wool. they are allowed to be a part of the army in sections like intelligence.  In the new regulations by Nepalese Army. tobacco. construction. Agricultural produce – mostly grown in the Terai region bordering India – includes tea. improved flooring and assets. The Nepalese Police Force is the civilian police and the Armed Police Force Nepal is the paramilitary force. Industry mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce. Consequently. sugarcane. including jute. agriculture accounted for 36. corn.4% of Nepal's GDP.  Nepal's military consists of the Nepalese Army.China in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Nepal’s economic growth continues to be adversely affected by the political uncertainty. poverty declined by one quarter to 57.  Sources of growth include agriculture. milk. the US provided M16s M4s and other Colt weapons to combat communist (Maoist) insurgents. While remittance growth slowed to 11 percent (in Nepali Rupee terms) in 2010/2011 it has since increased to 37 percent.
9% after a period of higher inflation during the 1990s.13 percent of the country’s total garment exports". The country receives foreign aid from India. per-capita income is around $1. the remittance contributed to 22.  A long-standing economic agreement underpins a close relationship with India. China (10. and Scandinavian countries.1%) are its main export partners.  The rate of unemployment and underemployment approaches half of the working-age population. high system losses. the total remittance value is worth around $3.5 billion. Switzerland.2%).  The distribution of wealth among the Nepalis is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of households control 39. agricultural waste (15%). The Nepalese rupee has been tied to the Indian Rupee at an exchange rate of 1. and Germany (7. the United Arab Emirates (11.  Only about 1% energy need is fulfilled by electricity. Import commodities of mainly gold.  Nepal receives $50 million a year through the Gurkha soldiers who serve in the Indian and British armies and are highly esteemed for their skill and bravery.6%.  . machinery and equipment. EU (46.9% of the nation's GDP. Fuel imports absorb over one-fourth of Nepal's foreign exchange earnings. clothing.13%). the US (17. the UK. Japan. the EU. Exports to the EU accounted for "46. few tangible natural resources and poor infrastructure.  However. rugged geography. the perennial nature of Nepali rivers and the steep gradient of the country's topography provide ideal conditions for the development of some of the world's largest hydroelectric projects in Nepal. over staffing. The position of the power sector remains unsatisfactory because of high tariffs. Saudi Arabia. animal dung (8%) and imported fossil fuel (8%).  Nepal's import partners include India (47. Japan. and lower domestic demand.9%). Brunei Darussalam. The electrification rate in urban areas is 90%. Saudi Arabia (4. currently Nepal has been able to exploit only about 600 MW from 20 major hydropower plants and a number of small and micro hydropower plants. and additional 27 sites considered for potential development. Nepal has no known oil. and Singapore (4%).789 billion (FY05/06). China. the US.  Infrastructure Energy   The bulk of the energy need is dominated by fuel wood (68%). Thus many Nepali citizens move to other countries in search of work.7%). the European Union has become the largest buyer of Nepali ready made garments (RMG).6 for many years.growth in this hospitality industry has been stifled by recent political events. Paradoxically. Recently. Since the loosening of exchange rate controls in the early 1990s. Australia.000.5%).  In 2009 alone.  Except for some lignite deposits. the United Kingdom.153 billion.  Besides having landlocked. petroleum products and fertiliser total US$2 bn. high overheads. As of 2010.956. leather goods.  Nepal's exports of mainly carpets. Poverty is acute. with expenditure of $1.  The government's budget is about $1. high generation costs. In 2009. All commercial fossil fuels (mainly oil and coal) are either imported from India or from international markets routed through India.1% of the national wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2. the black market for foreign exchange has all but disappeared. and Canada. The inflation rate has dropped to 2. There are 9 major hydropower plants under construction.4%). gas or coal deposits. the United States. Thailand. where the rate for rural areas is only 5%.000 MW from 66 hydropower project sites. the number of international tourists visiting Nepal was 509.  Even in this scenario there is a great disparity between urban and rural areas. the ineffective post-1950 government and the long-running civil war is also a factor in stunting the economic growth and development. Current estimates put Nepal's economically feasible hydropower potential to be approximately 44. Qatar.  Only about 40% of Nepal's population has access to electricity. jute goods and grain total $822 million. Top destinations include India.