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OBJECT: To verify the Voltage Divider Rule.

STATEMENT: Total voltage shared by the resistors is directly proportional to their resistances. Mathematically: V X = V T x RX RT Where VX is the unknown voltage along the resistor R X, VT is the total voltage of the circuit and RT is the total resistance of the circuit. INSTRUMENTS AND COMPONENTS:

Pratical#05

Power Supply Multimeter Variable Resistors Breadboard Jumpers

PROCEDURE: Construct the circuit according to the given circuit diagram. Adjust the multimeter in the way to calculate voltage in parallel. Adjust the power supply for the different observations. Make a suitable observation table. PRECAUTIONS:

Check all the connections thoroughly before applying power supply to the circuit. Care should be taken about the polarities of the power supply and the multimeter. Select an appropriate voltage range and current range on the multimeter before taking any reading.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
R 1 R 2 R 3

OBSERVATIONS: R1 R2 R3 RT = = = = 0.383 0.382 0.216 0.984 k k k k


IT (mA) Appli ed Volta ge (V) V1 (V) V2 (V) V3 (V) VT (V)

S.N o

RT (k)

1. 2.

0.984 0.984

5.18 6.17

5.101 1.982 6.08 2.376

1.957 2.309

1.103 1.274

5.042 5.99

CALCULATIONS:
FOR VS= 5.10 V

VX = VS x R observe value]x100 RT observe value V1 = 5.101 x 0.382 0.984 V1 = 1.98 v V2 = 1.957]x100 1.957 V2 = 1.984 v

% Error = [ calculated value

% Error = [ 1.98 1.92 ]x100 1.92 % Error = 3.125 % % Error = [ 1.984

5.101 x 0.383 0.984

% Error = 1.37 % % Error = [ 1.11

V3 = 5.101 x 0.216 1.27] x100 0.984 1.27 V3 = 1.11 v


FOR VS = 6.08

% Error = 12.59 % % Error = [ 2.370

V1 = 6.08 x 0.383 2.376 ]x100 0.984 2.376 V1 = 2.370 V2 = 6.08 x 0.382 2.309 ] x100 0.984 2.309 V2 = 2.306 v %

% Error = 0.2525% % Error = [ 2.306

% Error = -0.1299

V3 = 6.08 x 0.216 1.274 ] x100 0.984 1.27 V3 = 1.334 V

% Error = [ 1.334

% Error = 4.724%

RESULT: Hence Current Divider Law has been verified.

Pratical#12
OBJECT:
To verify the Current Divider Rule. STATEMENT: Total current shared by the resistors is inversely proportional to their resistances.
MATHEMATICALLY: IX = RT x IT RX

Where IX is the unknown current along the resistor R X, IT is the total current of the circuit and RT is the total resistance of the circuit.

INSTRUMENTS AND COMPONENTS:


Power Supply Multimeter Variable Resistors Breadboard Jumpers

PROCEDURE:
Construct the circuit according to the given circuit diagram. Adjust the multimeter in the way to calculate current in series. Adjust the power supply for the different observations. Make a suitable observation table.

PRECAUTIONS:
Check all the connections thoroughly before applying power supply to the circuit. Care should be taken about the polarities of the power supply and the multimeter. Select an appropriate voltage range and current range on the multimeter before taking any reading.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

R 1

R 2

R 3

OBSERVATIONS:
R1 = 6.60 k R2 = 1.734 k R3 = 0.382 k S:No 1. 2 3. Vs 10.06 8.06 5.017 RT K 0.298 0.298 0.298 I1 mA 1.53 1.22 0.76 I2 mA 5.8 4.63 2.89 I3 mA 26.08 20.82 12.97 IT mA 33.18 26.50 16.5

CALCULATIONS:
FOR VS = 10.06 IT = VS observe value]X100 Re value IT = 10.06 0.298 IT = 35.46 mA IX = RT x IT Rx 1. I1 = 0.298 x 35046 100 6.60 %Error = [ 1.60 1.53 ] x 1.53 % Error = [ calculated value observe

I1 = 1.60 mA 2. I2 = [0.298 x 35.46 ] x100 1.734 I2 = 6.09 mA 1. I3 = [ 0.298 x 35.46 ] x100 0.382 26.08 I3 = 27.60 mA

%Error = 4.53 % %Error = [ 6.09 1.53 ] 1.734 %Error = 5 % %Error = [27.60 26.08]

%Error = 5.6 %

FOR VS = 8.06 IT = 8.06 = 27.01 mA 0.298 1. I1 = 0.298 x 27.01 x100 6.60 I1 = 1.21mA I2 = 0.298 x 27.01 1.734 I2 = 4.650 mA %Error = [1.21 1.22 ] 1.22 %Error = 0.819 % %Error = [ 4.650 4.63 ] 4.63 %Error = 0.413 %

2.

3. 20.82] 20.82

I3 = 0.298 x 27.01 0.382 I3 = 20.99 mA

%Error = [ 20.99

%Error = 0.868 %

FOR VS = 5.017 IT = 5.017 0.298 1. = 16.83 mA %Error = [ 0.75 0.76 ] 0.76 %Error = 1.315 % %Error = [ 2.89 2.89 ] 2.89 %Error = 0 % %Error = [ 13.12 12.9 ] %Error = 1.156 %

I1 = 0.298 x 16.83 6.60 I1 = 0.75 mA I2= 0.298 x 16.83 1.734 I2 = 2.89 mA I3 = 0.298 16.38 0.382 I3 = 13.12 mA

2.

3.

RESULT:
Hence Current Divider Law has been verified.