OBJECT: To verify the “Voltage Divider Rule”.

STATEMENT: Total voltage shared by the resistors is directly proportional to their resistances. Mathematically: V X = V T x RX RT Where VX is the unknown voltage along the resistor R X, VT is the total voltage of the circuit and RT is the total resistance of the circuit. INSTRUMENTS AND COMPONENTS:
    

Pratical#05

Power Supply Multimeter Variable Resistors Breadboard Jumpers

PROCEDURE:  Construct the circuit according to the given circuit diagram.  Adjust the multimeter in the way to calculate voltage in parallel.  Adjust the power supply for the different observations.  Make a suitable observation table. PRECAUTIONS:

376 1.103 1. Check all the connections thoroughly before applying power supply to the circuit.982 6.382 0.383 0.984 0.309 1.042 5.216 0.08 2.99 .101 1.957 2.18 6.  Select an appropriate voltage range and current range on the multimeter before taking any reading. 0. 2.984 kΩ kΩ kΩ kΩ IT (mA) Appli ed Volta ge (V) V1 (V) V2 (V) V3 (V) VT (V) S.N o RT (kΩ) 1.  Care should be taken about the polarities of the power supply and the multimeter. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: R 1 R 2 R 3 V OBSERVATIONS: R1 R2 R3 RT = = = = 0.984 5.17 5.274 5.

08 x 0.984 2.309 V2 = 2.383 2.984 1.984 % Error = 1.101 x 0.92 % Error = 3.CALCULATIONS: FOR VS= 5.216 1.957 V2 = 1.59 % % Error = [ 2.984 – 5.306 – % Error = -0.2525% % Error = [ 2.984 2.37 % % Error = [ 1.11 – V3 = 5.957]x100 1.370 – V1 = 6.101 x 0.984 V1 = 1.370 V2 = 6.309 ] x100 0.98 v V2 = 1.376 ]x100 0.306 v % % Error = 0.11 v FOR VS = 6.08 % Error = 12.382 2.08 x 0.27 V3 = 1.92 ]x100 1.101 x 0.1299 .383 0.984 v % Error = [ calculated value – % Error = [ 1.376 V1 = 2.125 % % Error = [ 1.27] x100 0.382 0.10 V VX = VS x R observe value]x100 RT observe value V1 = 5.98 – 1.

274 ] x100 0. STATEMENT: Total current shared by the resistors is inversely proportional to their resistances. MATHEMATICALLY: IX = RT x IT RX .27 V3 = 1.334 V % Error = [ 1.334 – % Error = 4.724% RESULT: Hence Current Divider Law has been verified.984 1. Pratical#12 OBJECT: To verify the “Current Divider Rule”.V3 = 6.216 1.08 x 0.

 Make a suitable observation table. IT is the total current of the circuit and RT is the total resistance of the circuit.  Select an appropriate voltage range and current range on the multimeter before taking any reading. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: . PRECAUTIONS:  Check all the connections thoroughly before applying power supply to the circuit.  Care should be taken about the polarities of the power supply and the multimeter.Where IX is the unknown current along the resistor R X. INSTRUMENTS AND COMPONENTS:      Power Supply Multimeter Variable Resistors Breadboard Jumpers PROCEDURE:  Construct the circuit according to the given circuit diagram.  Adjust the multimeter in the way to calculate current in series.  Adjust the power supply for the different observations.

017 RT K Ω 0.298 0.298 I1 mA 1.06 IT = VS observe value]X100 Re value IT = 10.298 0.382 kΩ S:No 1.298 x 35046 100 6.22 0.06 5.46 mA IX = RT x IT Rx 1.50 16.53 1.89 I3 mA 26.60 kΩ R2 = 1.734 kΩ R3 = 0.06 8.63 2.53 ] x 1.5 CALCULATIONS: FOR VS = 10. I1 = 0.76 I2 mA 5.08 20. Vs 10.60 %Error = [ 1.8 4. 2 3.60 – 1.97 IT mA 33.298 IT = 35.V R 1 R 2 R 3 OBSERVATIONS: R1 = 6.53 % Error = [ calculated value – observe .18 26.06 0.82 12.

3.22 %Error = 0. I3 = [ 0.6 % FOR VS = 8.298 x 35.46 ] x100 1.01 0.06 = 27.60 I1 = 1.08] %Error = 5.734 I2 = 4.60 mA 2.46 ] x100 0.819 % %Error = [ 4.298 x 27.99 mA %Error = [ 20.06 IT = 8.21mA I2 = 0.53 % %Error = [ 6.22 ] 1.298 x 35.08 I3 = 27.01 mA 0.734 I2 = 6.01 1.82 I3 = 0. I1 = 0.298 x 27.298 1.60 – 26.298 x 27.413 % 2.382 26.21 – 1.868 % .382 I3 = 20.60 mA %Error = 4. 20.01 x100 6.63 %Error = 0.I1 = 1.09 – 1.734 %Error = 5 % %Error = [27.99 – %Error = 0. I2 = [0.09 mA 1.650 mA %Error = [1.53 ] 1.650 – 4.82] 20.63 ] 4.

298 – 16.9 ] %Error = 1.76 %Error = 1. RESULT: Hence Current Divider Law has been verified.76 ] 0.83 1.83 mA %Error = [ 0.734 I2 = 2.89 – 2.89 %Error = 0 % %Error = [ 13.89 mA I3 = 0.75 mA I2= 0.83 6.38 0.298 1. 3.298 x 16.12 – 12. .017 IT = 5.382 I3 = 13.156 % I1 = 0.FOR VS = 5.017 0.12 mA 2.60 I1 = 0.298 x 16.315 % %Error = [ 2.89 ] 2. = 16.75 – 0.

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