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# Impact of Colour

On

Consumers Buying Behavior

By Aurangzaib, Jun 28, 2007

Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to understand colour strategy. Colour strategy

has become part of today’s marketing life. Trends for each year are no longer only

predicted by the fashion industry. Moreover, the psychological value of colour is in

marketing more important than in the fashion industry. Some colour associations and

reactions can be very dangerous for your product. Be aware however, not to lose track of

the origin of a product. On top, some colours can never work for a certain product

whereas they will be perfect for another one.

Introduction

If a marketer can identify consumer buying behavior, He or She will be in a better

position to target products and services at them. Buying behavior is focused upon the

needs of individuals, groups and organization.

The processes of decision and acts of final household consumers related with evaluating,

purchasing, consuming, and discarding products for personal consumption

Literature Review

According to Brown,(2005) “Buying decisions involve many factors that most consumers

are not even aware of them. In every purchase five steps are involved: need recognition,

information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and finally post

purchase behavior. Even the simplest purchases can include any or all of these steps”.

Armstorng et al (2005) suggest that “personal, psychological, and social issues are other

variable influenced purchases”. Demographics normally play a major role in the buying

process, since social, religious, and economic factors all influence a person’s thought

processes. (O’Brien).

‘Color’ is one of the important attributes which acts as a driving force in cosmetics use

from a cross-cultural perspective. Use of color cosmetics (right color) satisfies the need to

-1-

**look young which leads to confidence for the consumer in an individualistic society. Use
**

of color cosmetics involves PDI (power distance), UAI (uncertainty avoidance) and IDV.

Mooij further suggested that together with national wealth Hofstede’s cultural dimensions

can explain more than half of the differences in consumption and consumer behavior.

By Spear, “Study of behavior of consumer’s goods and services regarding their buying

patterns and reactions to advertising and marketing”.

Consumer psychology seeks to explain human, or consumer behavior, in two basic ways:

what the consumer wants and what the consumer needs.

According to Krigjsman, “Culture is the set of basic value, perception, wants and

behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other institution”. According

to Pervin, “The body of work considers the role of culture and its impact on consumer

behavior”. The study attempts to provide an in-depth analysis into the way cultural

factors influence consumer’s decision-making processes.

Hofsteede (1980) defines culture as the “interactive aggregate of common characteristics

that influence a group’s response to its environment.”

Social Class

Almost every society has some form of social class structure. Social

**classes are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share
**

similar values, interest, and behaviors

Personal Factor A consumer's decision also are influenced by personal characteristics

such as the consumer's age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle,

personality and self concept:

Psychological Factor A consumer's buying choices are further influenced by four major

psychological factors: Motivation, Perception, Learning, Beliefs and Attitudes”

Schutte and Ciarlante (1998) suggest that “Consumers form an ‘attitude’ towards the

advertising of a product as well as in the act of buying the product”.

Solomon (1996) says “According to ABC attitude is divided into three components

Affect, Behaviors, and Cognition.

It is commonly accepted that occupation, age, and gender influence car-buying attitudes.

This study uses the Wheel of Consumer Analysis Model to explain how cultural

differences between U.S. and Chinese consumers affect car buying decisions.

-2-

**The Wheel of Consumer Analysis consists of three elements (a) environment, (b)
**

behavior, and (c) affect/cognition, and is a useful model for explaining buyer behavior in

general, and car buying behavior in particular.

Methodology:

Following are the research methods which we will apply in our research process,

•

Face to face interviews

•

Questionnaire

Hierarchy of Research Design

Research Design

Sample Selection

Data Collection

Procedures

Surveys and interviews

**Sample Selection and Size:
**

Sample Selection and Size will 600 people which select in different area of the

city and different markets. Some are the people will higher class and some people

will middle class. We will select the sample randomly not very specific

customers. Some will select outlet’s owners, employees and senior employees

who are working on that outlet. All the Sample Selection will select on the base of

observation last 3 to 4 months.

**Data Collection Methods:
**

Create the questionnaire

Brief interviews

Data compilation

-3-

**All Data will be collected via survey forms and consumers which use and
**

purchases product on the bases of its colours and package, some data will collect

on internet and different web sits.

Procedures:

Survey forms will be utilized to capture the consumer psyche and behavior, when

they select different products. Statistical data on psychological impact,

environmental impact, fashion impact and locating impact will be gathered to

support the results.

**Surveys and interviews
**

Surveys are way to systematically find information from a particular group of

people- particularly information that those people know better than anyone else.

Interviews are a specific survey mechanism that tends to require more time from

the individuals responding to questions. Because all surveys take the time of the

people who respond (whether writing on paper, on the Internet, over the phone, or

face-to-face), it is important to limit these methods to information that cannot be

gathered in other ways.

For both interviews and surveys, the basic method involves:

1. Developing a question or set of questions that will measure change in an

indicator,

2. Selecting a group of people to question/survey, and

3. Asking those people to answer the same question or set of questions at different

times during the life of the project.

The nature of the interviewers' questions focused on the color, style or quality, and

price of the different products along with perceived image, consumer budget and

payment procedures. Appendix A contains a copy of the questions used in the

interview. The next section deals with the results of the in-depth interviews of

Outlet’s owner and buyers.

I have interviewed and send questionnaire form to more than 55 people from

Gujrnawala and Gujrat. I made these interviews through meeting personally and

send questionnaire form through email.

-4-

**Open – ended interviews
**

"Open-ended interviews" permit the respondent (interviewee) to provide

additional information, ask broad questions without a fixed set of answers, and

explore paths of questioning which may occur to the interviewer spontaneously

during the interview. An open-ended approach allows for an exploratory approach

to uncover unexpected information, used especially when the exact issues of

interest haven't been identified yet.

Results & Findings:

EDA:

Descriptive Statistics

Market Visit in Month

Brand Conscious

N

280

280

Minimum

1

1

Maximum

4

2

Mean

2.59

1.42

Std. Deviation

.980

.495

Attractiv thing in shop

280

1

4

2.79

1.134

Relation b\w color &

brand

280

1

2

1.36

.481

Quality of Product

280

1

5

4.14

.929

Colors of Product

280

1

5

3.94

.853

Design of Product

280

2

5

4.00

.783

Price of Product

280

1

5

3.60

.990

Trends

280

1

5

3.92

1.166

Attitude

280

1

5

3.69

.936

Emotion

280

1

5

3.66

.982

Personality

280

1

5

3.86

1.044

Fashion

280

1

5

3.72

.973

Product

280

1

5

3.29

1.132

Red

280

1

5

3.29

1.047

Black

280

1

5

3.97

1.097

Green

280

1

5

3.20

1.093

White

280

1

5

3.39

1.219

Blue

280

1

5

3.70

1.106

Orange

280

1

5

2.81

1.240

Yellow

280

1

5

2.57

1.291

Dark Colors

280

1

5

3.32

.964

Light Colors

280

1

5

3.62

.927

Bright Colors

280

1

5

3.50

1.064

Light Colors

280

1

5

3.40

1.046

Dark Bright Colors

280

1

5

2.84

1.221

Income

280

1

4

3.03

1.183

-5-

Spending

280

1

4

3.45

.911

Profession

280

1

4

2.22

.807

Gender

280

1

2

1.42

.495

Age

280

1

6

3.92

1.540

Location

280

1

2

1.43

.496

Valid N (listwise)

280

**Case Processing Summary
**

Cases

Valid

N

Missing

**Market Visit in Month
**

Brand Conscious

280

280

Percent

100.0%

100.0%

Attractiv thing in shop

280

Relation b\w color &

brand

N

Total

0

0

Percent

.0%

.0%

100.0%

0

280

100.0%

Quality of Product

280

Colors of Product

Design of Product

280

280

Percent

100.0%

100.0%

.0%

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Price of Product

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Trends

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Attitude

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Emotion

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Personality

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Fashion

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Product

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Red

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Black

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Green

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

White

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Blue

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Orange

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Yellow

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Dark Colors

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Light Colors

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Bright Colors

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Light Colors

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Dark Bright Colors

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Income

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Spending

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Profession

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Gender

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Age

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

Location

280

100.0%

0

.0%

280

100.0%

-6-

N

Descriptives

Market Visit in Month

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

2.60

Median

3.00

Variance

.960

Std. Deviation

.980

Minimum

1

Maximum

4

Range

3

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

-.068

.146

-1.001

.290

1.42

.030

1.36

1.48

5% Trimmed Mean

1.41

Median

1.00

Variance

.245

Std. Deviation

.495

Minimum

1

Maximum

2

Range

1

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

Attractiv thing in shop

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Std. Error

.059

2.70

5% Trimmed Mean

Interquartile Range

Brand Conscious

Statistic

2.59

2.47

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

.320

.146

-1.911

.290

2.79

.068

2.66

2.92

5% Trimmed Mean

2.82

Median

3.00

Variance

1.285

Std. Deviation

1.134

Minimum

1

Maximum

4

Range

3

Interquartile Range

2

Skewness

Kurtosis

-7-

-.307

.146

-1.350

.290

Relation b\w color &

brand

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

1.36

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

1.35

Median

1.00

Variance

.231

Std. Deviation

.481

Minimum

1

Maximum

2

Range

1

Interquartile Range

1

Kurtosis

Quality of Product

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

.583

.146

-1.672

.290

4.14

.056

4.03

4.25

5% Trimmed Mean

4.22

Median

4.00

Variance

.863

Std. Deviation

.929

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

Colors of Product

1.42

5% Trimmed Mean

Skewness

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

.029

1.30

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

-.949

.146

.436

.290

3.94

.051

3.84

4.04

5% Trimmed Mean

4.00

Median

4.00

Variance

.728

Std. Deviation

.853

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

-8-

-.797

.146

.787

.290

Design of Product

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Price of Product

4.00

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

4.10

5% Trimmed Mean

4.04

Median

4.00

Variance

.613

Std. Deviation

.783

Minimum

2

Maximum

5

Range

3

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

-.367

.146

Kurtosis

-.423

.290

3.60

.059

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

3.48

3.71

5% Trimmed Mean

3.62

Median

4.00

Variance

.980

Std. Deviation

.990

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

Trends

.047

3.91

1

Skewness

-.147

.146

Kurtosis

-.636

.290

3.92

.070

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

3.78

4.05

4.01

Median

4.00

Variance

1.359

Std. Deviation

1.166

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

2

Skewness

-.865

.146

Kurtosis

-.246

.290

-9-

Attitude

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

3.69

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Emotion

3.73

Median

4.00

Variance

.876

Std. Deviation

.936

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

-.815

.146

Kurtosis

.462

.290

Mean

3.66

.059

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

3.54

3.77

5% Trimmed Mean

3.71

Median

4.00

Variance

.964

Std. Deviation

.982

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

Personality

3.80

5% Trimmed Mean

Skewness

.056

3.58

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

-.754

.146

.247

.290

3.86

.062

3.73

3.98

3.92

Median

4.00

Variance

1.091

Std. Deviation

1.044

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

2

Skewness

-.757

.146

Kurtosis

-.138

.290

- 10 -

Fashion

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Product

3.72

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

3.84

5% Trimmed Mean

3.77

Median

4.00

Variance

.947

Std. Deviation

.973

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

-.709

.146

Kurtosis

-.014

.290

3.29

.068

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

3.16

3.42

5% Trimmed Mean

3.32

Median

3.00

Variance

1.282

Std. Deviation

1.132

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

Red

.058

3.61

1

Skewness

-.259

.146

Kurtosis

-.607

.290

3.29

.063

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

3.17

3.42

3.33

Median

3.00

Variance

1.097

Std. Deviation

1.047

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

-.345

.146

Kurtosis

-.368

.290

- 11 -

Black

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

3.97

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

4.06

4.00

Variance

1.203

Std. Deviation

1.097

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

2

-.960

.146

Kurtosis

.139

.290

Mean

3.20

.065

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

3.07

3.33

5% Trimmed Mean

3.23

Median

3.00

Variance

1.195

Std. Deviation

1.093

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

White

4.10

Median

Skewness

Green

.066

3.84

2

Skewness

-.379

.146

Kurtosis

-.660

.290

3.39

.073

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

3.25

3.53

3.43

Median

4.00

Variance

1.486

Std. Deviation

1.219

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

2

Skewness

-.422

.146

Kurtosis

-.851

.290

- 12 -

Blue

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

3.70

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

3.77

4.00

Variance

1.223

Std. Deviation

1.106

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

-.818

.146

Kurtosis

.013

.290

Mean

2.81

.074

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

2.66

2.96

5% Trimmed Mean

2.79

Median

3.00

Variance

1.538

Std. Deviation

1.240

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

2

Skewness

Kurtosis

Yellow

3.83

Median

Skewness

Orange

.066

3.57

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

.024

.146

-.994

.290

2.57

.077

2.42

2.72

2.52

Median

3.00

Variance

1.666

Std. Deviation

1.291

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

3

Skewness

Kurtosis

- 13 -

.262

.146

-1.079

.290

Dark Colors

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

3.32

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Light Colors

3.36

Median

3.00

Variance

.929

Std. Deviation

.964

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

-.561

.146

Kurtosis

.039

.290

Mean

3.63

.055

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

3.52

3.73

5% Trimmed Mean

3.66

Median

4.00

Variance

.859

Std. Deviation

.927

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

Bright Colors

3.43

5% Trimmed Mean

Skewness

.058

3.21

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

-.602

.146

.027

.290

3.50

.064

3.37

3.62

3.53

Median

4.00

Variance

1.133

Std. Deviation

1.064

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

-.395

.146

Kurtosis

-.616

.290

- 14 -

Light Colors

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

3.40

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

Dark Bright Colors

3.52

3.43

Median

4.00

Variance

1.094

Std. Deviation

1.046

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

-.348

.146

Kurtosis

-.615

.290

2.84

.073

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

2.70

2.98

5% Trimmed Mean

2.82

Median

3.00

Variance

1.490

Std. Deviation

1.221

Minimum

1

Maximum

5

Range

4

Interquartile Range

2

Skewness

Kurtosis

Income

.063

3.28

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

.025

.146

-.964

.290

3.03

.071

2.89

3.17

3.09

Median

4.00

Variance

1.400

Std. Deviation

1.183

Minimum

1

Maximum

4

Range

3

Interquartile Range

2

Skewness

-.794

.146

Kurtosis

-.964

.290

- 15 -

Spending

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

3.45

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

3.56

Median

4.00

Variance

.829

Std. Deviation

.911

Minimum

1

Maximum

4

Range

3

Interquartile Range

1

Kurtosis

Profession

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

-1.568

.146

1.304

.290

2.22

.048

2.12

2.31

5% Trimmed Mean

2.23

Median

2.00

Variance

.651

Std. Deviation

.807

Minimum

1

Maximum

4

Range

3

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

Gender

3.56

5% Trimmed Mean

Skewness

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

.054

3.35

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

-.252

.146

-1.111

.290

1.42

.030

1.36

1.48

5% Trimmed Mean

1.41

Median

1.00

Variance

.245

Std. Deviation

.495

Minimum

1

Maximum

2

Range

1

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

- 16 -

.320

.146

-1.911

.290

Age

Mean

3.93

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

5% Trimmed Mean

3.96

4.00

Variance

2.371

Std. Deviation

1.540

Minimum

1

Maximum

6

Range

5

Interquartile Range

3

Kurtosis

Mean

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

-.194

.146

-1.277

.290

1.43

.030

1.37

1.49

5% Trimmed Mean

1.42

Median

1.00

Variance

.246

Std. Deviation

.496

Minimum

1

Maximum

2

Range

1

Interquartile Range

1

Skewness

Kurtosis

**KMO and Bartlett's Test
**

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling

Adequacy.

Bartlett's Test of

Sphericity

4.11

Median

Skewness

Location

.092

3.74

.637

Approx. Chi-Square

2548.739

df

496

Sig.

.000

Communalities

Market Visit in Month

Brand Conscious

Initial

1.000

1.000

Extraction

.658

.728

Attractiv thing in shop

1.000

.623

- 17 -

.290

.146

-1.930

.290

Relation b\w color &

brand

1.000

.567

Quality of Product

1.000

.665

Colors of Product

1.000

.652

Design of Product

1.000

.632

Price of Product

1.000

.582

Trends

1.000

.507

Attitude

1.000

.765

Emotion

1.000

.697

Personality

1.000

.573

Fashion

1.000

.632

Product

1.000

.538

Red

1.000

.538

Black

1.000

.607

Green

1.000

.633

White

1.000

.467

Blue

1.000

.551

Orange

1.000

.809

Yellow

1.000

.739

Dark Colors

1.000

.704

Light Colors

1.000

.702

Bright Colors

1.000

.535

Light Colors

1.000

.738

Dark Bright Colors

1.000

.626

Income

1.000

.829

Spending

1.000

.516

Profession

1.000

.808

Gender

1.000

.715

Age

1.000

.755

Location

1.000

.621

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

**Total Variance Explained
**

Compon

ent

1

2

Initial Eigenvalues

% of

Cumulative

Total

Variance

%

3.745

11.703

11.703

3.242

10.132

21.835

**Extraction Sums of Squared
**

Loadings

% of

Cumulative

Total

Variance

%

3.745

11.703

11.703

3.242

10.132

21.835

**Rotation Sums of Squared
**

Loadings

% of

Cumulative

Total

Variance

%

3.109

9.714

9.714

2.222

6.944

16.658

3

2.299

7.184

29.018

2.299

7.184

29.018

2.167

6.771

23.430

4

1.972

6.162

35.180

1.972

6.162

35.180

1.990

6.217

29.647

5

1.692

5.288

40.468

1.692

5.288

40.468

1.859

5.810

35.457

6

1.491

4.660

45.128

1.491

4.660

45.128

1.817

5.677

41.134

7

1.466

4.582

49.709

1.466

4.582

49.709

1.782

5.570

46.703

8

1.404

4.387

54.096

1.404

4.387

54.096

1.638

5.119

51.823

9

1.233

3.854

57.950

1.233

3.854

57.950

1.510

4.719

56.541

10

1.147

3.584

61.534

1.147

3.584

61.534

1.377

4.303

60.845

- 18 -

11

1.019

3.186

64.720

12

.938

2.931

67.651

13

.915

2.859

70.510

14

.853

2.665

73.176

15

.837

2.615

75.790

16

.791

2.470

78.261

17

.775

2.423

80.683

18

.707

2.211

82.894

19

.654

2.043

84.937

20

.567

1.773

86.710

21

.540

1.689

88.399

22

.514

1.607

90.005

23

.467

1.459

91.464

24

.426

1.331

92.795

25

.401

1.253

94.048

26

.370

1.156

95.205

27

.350

1.094

96.298

28

.334

1.043

97.341

29

.266

.832

98.173

30

.233

.727

98.900

31

.203

.634

99.534

3.186

64.720

1.240

3.875

64.720

.149

.466

100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Scree Plot

4

3

2

lu

a

v

n

e

ig

E

32

1.019

1

0

2

3

1

3

0

3

9

2

8

2

7

2

6

2

5

2

4

2

3

2

2

1

2

0

2

9

1

8

1

7

1

6

1

5

1

4

1

3

1

2

1

1

0

1

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Component Number

Component Matrix (a)

Component

1

2

3

4

5

- 19 -

6

7

8

9

10

11

Market Visit in

Month

Brand Conscious

-.22

0

-.23

5

.233

.163

.076

-.060

.012

-.199

.074

-.389

.568

-.021

-.100

.052

.215

-.017

.454

.319

.074

.330

.155

.408

.067

-.298

.203

.456

.163

.145

-.412

-.110

.217

-.066

-.011

-.10

1

-.018

.150

.424

.162

.369

-.207

.103

-.167

.186

.275

Quality of Product

.469

.166

-.080

.032

-.075

-.018

-.392

-.347

-.064

.237

.265

Colors of Product

.017

.377

-.251

-.217

.009

.040

-.235

-.475

.178

.279

-.089

Design of Product

.298

.035

.295

.194

.012

-.421

-.074

.475

-.046

.073

.018

Price of Product

.099

.491

.106

-.209

-.026

.013

.447

.065

.115

-.018

.430

.137

.090

.153

.208

.298

.071

-.012

.338

-.128

.343

-.180

-.284

-.210

.344

-.422

.406

.014

-.162

.043

.557

-.229

-.191

-.295

.293

-.232

.130

-.052

-.084

.123

Personality

.240

-.05

7

-.01

5

-.17

3

.524

.250

-.095

.358

-.087

-.185

-.041

.105

-.113

-.089

.153

Fashion

.291

.296

-.065

.297

.200

-.233

.411

-.165

-.239

.123

.065

Product

.448

.159

.065

.121

.070

.240

.145

.049

-.144

-.429

-.039

Red

.389

.248

.332

-.089

-.088

.141

.068

-.301

-.086

-.230

.152

Black

.161

.510

-.535

-.013

.034

-.054

-.067

.159

-.029

.016

.013

Green

.026

.417

.090

-.154

-.092

-.152

.092

-.026

-.504

-.166

.323

White

.237

.477

-.193

-.098

-.231

-.087

.159

-.033

.134

-.052

-.169

Blue

.199

.370

-.039

-.179

-.003

-.354

.053

.007

.394

.230

.069

Orange

.065

-.011

.693

-.546

-.066

.000

-.014

-.137

-.046

.002

.041

Yellow

.044

.079

.707

-.464

.039

.051

-.062

-.001

.043

.064

-.050

Dark Colors

.258

.214

.108

.299

-.606

.149

.178

.013

.132

.095

-.210

Light Colors

.444

.185

.206

.280

-.398

.275

.155

-.235

.098

.002

-.164

Bright Colors

.432

.273

.147

.142

.408

.142

-.083

-.127

.112

-.104

.012

Light Colors

.340

.413

.097

-.021

.643

.087

-.079

.039

.082

-.071

-.033

.180

.341

-.041

-.147

.409

.257

.048

.238

-.002

.071

-.396

-.040

-.144

.055

-.114

.115

-.202

.053

.063

-.079

.008

-.180

.059

-.060

.115

.023

-.105

-.028

.014

.188

-.131

.047

.120

.086

.397

.216

.270

.104

.438

.074

-.117

-.032

.056

.036

-.089

-.100

.060

.348

.318

-.095

-.387

.055

-.142

Attractive thing in

shop

Relation b\w color

& brand

Trends

Attitude

Emotion

Dark Bright

Colors

Income

-.72

.401

.141

.143

9

Spending

-.38

.479

.243

.116

8

Profession

-.65

.480

.185

.218

5

Gender

.171

-.009

-.186

-.387

Age

-.68

.436

.129

.202

1

Location

-.42

-.053

-.118

-.107

9

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

11 components extracted.

Rotated Component Matrix (a)

- 20 -

Component

1

Market Visit in

Month

Brand Conscious

Attractive thing in

shop

Relation b\w color

& brand

Quality of Product

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

.138

-.098

.065

-.039

-.153

.075

.080

.133

.085

.738

-.137

.152

-.084

-.051

.157

-.319

-.129

-.024

-.104

-.145

.027

.720

.005

.092

-.029

.066

-.606

.127

-.126

.161

-.335

-.224

-.149

.078

.096

-.106

.014

-.665

.052

.063

.028

.048

.258

.145

.121

-.119

.062

.058

.713

.208

.043

-.081

-.254

.063

-.025

Colors of Product

.101

.132

-.011

.045

.261

-.345

.122

.616

-.120

.142

-.075

Design of Product

-.064

.062

.021

-.025

.012

.764

-.094

-.085

.074

.087

-.103

Price of Product

-.024

.040

.272

.292

-.058

.595

.087

-.162

-.017

.156

.075

Trends

.224

.348

.018

.215

.097

-.040

-.052

-.072

.006

.475

.212

Attitude

-.001

.082

.003

-.012

.023

.052

.869

.006

.007

.000

-.004

Emotion

.246

-.003

-.083

.112

.114

-.140

.720

.127

.186

.113

.055

-.140

.170

-.330

.262

-.012

.421

-.010

.189

.347

-.088

-.073

Fashion

.020

.278

-.282

.156

.158

.082

-.450

.080

.418

.181

.048

Product

-.176

.412

-.033

.315

-.075

.035

.071

-.191

.328

-.279

-.050

Red

-.045

.219

.344

.351

-.028

-.034

-.016

.185

.410

-.203

.005

Black

.019

.252

-.479

-.024

.336

.042

.351

.195

.168

.096

.008

Green

.151

-.011

.094

-.048

.117

.040

.128

.025

.744

.101

-.047

White

.064

.149

-.127

.337

.505

.031

.162

.132

.103

-.026

-.018

Blue

.115

.123

.026

.010

.491

.291

-.029

.388

-.078

.023

.196

Orange

-.023

-.015

.885

-.005

.070

.034

-.018

.034

.132

.006

-.014

Yellow

.049

.136

.832

-.003

.042

.121

.038

-.001

-.006

.090

-.002

Dark Colors

-.007

-.131

-.064

.794

.103

.162

.070

-.004

-.045

.094

.006

Light Colors

-.108

.098

.061

.808

-.036

.016

-.057

.121

.052

-.037

-.015

Bright Colors

-.032

.636

.037

.121

-.135

.090

-.079

.231

.085

-.142

.006

Light Colors

.039

.821

.043

-.126

.002

.112

.004

.155

.080

-.028

.024

-.072

.669

.005

-.004

.185

-.042

.182

-.165

-.134

.238

-.050

.883

-.141

.000

-.055

.034

-.123

.031

-.081

.038

-.014

-.004

Personality

Dark Bright

Colors

Income

Spending

.674

.080

.104

.026

-.012

-.041

-.015

.121

.147

.072

.025

Profession

.888

-.013

-.023

-.032

-.024

.024

.096

-.045

-.036

.047

.029

Gender

-.235

.076

.034

-.183

.294

.018

.062

-.005

.084

-.085

.717

Age

.819

.006

-.067

-.095

-.002

-.023

.083

-.146

-.045

.165

-.108

Location

.067

-.064

-.016

-.062

-.042

-.577

-.009

-.395

.110

.322

.031

**Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
**

A Rotation converged in 18 iterations.

**Component Transformation Matrix
**

Component

1

2

1

-.686

.537

2

.380

.434

3

.004

-.073

4

.343

.243

5

.100

.334

6

.330

.072

7

-.076

.340

8

.267

.254

9

.195

.328

10

-.182

.234

11

-.025

.006

3

.238

.075

.794

.199

-.291

.331

-.226

-.121

.046

.065

-.045

4

.256

.033

-.576

.377

-.528

.255

-.324

-.033

-.044

.025

-.089

- 21 -

5

.038

.717

-.042

-.588

-.165

-.082

-.307

-.027

-.067

.011

.061

6

-.173

.267

.093

.339

-.452

-.499

.420

-.167

-.118

.104

.304

7

.010

.027

-.054

.251

.391

-.171

-.481

-.485

.216

.053

.484

8

-.103

.058

-.135

-.182

.024

.616

.428

-.543

-.111

.170

.189

9

.212

.082

.036

.138

.189

.149

.002

.246

-.677

-.416

-.10

-.174

.013

-.015

.031

.071

-.181

.354

-.277

.815

8

11

-.23

.045

-.011

-.254

-.306

.142

.065

.322

.487

-.162

2

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

.421

10

.228

.628

Reliability

Case Processing Summary

N

Cases

Valid

Excluded

(a)

Total

280

%

100.0

0

.0

280

100.0

List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's

Alpha

.727

Cronbach's

Alpha Based

on

Standardized

Items

.713

N of Items

43

**Summary Item Statistics
**

Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Item Variances

1.025

.231

2.371

Inter-Item Correlations

.055

-.665

.888

The covariance matrix is calculated and used in the analysis.

Range

2.139

1.554

Maximum /

Minimum

10.244

-1.335

Variance

.153

.032

Cross tabs

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid

N

Age * Personality

280

Missing

Percent

100.0%

N

0

**Age * Personality Crosstabulation
**

Count

- 22 -

Percent

.0%

Total

N

280

Percent

100.0%

N of Items

43

43

Personality

Not At All

Important

Age

Less then

18

19 to 24

Total

Unimportant

Normal

Important

Very Important

0

0

2

1

8

11

3

1

9

20

27

60

25 to 30

1

4

4

24

13

46

31 to 35

0

9

4

15

7

35

36 to 40

2

13

16

28

19

78

More then

41

0

4

11

23

12

50

6

31

46

111

86

280

Total

Chi-Square Tests

**Pearson Chi-Square
**

Likelihood Ratio

Linear-by-Linear

Association

N of Valid Cases

Value

43.460(a)

46.063

8.007

20

20

Asymp. Sig.

(2-sided)

.002

.001

1

.005

df

280

11 cells (36.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .24.

Symmetric Measures

Interval by Interval

Ordinal by Ordinal

Pearson's R

Spearman

Correlation

Value

-.169

Asymp.

Std.

Error(a)

.057

Approx.

T(b)

-2.866

Approx. Sig.

.004(c)

-.186

.058

-3.160

.002(c)

N of Valid Cases

280

a Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

c Based on normal approximation.

- 23 -

Reference:

O’Brien (Feb 01, 2006) “Marketing Factors: Consumer Buying Behavior”

Jane Spear “Consumer Psychology – What the consumer wants, consumer psychologists

know”

Krigjsman (July 16, 2007) “Characteristic Affecting Consumer Purchase Behavior”

Shahina Pervin, Southampton Business School, “A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of

Female Consumer Behavior with Regards to the Purchase of Cosmetics by Females in

the UK and Bangladesh”.

“Personal Selling: Consumer Buying Behavior”

- 24 -

**Johnson, Chang, (Nova Southeastern University) “A COMPARISON OF CAR BUYING
**

BEHAVIOR BETWEEN AMERICAN AND CHINESE PEOPLE LIVING IN NORTH

AMERICA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

Lisbet Berg, “Competent Consumers? Consumer Competence profiles in Norway”

- 25 -