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Instrumentation: Electronic testing and measurement or Instrumentation and measurement is defined as: The Branch of science which deals with measurement and control Is Known as Instrumentation and measurement Or The principle of testing and measurement of thermal, mechanical. It deals with all the elements of Electronic Instrument and Instrumentation as to design effective experiments and to use tests and measurement methods that can provide solutions to many practical engineering problems. ISA: ISA stands for Instrumentation and system automation. It is defined as: The collection of Instruments and their application for the purpose of Observation , measurement and control. Observation: It is the Manipulation of a system. Observe Measure Control Sensor: It is a device that senses the change in physical parameters. E.g: Thermometer, speedometer, light sensor, LDR, Thermocouple, VDR (LM 35) Transducors: They perform energy conversion. Actuator: It gives us the final out put. i.e, result. E.g: Lamp, motor, valve, alarm etc. Signal Conditioning To prepare a signal for measuring is called signal conditioning. Signal Processing: It involves mathematics and formulation. It involves all mathematical operations.

Accuracy: It is the proximity of closeness of measured value to true. Precision: Pertains to produce ability or reproducibility. Error & its Types:

Calibration: The checking, adjusting or systematically standardizing the graduations of quantitative measuring instruments to make it meet a non-standard of accuracy. Direct Measurement: A measurement with the parameter of intrest to measure it directly. E.G: Thermometer Themocouple directly convert temperature to the electrical signals. Indirect Measurement: Where some parameter other than the parameter of intrest is measured and there is a relationship between what is measured and what is desired. Contact Measurement: A measurement where the sensing element is indirectly contact with the Physical effect being measured. Non-Contact Measurement: Any measurement where there is a distance between the sensing element and the physical system. E.G: Infrared sensing the level Common Mode Rejection Ratio. CMRR = 10,000 CMRR = Av(diff.)/Av (Common mode) Range: The maximum and minimum measurement that an instrument can measured between and still maintain its specified accuracy.

Active Sensor: Sensors which require a power supply to provide Energy for the measurement being made e.g.., LDR, Thermistors Passive Sensor: Sensors which require no power for the sensing ability. E.g, Thermometer. Resolution: The smallest change in m value that that the instrument can detect. In single a single bit change Sensors: A device that measure a physical phenomenon and convert it into a useful signal usually an electrical value of volts, amps, ohms, frequencysimilar. Transducers: A device which converts one form to another. A transducer consist of a sensing element and some conditioning circuitory to provide a useful and reasonably regect electrical signals Static Error: It is an error which is constant and dont change with applied motion. Sensitivity: At how much minimum value the instrument may gives the output. Or The ratio between output change in quantity for calibrating linear instrument sensitivity. This is not here in general and cant be assumed. The Sensitivity is the property of instrument and gain in fraction of calibration of instrument. Constant: Constant can be obtained from the slope between two linear quantities.

See back effect: When a conductor is subjected to thermal gradient it will generate a potential difference in it. This is known as Thermoelectric or See back effect. Thermocouple: Thermocouple is an instrument that consists of two dissimilar materials in thermal contacts. The thermal contact called the Junction may be made by twisting the wires togather or soldering. The operation of thermocouple is based on a combination of thermoelectric effects that produces a small open circuit voltage when two thermocouple junction are maintained at different temperatures.