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ALGEBRA

A Self-Tutorial
by

Luis Anthony Ast


Professional Mathematics Tutor

FORMULAS FROM
GEOMETRY

Copyright © 2006
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information
storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing of the author.
E-mail may be sent to: Luis-Ast@VideoMathTutor.com
This document is intended to present typical formulas from geometry.
Students in algebra or calculus (or other higher math classes) will
encounter them when doing word problems. This is NOT meant as a
formal, detailed lesson in geometry, just an informal review. No examples
of the use of the formulas are given, although a few more details will be
provided on the video version of this Lesson.

ANGLES
F Two angles are Complimentary Angles if the sum of the measures of
their angles is 90°.

α + β = 90°
α β

F Two angles are Supplementary Angles if the sum of the measures of


their angles is 180°.

α + β = 180°

α β

L …
In the following formulas, height is also called altitude.

TRIANGLES
s1 s2
Perimeter: P = s1 + s2 + s3
s3 <Add the lengths of all 3 sides>

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h = height b = base
h
Area:
b

F An Isosceles Triangle has two sides that are of the same length.

F An Equilateral Triangle has all three sides of the same length.

Y The sum of the measures of the interior angles of any triangle is 180°.
β
α + β + γ = 180°
α γ

F A Right Triangle has one interior angle equal to 90°.

90°

F The Pythagorean Theorem states: For any right triangle, the sum of
the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of
the hypotenuse.

hypotenuse
leg

leg

OR…

3
c
a

Y Pythagorean Triples. Here are some examples of combinations of


integers that make the Pythagorean equation true:

a b c
3 4 5
5 12 13
7 24 25
8 15 17
9 40 41

Y The sides of similar triangles are proportional.

b e
a d

f
c

QUADRILATERALS
(Four-sided figures)

Y Square:
s
s = side d = diagonal

s d s d=

Perimeter: P = 4s
s

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s Area:

Y Rectangle: l
l = length w = width d = diagonal
w d w

l Perimeter: P = 2l + 2w

w Area:

Y Parallelogram:
b b= base s = slant height

s s Perimeter: P = 2b + 2s

b
h = height

h Area:

Y Trapezoid:
s2

s1 s3 Perimeter: P = s1 + s2 + s3 + s4
<Add the lengths of all 4 sides>

s4

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b2 b1 = first base b2 = second base
h = height
h
Area:
b1

In calculus, you may encounter trapezoids “on their sides:”

h1 = first height h2 = second height


b = base

h1 h2 Area:

Y The sum of the measures of the interior angles of any quadrilateral is


360°.
β
γ
α + β + γ + δ = 360°
α

CIRCLES

r d

r = radius d = diameter C = circumference


Diameter: d = 2r Circumference: C = 2πr
or C = πd

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r Area:

π 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510…

π <Pronounced: “pie”> is the number of diameters that can fit on the


circumference of a circle.

and 3.14 are typical approximations of π.

SOLID FIGURES
Y Cube:
s = side of cube d = diagonal of face
D = diagonal of cube
D

d
s Surface Area:

Volume:

Y Rectangular Box (or Rectangular Parallelepiped):

= length w = width h = height


h d = diagonal of box
d

w Surface Area: SA = 2( w + wh + h)

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h
Volume:

Y Prisms (any kind):

h = height A = Area of the base

h
Volume:

The video illustrates other examples of prisms.

Y Pyramids (any kind):


h = height A = Area of the base

h Volume:

The video illustrates other examples of pyramids.

Y Cone (Right Circular Cone):

s = slant height h = height


r = radius
s
h

Lateral Surface Area (Area of cone


r not counting the area of base):

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Total Surface Area:

or

Volume:

Y Cylinder (Right Circular Cylinder):


r = radius h = height

Lateral Surface Area:


h
Total Surface Area:

h Volume:

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Y Sphere:

r = radius

r Surface Area:

r Volume:

END OF LESSON

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