HUGH

DAVID

On Queer Street
A Social History of British 189 5-1995 Homosexuality

mi YLarperCoWinsPublishers

HarperCollinsPwWis/ira 7 7 - 8 5 Fulham Palace Road Hammersmith, London w6 8JB Published by HarperCollinsPHfefc/iers 1997 1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2 Copyright © Hugh David 1997 The Author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library I S B N o 00 255595 6 Set in Monotype Bembo by Rowland Phototypesetting Limited Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk Printed and bound in Great Britain by Caledonian International Book Manufacturing Ltd, Glasgow All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers.

for
ADAM JOHNSON

and Pip B r y c e , A l e x M a h o n e y , Felix R i c e and J o s e l i o G o m e s da Silva Tod una Verkldrung

Contents

Introduction
PART ONE HEROES AND VILLAINS

SX

1 2 3 4 5

' F o r the P u b l i c B e n e f i t ' ' Y o u a n d I are O u d a w s ' ' I ' m A w f u l l y P r o u d to T h i n k H e ' s M y F r i e n d ' 'Suivez-Moi, Jeune Homme' 'The Homintern'

3 28 53 74 99

PART

TWO

ORDINARY

PEOPLE

6 7 8 9 10 11

' I H a d the T i m e o f M y L i f e ' ' T h e Horrors o f Peace W e r e M a n y ' 'The Ray of Hope' ' Y o u ' l l P a r d o n the M e s s . . .' ' D o i n g O u r B i t for the B o y s ! ' ' I A m P e r f e c d y N o r m a l . . .'

127 151 177 197 220 241

Notes and Sources Bibliography Index

271 291 295

vii

Introduction

I o n c e kissed a m a n w h o ' d o n c e b e e n kissed b y L o r d A l f r e d D o u g l a s . T h a t a m a n n o w in his m i d - f o r t i e s is thus o n l y t w o p e c k s a w a y f r o m O s c a r W i l d e in a fantastically apostate succession is interesting principally for the light it t h r o w s o n the size o f w h a t is n o w c o m m o n l y referred to as 'the g a y c o m m u n i t y ' . F o r a l t h o u g h w e e k after w e e k the n u m b e r o f v e n u e s — bars, clubs, restaurants, discos, shops, g y m n a s i a a n d saunas - taking advertisements in the c o l u m n s o f Time gay scene gets larger a n d larger, the c o r e m a r k e t w h i c h t h e y of 'sexology'. B o r n in the m i d - 1 9 5 0 s , I w a s b r o u g h t u p w i t h the idea that K i n s e y h a d proved that a r o u n d o n e in ten m e n w a s h o m o s e x u a l ; that gayness w a s , i n d e e d , n o m o r e freakish — a n d statistically n o m o r e a b n o r m a l — than left-handedness. In this I w a s o n e o f the l u c k y o n e s : e n l i g h t e n e d doctors d e c i d e d that m y o w n s o u t h - p a w leanings n e e d e d n o c o r r e c ­ tion, w h i l e the social a n d political c l i m a t e o f the 1 9 6 0 s , 1 9 7 0 s a n d early 1980s s a w to it that — w h a t e v e r e m p i r i c a l m a i l i n g at s c h o o l a n d university told m e — tendentious ideas that o n e in ten m e n w a s (or h a d o n c e b e e n ) g a y w e r e n e v e r p u t to the test. N o w w e k n o w better. T h e m o s t r e c e n t B r i t i s h figures ( P e n g u i n / B l a c k w e l l Scientific P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 9 4 ) suggest that, for all his s u p e r A m e r i c a n t h o r o u g h n e s s , K i n s e y g o t it b a d l y w r o n g and, alas, h o m o ­ sexuals m a k e u p n o m o r e than 4 p e r cent o f the adult m a l e p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t a i n . T h e y thus n u m b e r hardly m o r e than o n e m i l l i o n , the e q u i v a l e n t o f the inhabitants o f a small p r o v i n c i a l city. C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r o p i n i o n , t h e y h a v e roots in e v e r y social class; b u t , l i k e J e w s ix Out, the Pink Paper a n d h a l f a d o z e n o t h e r magazines w h i c h c o v e r the L o n d o n purport to serve actually gets smaller w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f e v e r y n e w p i e c e

X

INTRODUCTION

a n d A f r o - C a r i b b e a n s , t h r o u g h a m i x t u r e o f aspiration a n d e x p e c t a t i o n , t h e y h a v e g r a v i t a t e d t o w a r d s the 'safety' o f certain professions and positions in s o c i e t y . That, despite being castigated as 'shirt-lifters', 'brown-noses', ' Q u e n t i n s ' , ' g a y b o y s ' , 'poofters' o r j u s t plain ' q u e e r s ' a n d h a m p e r e d b y a n y n u m b e r o f n o w - u n i m a g i n a b l e legal a n d social obstacles, so m a n y attained social p r o m i n e n c e w a s o n e o f the reasons for m y w r i t i n g this b o o k . T h a t in total those m e n - the C o w a r d s a n d B e a t o n s and O r t o n s o f p u b l i c r e c o r d - n u m b e r e d n o m o r e than a f e w score and that, b y i m p l i c a t i o n , there w e r e h u n d r e d s o f thousands w h o c o u l d n ' t o r w o u l d n ' t a c h i e v e this a n d w h o s e names d i d n ' t appear in either the social c o l u m n s o r the c o u n t y c o u r t records, rapidly supplanted it. D e s p i t e the success in the 1 9 3 0 s a n d 1 9 4 0 s o f the M a s s O b s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t , it is o n l y in the past f e w decades that the study o f ' o r a l history', a n d specifically the c o l l e c t i o n o f the r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , has g a i n e d l e g i t i m a c y . It has b e e n outstandingly successful in r e c l a i m i n g the q u o t i d i a n reality in particular o f w o r k i n g - c l a s s lives, the texture o f e v e r y d a y e x i s t e n c e . W h i l e s o m e attempt has p r e v i o u s l y b e e n m a d e t o p r e s e r v e the u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e o f h o m o s e x u a l m e n (notably b y K e v i n P o r t e r a n d J e f f r e y W e e k s , to w h o s e b o o k Between the Acts I a m particularly i n d e b t e d ) , this has t e n d e d to c o n c e n t r a t e o n the atypical posturings o f that social a n d literary beau monde a n d the s o r d i d tales o f ' c o t t a g i n g ' a n d acts o f gross i n d e c e n c y w h i c h y e a r after y e a r titillate a n d appal the o c c u p a n t s o f the press b o x e s in p o l i c e a n d magistrates' courts. E v e n today, o n the e v e r - e x p a n d i n g g a y s c e n e , there is a g r o w ­ i n g realization that s u c h snapshots falsify the w i d e r p i c t u r e and, i n d e e d , that s o m e o f the m o r e outré manifestations o f the scene itself m i g h t actually d e m e a n the u n d o u b t e d b u t m o r e m u n d a n e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f 'gay liberation': T h e r e is d a n g e r l u r k i n g in the w a y w e are represented in the m e d i a . I n a m i s g u i d e d a t t e m p t to illustrate g a y diversity, w e h i g h l i g h t tiny m i n o r i t i e s w h i c h o b s c u r e o r d i n a r y g a y life. D r a g kings, S M d y k e s a n d t e c h n o b a b e s o n l y w i d e n the gap of b e t w e e n h e t e r o s e x u a l s a n d ourselves. T h e i r i m a g e s g i v e the i m p r e s ­ s i o n o f freakish b e h a v i o u r , at odds w i t h the representation c o m p e t e n t g a y p e o p l e in respected professions.
1

I h a v e tried in this b o o k to describe w h a t life w a s l i k e .c e n t u r y h o m o s e x u a l ' s g i d d y . M o s t o f these w e r e g i v e n to m e in o n e . j o u r n a l ­ istic n o t i o n o f the t w e n t i e t h . n o less w o r t h w h i l e . t h e y h a v e n e v e r t h e l e s s h a d u p o n the w h o l e o f s o c i e t y . F o r rather different reasons. e v e r y n u a n c e o f t h o u g h t .s i m p l i f y it i n t o a c a u t i o n a r y tale o f rise a n d hubristic fall. a n d to d o so b y a l l o w i n g m e n w h o w e r e actually a part o f things to tell their o w n stories. A militant r e j e c t i o n o f the w o r d s ' h o m o s e x u a l ' a n d e v e n ' g a y ' smacks m o r e o f d o g m a than utility. as w e m u s t for the foreseeable future a c c e p t . p e r s e c u t e d a n d belittled. s w i t c h . I m a k e n o a p o l o g y for n o t m e n t i o n i n g e v e r y a c t i o n g r o u p . o r to o v e r . e x c e p t in later chapters w h e r e 'gays' s e e m e d m o r e appropriate. I n m u c h the s a m e w a y as I d i d in a p r e v i o u s b o o k o n L o n d o n b o h e m i a n i s m . h o w it felt to b e a m e m b e r o f a discrete s u b . e x c e p t w h e r e it c o i n c i d e n t a l ^ overlaps w i t h m y o w n material. N o r h a v e I s e e n a n y n e e d to a c c e d e to the d e m a n d s o f the radical Left a n d refer to the subjects o f this b o o k as ' q u e e r s ' .b a c k m e t a m o r p h o s i s from d e r i d e d Q u e e r i n t o b a r e l y tolerated H o m o s e x u a l . b u t the o v e r . T h i s b o o k is n e i t h e r a political history o f g a y l i b e r a t i o n n o r an attempt to set a n y social o r cultural agenda: w r i t e r s s u c h as A n t o n y G r e y a n d A l a n Sinfield are better qualified to a t t e m p t s u c h things than I. a n d in w h a t f o l l o w s I h a v e c h o s e n to refer to ' h o m o s e x u a l s ' . A I D S and. the enduring presence o f H I V have fundamentally changed both public a n d private c o n c e p t i o n s o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y .b u t n o t perhaps b y a m a l e a u t h o r .INTRODUCTION xi It is these ' c o m p e t e n t g a y p e o p l e ' a n d the surprising c o n t i n u i t y o f the lives they h a v e l e d b e h i n d that m e t o n y m i c a l 'freakish b e h a v i o u r ' w i t h w h i c h this b o o k is p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d . U n t i l v e r y r e c e n d y it w a s a c o m p l e t e l y different story.o n e situations b y i n d i ­ viduals w h o v o l u n t e e r e d their services. I h a v e n o t a t t e m p t e d to twist history in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the w i s h e s o f those w h o w o u l d c o m p l i c a t e a s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h radical d i a ­ lectic. e v e r y signal e v e n t w h i c h has c a u s e d ripples in the g a y c o m m u n i t y since the b e g i n n i n g o f the c e n t u r y . u s i n g the t e r m as neutrally as possible. m a r g i n a l i z e d . the m a j o r i t y o f the i n t e r v i e w s ' v i c t i m ' is .t o . politically c o r r e c t G a y M a n a n d finally stigmatized A I D S b o t h superficial a n d d o w n r i g h t w r o n g .g r o u p w i t h i n s o c i e t y .that a n d the i m p a c t w h i c h . I h a v e also c o n s c i o u s l y i g n o r e d the lesbian history o f the p e r i o d . n o less w o r t h y o f telling .t i d y .

the g e n e r o s i t y o f m a n y o t h e r p e o p l e h e l p e d it o n its w a y . Francis K i n g . A n t o n y G r e y . to a g r e a t e r o r lesser e x t e n t . D a v i d Tolliss. M i k e P o r t . t o o . D a v i d and R o s y Walker. B e c a u s e o f this.r e s p o n d e d w i t h astonishing c a n ­ d o u r . E a c h w a s . at the t i m e o f his death. T h i s b o o k is d e d i c a t e d to the m e m o r y o f f i v e m e n . M i c h a e l M a r a .e v e n t h o u g h h e w a s fully o c c u p i e d w i t h the .xii INTRODUCTION w e r e t a p e . partners' names and specific l o c a t i o n s in the stories h a v e b e e n altered o r o m i t t e d at the s p e a k e r ' s request. I n o n e o r t w o cases I h a v e also a g r e e d to c o m p l e t e anonymity. L o n d o n . I f the m e m o r y o f their lives a n d m a n n e r o f their deaths w e r e the initial inspiration for the b o o k .b o y s . e x . n o n e . E d m u n d H a l l p r o v e d an i n v a l u a b l e friend. a n d early o n I d e c i d e d that. all o f w h o m d i e d f r o m A I D S .r e l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f its creation. O c c a s i o n a l l y .r e c o r d e d . a n d C h r i s t o p h e r W h e l a n a n d the staff at B o d y Positive. S i m o n I n g r a m . I a m grateful to all these m e n — q u i t e as m u c h to those w h o m e r e l y p o i n t e d m e in the right d i r e c t i o n a n d w h o s e m e m o r i e s are the ' v o i c e s off' i n the d r a m a w h i c h f o l l o w s . I e n c o u r a g e d the i n t e r v i e w e e s to b e as frank as p o s s i b l e a n d t o c o n s i d e r the e m o t i o n a l a n d d o m e s t i c as w e l l as the s e x u a l side o f their lives. H e w i l l i n g l y shared ideas a n d contacts d u r i n g m u c h o f the t i m e I w a s r e s e a r c h i n g this b o o k . the L e s b i a n a n d G a y S w i t c h b o a r d . J i m L o v e n d o s k i . a friend o f m i n e . Peter Tatchell. r e n t . R i c h a r d Pyatt. in those extracts f r o m their r e m i n ­ iscences w h i c h w e r e to appear in this b o o k . H u g o G r e e n h a l g h . h a d r e a c h e d the a g e w h i c h I a m n o w . N o t for the first t i m e .s e n i o r E s t a b l i s h m e n t figures. as to those f r o m w h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s I have direcdy quoted. Richard W e l l i n g s T h o m a s . actors. I a m particularly i n d e b t e d to D u d l e y C a v e . M i k e S a n s o m . M a n y o f t h e m e n w e r e s p e a k i n g o f their h o m o s e x u a l i t y for the first t i m e a n d f r o m positions in w h i c h their frank revelations c o u l d b e e x t r e m e l y c o m p r o m i s i n g . I w o u l d m a k e n o cuts o n the g r o u n d s o f the l a n g u a g e t h e y u s e d o r the s e x u a l explicitness o f their material. P e t e r S o w e r b u t t s . M a n y . A d a m W i l k i n s o n .p r i s o n e r s . all their n a m e s h a v e b e e n c h a n g e d : p s e u d o n y m s are i n d i c a t e d in the text b y their i n c l u s i o n w i t h i n inverted commas ( ' J o h n ' ) . teachers. W i l l Parry.

C e n t r a l T e l e v i s i o n a n d C h a n n e l F o u r T e l e v i s i o n also acted as selfless g o . S o p h i e N e l s o n . i n f o r m a t i v e a n d i n d u l g e n t . m y agent B i l l H a m i l t o n b r o k e r e d an a m i c a b l e deal. R e b e c c a L l o y d a n d a d e m a n d i n g b u t enthusiastic t e a m at H a r p e r C o l l i n s . We Can't Even March Straight & Windus.INTRODUCTION Xlll w r i t i n g o f his o w n parallel study. A s e v e r . 1995).b e t w e e n s . D a v i d Prosser a n d A l l O u t P r o d u c t i o n s g a v e m e m o r e help than I c o u l d reasonably h a v e e x p e c t e d . (Chatto A s a l w a y s . Hugh David London. a t r o u b l e s o m e c o m p u t e r a n d a t e x t w h i c h w a s initially e n v i s a g e d as a ' q u i c k i e ' to m a r k the 1 0 0 t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f the i m p r i s o n ­ m e n t o f O s c a r W i l d e . i n t r o ­ d u c i n g m e to M i c h a e l F i s h w i c k . A l l h a v e k e p t faith w i t h m e . the staff o f the L o n d o n L i b r a r y w a s efficient. b u t rapidly g r e w i n t o s o m e t h i n g b i g g e r . November içç6 . M a r t y n Ives a n d T e s t i m o n y Films g e n e r o u s l y m a d e o v e r research material to m e .

PART ONE Heroes and Villains .

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I d o n o t k e e p a c e n s u s . A l a n T u r i n g . b e g i n n i n g o f the First W o r l d W a r . G u y .Y e s .Yes. N a m e s w e r e b e i n g m e n t i o n e d . 4 - of A l r e a d y .I d o n o t k n o w i f these particular y o u n g m e n had occupations.Y e s . H o w o l d w a s he? — R e a l l y .M e ? M e ? N o ! A m o n g these five d i d T a y l o r i n t r o d u c e y o u to C h a r l e s P a r k e r ? . D i d y o u b e c o m e friendly w i t h h i m ? . a n d e v e r y o n e b u t h e s e e m e d to k n o w it. H e w a s n o t in c o u r t to hear the j u d g e rule that 'it w a s true in substance a n d in fact that the p r o s e c u t o r h a d " p o s e d " as a s o d o m i t e ' .f i v e years o f a m o r e d i v e r g e n t range o f role m o d e l s . I t h i n k to all five m o n e y o r presents. H a v e y o u g i v e n m o n e y to t h e m ? . A u d e n . B u t i f he w e r e .Y e s .\ ' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 5 W e r e these y o u n g m e n all a b o u t t w e n t y ? . y o u w o u l d still h a v e b e c o m e friendly w i t h h i m ? — Y e s . W h a t w a s their o c c u p a t i o n ? . until the e m e r g e n c e o r ' o u t i n g ' in the last t w e n t y . those three days in A p r i l 1 8 9 5 w h i c h so c a p t i v a t e d L o n d o n society they thronged the p u b l i c galleries o f the Old They B a i l e y . I w o u l d b e c o m e friendly w i t h a n y h u m a n b e i n g I l i k e d . 5 It c o u l d b e a r g u e d that w h a t has c o m e to b e k n o w n as the First T r i a l o f O s c a r W i l d e . t w e n t y o r t w e n t y t w o . 6 w e r e certainly t a u n t e d w i t h cries o f ' O s c a r .W . a n d for t h r e e o r f o u r g e n e r a ­ tions o f g a y m e n W i l d e s e e m e d to m o r e than fit the b i l l . H . D i d y o u k n o w that P a r k e r w a s a g e n t l e m a n ' s servant o u t employment? — N o .c h a n g e d the lives o f B r i t i s h h o m o s e x u a l s m o r e profoundly than a n y t h i n g else in the n e x t three quarters o f a c e n t u r y . h e w a s o n e w i t h w h o m I b e c a m e friendly. B u t it w a s n o t until the f o l l o w i n g a f t e r n o o n that W i l d e c o n c e d e d a n d the case w a s w i t h d r a w n . D i d they give y o u anything? . O s c a r ! ' right u p until the E v e r y g e n e r a t i o n needs its o w n h e r o e s . the g a m e w a s u p . 7 Indeed. T h e r e w a s e v e r y possibility that the d e f e n c e w o u l d p u t faces to a n y t h i n g u p to ten o f t h e m — ten w e r e certainly identified in Q u e e n s b e r r y ' s Plea o f Justification given further p r o v o c a t i o n . I l i k e the society o f y o u n g m e n .

demanding he g o back. W i l d e h a d run into A n d r é G i d e in A l g i e r s . N o m a n does. . T h e y advise p r u d e n c e . until I can't g o a n y farther . P r u d e n c e ! B u t I can't h a v e a n y o f that. ' D o y o u k n o w w h a t y o u are risking?' 'It's b e t t e r n e v e r t o k n o w t h a t . C h r i s S m i t h . accusing h i m o f fleeing.' 10 9 8 . until s o m e t h i n g happens .6 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S B u r g e s s . O n h o l i d a y in J a n u a r y 1 8 9 5 . . that his p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s o m e h o w p u t h i m a b o v e the l a w . Y o u h a v e r e n d e r e d the o n e bitter a n d the o t h e r brackish to m e . w h a t w i l l h a p p e n ? ' I asked h i m .m o n t h p r i s o n sentence in the m i d . W i l d e ' s campness ( ' T o w r i t e . the h o m o s e x u a l w r i t e r a n d j o u r n a l i s t P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d f o u n d that his f e l l o w . T h a t is their tragedy. I m u s t h a v e y e l l o w satin'). S i r Ian M c K e l l e n . T h a t ' s h i s . T h e F r e n c h w r i t e r w e n t e v e n further than Harris a n d s u g g e s t e d that W i l d e r e m a i n a b r o a d . M y friends are quite e x t r a o r d i ­ nary. It w a s b o t h wilful a n d suicidal. b e y o n d the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f E n g l i s h l a w : H e s p o k e a b o u t r e t u r n i n g to L o n d o n . Friends such as F r a n k Harris (and e v e n the artist H e n r i T o u l o u s e .1 9 5 0 s after w h a t b e c a m e k n o w n as 'the M o n t a g u case'. . ' W i l d e ' s d e c i s i o n to sue for libel w a s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f this less c e l e b r a t e d side o f his character. T h e s o r r o w y o u s h o u l d h a v e shared y o u h a v e d o u b l e d . .i n m a t e s still automatically b r a c k e t e d h i m w i t h W i l d e . ' B u t i f y o u d o g o b a c k . T h a t w o u l d b e g o i n g b a c k w a r d s .h e w a s a b o u t all there w a s . . w h o h a p ­ p e n e d to b e in L o n d o n at the time) h a d early o n tried to disabuse h i m o f this a n d u r g e d h i m to d r o p the case against Q u e e n s b e r r y . . the M a r q u e s s o f Q f u e e n s berry] was libelling him. . the p a i n y o u s h o u l d h a v e s o u g h t to l i g h t e n y o u h a v e q u i c k e n e d to a n g u i s h . the b r i t d e archness o f The Importance of Being Earnest a n d the lush p r o s e o f The Picture of Dorian Gray p l a y e d n o small part in d e f i n ­ i n g the dialect o f the tribe: ' A l l w o m e n b e c o m e l i k e their m o t h e r s . . . the selfishness a n d spite apparent in De Profundis h a v e b e e n o v e r l o o k e d . something else. ' B y contrast. R o c k H u d s o n . M P . the b l a c k footballer J u s t i n F a s h a n u . . b u t the sentiments e x p r e s s e d are less than n o b l e : ' T h e v e r y b r e a d and w a t e r o f p r i s o n fare y o u h a v e b y y o u r c o n d u c t c h a n g e d . W h i l e s e r v i n g an e i g h t e e n . a pettishly arrogant act s e e m i n g l y b o r n o u t o f a m i s t a k e n b e l i e f that (as Q u e e n s b e r r y h a d suggested) h e really d i d e n j o y s o m e ' i m p u n i t y ' .L a u t r e c . I m u s t g o o n as far as possible . T h e prose sings.

' T h e y did. ' I h o p e O s c a r is g o i n g a w a y a b r o a d . 1 8 9 5 o r . that w a s . H a r t l e y w a s to w r i t e . E g g e d o n b y . h e seems to h a v e refused to c o n ­ sider the w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f this c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . L . W i l d e w a s n o t in c o u r t o n the final d a y o f t h e trial. H e was. A different c o d e o b t a i n e d : o n the m o r n i n g o f 5 A p r i l 1 8 9 5 . h e h a d c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e . C o n s t a n c e k n e w that this w a s the D e c e n t T h i n g for h e r h u s b a n d to d o . O n l y a f e w years p r e v i o u s l y the solicitor r e p ­ resenting a titled m a n i n v o l v e d in a h o m o s e x u a l scandal w i t h w h i c h W i l d e w a s certainly familiar (but c o m p l e t e l y u n c o n n e c t e d ) h a d n o t e d . the e v i d e n c e a d d u c e d c o u l d w e l l s u g ­ gest that h e w a s m o r e than m e r e l y ' p o s i n g ' a n d p r o m p t a far m o r e serious c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t i o n . ' T h e past is a n o t h e r c o u n t r y ' . w i t h its c o m p r o m i s i n g list o f n a m e s a n d dates a n d places. his infatuation with the h a n d s o m e but i m m a t u r e B o s i e . virtually a n y y e a r u p to a n d i n c l u d i n g 1 9 6 7 ( w h e n m a l e h o m o s e x u a l acts w e r e legalized) suicide w a s a rare a n d desperate e s c a p e r o u t e for the c o r n e r e d ' s o d o m i t e ' . F u r t h e r m o r e . ' I a m i n f o r m e d o n w h a t I b e l i e v e to b e the m o s t reliable a u t h o r i t y and. In circumstances extraordinarily close to W i l d e ' s o w n — the c o m p o s e r w a s at the h e i g h t o f his f a m e b u t an u n h a p p i l y m a r r i e d h o m o s e x u a l t h r e a t e n e d w i t h e x p o s u r e . I m b u e d w i t h a sense o f V i c t o r i a n p r o p r i e t y .in O c t o b e r 1 8 9 3 . for that matter. b u t it seems l i k e l y that W i l d e w o u l d h a v e k n o w n o f the death o f P e t e r I l y i c h T c h a i k o v s k y in S t P e t e r s b u r g a m e r e eighteen months previously. e x a c d y w h a t h a p p e n e d .i n f e c t e d w a t e r . the day o n w h i c h W i l d e w i t h d r e w his case against Q u e e n s b e r r y . his w i f e C o n s t a n c e t o l d a friend. ' T h i s w a s n o t a quaint. more . o f w h a t w a s e x p e c t e d o f h i m . e v e n after h e w a s m a d e a w a r e o f the contents o f Q u e e n s b e r r y ' s P l e a . I n the e v e n t . r o m a n t i c n o t i o n . P . o f c o u r s e .' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 7 W i l d e left for L o n d o n the f o l l o w i n g day and. Q u e e n s b e r r y ' s allegation that h e w a s ' p o s i n g as a s o m d o m i t e ' w o u l d b e substantiated. F o r i f h e lost. a n d perhaps b l i n d e d b y . h e insisted o n p l o u g h i n g o n w i t h the case. h o w e v e r . A s w e h a v e seen. j u s t e i g h t days after the first p e r f o r m a n c e o f his sixth s y m p h o n y (the ' P a t h é t i q u e ' ) . well aware o f what was going on importantly. ' T h e y d o things differently t h e r e . in all p r o b ­ ability b y c o n s c i o u s l y d r i n k i n g c h o l e r a . T h e r e is n o w a y o f p r o v i n g it. in B r i t a i n in 1 8 9 3 .

' T h e y ' r e g o i n g to b r i n g u p a string o f witnesses that w i l l p u t art a n d literature o u t o f the question. as w e l l as R o u e n a n d M o n a c o . h a d b e e n a frequent visitor e v e r since h e first set f o o t in Paris ( c h a p e r o n i n g . D i e p p e . I will shoot y o u like a d o g ' ) . D e a u v i l l e a n d o t h e r convenient N o r m a n d y ports. F r a n k Harris advised. it w a s e v e r y w h e r e e x p e c t e d that h e w o u l d cross the C h a n n e l again and. in effect. w r i t i n g in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a similar case. W i l d e . w a n t e d to p u n i s h h i m further — a n d still less to m a k e a m a r t y r o u t o f h i m .8 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S that it is the i n t e n t i o n o f the p o l i c e to apply for a w a r r a n t for his arrest unless he resigns his appointments v o l u n t e e r i n g to filibuster and goes away'. ' I w i l l n o t p r e v e n t y o u r flight' (although h e h a d g o n e o n to add. ) 14 from reporting [cases O n an official l e v e l at least. w a s s o m e t h i n g o f an e m b a r r a s s m e n t . u N o w W i l d e ' s l a w y e r s . n o t e v e n Q u e e n s b e r r y .h a d l o n g b e e n a s e c o n d h o m e to those B r i t i s h h o m o s e x u a l s affluent e n o u g h to escape t h e r e w h e n things g o t u n c o m f o r t a b l e at h o m e . t o o . b u t his m o n e y ran o u t a n d after o n l y f o u r m o n t h s h e r e t u r n e d to L o n d o n . 'but i f y o u take m y son w i t h y o u . as the libel case w a s officially listed. as an a c e o f trumps. congratulating h i m o n the fact that his ' s e a r c h i n g c r o s s X a m ' h a d r e n d e r e d it unnecessary for 'the rest o f the filth' . o r c h a p e r o n e d b y . w i t h a w a r r a n t already issued for his arrest. A t this stage n o o n e . w h o s p o k e v e r y tolerable F r e n c h . w e r e e x t o l l i n g this c o u r s e o f action. N o w . d o that d e c e n t thing.y e a r . o n his b e h a l f in c o u r t . A t the e n d o f the trial the j u d g e w r o t e a n o t e to Q u e e n s b e r r y ' s c o u n s e l . the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f the d a y h a d n o t e d that 'it is g r e a d y to the credit o f the reporters o f the Press that t h e y almost i n v a r i a b l y refrain o f this d e s c r i p t i o n ] ' . the f o r m i d a b l e E d w a r d (later S i r E d w a r d ) C a r s o n . Calais. T h r o w u p the case a n d g o a b r o a d and. a necessary b u t unfortunate o c c u r r e n c e . Queensberry. 13 ( S o m e years earlier. s o m e ­ t h i n g to b e s w e p t as far — a n d as q u i c k l y — u n d e r the carpet as w a s .e v e n to the e x t e n t o f letting the y o u n g m e n g i v e e v i d e n c e — to a l l o w h i m t i m e to catch a train to D o v e r a n d t h e n the ferry to Calais.b y w h i c h h e m e a n t the i n e v i t a b l y graphic t e s t i m o n y o f the b o y s to b e m a d e p u b l i c . v . it seems clear that the w h o l e matter o f Reg. France 1 2 Paris. I n 1 8 8 3 h e h a d e v e n c o n t e m p l a t e d settling p e r m a n e n t l y in the F r e n c h capital. his m o t h e r ) as a n i n e t e e n .o l d in 1 8 7 4 . take y o u r w i f e w i t h y o u ! ' R e m a r k a b l y . e v e n Q u e e n s b e r r y h a d c o n t a c t e d W i l d e to say.

' I ' l l stay. h e n e v e r h a d .' H e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n in c o u r t that day: instead h e e n j o y e d a leisurely l u n c h a n d t h e n . a s y m p a t h e t i c j o u r n a l i s t h a d already alerted h i m to the fact that the w a r r a n t h a d b e e n issued . W i l d e . ' O n e c a n ' t k e e p o n g o i n g abroad. E v e n the p o l i c e w e r e m o r e than usually c o m p l i a n t in the e v e n t u a l a n d i n e v i t a b l e e x e c u t i o n o f the w a r r a n t for W i l d e ' s arrest.w i n g e d eyes? [.' h e repeatedly told those friends w h o r e m a i n e d l o y a l . A n d that w a s w h a t h a p p e n e d . h o w e v e r . several h o u r s elapsed b e f o r e any action w a s taken. b u t in the e n d h e d i d n o t h i n g . J o h n B e t j e m a n sums u p the e n s u i n g events a c c u r a t e l y enough: H e s i p p e d at a w e a k h o c k a n d selzer A s h e g a z e d at the L o n d o n skies T h r o u g h the N o t t i n g h a m lace o f the curtains O w a s it his b e e s . unless o n e is a missionary. o r w h a t c o m e s to the same thing. in the late afternoon. H i s friends w e r e still u r g i n g h i m to g o . H e b r u s h e d past the palms o f the staircase A n d w a s h e l p e d to a h a n s o m o u t s i d e . I r o n i c a l l y . . A l t h o u g h they k n e w v e r y w e l l w h e r e h e w a s . a c o m m e r c i a l traveller.e y e d . and a m u r m u r o f voices — ( ' O h w h y m u s t t h e y m a k e such a din?') A s the d o o r o f the b e d r o o m s w u n g o p e n And T W O P L A I N C L O T H E D POLICEMEN c a m e in: ' M r W o i l d e . . ' H e rose. b u t a c o p y o f P i e r r e L o u y s ' s n o v e l Aphrodite. w a s p l a y i n g a different g a m e . ( B e t j e m a n w a s materially w r o n g o n l y in his reference to the Yellow Book. .'FOR T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 9 possible. a d j o u r n e d to the C a d o g a n H o t e l . a n d h e p u t d o w n The Yellow H e staggered. w h i c h h a p p e n e d to h a v e a y e l l o w dust-jacket. I'll stay. .] A thump. w e ' a v e c o m e for t e w take y o u W h e r e felons a n d criminals d w e l l : W e m u s t ask y e w t e w l e a v e w i t h us q u o i e t l y F o r this is the C a d o g a n H o t e l . a n d — t e r r i b l e . W i l d e w a s n o t r e a d i n g the latest issue o f the j o u r n a l o f h i g h A e s t h e t i c i s m w h i c h h a d b r o u g h t A u b r e y B e a r d s l e y to p r o m i n e n c e . 15 Book.

B u t .r i c h v o c a b u l a r y : 'blessed!'. this w a s s o o n r e p l a c e d b y far cruder slogans. a n d sometimes d i d so k n o w i n g l y . Is n o t h e DivineV ]9 18 'a total m a r v e l ! ' . t h e y w e r e i m m e d i ately r e c o g n i z a b l e b y their l o n g hair a n d their affected. y o u k n o w . 'divine!'. at the start.10 HEROES AND VILLAINS 16 a n y direct c o n t a c t w i t h the m a g a z i n e . M r s C i m a b u e B r o w n . ) H o l l o w a y Prison. It c h a n g e d for W i l d e at ten past six o n the e v e n i n g o f F r i d a y 5 A p r i l 1 8 9 5 w h e n the t w o p l a i n . at the t i m e a j o u r n a l o f real i n f l u e n c e . in the p o p u l a r m i n d at least. ' c o u n t e n a n c i n g illegality d i d n o t a m o u n t to s a n c t i o n i n g it [. .c l o t h e d p o l i c e m e n w e r e s h o w n i n t o his r o o m at the C a d o g a n H o t e l . H e h a d j u s t p a i n t e d M e as " H é l o ï s e " . w o u l d .p r o c l a i m i n g A e s t h e t e s s u c h as W i l d e w e r e fondly i n d u l g e d . T h e r e was an A e s t h e t i c p h i l o s o p h y . A e s t h e t i c i s m a n d s e l f . b l u e . W i l d e h a d personified the A e s t h e t i c m o v e m e n t .' It c o u l d . s o m e w i t h n a m e s such as D r a w i t M i l d e . but. T h e A e s t h e t e s s t o o d for ' A r t for A r t ' s s a k e ' . in I m m a n u e l K a n t ' s n o t i o n o f the essential disinterestedness o f A r t .it h a d its origins i n the p r e c i o u s a t m o s p h e r e o f O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y in the early 1 8 7 0 s . . in L o n d o n a n d in O x f o r d . a n d my h u s b a n d as " A b é l a r d " . . c h a r g e d a n d t h e n r e m a n d e d in custody to ' S o c i e t y p u t u p w i t h a great deal that w a s illegal. lilies a n d g r e e n carnations. It d i d . In Punch m a g a z i n e .b e poets. t o o .'. p o i n t i n g o u t to a friend the A e s t h e t i c painter M a u d l e : 'the great P a i n t e r . a series o f cartoons b y the w r i t e r (Trilby) a n d artist G e o r g e d u M a u r i e r w a s b e n i g n l y satirizing their self-absorption as early as 1 8 7 9 . mate*. It c h a n g e d for m a n y o t h e r p e o p l e t o o . taken to B o w Street p o l i c e station. a n d in the later w r i t i n g s o f T h é o p h i l e G a u t i e r a n d W a l t e r P a t e r — b u t . ' h o w consum- In o t h e r texts. ' w h a t a preciousV .a n d . . a b a n d o f poets. O u t o n the street. a d j e c t i v e . . ' w r o t e R i c h a r d E l l m a n n in his definitive life o f W i l d e . t h e y ' d say. T h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r the c a p t i o n to a c a r t o o n entitled ' N i n c o m p o o p i a n a ' h a d a society hostess. h e w e n t o n .w h i t e china a n d the c o n c e p t o f ' t h e h o u s e b e a u t i ful'.] a n d the a t m o s p h e r e c o u l d c h a n g e at any time. P r e c i o u s it all w a s . A l o n g w i t h the sexually t o r m e n t e d h o m o s e x u a l p o e t A l g e r n o n C h a r l e s S w i n b u r n e a n d the artists J a m e s M c N e i l l W h i s d e r a n d A u b r e y B e a r d s l e y . ' A e s t h e t e s ' w e r e a p p e a r i n g . artists and socialites w h o h a d a d d e d significandy to the gaiety o f the nation since the late 1 8 7 0 s . W i l d e w a s arrested.

N o o n e w a s in a n y real d o u b t that o n e o f its principal characters. like Where's the Cat?.a n d W i l d e in particular . y o u w i l l r a n k as an apostle in the aesthetic b a n d .a n d . T h e r e w e r e e i g h t e n c o r e s o n the first night.y a l l e r y . the original p r o d u c t i o n ran for 5 7 8 p e r f o r m a n c e s . G i l b e r t a n d A r t h u r S u l l i v a n a b a n d o n e d w h a t w a s p l a n n e d to b e a satire o n the T r a c t a r i a n m o v e m e n t in the C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d a n d t u r n e d their attention instead to his ' g r e e n e r y . in the early 1 8 8 0 s Patience w a s h u g e l y successful. this S c o t t R a m s e y in the c o m e d y Wlxere's the Cat? a n d the foolish L a m b e r t S t r e y k e in a l o n g . m a k i n g it o n e o f the m o s t profitable o f all the G & S S a v o y operas. ' I f he's c o n t e n t w i t h a v e g e t a b l e l o v e w h i c h w o u l d certainly n o t suit m e . also largely f o r g o t t e n . h o w e v e r . G r o s v e n o r G a l l e r y ' w o r l d o f asphodels a n d divine b l u e . W h y w h a t a m o s t particularly p u r e y o u n g m a n this p u r e y o u n g man must b e ! ' 2 0 last w o r k w a s w r i t t e n b y F . W i l d e b a s k e d in the vicarious p u b l i c i t y it g a v e h i m and. A n d s o o n l e a d i n g m e m b e r s o f the A e s t h e t e s .n a t u r e d l y l a m p o o n e d in a series o f p o p u l a r b u t n o w forgotten W e s t E n d hits.i r o n i c a l l y . I f y o u w a l k d o w n P i c c a d i l l y w i t h a p o p p y o r a lily in y o u r mediaeval hand. W i l d e r e a c h e d his A e s t h e t i c a p o g e e . their operetta Patience o p e n e d at the O p é r a C o m i q u e in L o n d o n o n 2 3 A p r i l 1 8 8 1 .' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 11 the W i l d e M a n o f B o r n e o . (Sir Francis) B u r n a n d . W i t h the principal subject o f the satire o c c u p y i n g a p r o m i n e n t seat in the stalls. It w a s all great sport. w h e n W . the 'fleshly p o e t ' R e g i n a l d B u n t h o r n e . A s y o u w a l k y o u r flowery w a y . W i l d e a l o n e w a s the basis for the e p o n y m o u s h e r o o f a play tellingly entitled Charlatan The a n d for H e r b e r t B e e r b o h m T r e e ' s c r e a t i o n o f the character . Ossian W i l d e n e s s e a n d O s c u r o W i l d e g o o s e w h i c h left n o d o u b t as to their original inspiration.w h i t e china. kitted o u t in a n e w ' A e s t h e t i c l e c t u r i n g c o s t u m e ' .r u n n i n g farce called The Colonel o f Punch. C . was W i l d e . H e certainly h a d b y far the best patter-song: T h o u g h the Philistines m a y j o s t l e . A n d e v e r y o n e w i l l say. t h e n also e d i t o r N o w .w e r e also b e i n g g o o d . e m b a r k e d o n an A m e r i c a n l e c t u r e t o u r o n the . S.

m o r e e x a c t l y . H i n d s i g h t o n l y adds to the b r e a t h t a k i n g audacity o f the caption: M A U D L E : MRS H o w consummately l o v e l y y o u r S o n is. E v e n before Patience o p e n e d .the e n d . i f y o u m e a n that. H e has j u s t left S c h o o l . readers o f Punch w e r e b e i n g offered a m o r e d i s q u i e t i n g v i e w o f A e s t h e t i c i s m — and o f W i l d e in particular. T h e seeds o f d o u b t are already there in G i l b e r t ' s libretto. then. Art B R O W N : M A U D L E : for e v e r c o n t e n t to Exist under Maudle. literary m a n / W h o despises female c l a y ' . M r M a u d l e . M r s B r o w n ! Whaû H e ' s a nice. h o w e v e r . w a s calculated to maintain this .) 22 (Mrs Brown determines that at all events her Son shall not study F u l l y ten years b e f o r e his arrest.12 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S strength o f it. B R O W N (A Philistine from the country): manly B o y . E v e r y t h i n g he did. y o u k n o w . and w i s h e s to b e an Artist. M A U D L E : MRS Why s h o u l d h e b e an Artist? W e l l . e v e r y w o r d h e w r o t e o r uttered. C o l o n e l C a l v e r l e y and the D u k e o f D u n s t a b l e m a k e an o b v i o u s p o i n t w h e n B u n t h o r n e first appears.l i k e n e x t to the elegant. lisping A e s t h e t i c d a n d y . physically M a u d l e had e v o l v e d into an unmistakable caricature o f the p l a y w r i g h t . the b e g i n n i n g o f the b e g i n n i n g o f . A s early as F e b r u a r y 1 8 8 1 d u M a u r i e r had him l o u n g i n g s l u g . P r e . for all that he w a s an artist. D U K E : C O L : H e does s e e m p o p u l a r ! B u t o n l y m i n u t e s later B u n t h o r n e h i m s e l f is m u s i n g — 'aside. B u t in truth Patience m a r k e d the b e g i n n i n g o f - or. the a u d i e n c e at the O p é r a C o m i q u e m a y b e f o r g i v e n for n o t rising to this l e v e l o f textual e x e g e s i s . he must be something! W h y s h o u l d h e Be anything? W h y n o t let h i m r e m a i n Beautifully*. f o l l o w e d b y a ' C h o r u s o f R a p t u r o u s M a i d e n s ' : D U K E : B u t w h o is the g e n t l e m a n w i t h the l o n g hair? H e seems popular! 21 C O L : I don't know. a c c o r d i n g to the original stage directions — that h e m u s t s e e m ' L i k e a high-spirited n o n s e n s e o f the plot. W i l d e w a s already the e m b o d i m e n t o f the ' p a n s y ' . Du M a u r i e r ' s cartoons h a d b e c o m e increasingly savage. the l i m p .R a p h a e l i t e M r s C i m a b u e B r o w n as h e d i s c o u r s e d o n ' T h e C h o i c e o f a P r o f e s s i o n ' . S w e p t a l o n g b y S u l l i v a n ' s v i v a c i o u s s c o r e and the slyly'.

and. N o t all the visitors .a n d g o l d d r a w i n g r o o m ( L a d y W i n d e r m e r e . W o o d w o r k i v o r y w h i t e . ceiling. L a d y P l y dale. The Picture of Dorian Gray a p p e a r e d in 1 8 9 1 . the D u c h e s s o f B e r w i c k . T h e w o o d w o r k t h r o u g h o u t to b e g o l d e n b r o w n (russet). the p o e t a n d the p l a y w r i g h t . as a calculated s h o c k to H i g h V i c ­ torian sensibilities (and a private snub to W h i s t l e r w h o h a d h a d the p r e s u m p t i o n to design a similarly e x o t i c ' P e a c o c k R o o m ' as early as 1877). & 2 feet o f top o f walls u n d e r c o r n i c e apple g r e e n . T h e original 1 8 8 4 architect's specifications w e r e r e d i s c o v e r e d in 1 9 5 1 a n d t h r o w an o b l i q u e valuable light o n W i l d e at this t i m e : Library. w o o d w o r k . H i s dazzling f e c u n d i t y at this p e r i o d m a d e sure o f that: his Poems h a d b e e n p u b l i s h e d in 1 8 8 1 . P u b l i c l y . c o r n i c e a n d c e i l i n g to b e pale g o l d c o l o u r .f l o o r d i n i n g room b o t h the walls a n d all the specially m a d e ' G r e c i a n style' furniture but w e r e painted an u n r e l e n t i n g gloss w h i t e . the m a n a b o u t t o w n . 2 3 E v e n as the real-life e q u i v a l e n t o f L a d y W i n d e r m e r e ' s P a r k e r o r A l g e r n o n M o n c r i e f f ' s L a n e w a s s h o w i n g visitors into his p i n k . T h e c o r n i c e to b e g i l d e d dull flat l e m o n c o l o u r g o l d a n d also the c e i l i n g m a r g i n to J a p a n e s e leather. f o l l o w e d in q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n b y Lady Windermere's Fan ( 1 8 9 2 ) . W i l d e h a d r e a c h e d an u n e a s y a p o g e e . P i n k walls. sir. .' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 13 presen­ position. Life a n d art w e r e m e l d e d in a t h o r o u g h l y m o d e r n tation o f ' i m a g e ' . T h e u p p e r part o f the walls. ) . Drawing-room front. in the g r o u n d . in (literally) stark contrast to the m o r e o r t h o d o x fashion for flock-and-mahogany. n o w h e r e m o r e so than in the ' H o u s e B e a u t i f u l ' h e created in T i t e Street. o n l y tapestry curtains. h e w a s feted as the m a n o f m o d e . . r e s e n t m e n t at the style as m u c h as the scale o f W i l d e ' s success w a s already festering. Salome (both p r o d u c e d in 1 8 9 3 ) . W a l l s d i s t e m p e r e d flesh p i n k f r o m skirting to c o r n i c e . the successful w r i t e r . An Ideal Husband a n d The Importance of Being Earnest ( 1 8 9 5 ) . h o w e v e r . A Woman of No Importance. w h i c h latter w i l l b e p r o v i d e d b y M r W i l d e . P r i v a t e l y . L a d y Stutfield . C h e l s e a . 2nd floor Bedroom front. T h e r e w e r e n o doors to any o f the r o o m s at T i t e Street. L a d y A g a t h a C a r l i s l e . T h e walls to the h e i g h t o f 5 ' 6" to b e p a i n t e d in d i s t e m p e r dark b l u e . The Happy Prince and Other Tales in 1 8 8 8 .

) P e r f o r m a n c e s o f The Importance of Being Earnest at the St J a m e s ' s Theatre w h i c h h a d o p e n e d to great a c c l a i m o n 1 4 February. w h i c h h a d a l w a y s regarded W i l d e w i t h dislike as an artist a n d an intellectual scoffer. F r a n k Harris later recalled that W i l d e ' s arrest ' w a s the signal for an o r g y o f Philistine r a n c o u r such as e v e n L o n d o n h a d n e v e r k n o w n b e f o r e . ' 25 A n d it w a s n ' t j u s t Puritan. n o w g a v e free s c o p e to their disgust a n d c o n t e m p t . a d d i n g w r y l y . k i l l e d the Yellow Book.' L a n e later recalled. B . h a d e v e n s u p p l i e d Q u e e n s b e r r y ' s l a w y e r s w i t h material d a m a g i n g to W i l d e . the p l a y w r i g h t a n d B o s i e w e r e refused a d m i s s i o n to a h o t e l in M o n a c o . also c o i n c i d e n t a l ^ p u b l i s h e d b y L a n e . before the libel case e v e n c a m e to court.p l a y w r i g h t C h a r l e s B r o o k f i e l d . A m o n g the E s t a b l i s h m e n t . a n d e v e r y o n e tried to o u t d o his n e i g h b o u r in expressions o f l o a t h i n g ' . W i l d e ' s fame w a s s u c h that details o f Q u e e n s b e r r y ' s accusations w e r e w e l l . T h e P u r i t a n m i d d l e class. F i v e years p r e v i o u s l y . the a c t o r . W i l d e ' s arrest raised equally u n c o m f o r t ­ able questions. ' T h e h i t h e r t o successful run o f An Ideal Husband at the H a y m a r k e t reading angry 'It outside its office. h e told H . J o h n L a n e . a m e r e parasite o f the aristocracy. a celebrity first night a u d i e n c e h a v i n g b r a v e d o n e o f the w o r s t storms o f the d e c a d e to b e there . in the a u t u m n o f 1 8 8 9 . it h a d b e e n . 24 W . his publisher. abruptly r e m o v e d all m e n t i o n o f his b o o k s f r o m the firm's c a t a l o g u e . O n e n o t e d that e v e r y t h i n g w a s 'bizarre a n d v u l g a r . e v e n v a g u e l y sinful'.c o n t i n u e d . w h i c h is g e n e r a l l y d o r m a n t b u t is called into activity w h e n the artist has g o t outside his field into publicity o f an undesirable k i n d . M o n t g o m e r y H y d e . ' T h e rage against W i l d e ' . an c r o w d demonstrated killed m e . C o n v i n c e d that W i l d e h a d b e e n the Yellow Book. b u t w i t h W i l d e ' s n a m e obliterated f r o m all the playbills a n d posters outside the theatre. ( O n e disaf­ fected m e m b e r o f its cast. In M a r c h 1 8 9 4 . W i n d o w s w e r e b r o k e n . .k n o w n a n d w i d e l y r e p o r t e d t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e . A l l this bile c a m e f l o o d i n g to the surface as s o o n as Q u e e n s b e r r y l a n c e d the b o i l . Y e a t s a g r e e d . e r s t w h i l e colleagues a n d collaborators w e r e also rushing to distance themselves f r o m W i l d e . B a c k in L o n d o n . ' a n d it nearly T h e a t r e w a s t e r m i n a t e d o n the day after its author's arrest.14 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S to T i t e Street left c o n v i n c e d o f the b e a u t y o f the m é n a g e . middle-class 'Britishers'. . ' w a s also c o m p l i c a t e d b y the Britisher's j e a l o u s y o f art a n d the artist.

L o r d A r t h u r S o m e r s e t w a s t h i r t y .' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 15 h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d in a n o t h e r case w h o s e social a n d political i m p l i c a t i o n s . . T h e r e w a s n o t h i n g o f s u b stance w h i c h directly l i n k e d the P r i n c e . I d i d s o . h a d b e e n a m o n g the callers. P o l i c e investigations h a d l e d to suspicions that a h o u s e n e a r T o t t e n h a m C o u r t R o a d in the W e s t E n d o f L o n d o n w a s b e i n g r u n as a m a l e b r o t h e l . N o w . ' a n o t h e r r e c a l l e d .' P A V .t h e . S o m e r s e t k n e w the f o r m : h e r e s i g n e d his c o m m i s s i o n in the a r m y .s e v e n .a n d the r o y a l family to the case. ' O b s e r v a t i o n has b e e n k e p t o n the h o u s e 19 Cleveland Street'. a n d o n t w o o c c a s i o n s b y a soldier .p r e s u m p t i v e to the t h r o n e . as h e w a s referred to for reasons o f security . the D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c P r o s e c u t i o n s a n d the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . in u n p r e c e d e n t e d l y graphic detail. 2 7 A consensus o b t a i n e d . ' W e g o t i n t o the b e d quite n a k e d . g r a n d s o n o f Q u e e n V i c t o r i a a n d h e i r . a n d a c o n v e n i e n t a n d leisurely p i e c e o f f a c e . at H y è r e s o n the R i v i e r a . b u t no o n e k n e w quite w h a t to d o w i t h that ' h e i r to a d u k e ' . ' said o n e . . t h o u g h I tried a n d e m i t t e d . . the e l d e r son o f the t h e n P r i n c e o f W a l e s . .in a blizzard o f private letters a n d a n y n u m b e r o f o f f . h o w e v e r . H e g a v e m e h a l f a s o v e r e i g n . if anything. H e t h e n h a d a g o b e t w e e n m y legs a n d that w a s all. that ' y o u n g e r s o n of a duke'. a m a j o r in the R o y a l H o r s e G u a r d s . L o r d Salisbury. ' a n d a n u m b e r o f m e n o f superior b e a r i n g a n d apparently o f g o o d p o s i t i o n h a v e b e e n s e e n to call there a c c o m p a n i e d b y b o y s in s o m e instances.w h e r e h e w a s to r e m a i n . ' O n o n e o c c a s i o n at least I p u t m y p e r s o n i n t o his hinderparts. H e told m e to s u c k h i m . it w a s stated in the original report. familiarly k n o w n as P r i n c e E d d i e .r e c o r d c o n v e r s a t i o n s w h i c h i n v o l v e d the P r i m e M i n i s t e r .s a v i n g for all c o n c e r n e d . the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the P r i n c e o f W a l e s ' s stables a n d a y o u n g e r s o n o f the eighth D u k e o f B e a u f o r t . the E a r l o f E u s t o n . E v e r y bit as w e l l as the legal a u t h orities. .and. T h e r e w a s also the s u g g e s t i o n that P r i n c e A l b e r t V i c t o r . the s w o r n statements o f a n u m b e r o f ' b o y s ' (most o f t h e m t e e n a g e d P o s t O f f i c e w o r k e r s ) w e r e i m p l i c a t i n g h i m in w h a t b e c a m e k n o w n as 'the C l e v e l a n d Street scandal'. e v e n m o r e convoluted. r e l i n q u i s h e d his a p p o i n t m e n t in the P r i n c e o f W a l e s ' s h o u s e h o l d a n d slipped a w a y to F r a n c e . It w a s w h a t w a s e x p e c t e d o f h i m . ' 2 6 A m o n g the ' m e n o f s u p e r i o r b e a r i n g ' w e r e 'the h e i r to a d u k e a n d the y o u n g e r son o f a d u k e ' .actually H e n r y Fitzroy. m o r e particularly. w e r e . I c o u l d n o t get it in. until his death in 1 9 2 6 . M o s t o f the resulting 'trial' w a s c o n d u c t e d in p r i v a t e .

it s e e m e d that a scandal h a d b e e n a v e r t e d . b e c a u s e it w o u l d h a v e b e e n utterly u n t h i n k a b l e for the ' y o u n g e r s o n o f a d u k e ' and. to i m p l o r e o f y o u . h a d b e e n a l l o w e d to g o .i6 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S S o m e r s e t ' s resignation f r o m the a r m y w a s gazetted at the b e g i n n i n g of November 1 8 8 9 . it w a s b o t h Disraeli's ' u p p e r ten t h o u s a n d ' a n d a b a y i n g m o b o f not-so-fortunates w h o . quite possibly. R a n k s h a d closed. Stories that a m e m b e r o f the royal family a n d o t h e r titled m e n w e r e i n v o l v e d in the ' a b o m i n a b l e ' g o i n g s . it w a s impossible to stop the 'truth' l e a k i n g o u t . c o m p ­ troller to the P r i n c e o f W a l e s ' s h o u s e h o l d . then.o n at C l e v e l a n d Street w e r e s o o n s w i r l i n g a r o u n d L o n d o n . . e v e n been urged to go. S i r A u g u s t u s S t e p h e n s o n . the lords a n d g e n t l e m e n w h o e m p l o y t h e m s w a g g e r at large a n d are e v e n w e l c o m e d as v a l u a b l e allies o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the d a y . a n d in W e s t m i n s t e r and St J a m e s ' s . Mall w a s the first to g i v e t h e m c r e d e n c e . S h o r t l y after S o m e r s e t ' s flight S i r D i g h t o n P r o b y n . S o m e r s e t h a d g o n e . H e dare n e v e r c o m e b a c k to this c o u n t r y . H e has g o n e a n d w i l l n e v e r s h o w his face in E n g l a n d again. T h e w r e t c h e d agents are r u n in a n d sent to p e n a l servitude. It can d o n o g o o d to p r o s e c u t e h i m . ' 28 T h e Director ofPublic P r o s e c u t i o n s .a n d the first to p o s e T h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h S i r A u g u s t u s S t e p h e n s o n w i l l h a v e to a n s w e r is w h e t h e r the t w o n o b l e lords a n d o t h e r n o t a b l e persons in society w h o w e r e a c c u s e d b y the witnesses o f h a v i n g b e e n the principals in the c r i m e [.] are to b e a l l o w e d to escape scot free [it t h u n d e r e d ] . h o w e v e r . t o o k a similarly p r a g m a t i c v i e w . ' 29 E v e n in 1 8 8 9 . for their o w n reasons. m a d e confidential contact w i t h L o r d Salisbury: ' I w r i t e n o w to ask y o u . T h e s o m e t i m e s unreliable Pall Gazette unpalatable questions. Q u i t e s i m p l y . ' h e n o t e d . a r r a i g n e d W i l d e a n d filled the p u b l i c galleries to see the . i f it c a n b e m a n a g e d to h a v e the p r o s e c u t i o n stopped. . for a short t i m e at least. 'It m a y b e the best thing that c o u l d h a p p e n . a w a r r a n t for his arrest w a s n o t issued until 1 2 N o v e m b e r : m e a n w h i l e h e h a d left E n g l a n d as early as 1 8 O c t o b e r . 'It is quite possible (in m y j u d g e m e n t it is p r o b a b l e ) that h e w i l l n o t r e t u r n . 30 T h e i r p a t i e n c e finally e x h a u s t e d . the elder son o f the P r i n c e o f W a l e s to h a v e b e e n seen to b e i n v o l v e d in a legal case t u r n i n g u p o n e v i d e n c e d e s c r i b i n g h o w ' b o y s ' p u t their 'persons' into o l d e r m e n ' s hinderparts.

I n d e e d . T h e A c t h a d b e g u n as a n o n . after an u n o p p o s e d reading. amendment and further second p r o v i s i o n for the P r o t e c t i o n o f W o m e n .o n e b e i n g a g o v e r n m e n t a m e n d m e n t i n c r e a s i n g the m a x i m u m p u n i s h m e n t f r o m o n e y e a r ' s i m p r i s o n m e n t to t w o . It w a s o n l y w h e n . T h e trial b e g a n o n 2 6 A p r i l . w h e t h e r in p u b l i c o r in p r i v a t e . B u g g e r y h a d b e e n a capital office u n d e r E n g l i s h l a w f r o m 1 5 3 3 until 1 8 6 1 . F o r centuries acts o f s o d o m y (or b u g g e r y . L a b o u c h è r e ' s carefully (or carelessly) w o r d e d a m e n d m e n t c h a n g e all that a n d criminalize all aspects o f h o m o s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r . w h e n the m a x i m u m p e n a l t y w a s r e d u c e d to life i m p r i s o n m e n t . a w e a l t h y radical M P editor. H e n r y L a b o u c h è r e . s h o u l d b e liable to up to o n e y e a r ' s i m p r i s o n m e n t . it w a s formally entitled ' A n A c t to m a k e a n d o t h e r p u r p o s e s ' . the m a n a g e r o f w h a t a m o u n t e d to a m a l e b r o t h e l a n d a m a n w h o s e n a m e h a d f i g u r e d briefly in the p r e v i o u s libel p r o c e e d i n g s .' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 17 spectacle o f 'their m a n ' in the d o c k at the O l d B a i l e y a m e r e e i g h t w e e k s later. w e r e formally c h a r g e d w i t h h a v i n g c o m m i t t e d acts p r o s c r i b e d u n d e r s e c t i o n 1 1 o f the C r i m i n a l L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t o f 1 8 8 5 . the a m e n d m e n t s u g g e s t e d v a g u e l y that a n y m a n c o m m i t t i n g . T h u s it w a s that the ' L a b o u c h è r e A m e n d m e n t ' . s o o n d u b b e d (by a l a w y e r ) the 'Blackmailer's Charter'. Instead. cases h a d s o u g h t to normally only been brought w h e n 'public decency' was outraged. T h e a m e n d m e n t w a s d e b a t e d o n the floor o f the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s late o n the n i g h t o f 6 A u g u s t 1 8 8 5 a n d a p p r o v e d w i t h o n l y m i n o r changes . the E n g l i s h l a w y e r s ' preferred term) had b e e n illegal. it is perhaps appropriate h e r e briefly to c o n s i d e r the C r i m i n a l L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t a n d its n o t o r i o u s section 1 1 .a n d a n y o n e h e l p i n g h i m to c o m m i t . Specifics a n d such legal niceties as ' b u g g e r y ' h a d n o part in it. h o w e v e r .c o n t r o v e r s i a l H o u s e o f C o m m o n s bill d e s i g n e d to raise the a g e o f female c o n s e n t (from thirteen) a n d c u r b the ' w h i t e slave trade' in girls sent against their w i l l to w o r k in f o r e i g n brothels. the ' B l a c k m a i l e r ' s C h a r t e r ' . w h e n W i l d e a n d Alfred T a y l o r .' a n y act o f gross i n d e c e n c y ' . p r o p o s e d a last-minute parliamentary attention. the suppression o f brothels newspaper to insert a n e w clause h e a d e d ' O u t r a g e s o n p u b l i c d e c e n c y ' that the B i l l attracted a n y real . In v i e w o f its later significance a n d the part it w a s t o p l a y in the lives o f h o m o s e x u a l m e n for a n o t h e r three-quarters o f a c e n t u r y . It w a s a catch-all m e a s u r e . I n p r a c t i c e .

o r p r o c u r e s .t h r e e at t h e Parish o f Saint J o h n the Baptist S a v o y in the C o u n t y o f L o n d o n a n d w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the said C o u r t u n l a w f u l l y d i d p r o c u r e t h e c o m m i s s i o n b y the said O s c a r F i n g a l O ' F l a h e r t i e W i l l s W i l d e b e i n g a m a l e p e r s o n o f acts o f gross i n d e c e n c y w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n the said C h a r l e s P a r k e r [ C o u n t 2] . that the said O s c a r F i n g a l O ' F l a h e r t i e W i l l s W i l d e [. the dry legal l a n g u a g e m a k i n g e v e n starker the nature o f the charges: that A L F R E D T A Y L O R o n the said fourteenth day o f M a r c h in the y e a r o f o u r L o r d o n e t h o u s a n d eight h u n d r e d a n d n i n e t y . C o u n t 1 9 ] .] d i d c o m m i t acts o f gross i n d e c e n c y w i t h a n o t h e r m a l e p e r s o n to the j u r o r s aforesaid u n k n o w n [ C o u n t 1 8 . . T h e w o r d i n g o f those h a d b e e n b a d e n o u g h : T h e J u r o r s for o u r L a d y the Q u e e n u p o n their oath present that i. c o m m i t s . a n d b e i n g c o n v i c t e d shall b e liable at the discretion o f the C o u r t to b e i m p r i s o n e d for a n y t e r m e x c e e d i n g t w o y e a n . O n a n d o n they w e n t . a n y act o f gross i n d e c e n c y shall b e g u i l t y o f m i s d e m e a n o u r . H e a n d T a y l o r w e r e originally i n d i c t e d o n n o less than t w e n t y five c o u n t s . ' 31 not T h o s e s i x t y . .t h r e e at the Parish o f Saint J o h n the Baptist S a v o y in the C o u n t y o f L o n d o n a n d w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the said C o u r t b e i n g a m a l e p e r s o n u n l a w f u l l y did c o m m i t acts o f gross i n d e c e n c y w i t h a n o t h e r m a l e p e r s o n to w i t o n e C h a r l e s P a r k e r against the f o r m o f the statute in such case m a d e a n d p r o v i d e d a n d against the p e a c e o f o u r said L a d y the Q u e e n h e r c r o w n a n d dignity. . w i t h a n o t h e r m a l e p e r s o n to w i t o n e E d w a r d S h e l l e y [ C o u n t 2 5 ] .e i g h t w o r d s w e r e the cross o n w h i c h W i l d e w a s to b e nailed. F o r the r e c o r d . section 1 1 read as f o l l o w s : ' A n y m a l e p e r s o n w h o .18 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S c a m e o n to the statute b o o k w h e n the C r i m i n a l L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t f o r m a l l y b e c a m e l a w o n i J a n u a r y 1 8 8 6 . . . . . . in p u b l i c o r in p r i v a t e . c o u n t after c o u n t . o r is a party to the c o m m i s s i o n of. First O S C A R Count F I N G A L O ' F L A H E R T I E W I L L S W I L D E o n the fourteenth d a y o f M a r c h in the y e a r o f o u r L o r d o n e t h o u s a n d eight h u n d r e d a n d n i n e t y . . w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n the said A l f r e d W o o d [ C o u n t 1 4 ] . o r attempts to p r o c u r e the c o m m i s s i o n b y a n y m a l e p e r s o n of. w i t h o r w i t h o u t hard l a b o u r .

despite an i n t e r v e n t i o n f r o m his c o u n s e l . will to prevent the whole of the details of what actually took place It is your right to know what did guess. w h e n it retired it w a s u n a b l e to r e a c h a n y u n a n i ­ m o u s v e r d i c t . It w a s as a result o f this ('the T h i r d T r i a l o f O s c a r W i l d e ' ) that the p l a y w r i g h t f o u n d h i m s e l f standing in the d o c k o f the O l d B a i l e y o n the a f t e r n o o n o f Saturday 2 5 M a y 1 8 9 5 . . T h i s t i m e r o u n d . the n e w j u d g e . e v e r y t h i n g w a s m o r e focused. h a d d r a w n h i m b a c k i n t o the c e n t r e o f the a c t i o n in the p r o s e c u t i o n ' s o p e n i n g s p e e c h to the j u r y : . a m i n u t e . T o those in the court.b y .m a l e j u r y c a n e v e n h a v e i m a g i n e d . Before h e h a d b e e n o n his feet for t w o m i n u t e s . S i r E d w a r d C l a r k e . h e w a s g o n e b u t hardly f o r g o t t e n . I fear t h e r e is n o c h a n c e agreement. e v e n in a b b r e v i ­ ated f o r m .' E x a s p e r a t e d . T h e trial itself ('the S e c o n d T r i a l o f O s c a r W i l d e ' ) w a s an unsatisfac­ tory affair. / insist that no false delicacy be allowed from being laid before you. h o w e v e r . a n d there w e r e t w o crucial differences to the m a n n e r in w h i c h things w e r e h a n d l e d . after listening to tales the substance o f w h i c h f e w o f the m e m b e r s o f the a l l . D e s p i t e the fact that W i l d e ' s n a m e a p p e a r e d first o n the i n d i c t m e n t . d e c i d e d to h e a r first the case against T a y l o r . A c c o r d i n g to the official transcript o f the trial. the j u d g e h a d n o o p t i o n b u t to o r d e r a re-trial. fills a n o t h e r 1 4 6 . 33 of take place. W i l d e w a s m e a n w h i l e ' t a k e n b e l o w to the cells'.m i n u t e a c c o u n t o f six days w h i c h w e r e to alter i r r e v o c a b l y the w a y in w h i c h E n g l i s h m e n a n d w o m e n s a w the w o r l d . and nothing ought to be left to you to . M r J u s t i c e W i l l s . F o r the p r e v i o u s f i v e days a n e w j u r y h a d listened to w h a t w a s essentially the same e v i d e n c e that their p r e d e ­ cessors h a d heard. A f t e r f o u r a n d a h a l f h o u r s o f d e l i b e r a t i o n the f o r e m a n h a d to i n f o r m the j u d g e : ' M y l o r d .G e n e r a l .t r i a l the indictment itself runs to m o r e than eight pages. . S i r F r a n k L o c k w o o d .f i v e c o u n t s w e r e r e d u c e d to a m o r e m a n a g e a b l e fourteen — a n d T a y l o r a n d W i l d e w e r e tried separately. gentlemen.' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 19 32 In a transcript o f the trial a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e . that a detailed e x a m i n a t i o n o f the malfeasances o f T a y l o r w o u l d p r e j u d i c e the j u r y against his m o r e illustrious client. W h a t f o l l o w e d . the first case w i t h w h i c h I shall deal is that T a y l o r a t t e m p t e d to p r o c u r e the c o m m i s s i o n o f certain acts b y M r O s c a r W i l d e w i t h a y o u n g m a n n a m e d C h a r l e s P a r k e r . the S o l i c i t o r . Sensational stories w e r e aired but. T h e original t w e n t y .

t h e n a g e d e i g h t e e n .20 HEROES AND VILLAINS A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r the o r i g i n a l trial n o r this re-trial w a s e v e r a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n fairly c o n d u c t e d . 3 4 M o m e n t s later. were . P a r k e r r e c a l l e d h o w . ' He w a s o n l y the first o f a c h a i n o f p r o s e c u t i o n witnesses. N o o n e n o w w a s h o l d i n g b a c k o n the 'filth' a n d t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d against T a y l o r s e r v e d as little m o r e than an hors d ' o e u v r e to the revelations w h i c h w o u l d b e s e r v e d u p against Wilde. H e o n c e stayed for t h r e e w e e k s . [ P a r k e r replied] W i l d e said to m e . a n d his b r o t h e r W i l l i a m to W i l d e at a restaurant ('I t h i n k it w a s the S o l f e r i n o ' ) in M a r c h 1 8 9 3 . he and T a y l o r 'slept t o g e t h e r in the s a m e b e d . the unofficial rules o f e n g a g e m e n t w e r e quite different from those w h i c h h a d o b t a i n e d d u r i n g the earlier libel p r o c e e d i n g s . l e a v i n g m y b r o t h e r a n d T a y l o r b e h i n d . I h a v e seen A l f r e d W o o d there. ' A n d t h e n ? ' h e w a s asked. the l a n d l a d y o f the h o u s e in w h i c h T a y l o r l o d g e d until A u g u s t 1 8 9 3 d e s c r i b e d h o w n o w o m e n s e e m e d to visit h i m . M o r e d r i n k w a s offered y o u there? — Y e s . o n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n . for w h i c h W i l d e paid. T h e r e only m e n . w e h a d liqueurs. T a y l o r called m e " D a r l i n g " a n d referred t o m e as his "little w i f e " . O n l y h e a n d I w e n t . W h e n I left h e p a i d m e s o m e m o n e y . A t the S a v o y w e w e n t first to W i l d e ' s sitting r o o m o n the s e c o n d floor. W i l d e t h e n a s k e d m e to g o i n t o his b e d r o o m w i t h h i m . W i t h y o u r c o n s e n t ? — (Witness d i d n o t reply. y o u n g m e n f r o m s i x t e e n to thirty. C h a r l e s P a r k e r w a s c o a x e d i n t o telling the c o u r t h o w T a y l o r h a d i n t r o d u c e d h i m .) D i d W i l d e g i v e y o u a n y m o n e y o n that o c c a s i o n ? — B e f o r e I left W i l d e g a v e m e £ 2 . a n d fell i n t o c o n v e r s a t i o n . ' T h i s is the b o y for m e ! W i l l y o u g o to the S a v o y H o t e l w i t h m e ? ' I c o n s e n t e d . S u b s e q u e n t l y . h e said I s h o u l d n e v e r w a n t for cash a n d that h e would 35 i n t r o d u c e m e to m e n p r e p a r e d to p a y for that k i n d o f t h i n g . O t h e r s w e r e S i d n e y M a v o r . a n d W i l d e d r o v e m e in a cab to the hotel. telling m e to call at the S a v o y H o t e l in a week. A m o n g m a n y others. T h e f o u r m e n t h e n h a d d i n n e r . L e t us k n o w w h a t o c c u r r e d there? — H e c o m m i t t e d the act o f sodomy on me.

any o f the p u b l i c . E x t r a o r d i n a r i l y . I f y o u m e a n d i d I c o m m i t acts o f i n d e c e n c y . D i d y o u e v e r sleep w i t h M a s o n ? . M a v o r a n d M a s o n stayed t h e r e for nights w i t h T a y l o r . w h e n the case against T a y l o r h a d b e e n c o n c l u d e d . T h e r e w e r e frequent tea parties. the landlady w a s a l l o w e d to add. P r e s s e d to say ' h o w m a n y different m e n h a v e shared y o u r b e d r o o m ' — a n d n a m e t h e m . ( T a y l o r w a s f o u n d g u i l t y o n t w o o f the six c o u n t s w i t h w h i c h h e w a s finally c h a r g e d . five o f w h o m w e r e already familiar to the court.I d o n ' t I d i d n o t use that t e r m . a l w a y s g e n t l e m e n .h e m e n t i o n e d six. a further " O s c a r " . m e n o r w o m e n ? .) .' O n the s e c o n d day o f the re-trial.'FOR T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 21 C h a r l e s M a s o n .I t h i n k I d i d the first n i g h t . S i r F r a n k L o c k w o o d did n o t press for details o f the sixth ('I w i l l spare y o u r m o t h e r that') a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d instead o n the details o f T a y l o r ' s singular lifestyle: D o y o u remember going through a form o f marriage with M a s o n ? . D i d y o u n o t tell P a r k e r that y o u had? .O h .G e n e r a l ' s c r o s s . a n d ' D e a r b o y ' .t i m e p u p i l at M a r l b o r o u g h C o l ­ l e g e . p o s t p o n e d until the case against W i l d e h a d b e e n heard.s c h o o l sangfroid h e m i g h t o n c e h a v e possessed w i t h e r e d b e f o r e the S o l i c i t o r . h o w e v e r . I d e n y it all. T u e s d a y 2 1 M a y . W h o c a m e to t h e m . W i l d e h i m s e l f d i d n o t appear in c o u r t again until the f o l l o w i n g d a y . T a y l o r g a v e e v i d e n c e in his o w n d e f e n c e .It is all false. A f t e r w a r d s h e h a d a separate b e d .N o . b u t I h a v e n e v e r seen M r W i l d e there. I d i d n o t . a n d E r n e s t M a c k l i n .b u t it still a m o u n t e d to a pre-trial b y i m p l i c a t i o n o f W i l d e . dear'. W e r e y o u o n terms o f affection w i t h h i m ? . S e n t e n c i n g w a s . D i d y o u n o t place a w e d d i n g ring o n his f i n g e r a n d g o to b e d w i t h h i m that n i g h t as t h o u g h he w e r e y o u r l a w f u l w i f e ? . A o n e . never. W e d n e s d a y 2 2 M a y . 3 6 Christian names — T h i s w a s e v i d e n c e against T a y l o r . T a y l o r used to address his visitors b y their ' C h a r l i e .N o t h i n g o f the k i n d . 37 innuendo- laden sentence: ' I h a v e h e a r d T a y l o r talking to s o m e o n e h e called understand y o u r question. d i r e c d y after the last a n s w e r q u o t e d a b o v e .N o . nothing. N o burlesque ceremony? .e x a m i n a t i o n .

In the c l o s i n g h o u r s o f the trial the j u d g e . T h e r e w a s l a u g h t e r in the p u b l i c galleries at s o m e o f his responses.h a d h e a r d the details o f T a y l o r ' s b e h a v i o u r . a n d h a d I k n o w n it I s h o u l d n o t h a v e cared. b u t to b e pestered w i t h the applause o r expressions o f feeling o f senseless p e o p l e w h o h a v e n o . I h a v e a great fancy for g i v i n g cigarette cases. D e n s e legal a r g u m e n t resulted in o n e o f the e i g h t i n d i c t m e n t s specifically n a m i n g W i l d e b e i n g d r o p p e d . D i d y o u g i v e o n e to C h a r l e s P a r k e r also? . .O h .Y e s . I l i k e d h i m 3 9 [. n o w his o w n ' A e s t h e t i c i s m ' w a s to b e w e i g h e d against the sterile strictures o f the C r i m i n a l L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t . T o young men? — Y e s . W i l d e badly m i s ­ j u d g e d the m o o d o f b o t h the c o u r t a n d the p u b l i c outside. H o w m a n y h a v e y o u g i v e n ? — I m i g h t h a v e g i v e n s e v e n o r eight in 1 8 9 2 a n d 1 8 9 3 3 8 [. T w o days passed.Y e s . S i l v e r ? — W e l l . Y o u h a v e n o sense o f social differences? — N o . T h e j u r y . to k e e p the scales e v e n . to w h i c h his h a d so effectively b e e n y o k e d . felt b o u n d to r e m a r k that ' T o h a v e to try a case o f this k i n d .N o . W h y ? . b u t h e hardly h e l p e d his counsel's case w h e n e x p o s e d to the w i t h e r i n g l y accurate q u e s t i o n i n g o f the Solicitor-General: D o y o u r e m e m b e r g i v i n g M a v o r a cigarette case? . . telling their stories o f assignations at t h e S a v o y H o t e l a n d e l s e w h e r e .] - H o w m u c h m o n e y h a v e y o u g i v e n C h a r l e s P a r k e r in cash? F o u r o r five p o u n d s .I m a k e n o preferences. Y o u p r e f e r r e d C h a r l e s ? . . Y o u like bright boys? . Charles Parker was bright.a n d a far w i d e r p u b l i c outside the c o u r t . a n d d o o n e ' s d u t y is hard e n o u g h .] D i d y o u k n o w at the t i m e that the Parkers w e r e a valet a n d a g r o o m r e s p e c t i v e l y ? . y e s . M r J u s t i c e W i l l s . I g i v e y o u n g m e n m o n e y w i t h pleasure. " 4 In quite literally p l a y i n g to the gallery l i k e this. It w a s n o t until F r i d a y 2 4 M a y that W i l d e b e g a n g i v i n g e v i d e n c e o n his o w n behalf. b u t I a m afraid it cost o n l y £1. .I like bright boys. It cost £4. C h a r l e s P a r k e r a n d o t h e r b o y s p a r a d e d t h r o u g h the witness b o x .22 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S R i g h t f r o m the start W i l d e w a s o n a h i d i n g to n o t h i n g .

T . the etiolated. as W i l d e a n d T a y l o r s t o o d in the d o c k for sentencing. T h e original m a n u s c r i p t (not p u b l i s h e d in its entirety until 1 9 4 9 ) is cast in the f o r m o f a letter. r e f l e x i v e passion w h i c h fires De Profundis is the author's a l o n e . it b e g i n s : . A sentimental n o t i o n o f abstract l o v e is at the heart o f ' T h e B a l l a d o f R e a d i n g G a o l ' . O s c a r F i n g a l O ' F l a h e r t i e W i l l s W i l d e . M r J u s t i c e W i l l s m a d e n o secret o f his feelings. u n d e r the circumstances. h o w e v e r . S o m e t i m e T r o o p e r o f the R o y a l H o r s e G u a r d ' . In m y j u d g e m e n t it is totally i n a d e q u a t e for such a case as this. h e w a s e q u a l l y u n e q u i v o c a l : T h a t y o u . S o m e kill their l o v e w h e n t h e y are y o u n g . T h e s e n t e n c e o f the C o u r t is that e a c h o f y o u b e i m p r i s o n e d a n d k e p t to hard l a b o u r for t w o y e a r s . W i l d e seeks to b l a m e B o s i e . A n d that y o u . B u t i f that c o u l d r e a c h o u t and e m b r a c e strangers. S o m e w i t h the hands o f G o l d . ' T h e r e w a s a certain inevitability a b o u t things. b e e x p e c t e d to pass the severest s e n t e n c e that the l a w a l l o w s . T a y l o r . Passing s e n t e n c e . h a v e b e e n the c e n t r e o f a circle o f e x t e n s i v e c o r r u p t i o n o f the m o s t h i d e o u s k i n d a m o n g y o u n g m e n . R u n n i n g to s o m e e i g h t y pages. b u t r e t u r n e d shortly b e f o r e six o ' c l o c k w i t h their v e r d i c t that W i l d e t o o w a s guilty — o n six o f the s e v e n counts o n w h i c h h e h a d finally b e e n charged. for e v e r y t h i n g that has h a p p e n e d to h i m . A n d s o m e w h e n t h e y are o l d . k e p t a k i n d o f m a l e b r o t h e l it is i m p o s s i b l e to d o u b t . . . T h e j u r y h a d b e e n o u t for a httle u n d e r t h r e e h o u r s .' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 23 business to b e h e r e at all e x c e p t for the gratification o f m o r b i d c u r i o s i t y . B e f o r e t h e y retired h e h a d c o m m i s e r a t e d w i t h the j u r y o v e r 'the h o r r i b l e n a t u r e o f the c h a r g e s ' t h e y h a d h e a r d . 41 T a y l o r n e e d n o l o n g e r detain us. a n d t h r o u g h h i m the w o r l d at large. is t o o m u c h . . o n that S a t u r d a y e v e n i n g . casts a l o n g s h a d o w . W . I shall. it is equally i m p o s s i b l e to d o u b t . t h e n . W i l d e . W i l d e ' s m e d i t a t i o n o n the e x e c u t i o n o f ' C . ' I n p r i s o n a n d in chains'. 2 5 M a y 1 8 9 5 . S o m e strangle w i t h the hands o f L u s t .

h a d b e e n m a d e p u b l i c . e x c e p t s u c h as g a v e m e pain. T h e St James's air. Gazette w e l c o m e d w h a t it called 'a dash o f w h o l e s o m e b i g o t r y ' . D E A R BOSIE. bitterness a n d c o n t e m p t had built u p in W i l d e ' s heart. a n d h a d accepted. the editorship o f the Lady's World: A Magazine of Fashion and Society . B e f o r e the j u r y retired in the third trial M r J u s t i c e W i l l s h a d told t h e m : ' W h a t e v e r y o u r v e r d i c t m a y b e . y e t the m e m o r y o f o u r ancient affection is often w i t h m e . O u r ill-fated a n d m o s t lamentable friendship has e n d e d in ruin a n d p u b l i c i n f a m y for m e . the substance w h i c h u n d e r l a y all the smirks a n d i n n u e n d o . A bare eight years p r e v i o u s l y . as m u c h for y o u r sake as m i n e . g e n t l e m e n . h o w ­ e v e r . W i l d e h a d b e e n offered. R E A D I N G .l a d e n stories o f M a u d l e a n d the other A e s t h e t e s . bitterness l o v e is v e r y sad to m e . T h e l e v e l o f r e s e n t m e n t w h i c h h a d built u p against h i m a n d the w h o l e A e s t h e t i c m o v e m e n t w a s reflected in the t e n o r o f the press c o m m e n t in the i m m e d i a t e aftermath o f the trial. . N o r c o u l d it. ' O v e r a p e r i o d o f a v e r y f e w w e e k s .2 4 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S Epistola: In Carcere et Vinculis H. virtually e v e r y o t h e r p a p e r c o u l d . real a n d fictional. it c a n n o t l e a v e things p r e c i s e l y as t h e y w e r e b e f o r e this trial.' c r i e d the Daily Telegraph. a b l i n d b e w i l d e r m e n t t o o . a n d the t h o u g h t that loathing. . guilty o r i n n o c e n t . PRISON.' Nor d i d it. in the nasty f o r m . L o a t h i n g . N o r c o u l d h e a p p r e c i ­ ate a n y t h i n g o t h e r than the personal implications o f his i m p r i s o n m e n t . — A f t e r l o n g a n d fruitless w a i t i n g I h a v e d e t e r m i n e d t w o l o n g years o f to w r i t e to y o u myself. i n 1 8 8 7 . W h i l e News c o u l d n o t b r i n g itself 'to gloat o v e r the ruin o f the Reynolds's unhappy and c o n t e m p t s h o u l d f o r e v e r take the place in m y heart o n c e h e l d b y m a n ' . O t h e r s c o u l d . M. is o v e r . o r a n y n e w s o r m e s s a g e e v e n . ' O p e n the w i n d o w s ! L e t in the fresh B u t it w a s the News of the World w h i c h really g o t to the heart o f the matter w h e n it told its readers o n 2 6 M a y 1 8 9 5 : ' T h e aesthetic cult. a n d s a w w i d e r implications in his p e r s o n a l t r a g e d y . as I w o u l d n o t l i k e to t h i n k that I h a v e passed t h r o u g h i m p r i s o n m e n t w i t h o u t e v e r h a v i n g r e c e i v e d a single line from y o u . H e c o u l d n o t c o m p r e h e n d h o w and w h y e v e r y t h i n g h a d c h a n g e d so fundamentally. the m e r e presence o f W i l d e in the d o c k c h a n g e d the w h o l e p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n o f the h o m o s e x u a l .

an E a s t e r n c o s t u m e . A prurient interest was taken at the O l d B a i l e y in the stories o f soiled sheets at the S a v o y H o t e l ('I f o u n d it necessary to call the attention o f the h o u s e k e e p e r to the c o n d i t i o n o f M r W i l d e ' s b e d . A l l a l o n g . D u r i n g the earlier part o f the trial T a y l o r ' s s o m e t i m e described in h e r e v i d e n c e h o w his r o o m s ' w e r e furnished landlady sumptu­ ously'. 42 Standard Wilde Maurice r e p o r t e d the Q u e e n s b e r r y libel case it s p o k e o n l y o f a c a r d d e s c r i b i n g h i m s e l f q u i c k l y b e c a m e the c r i m e . S h e h a d also. w a s fastened b y a g o l d b r o o c h p i n . M . seen 'a w o m a n ' s w i g a n d shoes a n d s t o c k i n g s ' .' F O R T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 25 ( c o m m e n d a b l y . o n e o f his first actions h a d b e e n to c h a n g e the m a g a ­ zine's title to Woman's looks or contemptuous World) a n d the w o r l d at large h a d a p p l a u d e d knowing automatic w h a t w a s seen as a s h r e w d career m o v e . a n d h o w . s o d o m y o r 'gross i n d e c e n c y ' . m u c h w a s m a d e o f this w h e n T a y l o r h i m s e l f g a v e e v i d e n c e : B u t there w e r e articles o f w o m e n ' s dress in y o u r r o o m s ? — N o . S. W a s it m a d e for a w o m a n ? . quite literally. ' v e g e t a b l e l o v e ' a n d the d i m l y d i s c e r n e d . T h e sheets w e r e stained in a p e c u l i a r w a y ' ) a n d o t h e r d u b i o u s matters d u r i n g W i l d e ' s v a r i o u s trials. h o w h e 'used to b u r n scent in t h e m ' . A s A l a n S i n f i e l d has d e m o n s t r a t e d . W h e n the L o n d o n Evening ' O s c a r W i l d e p o s i n g as — ' . R i g h t u p until his arrest W i l d e w a s . T a y l o r ' s n i g h t shirt. B u t chiefly b e c a u s e n o o n e h a d h e a r d such stories b e f o r e . the r o o m s w e r e a l w a y s ' l i g h t e d b y differ­ ent c o l o u r e d lamps a n d candles'. the ' l o a t h s o m e ' nature o f the defendants' b e h a v i o u r w a s p r e s e n t e d as a s h o c k i n g . there w a s a fancy dress for a female.I think so. N a t u r a l l y . c o m m i t t i n g a c r i m e w h i c h dared n o t speak its n a m e . Forster's n o v e l (written in 1 9 1 4 . u n e x p e c t e d o b v e r s e to their o u t w a r d l y 'sophisticated' y e t materially c o n s e r v a t i v e lifestyle. G i l b e r t ' s ' p u r e y o u n g m e n ' . she m e n t i o n e d . In E . scarcely i m a g i n a b l e p h y s i c a l realities o f b u g g e r y . 'artists'. M e m ­ ories o f the C l e v e l a n d Street scandal still l i n g e r e d . b u t n o t p u b l i s h e d until 1 9 7 1 ) the e p o n y m o u s h e r o can d o n o better (or w o r s e ) than call h i m s e l f 'an u n s p e a k a b l e o f the O s c a r W i l d e sort'. T h e r e w e r e n o titters b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s t h e n n o c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n A e s t h e t i c effeminacy. . she recalled. b u t it w a s W i l d e ' s p r e s e n c e in the d o c k w h i c h tore a w a y the last vestiges o f the i n n o c e n c e o f Gilbert and Sullivan's 'pure y o u n g m e n ' . b e c a u s e the curtains w e r e n e v e r o p e n e d . W .

26 HEROES AND VILLAINS P e r h a p s y o u w o r e it? . at C o v e n t G a r d e n a n d at Q u e e n ' s G a t e H a l l . e v e n in his s u m m i n g .I p u t it o n o n c e b y w a y o f a lark. T h e m e d i c a l e v i d e n c e w o u l d h a v e t h r o w n light o n w h a t has b e e n alluded to as marks o f grease o r v a s e l i n e smears. b u t I m u s t say that in m y v i e w ' C h i c k e n a n d salad for t w o . 'inverts'. C o v e n t G a r d e n . t h e r e w a s the diarrhoea line o f d e f e n c e . M r J u s t i c e W i l l s effectively y o k e d t o g e t h e r these p o t e n t i m a g e s o f an u n h e a l t h y c o u p l i n g o f the beau monde a n d the demi-monde: T h e sums t o o w h i c h a p p e a r e d o n the [ S a v o y H o t e l ] bill are h i g h for s u c h a supper. a n d c a u s e d M a s o n afterwards to w e a r . . a w o m a n ' s g a r m e n t . w h i c h afterwards d i d for M a s o n ? — N o .v o l u m e c o l l e c t i o n o f Essays w h i c h h a d first a p p e a r e d in 1 8 4 3 . ' w r o t e L o r d M a c a u l a y . they c o u l d take. I w a s g o i n g to a ball as D i c k W h i t t i n g t o n . w o m e n ' s stockings . F a r f r o m b e i n g the i n n o c e n t e x e m p ­ lars o f ' p u r i t y ' .H a r d l y that. p e r m a n e n t l y c l o s e d curtains. A n d a w o m a n ' s w i g . ' W e k n o w o f n o spectacle so ridiculous as the B r i t i s h p u b l i c in o n e o f its p e r i o d i c fits o f m o r a l i t y . . this latest fit o f m o r a l i t y t h r e a t e n e d to e x p o s e W i l d e ' s circle to far m o r e than m e r e ridicule. ( T h a t . T h e n . is v e r y h i g h . 1 6 shillings'.the n e o l o g i s t i c t e r m ' h o m o s e x u a l ' w a s n e v e r used — whose newly revealed behaviour was 'abominable' and 'loathsome'. 4 3 T h e S a v o y H o t e l . lace drawers. I a m afraid I shall n e v e r h a v e s u p p e r there myself. It is a l o a t h s o m e subject. I suggest that y o u often dressed as a w o m a n ? . b u t I m a k e a p o i n t o f n e v e r s h r i n k i n g f r o m details that are absolutely necessary. w i t h the dress? . stained sheets. at the carnivals at O l y m p i a . . the Aesthetes h a d a b r u p d y b e c o m e ' b u g g e r s ' . . the w i g w a s m a d e for m e . I m u s t state h e r e that I w i s h that m e d i c a l e v i d e n c e h a d b e e n called. w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the c o n d i t i o n o f the b e d . O n n o o t h e r o c c a s i o n ? . B u t that w a s in his t h r e e .u p . the m o r e c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y 'aesthetic' Aesthetes h a d b e e n p u t t i n g u p . I k n o w n o t h i n g a b o u t the S a v o y . ' p e r v e r t s ' o r ' s o d o m i t e s ' . 4 4 T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s w e r e i n e v i t a b l e .N o . Y o u w o r e . I w o r e k n i c k e r ­ b o c k e r s a n d stockings u n d e r a l o n g o p e n c l o a k w h i c h w a s fastened at the waist. H a l f a c e n t u r y o n . . .I w o r e it t o o at fancy dress balls. W o m a n ' s stockings? — Y e s .

a n d in B r i t a i n his Jin w e r e . w h e n e v e n t u a l l y h e w a s released f r o m c u s t o d y in R e a d i n g G a o l o n 1 9 M a y 1 8 9 7 . F o r all his assertions that he w o u l d stay. H e d i e d in Paris less than three years later. quite literally. 45 D o z e n s o f W i l d e ' s friends 'fell a w a y ' . . Hesketh P e a r s o n has m e m o r a b l y described a ' h o l i d a y rush' o f m e n w h o a b r u p t l y d e c i d e d to take v a c a t i o n s o f i n d e t e r m i n a t e l e n g t h in all the familiar F r e n c h resorts. R i c h a r d E l l m a n n R o b b i e R o s s w e n t to the T e r m i n u s H o t e l in Calais. the c o l u m n s o f Punch the d i n i n g r o o m s o f L o n d o n . w h a t e v e r the c o n s e q u e n c e s . W i l d e t o o . N o t entirely surprisingly. o n 3 0 N o v e m b e r 1 9 0 0 . h a d litde o p t i o n b u t to l e a v e the c o u n t r y . B u t the truth w a s out.b o y s ' a n d 'shirt-lifters'.r a n g i n g p u r g e of homosexual men. ) N o r w a s it j u s t W i l d e ' s circle: his c o n v i c t i o n o p e n e d u p the v e r y real possibility o f a w i d e . 600 m e n h a d b o a r d e d D o v e r — C a l a i s ferries — ten times the usual number.m u g g e r . a n d others w e r e n o t so l u c k y . a friend h a d w r i t t e n to the w r i t e r E d m u n d G o s s e p o i n t i n g o u t that. B y t h e n h e w a s almost forgotten. a g e n t e e l sort o f p a n i c e n s u e d . o n l y interested in 'a bit o f b r o w n ' .y a l l e r y . U n m a r r i e d vicars a n d b a c h e l o r uncles w e r e g r a n t e d the t o k e n m u n i t y they h a d a l w a y s e n j o y e d : t h e y w e r e j u s t ' s o ' o r ' m u s i c a l ' o r 'that w a y ' . o f course. E v e n b e f o r e the o p e n i n g o f W i l d e ' s final trial. things o f the past. a n d 46 t h e n travelled o n to R o u e n . E r s t w h i l e ' p u r e y o u n g m e n ' w e r e n o w ' b u m . records. o n o n e night.'FOR T H E P U B L I C B E N E F I T ' 27 and w i t h it for years in the streets o f O x f o r d . L o r d R o n a l d G o w e r a n d m o r e t h a n o n e o f the witnesses f r o m the s e c o n d trial also d e c i d e d that t h e y w o u l d b e better o f f abroad. G r o s v e n o r G a l l e r y ' w o r l d sub-culture imr e m a i n e d . W i l d e cast a l o n g s h a d o w . A h o m o s e x u a l de siècle A e s t h e t i c i s m a n d Patience's ' g r e e n e r y . s e c r e t i v e a n d diffuse. b u t it w a s h u g g e r .

the s o m e w h a t e c c e n ­ tric I n d e p e n d e n t M P a n d f o u n d e r . editors. s h o u l d he h a v e c h a n c e d to read it: T h e r e exists in the Cabinet noire o f a certain G e r m a n p r i n c e [the article insisted] a b o o k c o m p i l e d b y the S e c r e t S e r v i c e f r o m the reports o f G e r m a n agents w h o h a v e infested this c o u n t r y for the past t w e n t y years. y o u t h s o f the chorus. w h i l e diplo­ mats. u l t r a .e d i t o r o f the Imperialist. a n d its suggestion o f w i d e s p r e a d m o r a l a n d s e x u a l d e v i a n c e a m o n g the m o s t e m i n e n t in s o c i e t y w o u l d h a v e astonished — or. 0 0 0 ' . p o e t s . . P u b l i s h e d at a t i m e w h e n B r i t a i n (and its E m p i r e ) w a s still at w a r w i t h G e r m a n y . to w r i t e this r e m a i n s u n c l e a r .] o f forty-seven thousand English m e n and w o m e n . at o n c e i n d i g n a n t a n d u n g r a m 28 . m o r e l i k e l y .the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f w h a t b e c a m e k n o w n as the ' B l a c k B o o k ' has n e v e r b e e n p r o v e d . 1 Q u i t e w h a t p r o m p t e d N o ë l P e m b e r t o n . e v e n C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r s t h e m s e l v e s . the Imperialist w a s far f r o m a l o n e in highlighting The e x a m p l e s o f the a l l e g e d beastliness o f 'the H u n ' at this t i m e . M o r e than a t h o u s a n d pages are filled w i t h the n a m e s [. d a n c i n g girls.B i l h n g .'You and I are Outlaws' T H E L E A D A R T I C L E in a small.c o n s e r v a t i v e subscription m a g a ­ flourished d u r i n g the G r e a t W a r w a s hectoring ' A s I S e e It' p i e c e . article's f u l m i n a t o r y t o n e . n e w s p a p e r proprietors a n d m e m b e r s o f His Majesty's household follow each other with no order o f precedence. T h e names o f P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r s . frankly b e m u s e d — the a v e r a g e m a n in the street. . bankers. In the issue o f z i n e called the Imperialist w h i c h a l w a y s the editor's 2 6 J a n u a r y 1 9 1 8 this w a s entitled ' T h e First 4 7 . the p i e c e m a y w e l l h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d as n o m o r e than an e x e r c i s e in j i n g o i s t i c propagandizing. h o w e v e r . w i v e s o f C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r s .

w i t h o u t fear o r perpetuation W i t h ' T h e First 4 7 . P e m b e r t o n . The Well of Loneliness. it is v i v i d l y illustrative o f the m o o d o f the p e r i o d . E i g h t e e n m o n t h s p r e v i o u s l y h e h a d a n n o u n c e d favour.B i l h n g was pursuing private agenda. all those m e n a n d measures w h i c h m a k e for the o f o u r past political follies'. O n 1 O c t o b e r 1 9 1 3 H a r o l d N i c o l s o n . S e x u a l irregularity. little m o r e than ten years later M a r g u e r i t e R a d c l y f f e .t h u m p i n g . h o w e v e r . T h r e e quarters o f a c e n t u r y o n .B i l l i n g w a s w r i t i n g at a time w h e n sex a n d all matters s e x u a l w e r e for the first t i m e b e i n g seriously discussed.'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 29 a separate. S i g m u n d F r e u d h a d p u b l i s h e d Die Traumdeutung of Dreams). in 1 9 0 0 . w a s able to enter into w h a t w e w o u l d n o w call an o p e n . k n o w n story. T h u s it is n o surprise that h e implicitly y o k e d t o g e t h e r p r i v y c o u n c i l l o r s a n d the rather contemptu­ ously labelled ' y o u t h s o f the c h o r u s ' (and paralleled this z e u g m a w i t h the e v e n m o r e p i c t u r e s q u e c o u p l i n g o f the ' w i v e s o f C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r s ' a n d ' d a n c i n g girls'). The Psychopathology of Everyday (The Interpretation a r g u i n g that dreams are little m o r e than manifestations o f Life f o l l o w e d in in 1 9 0 5 . h e told his readers. that matical. Q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y . 2 his m a g a z i n e w o u l d 'not o n l y criticise b u t attack. the thrust o f his article seems alarmist a n d v a g u e l y absurd. the m e d i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i ­ cal t h e o r i z i n g w h i c h i m p l i c i t l y underpins o u r ' m o d e r n ' t h i n k i n g a b o u t e v e r y t h i n g from p r e g n a n c y to h o m o s e x u a l i t y a n d a tentative e x p e r i ­ m e n t a t i o n into the feasibility o f relationships a w o r l d a w a y f r o m the r e c e i v e d (but largely illusory) p i c t u r e o f the cosiness o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y family life w e r e s u b v e r t i n g p i n k i m p e r i a l certainties l o n g b e f o r e trouble in the B a l k a n s m o r e fundamentally c l o u d e d the h o r i z o n s o f those o n w h o s e E m p i r e the sun n e v e r set. M a r i e S t o p e s ' s Love. w a s the p r i m e q u a l i f i c a ­ tion for inclusion in the ' B l a c k B o o k ' . T h e intellectual climate w a s c h a n g i n g w i t h b e w i l d e r i n g rapidity.e d u c a t e d B r i t i s h d i p l o m a t . h e r b e t t e r first a p p e a r e d in 1 9 2 8 . 0 0 0 ' h e c a m e as close as h e dared to i d e n t i f y i n g n o t o n l y 'those m e n ' b u t also the u n d e r l y i n g cause o f ' o u r past political follies'. More 1 9 0 4 . Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality p i o n e e r i n g a d v o c a c y o f c o n t r a c e p t i o n a n d the idea o f family p l a n n i n g b e g a n in 1 9 1 6 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f h e r b o o k Married n o v e l Adam's insidiously. suggests that P e m b e r t o n . t h e n an O x f o r d . sexual desire. S t r i p p e d o f its t u b . N o r is it insignificant that h e c h o s e to i n c l u d e ' p o e t s ' a m o n g those he seems to h a v e b e e n b o t h d a m n i n g a n d d e f e n d i n g .H a l l ' s Breed w o n the F e m i n a V i e H e u r e u s e prize.

T h e r e is a spare r o o m a n d I w o u l d p a y for m y b o a r d . g r a p h i c a l l y illustrates b o t h the strength a n d the p u s s y .f o o t i n g necessary for the m a i n t e n a n c e o f such a m a r r i a g e . a c h a r m i n g flat at the R o n d P o i n t ( w h e r e I spent the whole o f Saturday n i g h t . j u s t as t h e y h a d in W i l d e ' s day.W e s t . F r e u d a n d F r e u d i a n t h e o r y h a d y e t to b e a d d u c e d as c o n t r i b u t o r y o r m i t i g a t i n g factors in the i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f cases o f ' i m m o r a l i t y ' a n d 'gross i n d e c e n c y ' b r o u g h t b e f o r e the courts.m e n l i k e H a r o l d N i c o l s o n r e m a i n e d the e x c e p t i o n s rather than the r u l e . a c c o u n t s o f the i n t i m a c y a n d e x t e n t o f N i c o l s o n ' s m o r e t e m p o r a r y h o m o s e x u a l dalliances are s o m e ­ w h a t m o r e c i r c u m s p e c t . M e a n w h i l e . E v e n b e f o r e it w a s celebrated h e h a d d e s c r i b e d the a r r a n g e m e n t as ' o u r a m a z i n g m a r r i a g e ' . N i c o l s o n c o n f i d e d : I h a v e g o t s u c h a funny n e w friend — a dressmaker. n o t unnaturally perhaps.v e r y attractive.30 HEROES AND VILLAINS m a r r i a g e w i t h V i t a S a c k v i l l e . S u c h a n i c e flat t o o . m o r e o r d i n a r y h o m o s e x u a l m e n w e r e singled o u t a n d p i l l o r i e d . . I think I shall stay there w h e n a n d i f I c o m e b a c k a n d n o t g o to the M a j e s t i c .a n d it w a s a l o n g aftermath. A letter h e w r o t e to V i t a as early as 1 9 1 9 . M y d r e s s m a k e r is o n l y 2 7 — a n d it is rather sporting to l a u n c h o u t into so elaborate an a d v e n t u r e at that a g e . 3 In the aftermath o f the W i l d e trials . R a t h e r . d e s c r i b i n g the b e g i n n i n g o f a liaison w i t h the c o u t u r i e r E d w a r d M o l y n e u x . I a m l u n c h i n g at the s h o p t o d a y . S h o c k w a v e s c o n t i n u e d to r e v e r b e r a t e until w e l l after the o u t b r e a k o f the G r e a t W a r .a n d any b o y s d i s p l a y i n g signs w h i c h c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d as w a r n i n g s o f an i n c i p i e n t e f f e m i n a c y w e r e firmly d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s the V i c t o r i a n 'straight a n d n a r r o w ' . m o n e y a n d social status c o c o o n e d the likes o f H a r o l d N i c o l s o n . M a r w o u l d l i k e m y n e w friend. I t h i n k . w i t h a large s h o p in the in the R u e R o y a l e .s l e e p i n g o n the b a l c o n y ) a n d a b o u t 1 0 m a n n e q u i n s o f surpassing b e a u t y . implicitly a c k n o w l e d g i n g that b e f o r e the w e d d i n g h e a n d V i t a h a d mutually a g r e e d o n a relationship in w h i c h b o t h w o u l d b e free to p u r s u e e x t r a ­ marital affairs w i t h m e m b e r s o f their o w n s e x .m a r k s (honesty a n d o p e n n e s s o n such a scale that w h e n their s o n N i g e l N i c o l s o n ' s b o o k Portrait of a Marriage p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 7 3 a r e v i e w w a s entitled 'Portrait o f a What?'). H o n e s t y a n d openness w e r e the o n l y b e n c h . was The n a t u r e o f V i t a ' s e n d u r i n g relationship w i t h V i r g i n i a W o o l f is w e l l d o c u m e n t e d . W r i t i n g from the offices o f the B r i t i s h D e l e g a t i o n in Paris.

[ M y father] said: ' Y o u ' v e b e e n h a v i n g letters from L o r d A l f r e d great attraction for m e [. t o o . 5 I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h his b i o g r a p h e r B e v i s H i l l i e r ( r e c o r d e d in 1 9 7 6 ) B e t j e m a n elaborated o n the e x t e n t to w h i c h w h a t w e w o u l d n o w call this h o m o p h o b i c p r e j u d i c e c l o u d e d his c h i l d h o o d a n d s c h o o l d a y s : W h e n I w a s at M a r l b o r o u g h I d i s c o v e r e d that O s c a r W i l d e w a s s o m e o n e o n e o u g h t n o t to m e n t i o n . since the b o o k w a s a gift from an o l d e r . T h e n e x t d a y his father e n l i g h t e n e d h i m . N i c h o l s fib. c o n s t r u e d this as m e a n i n g . ' N a r c i s s u s ' . B u t it w a s n o t j u s t that: A n d t h e n she said I w a s h e r p r e c i o u s c h i l d . the ultimate sanction for a n x i o u s u p p e r m i d d l e class parents.' Y O U A N D I A R E O U T L A W S ' 31 T h e w r i t e r B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s recalled h o w in a r o u n d 1 9 1 4 ( w h e n h e w o u l d h a v e b e e n in his m i d . ' T h a t is w h a t the m a n d i d .y o u . s o naturally h e h a d w a s actually still alive.m a n c o m i n g . S o I w r o t e to h i m from M a r l b o r o u g h . ' T h e h o r r i b l e c r i m e w h i c h is n o t to b e n a m e d ' .] T h e n I d i s c o v e r e d that L o r d A l f r e d D o u g l a s . w h o w e n t o n to r e a d L a t i n at O x f o r d . .t e e n a g e d son's ( s e e m i n g l y innocent) w i t h a similarly y o u n g b o y n a m e d B o b b y . s o m e things w e r e ' u n w h o l e s o m e ' : . . ' Y o u pretty little bastard! ripped it Y o u pretty little b o y ! ' his father s h o u t e d at h i m . 4 J o h n B e t j e m a n . e x p l o r e s B e t j e m a n ' s mother's friendship fears a b o u t h e r p r e . w h e n w e just did nothing w e w e r e g o o d B u t w h e n w e touched each other w e w e r e bad. ' h e said. h a n d i n g his s o n a sheet o f p a p e r o n w h i c h w a s w r i t t e n : Q U O D NON. A late b u t transparently a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p o e m . .t e e n s ) h e w a s d i s c o v e r e d b y his father r e a d i n g a c o p y o f The Picture of Dorian Gray. . e x p e r i e n c e d the m e a s u r e o f this a n t i . [His replies] a r r i v e d f r o m B e l g i u m a b o u t o n c e a w e e k w h i l e I w a s o n h o l i d a y in C o r n w a l l . w i t h i n a v e r y f e w years o f his death in 1 9 0 0 . N i c h o l s protested d i s i n g e n u o u s l y b y all t h e e v i d e n c e .g e t . o v e r t l y h o m o s e x u a l friend .' A n d t h e n h e spat o n the b o o k a n d apart w i t h his teeth.t o . . . ' O s c a r W i l d e ! T o think that m y son . E v e n b e f o r e the G r e a t W a r . A n d o n c e t h e r e w a s a m a n called O s c a r W i l d e .that h e k n e w n o t h i n g a b o u t W i l d e .W i l d e a n backlash a n d recalled h o w ' O s c a r ' h a d e m e r g e d as a n e w b o g e y . ' I L L U M C R I M E N H O R R I B I L E N O M i N A N D U M E S T ' .

it w a s i n t e n d e d to b e . and shattered. A r o u n d the turn o f the c e n t u r y h o m o s e x u a l s o f all ages and classes felt c o w e d a n d helpless. B o r n in 1 8 9 7 . h e had r e c o g n i z e d f r o m an early age that his inclinations w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y pédérastie. I k n e w b y n o w e x a c t l y w h a t I w a n t e d . n o w that the g e n i e w a s out o f the bottle: t w e n t y . 6 T h e reactions o f N i c h o l s père and B e t j e m a n père w e r e n o t uncommon. ' ' H e ' s a b u g g e r . n o w a n d then paired o f f in b e d for b o d i l y larks. D o y o u k n o w w h a t b u g g e r s are? B u g g e r s are t w o m e n w h o w o r k themselves u p into such a state o f m u t u a l a d m i r a t i o n that o n e puts his piss-pipe u p the o t h e r o n e ' s arse. it is c o n v e n i e n t but m i s l e a d i n g l y simplistic to call the h o m o s e x u a l ' c o m m u n i t y ' . N o t surprisingly. T h e distinguished j o u r n a l i s t and foreign c o r r e s p o n d e n t M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n w a s o n e such.u p s c o u l d b e h a v e j u s t as I felt like b e h a v i n g .t h r e e men c o n v i c t e d o f ' u n n a t u r a l c r i m e ' w e r e p u n i s h e d w i t h fifteen strokes o f the b i r c h e a c h in the t w e l v e m o n t h s b e t w e e n i N o v e m b e r 1 9 1 1 and 31 October 1912. in spite o f their endless talk a b o u t w o m e n . that unlucky man at the Southampton different swimming that I and Oscar o f his o w n t e e n a g e feelings o f . B u t those b r a v e E d w a r d i a n s and G e o r g i a n s w h o felt (in a n o t h e r w i l d l y anachronistic phrase) ' g l a d to b e g a y ' shared the same feeling o f a n o m y w h i c h w a s to c l o u d the lives o f a v a s d y greater n u m b e r o f h o m o s e x u a l m e n for the n e x t t w o generations. w h i l e their p u b l i c — a n d e v e n private . A s . a m o n g s o m e o f its ' m e m b e r s ' it b o l s t e r e d a n e w strength and defiance. i n d e e d . I k n e w that this w a s m a i n l y a b o y i s h h a n g o v e r and quite f r o m m y o w n y e a r n i n g . t h e n as n o w .32 HEROES AND VILLAINS D o u g l a s .b e h a v i o u r r e m a i n e d c i r c u m s c r i b e d b y the strictures o f the C r i m i n a l L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t . b u t his characterization isolation are w h o l l y typical: It w a s astraddle m y 1 8 t h birthday that m y first 'adult' sexual e n c o u n ters o c c u r r e d : that I d i s c o v e r e d that g r o w n . W h a t d o y o u think o f that?' A n d o f course I felt absolutely sick. T h e i r proclivities n o w increasingly discussed in the n e w era o f o p e n n e s s . I suppose. ' I c o u l d n ' t d e n y it. and t h o u g h the y o u n g m e n I l i v e d a m o n g . ' D o y o u k n o w w h a t that m a n is?' I said: ' N o . A n d / still vaguely believed Wilde — and. all this s e r v e d i r r e v o c a b l y to c h a n g e the nature o f w h a t . U n d o u b t e d l y . t h e y w e r e still v i c a r i o u s l y stigmatized b y the o b l o q u y w h i c h h a d b e e n h e a p e d o n W i l d e .

'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 33 to be b o r n 7 pool . i f c o m ­ plaisant. G e o r g e O r w e l l w a s later to recall that. It is i m m e d i a t e l y apparent in a clutch o f Last Poems b y A . A u d e n a n d C h r i s t o p h e r I s h e r w o o d w h o w e r e b o r n in the twentieth c e n t u r y a n d d i d n o t c o m e to p r o m i n e n c e until the early 1 9 3 0 s . i n n o c e n c e that h a d b e e n largely responsible for the i m m e n s e p o p u l a r i t y o f his first v o l u m e . ' T h i s is in itself o f m o r e than b i b l i o ­ graphical significance: times — a n d H o u s m a n h i m s e l f — h a d c h a n g e d . T h e Last Poems s h o w little o f the wistful. in A Shropshire Lad H o u s m a n h a d e x p r e s s e d the true sensibility o f the m a l e adolescent. e m i g r a t e d to A m e r i c a a n d . M . H o u s m a n had h a d his o w n lad. t o o . H . A Shropshire Lad.t h r e e p o e m s b y heart. H o u s m a n . a n d e v e n w o m e n . It lingers. lad. s e e m i n g l y as an act o f self-assertion. a friend f r o m u n i v e r s i t y days w i t h w h o m h e h a d w h a t has b e e n called a 'passionate a t t a c h m e n t ' . stranger . b e h i n d the cast o f outsider figures. as a teenager. A Shropshire Lad e x h o r t e d h o l l o w i r o n y . . ' T h i n k n o m o r e . H o u s m a n ' s Last Poems w e r e p r e f a c e d b y a n o t e from the a u t h o r w h i c h c o n c l u d e d w i t h the s e n t e n c e : ' A b o u t a quarter o f this matter b e l o n g s to the A p r i l o f the present y e a r . l a u g h . with N o w I l e a r n e d f r o m e x p e r i e n c e that t h e r e m u s t b e quite a lot o f m e n . . the p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d n o v e l w h i c h E . H . W . b u t m o s t o f it to dates b e t w e e n 1 8 9 5 a n d 1 9 1 0 . B u t in 1 8 8 7 J a c k s o n h a d b r o k e n o f f the relationship. spies a n d strangers ( ' L o o k . O n e o f the later p o e m s in that c o l l e c t i o n hindsight h a d already o v e r l a i d the phrase w i t h a certain included . h e k n e w all o f its s i x t y . k n e w 'the s c e n e ' . .possibly e v e n m o r e galling for H o u s m a n although the lines: married. T h i s essential sense o f differentness c o l o u r s b o t h the homosexual men w r i t i n g o f the time a n d the m o r e casual r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f o t h e r w h o . in 1 9 1 3 — 1 4 . a m a n called M o s e s J a c k s o n . .') w h i c h populates the early w o r k o f s u c h h o m o s e x u a l writers as W .were the only people since the age of Alkibiades this yearning. l i k e D a v i d s o n . T e l l i n g l y . F o r s t e r w r o t e . b e j o l l y ' . E . w h o w a n t e d b o y s . It p e r v a d e s the w h o l e o f Maurice. A u d e n e x p l a i n e d w h y : b e t t e r than a n y other E n g l i s h poet. T h e p o e m s w e r e certainly w r i t t e n f r o m the heart. P u b l i s h e d in 1 9 2 2 . B y 1 9 2 2 the m a n w h o m M a x B e e r b o h m h a d m e m o r a b l y d e s c r i b e d as l o o k i n g like an a b s c o n d i n g cashier h a d largely t a m e d a n d s u b j u g a t e d the strangely asexual. almost H e l l e n i c passion w h i c h h a d fired so m u c h o f his earlier w o r k .

T w o friends k e p t step b e s i d e m e . w a s in his early sixties and. N o t I: let G o d a n d m a n d e c r e e L a w s for themselves a n d n o t for m e .34 HEROES AND VILLAINS I t o o w o u l d b e w h e r e I a m not. b o r n in 1 8 5 9 . italicized e p i g r a p h b e g i n n i n g We'll to the woods no more. T h e i r deeds I j u d g e a n d m u c h condemn. say I . . cuts t h r o u g h the b u c o l i c . I t o o s u r v e y that endless line O f m e n w h o s e t h o u g h t s are n o t as m i n e . ( p r e . c o m p o s e d in a r o u n d 1 9 0 0 . It is e v e n m o r e r e m a r k a b l e since. T h e c o l l e c t i o n r e v e a l e d w i t h r e m a r k a b l e h o n e s t y h o w w r e t c h e d the w o r l d still s e e m e d to a c u l ­ t u r e d h o m o s e x u a l m a n m o r e than a quarter o f a c e n t u r y after W i l d e ' s imprisonment. o u t w a r d l y at least. Last Poems bears an u r g e n t . the fastidiously c o r r e c t professor o f L a t i n at C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y . N o w D i c k lies l o n g in the c h u r c h y a r d . Another began: W h e n I c a m e last to L u d l o w A m i d s t the m o o n l i g h t pale. H e m a y k e e p that w i l l a n d can. at the t i m e o f its first p u b l i c a t i o n . H o u s m a n . A n d i f m y w a y s are n o t as theirs L e t t h e m m i n d their o w n affairs. The laurels are all cut. A n d N e d lies l o n g in j a i l 9 8 In the Last Poems this t o n e w a s intensified to o n e in w h i c h private m e l a n c h o l y w a s transfigured b y anger. The bowers are bare of bay That once the Muses wore.) G e o r g i a n lexis a n d seems to speak f r o m the heart: T h e l a w s o f G o d . a n d t h e y N e e d o n l y l o o k the o t h e r w a y . b u t o n e o f the later p o e m s . T w o h o n e s t lads a n d hale. the l a w s o f m a n . Y e t w h e n d i d I m a k e l a w s for t h e m ? Please y o u r s e l v e s .

l i k e his p r o t a g o n i s t .p o t e n t spectre o f ' l a w ' a n d 'the l a w s ' (the w o r d s a p p e a r five times in H o u s m a n ' s p o e m ) . I w a s d e t e r m i n e d that in fiction a n y w a y t w o m e n s h o u l d fall in l o v e a n d r e m a i n in it for the e v e r a n d e v e r that fiction a l l o w s . A n d m a k e m e d a n c e as t h e y desire W i t h j a i l a n d g a l l o w s a n d hell-fire. F o r s t e r w a s v e n t u r i n g i n t o a n o m a n ' s land. A n d since. a n o v e l w i t h an e x p l i c i t l y h o m o ­ sexual t h e m e at this t i m e . h a v i n g r e . right o r w r o n g . albeit privately.t o o . It e x a c d y encapsulates the sentiments o f the p o s t . T h e t o n e is s i m u l t a n e o u s l y optimistic a n d despairing. they m u s t still W r e s t their n e i g h b o u r to their w i l l . S o . I s h o u l d n ' t h a v e b o t h e r e d to w r i t e [the n o v e l ] o t h e r w i s e . its heart is v e r y clearly o n its s l e e v e .r e a d a n d s l i g h d y r e .f i r e ' . H e e x p l a i n e d in i 9 6 0 that 'a h a p p y e n d i n g w a s i m p e r a t i v e . M . A l t h o u g h it has far m o r e . still closely tied to his m o t h e r w h e n h e b e g a n w o r k o n Maurice. a n d b y the a l l . a n d that . b o t h are strong. T h e y w i l l b e master. N o t for n o t h i n g w a s Maurice wistfully d e d i c a t e d to 'a H a p p i e r Y e a r ' .' Y O U A N D I A R E O U T L A W S ' 35 B u t n o .at least until the turn o f that ' H a p p i e r Y e a r ' . Forster nevertheless d e c i d e d to m a k e the best o f things. T h e s e foreign laws o f G o d and m a n .W i l d e a n h o m o s e x u a l . w o r k ('publishable but w o r t h it?' Forster n o t e d . H e d g e d a r o u n d n o less than H o u s m a n b y the a d m i t ­ tedly caricatured p r o s p e c t o f 'jail a n d g a l l o w s a n d h e l l .s u c h a situation c o u l d o b t a i n o n l y 'for the e v e r a n d e v e r that fiction a l l o w s ' . E . is the n o v e l ' s . T h o u g h b o t h are foolish.) T h e r e are t w o i m p l i c i t idées: that ' t w o m e n s h o u l d fall in l o v e a n d r e m a i n in it'. a stranger and afraid In a w o r l d I n e v e r m a d e .w r i t t e n it in i 9 6 0 ) . t h i r t y . 1 0 I n c h o o s i n g to w r i t e . i f slight. t o o . w e c a n n o t fly T o Saturn n o r to M e r c u r y . they w i l l not. K e e p w e m u s t . A b r a v e . then. b o r n in 1 8 7 9 . i f k e e p w e can. w a s s i x t e e n at the t i m e o f the W i l d e trials.f o u r a n d . A n d h o w a m I to face the o d d s O f m a n ' s b e d e v i l m e n t and G o d ' s ? I. m y soul. (Forster. ' " T h a t last s e n t e n c e is i m p o r t a n t .

s u d d e n l y . in the D e a n ' s translation class. R e a d it this v a c . T h e G r e e k s . 12 M a s t u r b a t i o n . s o m e o f w h i c h r u n for litde m o r e than h a l f a page) Maurice tells the story o f the e p o n y m o u s M a u r i c e H a l l ' s progress t h r o u g h p u b l i c s c h o o l a n d C a m b r i d g e to superficial c o m m e r c i a l e m i n e n c e in L o n d o n a n d u l t i ­ m a t e s e x u a l fulfilment.s t u d e n t . . . w e r e that w a y i n c l i n e d . ' 1 3 the I n e v i t a b l y .e r o t i c o r h o m o s e x u a l l y i n c l i n e d n o v e l actually p u b l i s h e d at this p e r i o d . W h i l e still at s c h o o l h e h a d ' l o n g e d for smut. until h e e n c o u n t e r s a f e l l o w . e v e r y t h i n g seems to fall i n t o place: M r C o r n w a l l i s o b s e r v e d in a flat toneless v o i c e : ' O m i t : a reference to the u n s p e a k a b l e v i c e o f the G r e e k s . a n d d i d n o t a d d that h e h a d e x p l o r e d M a r t i a l .n o t m e a t for babes. f o r t y . until h e g o e s u p to C a m b r i d g e . H e is in 'the V a l l e y o f the S h a d o w o f L i f e ' . M a u r i c e h a d r e c o g n i z e d his o w n sexuality a n d realized that he was trapped and floundering in a threateningly alien w o r l d . b u t h e a r d litde a n d c o n t r i b u t e d less.s i x short chapters. M a u r i c e laughed. . A l e c W a u g h ' s t h e n n o t o r i o u s story i n v o l v i n g a p u b l i c s c h o o l 'pash'. o r m o s t o f t h e m . B u t n o t h i n g is w h o l l y satisfactory. o f c o u r s e . ' D u r h a m o b s e r v e d afterwards that h e o u g h t to lose his f e l l o w s h i p for s u c h h y p o c r i s y . is fey in c o m p a r i s o n . In a fractured narrative (four parts. ' I r e g a r d it as a p o i n t o f p u r e scholarship. . the t w o . the upper-class C l i v e D u r h a m . E v e n The Loom of Youth ( 1 9 1 7 ) . T h e n .] h e desisted f r o m these after the n o v e l t y w a s o v e r . a n d his c h i e f i n d e c e n c i e s w e r e solitary [. i n d e e d . Forster tells us.' 'Is that s o ? ' ' Y o u ' v e r e a d the Symposium?' M a u r i c e h a d not. 'It's all t h e r e . f i n d i n g that t h e y b r o u g h t h i m m o r e fatigue than p l e a s u r e ' . E v e n b e f o r e h e w a s o u t o f his teens. a n d remains in it ' l o n g e r than m o s t b o y s ' . it is also i n c o m p a r a b l y m o r e o p e n a n d h o n e s t than any h o m o .36 HEROES AND VILLAINS in c o m m o n w i t h s u c h o f Forster's earlier n o v e l s as The Longest Journey ( 1 9 0 7 ) a n d A Room with a View ( 1 9 0 8 ) than w i t h his later a n d m o r e d e n s e l y s y m b o l i c A Passage to India ( 1 9 2 4 ) . the silent serial-adoration o f f e l l o w - pupils a n d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f strategies for self-protection c a m e to d o m i n a t e his w a k i n g life. b u t y o u o u g h t to r e a d it. a n d to o m i t it is to o m i t mainstay o f Athenian society. 'a breath o f l i b e r t y ' h a v i n g fired M a u r i c e ' s passion.

Telegraph. Returning home. a n d D u r h a m at his feet. the m e n rapidly fall into a c o n v e n i e n t b u t asexual a n d frustratingly s u b u r b a n respectability: M a u r i c e ' s habits b e c a m e regular. o r laid d o w n the l a w . In the train h e read the Daily afternoon. w i s h e s to e x p l o r e . 0 0 . M e l l o r s . s t a y e d w i t h h e r (and v i c e versa).but that is o n c e m o r e than in the w h o l e o f the oeuvre w h i c h w a s p u b l i s h e d in his lifetime. He the w o r k e d until 1 . a n d w o r k e d again t h r o u g h he h a d s o m e e x e r c i s e a n d a large dinner. I n the w o r l d o f their friends this attracted n o n o t i c e . L a w r e n c e w a s to test the ideal o f L o v e o n the a n n e a l i n g . D o w n f r o m C a m ­ bridge. ( T e l l i n g l y . o n o n e o c c a s i o n . ' " A l l this" .) M a u r i c e H a l l w a n t s that same g o o d fuck. pursuing independent careers in the C i t y a n d at the B a r respectively.b u t o n e chastely c o n s t r a i n e d b y the a n d its platonic p r o t o c o l s : ' T h e y w a l k e d a r m in a r m o r a r m s h o u l d e r n o w . o r p l a y e d billiards o r b r i d g e . ' " Y o u a n d I are o u d a w s . T h e y said at h o m e w o u l d be most a n n o y e d . H e ate a large breakfast a n d c a u g h t the 8. W h e n they sat it w a s nearly a l w a y s in the same p o s i t i o n .n o r that the r e a d e r is a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e d to b e l i e v e that M a u r i c e rather w i s h e s that it w o u l d .M a u r i c e in a chair.s t o n e o f s e x in Lady Lover Chatterley's ( 1 9 2 8 ) . ' 1 6 ' Y o u must never He interfere w i t h M a u r i c e ' s W e d n e s d a y s o r w i t h his w e e k e n d s . B u t e v e r y W e d n e s d a y h e slept at C l i v e ' s little flat in t o w n . ' 14 It is n o t altogether surprising that the y o u n g m e n ' s sedate b e h a v i o u r 'attracted n o n o t i c e ' .36 to t o w n . a n d it q u i c k l y b e c o m e s apparent that h e is n o t g o i n g to get it from C l i v e .h e p o i n t e d to the middle-class c o m f o r t o f the r o o m . F o r s t e r pursues this reality in Maurice. " ' h e tells D u r h a m . " ' 1 5 T h i s is the t h e m e w h i c h F o r s t e r acceptable. M o r e d e c o r o u s l y than L a w r e n c e . W e e k ­ ends w e r e also i n v i o l a b l e . . the w o r d ' f u c k ' o c c u r s o n l y o n c e in the n o v e l . in Maurice h e pits sedate. h a i r . It w a s o n l y b e c a u s e C o n s t a n c e C h a t t e r l e y w a s s u c h a ' g o o d f u c k ' that h e r husband's g a m e k e e p e r . M a u r i c e w o u l d stroke D u r h a m ' s h a i r .s t r o k i n g n o t i o n s o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y against a m u c h m o r e carnal reality in e x a c t l y the same w a y as D ." w o u l d b e taken f r o m us i f p e o p l e k n e w . optimistically. l e a n i n g against h i m . H . a n d in the e v e n i n g h e read the e v e n i n g paper. l u n c h e d l i g h d y . socratic.'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 37 Symposium around e m b a r k o n an affair . E x p l i c i t l y .

m e n t a l l y torpid. rebels against all that an increasingly straitl a c e d . puritanical C l i v e stands for. h e is at his m o s t scornfully i r o n i c . the i r o n y is h e a v y a n d deliberate. p r o s p e r o u s w i t h o u t v u l g a r i t y . n o t a b a d business m a n a n d rather a s n o b ' . ' h e notes). a n d in the final chapters o f the n o v e l h e wastes n o t i m e in shattering it w i t h a p o w e r f u l plea for h o n e s t y . F o r s t e r c o l l u d e s in all this b y c o n s i g n i n g C l i v e to a l i v i n g hell ( ' H e has a n n o y e d m e . his insistence that 'the sole e x c u s e for a n y relationship b e t w e e n m e n is that it r e m a i n p u r e l y p l a t o n i c ' . H e marries h i m o f f to a girl called A n n e a n d i n t o a d o m e s t i c i t y that is ' t e m p e r a t e a n d graceful'. forces far stronger than the m e r e dictates o f the p l o t a n d an author's n e e d for a ' h a p p y e n d i n g ' b e h i n d all this. M a u r i c e w a s ' s o m e o n e h a n d s o m e . b o d i l y attractive. u n l i k e m a n l y C a m b r i d g e 'sets' — o r even Bloomsbury drawing rooms — 'much could never be mentioned. M a u r i c e . a l o n g w i t h his later d e p i c t i o n o f M a u r i c e a n d C l i v e ' s pat.d e c e p t i o n . from his o w n c o n c e p t o f the ideal m a n ) . p i p e s . h o n o u r a b l e . his s c h o o l m a s t e r l y . as w e shall see.the w a y in w h i c h h e denies his o w n ' c r i m i n a l m o r b i d i t y ' . T h e y i g n o r e d r e p r o d u c t i v e a n d the d i g e s t i v e functions. in M a u r i c e H a l l the r e s e r v e d a n d reticent Forster c r e a t e d almost the e x a c t antithesis o f himself. A r n o l d i a n n o t i o n s o f 'the ideal m a n — chaste w i t h a s c e t i c i s m ' . O u t o f s h e e r personal p a i n a n d l o n g i n g . In particular h e c o m e s to hate his f o r m e r friend's d i s h o n e s t y a n d s e l f .38 HEROES AND VILLAINS O u t w a r d l y . O n c e again.quiet. the t w o l i v e ' l i k e o t h e r m e n ' a n d h a v e 'as m u c h happiness as m e n u n d e r [their] star can e x p e c t ' : ' W h a t a solid y o u n g citizen [ M a u r i c e ] l o o k e d . B u t there. R e t r o s p e c t i v e l y . . o f c o u r s e . [ C l i v e ] n e v e r s a w [ A n n e ] n a k e d . T h e n o v e l gives g h a s d y glimpses o f a m a r r i a g e in w h i c h . 1 7 H e w a s Forster's p a r a d i g m o f the ' i d e a l ' h o m o s e x u a l ( t h o u g h far.s l i p p e r s housekeeper-and-no-questions relationships enjoyed by Sherlock Pygmalion H o l m e s a n d D r W a t s o n in A r t h u r C o n a n D o y l e ' s stories a n d H e n r y H i g g i n s a n d C o l o n e l P i c k e r i n g in G e o r g e B e r n a r d S h a w ' s ( 1 9 1 2 ) . o p e n n e s s a n d s e x u a l liberation. healthy. Forster is saying.c e n t u r y fiction. c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r s i o n o f b a c h e l o r ' p e r f e c t i o n ' . n o r she h i m . ' Forster c o m m e n t s . H i s portrait o f their relationship is o n l y t o o r e d o l e n t o f the crusty. w e can also see h i m as the first c o n v i n c i n g l y real h o m o s e x u a l h e r o o f t w e n t i e t h . It is all a s h a m . O n s u c h does E n g l a n d r e l y . the ' O u d a w ' .' the T h e r e w e r e .

the n e w l y e m b o l d e n e d M a u r i c e o n l y n a r r o w l y s u c c e e d s in s u b ­ d u i n g s u d d e n .y e a r . he goes through the s a m e dark nights o f fear a n d self-loathing as c o m p a r a b l e real-life figures o f his a g e a n d class. T w o m e n can defy the w o r l d . ' c o n c e i v a b l e that o n S u n d a y last h e h a d n e a r l y assaulted a b o y ? ' W e l l .' Y O U A N D I A R E O U T L A W S ' 39 H e is as fully r o u n d e d as A Passage to India's D r A z i z . y e s . T h a t b r o u g h t it into the p u b l i c consciousness.t w o . ' 1 8 entertained It is at this p o i n t that F o r s t e r k n o w i n g l y takes Maurice. ' W e r e these y o u n g m e n all a b o u t t w e n t y ? ' the f o r t y . h e tells himself. H e sees d o c t o r s . d u r i n g a family w e e k ­ e n d . c r u c i a l l y .t w o . ' a m o n g those w h o t o o k to the g r e e n w o o d in o l d t i m e there h a d b e e n t w o m e n l i k e h i m s e l f . t w e n t y o r t w e n t y . ' h e h a d guilelessly replied. h e is sure.and. It is a close call. Its final chapters tell h o w . In a m a n n e r in w h i c h his creator c o u l d not. A t times h e the d r e a m . in the f e w p a g e s h e d e v o t e s t o this e p i s o d e Forster w a s addressing o n e — possibly the greatest — o f the h o m o p h o b i c prejudices w h i c h h a d b e e n g i v e n n e w c u r r e n c y b y the arrest a n d c o n v i c t i o n o f O s c a r W i l d e less than t w e n t y years p r e v i o u s l y . T h e n o t i o n that t h e r e w a s an essentially p a e d o p h i l i a c side t o h o m o ­ sexual b e h a v i o u r h a d b e e n o n e o f the canards w h i c h lay b e h i n d m a n y o f the p u b l i c reports o f the W i l d e trials. ' M i g h t it n o t b e better to alter [ m y ] t e m p e r a m e n t a n d t o e the l i n e ? ' h e asks himself. B r a v e l y a n d u n i q u e l y . B u t h e c a n n o t a n d . i n t o the r e a l m o f dreams (or at least o f the unpublishable) a n d the b o o k b e c o m e s a personal manifesto. increasingly l o n e l y a n d solipsistic o n c e h e has a c c e p t e d that C l i v e is n o l o n g e r interested in h i m . happiness a n d fulfilment are to b e f o u n d . appalled at this i n d i c a t i o n o f the real nature o f his p r o c l i v i t i e s . ' W a s it'.o l d W i l d e h a d b e e n asked. ' P e r h a p s ' . a n d o n e that finally confronts M a u r i c e (and the reader) w i t h an u n s e t d i n g l y g r a p h i c v i e w o f the c h a s m w h i c h separates r o m a n ­ tic notions o f ' o u d a w s ' a n d 'the b e l o v e d ' from w h a t w e w o u l d s o o n learn to call the ' F r e u d i a n ' urges o f ' t h e w i l d w o o d ' . t o o . b u t it h a d n e v e r . M a u r i c e w o r r i e s . a d d i n g that h e has ' o n l y to k e e p a w a y from b o y s a n d y o u n g m e n ' . I l i k e the society o f y o u n g m e n . fiercely s e x u a l l o n g i n g s for a t e e n a g e d f e l l o w .g u e s t . h e d e c i s i v e l y t h r o w s o f f the subfusc in a desperate search for the ' p e r f e c t i o n ' w h i c h o n l y o n e o f those ' b e l o v e d ' b o y s o r y o u n g m e n can b r i n g . h o p i n g for a ' c u r e ' that w i l l m a k e h i m j u s t as ' n o r m a l ' as C l i v e . this ' u n s p e a k a b l e o f the O s c a r W i l d e sort' takes his life (or certainly his liberty) in his hands a n d sets o u t to crash t h r o u g h the barriers o f class a n d c o n v e n t i o n i n t o e l e m e n t a l territory w h e r e . ' Y e s .

E . W i l d e ' s c o u r t r o o m o n e . h e p u t it all d o w n to an i n v e t e r a t e ' m o t h e r l i n e s s ' . A n d e v e n d u r i n g actual b o d i l y play. the Flesh and Myself. H o u s m a n ' s rather d i s i n g e n u o u s references to ' l o v e l y lads' in A Shropshire in 1 8 9 6 . a n d I w a s in b e d w i t h m y catamite w h e n A l i a n n o u n c e d that the a r c h b i s h o p h a d c o m e to see m e .b e a r e r to an older. S o m e w h a t u n c o n v i n c i n g l y . M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n h a d g o n e . his a c c o u n t o f his h e r o ' s m o m e n t a r y Maurice.p l a g u i n g t h e m a b o u t w a r m u n d e r c l o t h e s o r c h a n g i n g their w e t socks. ' A g e n e r a t i o n earlier. i f a n y t h i n g . m a y b e an e x t e n s i o n o f the first. ( T h e cant w o r d ' c h i c k e n ' . . c o m p l i a n t . b e c a m e an e n d u r i n g part o f h o m o s e x u a l argot as a specific description o f an u n d e r . It . a n d t r y i n g to ' f e e d t h e m u p ' after they w e r e already full [. F o r s t e r c a n n o t quite b r i n g h i m s e l f to d e n y the potential o f the Z e u s G a n y m e d e m o d e l as the basis o f a h o m o s e x u a l relationship in I n d e e d .l i n e r s w e r e in t h e m s e l v e s r a w r e m i n d e r s o f the recently d i s c o v e r e d ' l o a t h s o m e ' side o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y : s o m e w h a t surprisingly. my pleasure b e y o n d the m e n t a l j o y o f s e e i n g a n d t o u c h i n g . c u p . r u n t h r o u g h literature from classical times to the present. i f that's absent. w h i c h is intense t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s seems absurd a n d p o i n d e s s .) I m a g e s o f a G a n y m e d e .40 HEROES AND VILLAINS b e e n far from the h o m o s e x u a l sensibility.w e m i g h t almost say a B o s i e .a g e catamite at a r o u n d this time. I ' v e b e e n d r i v e n j u s t as m u c h b y a passionate p r o t e c t i v e n e s s as b y s e x u a l interest — the s e c o n d .] I k n o w that in all m y relationships. A . e v e n farther in a frank d e f e n c e o f his o w n p r o ­ clivities.a beautiful. temptation Lad s e e m i n g l y w e n t u n r e m a r k e d w h e n the c o l l e c t i o n w a s first p u b l i s h e d b y the a m b i v a l e n t l y d r a w n a n d s e e m i n g l y c o m p l a i s a n t ' s c h o o l b o y ' D i c k i e B a r r y is the m o s t e x p l i c i t l y ' e r o t i c ' passage in the b o o k .. as a m o t h e r gets sensual pleasure o u t o f s u c k l i n g .'. for all I k n o w . the b r o o d y fussiness w i t h w h i c h I ' v e c o d d l e d all m y b o y s . I n the years i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the W i l d e trials the p u b l i c a t i o n o f material s u c h as this w o u l d h a v e b e e n u n t h i n k a b l e . b r i e f as it is. 19 - c o m e s f r o m a c o n s u m m a t e p r i v i t y to his pleasure. in his a u t o b i o g r a p h y The World. g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d to a c h i l d o f either g e n d e r for at least t w o centuries. m o r e p o w e r f u l m a n . A s r e c e n d y as 1 9 8 0 Powers w i t h the breathA n t h o n y B u r g e s s b e g a n his n o v e l Earthly t a k i n g l y a u d a c i o u s s e n t e n c e : 'It w a s the afternoon o f m y eighty-first b i r t h d a y . o t h e r than the m o s t casual.

H e w o u l d h a v e sentimentalized o n c e a n d called it a d o r a t i o n . T o a n y o n e t w o paths h e b e c a m e the W o r l d ' s d e s i r e . 20 d o w n o n the u p p e r w a s t o u c h e d w i t h g o l d . 'penetrated'. 'glories'. 'beauti­ ful'. In the afternoon h e ' g o t a r m in a r m w i t h [ D i c k i e ] . . t o o : T h e y m e t o n c e m o r e — at m i d n i g h t . T h e lips w e r e parted. H e w e n t ' w i t h the tread o f an o l d e r m a n ' a n d o p e n e d the d o o r : T h e b o y . to smash t h r o u g h . 'unashamed'. I f H a l l insisted. M a u r i c e is attracted to the b o y . a n d b y the f o l l o w i n g F r i d a y M a u r i c e is p r o f o u n d l y grateful for D i c k i e ' s bluff d e c e n c y — a n d a g o n i z i n g o v e r the reasons w h i c h lay b e h i n d w h a t h a d so nearly h a p p e n e d : H i s feeling for D i c k i e r e q u i r e d a v e r y p r i m i t i v e n a m e . I a l w a y s a m . ' I ' m a b o v e . ' D i c k i e ' s i m p u l s e w a s to b o l t the d o o r after h i m . the sheer lushness o f the v o c a b u l a r y c o n v e y s the p o w e r . w h o h a d b e e n to a d a n c e the n i g h t b e f o r e . o n e S u n d a y m o r n i n g .and i m p o r t a n c e .] T h e v a r i e t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t s are endless. the b o d y w a s a delicate a m b e r . a n d for the w h o l e o f that S u n d a y it s e e m s l i k e l y that h e w i l l y i e l d to t e m p t a t i o n . b u t h e dismissed it as unsoldierly. c o u n d e s s glories. . ' T h e r e w a s o n e further tryst. ' I n the attic o v e r this — i f y o u w a n t a n y t h i n g — all n i g h t a l o n e . [. 'It so h a p p e n e d . b u t h e h a d rather not: h e felt l i k e that a b o u t it. M a u r i c e w a s sent u p to y o u n g s t e r ' s b e d r o o m to rouse h i m for breakfast. . the h a i r b r o k e n i n t o w o u l d h a v e s e e m e d beautiful. ' d e s i r e ' . e m b r a c e d a n d p e n e t r a t e d b y the sun. W h a t a stoat h e h a d b e e n ! P o o r litde D i c k i e ! H e s a w the b o y l e a p i n g f r o m his e m b r a c e . fairy-tale patness a b o u t the w a y in w h i c h Forster saves M a u r i c e f r o m himself. 'embraced'. n o t daring. He lay upstairs remained the he unashamed. . . a n d to M a u r i c e w h o r e a c h e d h i m b y ' U n c o v e r e d ' . . a n d e x t r a c t e d a p r o m i s e for tea.'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 41 the describes h o w . a n d a w o k e t o the ringing o f the breakfast b e l l . h e w o u l d n o t k i c k u p a r o w . 21 w i t h the sun o n his face a n d his m i n d w a s h e d c l e a n . It was a close call. a n d it so h a p p e n e d that [ D i c k i e ] u n d e r s t o o d the situation perfectly. It w a s k e p t .': there is a c u r i o u s . asleep. ' p a n t e d M a u r i c e .o f w h a t Forster is t r y i n g to say. b u t t h e habit o f h o n e s t y h a d g r o w n strong. H e lay w i t h his limbs u n c o v e r e d .

o n e . E . o r y e l l i n g l i k e a m a n i a c until help c a m e . the e m e r g e n c e o f A I D S a n d the e v e n m o r e r e c e n t p u b l i c c o n c e r n at the possible e x t e n t o f c h i l d s e x abuse. It is clear from P . Ironically. as n o w . W h a t e v e r else t h e y w e r e . W i l d e a n d L o r d A r t h u r S o m e r s e t w e r e n o t pederasts. B o s i e . H e s a w the p o l i c e ' L u s t ' . Similarly. It is frankly a n d almost matter-of-facdy d o n e — n o t least b e c a u s e the subject w a s o f little interest to h i m . w a s the l o w e r . for instance. N . N o r . Far m o r e central to the idea o f the ' l o v e l y l a d ' a n d the w h o l e n o t i o n o f ' m a n l o v e ' t h e n .p u b e r t a l . as Maurice m a k e s clear. a n d in c o m m o n w i t h the o t h e r m e n featured in this b o o k . the Taormina 'peasant-boys' whom Baron von Gloeden ( 1 8 5 6 . w i t h the result that the i g n o r a n t o r s o m e t i m e s wilful c o n f u s i o n o f the t w o is m a r k e d l y less w i d e s p r e a d than it u s e d to b e . the differentiation b e t w e e n h o m o s e x u a l i t y a n d pederasty w h i c h a V i c t o r i a n o r E d w a r d i a n w o u l d h a v e m a d e is easier to appreciate n o w than it w o u l d h a v e b e e n a g e n e r a t i o n o r m o r e a g o . M. Forster a n d o t h e r b i o g r a p h i c a l material b o t h m o d e r n a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y that the likes o f D i c k i e B a r r y h e l d little a p p e a l for F o r s t e r himself. In the w a k e o f the d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y in 1 9 6 7 . d i d ' l o v e l y lads' e v e n h a v e m u c h o f a place in his d r e a m w o r l d w h e r e ' t w o m e n s h o u l d fall in l o v e for the e v e r a n d e v e r ' . the m a j o r i t y o f A . H o u s m a n ' s ' l o v e l y lads' w e r e s e r v i n g soldiers.l o v e : h a d his w o r d s a p p e a r e d in print m o r e immediately. w h i l e e v e n their Sicilian contemporaries. H e r e a n d in the f o l l o w i n g pages it is i m p o r t a n t to m a i n t a i n this distinction. 2 2 W i t h i n litde m o r e than t h r e e pages Forster thus b o t h discusses a n d dismisses the idea o f b o y . C h a r l e s P a r k e r a n d the was wretched procession o f Post Office 'boys' and valets with w h o m their n a m e s w e r e l i n k e d w e r e in their late teens o r o l d e r ( B o s i e t w e n t y . b o t h subjects h a v e r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e m e d i a attention. H e said the w o r d o u t l o u d . w e r e v e r y .1 9 3 1 ) photographed plainly p o s t . F u r b a n k ' s E.c l a s s o r i g i n o f the ' l o v e d in ' S o c r a t i c ' poses. a n d P a r k e r e i g h t e e n ) w h e n they first b e c a m e i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e m .42 HEROES AND VILLAINS the w i n d o w a n d b r e a k his limbs. they might even have g o n e s o m e w a y towards disen­ t a n g l i n g the f r e q u e n d y m a l i c i o u s y o k i n g o f pederasty a n d h o m o s e x u a l ­ ity w h i c h w a s an e n d u r i n g feature o f n e w s p a p e r reports o f h o m o s e x u a l cases in the p o s t .W i l d e era.

these i n a m o r ati w e r e ' a v a i l a b l e ' . 'to b e h a d ' ( ' T B H ' in the parlance o f the day) and. T o m D r i b e r g . the appeal o f ' a bit o f r o u g h ' o r ' r o u g h trade' in g e n e r a l a n d the risks o f a physical relationship man which w i t h a s e x u a l l y pliable but simultaneously you working-class y o u n g transcends reinforces class b o u n d a r i e s — has a l w a y s b e e n central to the h o m o s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e .o n role o f the frequently a n o n y m o u s 'little l a d ' . waiters. A u d e n . B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s . t h o u g h d e c e n c y f o r b a d e T h e same caresses to the rustic lad. w i l l i n g l y c o m p l a i s a n t .'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 43 o n e ' . O u t o f t o w n . T h e lad that w o r k s the lift b e l o w .and he w a s n e i t h e r the first nor. i f n o t real l o v e . b u t t h e r e w e r e also t r a m . I n d e e d . L o v e . . frequently u n e m p l o y e d . lift-boys. the last.b o y ' o r the u b i q u i t o u s 'secretary' is o n e o f the c e n t u r y ' s m o s t e n d u r i n g . sailors a n d (in Forster's case) p o l i c e m e n . l o v e it w a s that m a d e m y eyes d e l i g h t T o h a v e this p e r s o n e v e r in m y sight. A n d w i t h the past the present I c o m p a r e . Full w e l l I k n o w . the ' g o l d e n b o y ' . the w a l k . H . U n i f o r m s c o n f e r r e d special status . I n d e e d . W i l d e .as J o h n G a m b r i l N i c h o l s o n ' s p o e m ' Y o u r C i t y C o u s i n ' ( i n c l u d e d in a 1 9 1 1 c o l l e c t i o n called A Garland of Ladslove) h a d m a d e v e r y clear: S m a r t l o o k i n g lads are in m y l i n e . T h e lad that gives m y shoes a shine. W . again. m a n l y t w e e d s a n d c o r d u r o y s o f agricultural w o r k e r s (far m o r e n u m e r o u s b e f o r e the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r than t h e y are today) also h a d their appeal.'Did know that Parker was a gentleman's servant out of employment?' . the ' b a b y . C h r i s t o p h e r I s h e r w o o d . b a r m e n . e n j o y e d 'feasting w i t h panthers' . d o w n in 'the w i l d w o o d ' . in 1 8 6 6 an a n o n y m o u s c o u n t r y s q u i r e h a d w r i t t e n : A m o n g the y e o m e n ' s sons o n m y estate A gentle b o y w o u l d at m y m a n s i o n w a i t : A n d n o w that t i m e has almost b l a n c h e d m y hair. C l o s e r to o u r o w n times. R . despite e v e r y t h i n g . famously. F i n a n c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e . the r o u g h . D e n t o n W e l c h a n d m a n y others f o u n d c o n s o l a t i o n . T h a t lad that's lettered G P O . A c k e r l e y . W i t h all the l e a d e n sentimentality o f G a m b r i l N i c h o l s o n . t h o u g h often fundamentally h e t e r o s e x u a l . T h e r e w e r e . J . g u a r d s m e n to b e h a d in L o n d o n .d r i v e r s .

0 0 0 ' . b e e r . I f the Forster o f 1 9 5 1 n o w sounds T h e y h a d d e s c r i b e d the reality w h i c h lay b e h i n d W e l c h ' s e v o c a t i o n Comfort Farm-ish scent o f t o b a c c o .•••-. Maurice w a s . h o r s e a n d s w e a t a n d his s u g g e s t i v e m e n t i o n o f the ' h a r d press o f his .the m i n g l e d t o b a c c o . h a d e x p l o r e d the true nature o f w h a t w a s .c l a s s . a n d h a d n e v e r b e e n o t h e r than.i n n o c e n c e and cock-teasiness'. ' 2 3 ' F u n k i n g o f i n t i m a c y ' . b e t w e e n the farmer's legs: ' I c o u l d smell his clothes . accelerating c u r v e w h i c h b r o u g h t it from the nadir o f the 1 8 9 0 s to the relative t o l e r a n c e a n d c o m m e r c i a l success it c a m e to e n j o y in the 1 9 7 0 s a n d early 1 9 8 0 s . A n d w i t h s o m e justification: a third o f a c e n t u r y (and t w o w o r l d wars) p r e v i o u s l y .44 HEROES AND VILLAINS M o r e than h a l f a c e n t u r y later. T h i s is the e r r o r N o ë l P e m b e r t o n B i l l i n g m a d e in l u m p i n g t o g e t h e r his p r i v y c o u n c i l l o r s a n d ' y o u t h s o f the c h o r u s ' a m o n g ' T h e First 4 7 . W o u l d n ' t h e l i k e to j u m p u p a n d h a v e a ride? W e l c h did. w r i t t e n a y e a r o r m o r e b e f o r e W e l c h w a s so m u c h as b o r n . for I w a s pressed h a r d against h i m as h e r e a c h e d r o u n d for the reins. A s i x t e e n . h e h a d g o n e alone o n a w a l k i n g t o u r o f the W e s t C o u n t r y .y e a r . b e f o r e the identification in B r i t a i n o f the h u m a n i m m u n o ­ d e f i c i e n c y virus ( H I V ) a n d the first reports o f deaths related to A c q u i r e d I m m u n o d e f i c i e n c y S y n d r o m e ( A I D S ) b o t h shattered c o n ­ f i d e n c e a n d b o l s t e r e d p o p u l a r p r e j u d i c e . I c o u l d e v e n feel his heart b e a t i n g i n t o m y b a c k [. the w r i t e r D e n t o n W e l c h recalled h o w .o l d in the s u m m e r o f 1 9 3 3 . h o n e a n d s w e a t that c l u n g to t h e m . Forster n o t e d in 1 9 5 1 w h e n h e read an u n p u b ­ lished v e r s i o n o f W e l c h ' s j o u r n a l s w h i c h i n c l u d e d that passage. E v e n a m o n g the o u t l a w s there w a s a l w a y s s q u a b b l i n g in the c a m p . b u t t h e n a y o u n g farmer riding 'a h u g e h o r s e ' s t o p p e d h i m . Cold thighs'. essentially p r e d a t o r y o f that w o r k i n g . B u t it is a mistake t o assume that ' g a y l i b e r a t i o n ' a d v a n c e d o n a s m o o t h .] I felt the h a r d press o f his thighs a n d legs a l o n g m y o w n . A n d .o l d farmer's b o y h a d rebuffed his a d v a n c e s .y e a r . a n d I c o u l d tell h o w hot h e w a s . as an e i g h t e e n . 24 T h e final chapters o f Maurice form o f proprietorialism. it is an e v e n b i g g e r m i s t a k e to see h o m o s e x u a l m e n as h a v i n g e v e r b e e n a c o h e s i v e g r o u p w i t h i n s o c i e t y . a class-based. h e h a d easily bettered w h a t h e called W e l c h ' s t o n e o f ' s h a m . after all. b e e r . as w e h a v e already seen. a n d f o u n d h i m s e l f settled in front o f the saddle. O n the surface this seems p e r v e r s e .

there a l w a y s w o u l d b e of rough: ' M a y I ask y o u r n a m e ? ' [ M a u r i c e ] said a w k w a r d l y . ' S i r . u n d e r . H . m o r e than a d e c a d e b e f o r e W e l c h w a s e v e n a p p r o a c h i n g a d o l e s c e n c e a w h o l l y different h o m o s e x u a l i t y h a d e m e r g e d .t e a s e r for w h o m thighs w e r e o n l y thighs a n d s e x w a s o n l y s e x . M a u r i c e is s p e n d i n g a w e e k e n d w i t h C l i v e a n d A n n e at P e n g e .'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 45 what a v u n c u l a r l y knowing. L a w r e n c e w o u l d u n w i t t i n g l y e c h o a d e c a d e later in Lady Chatterley's Louer. Forster remains surprisingly l e v e l .and. an ingrate. ' 'Only Alec just. a c o c k . w a s y o u calling o u t for m e ? ' h e says. O n c e w e a r r i v e there. W e l c h must h a v e s e e m e d maladroit. W e h a v e to rejoin the story in C h a p t e r X X X V I I : m o n t h s after his n e a r . o n e w h i c h . effusions o f A e s t h e t i c i s m . O n e night h e t h r o w s o p e n his b e d r o o m w i n d o w in a m e l o d r a m a t i c attempt o n c e m o r e to b e c o m e 'the o u d a w ' . to cut t h r o u g h the ' r u b bish' o f his life a n d reach the reality o f that w i l d w o o d . .' 'I k n o w y o u ' r e S c u d d e r . the t w o m e n sprang from m a r k e d l y different traditions. to the r o u g h a n d t o the same w i l d w o o d w h i c h D .g a m e k e e p e r know .I m e a n t y o u r o t h e r n a m e .c a l a m i t o u s e n c o u n t e r w i t h D i c k i e .' T h e t w o e n j o y a passionate night t o g e t h e r . e v e n in the early years o f this c e n t u r y s t o o d o u t in stark contrast to the effete.nobility . a l t h o u g h it e m b r a c e d the ideal o f the ' g o l d e n b o y ' . 'I'm Scudder. even condescending.' an uneasiness a n d inequality in M a u r i c e ' s relationship w i t h his c h o s e n bit on the P e n g e estate. spaces . h e implies. it is i m p o r t a n t to n o t e that. to n o science c o u l d r e a c h ' . in his r e a c t i o n to W e l c h h a d w r i t t e n (and W e l c h h a d d i e d in 1 9 4 8 ) . A s Maurice m a k e s clear. irrespective o f the a g e difference b e t w e e n t h e m . T h r o u g h this w i n d o w climbs A l e c S c u d d e r . It is an e c o m i u m to c o r d u r o y s . h e a l l o w s the realities o f life in 'the w i l d w o o d ' to speak for themselves: there is . .h e a d e d . T o Forster.b i g spaces w h e r e passion clasped p e a c e . I connect w i t h ' l o v e . I know. T h e n o v e l c o n c l u d e s w i t h a h y m n to the v e r y ' i n t i m a c y ' in w h i c h W e l c h ' s faux-naïf innocence plays n o part. b u t the social a n d class differences b e t w e e n t h e m seems to p r e c l u d e the possibility o f their d e v e l o p i n g a d e e p e r relationship. ' S i r . E v e n as h e sets u p his h a p p y e n d i n g .

in turn. p r o s e versus passion. T h e half-century gap b e t w e e n its c o m p o s i t i o n a n d p u b l i c a t i o n e x a c d y matches the p r o l o n g e d p a r t u r i t i o n a n d painful c o m i n g . In the character o f M a u r i c e H a l l it reveals the g u l f w h i c h lay b e t w e e n w h a t early t w e n t i e t h . . the t e r m 'trade' had taken o n a w h o l e n e w m e a n ­ i n g . - .c e n t u r y society h a d lately c o m e to e x p e c t o f the u p p e r m i d d l e .u n l i k e . ' 2 5 It's p r o p r i e t y versus p a g a n i s m . . after the i n c i d e n t w i t h D i c k i e . b e c a u s e o f Forster's inability t o create c o n v i n c i n g w o r k i n g .r e a d t o d a y . t h e n o n the d e c k o f the S S Normannia consternation where .46 HEROES AND VILLAINS ' J o l l y n a m e to h a v e .c l a s s characters). S c u d d e r . n u r t u r e versus n a t u r e . ' a n d that's finished. say.a n d the secret ' o u d a w ' r o l e w h i c h that s a m e s o c i e t y ' s attitudes a n d his o w n ' i n v e r s i o n ' f o r c e d h i m to adopt. is o n l y days a w a y f r o m e m i g r a t i n g to A r g e n t i n a . c a n n o t trust h i m s e l f to see S c u d d e r again. an h o n e s t a n d o n l y .' R e .o f . w h e r e they arrange to m e e t . b y the t i m e o f its e v e n t u a l p u b l i c a t i o n in 1 9 7 1 . C o n f u s i o n and a r g u e . Maurice c o m e s o v e r as a c o m p l e x a n d c o n f u s e d p i e c e o f w o r k . it is d i s c o v e r e d that S c u d d e r has n o t taken u p his b e r t h .it w a s n o t w r i t t e n for the m a r k e t gives it a special v a l u e . E s c h e w i n g the c o m p l a c e n c y o f A Room with a View. it is n e i t h e r a 'trade' n o v e l calculated to please the p r e . it has to b e said. b u t o n l y in S o u t h a m p t o n .c l a s s ( h o m o s e x u a l ) m a n — ' i n d o o r s w a s his place a n d t h e r e h e ' d m o u l d e r .first at the B r i t i s h M u s e u m . it also e x a m i n e s the p o w e r f u l appeal a n d i n h e r e n t instability o f inter-class relationships a n d in d o i n g so t o u c h e s o n a far w i d e r issue. ' ' I ' m called M a u r i c e .d i s c o v e r e d a c c o u n t o f ' h o w it w a s t h e n ' .r e c e n d y .G r e a t W a r patrons o f B o o t s ' a n d M u d i e ' s subscription libraries n o r a tale r a u n c h y e n o u g h to satisfy the tastes o f a readership for w h o m . Less successfully (largely. R e u n i o n a n d a tentative r e c o n c i l i a t i o n take place b a c k at P e n g e w h e r e the t w o m e n r e d i s c o v e r e a c h o t h e r for that h a p p y e n d i n g : ' N o w w e shan't b e p a r t e d n o m o r e . ' 'It's o n l y m y n a m e .c e n t u r y B r i t i s h h o m o s e x u a l . h o w e v e r . It s h o u l d not. b e lightly dismissed. The Loom of Youth . It is a prison diary. a respectable pillar o f s o c i e t y w h o has n e v e r h a d the c h a n c e to m i s b e h a v e ' .a g e o f the t w e n t i e t h . ' S c u d d e r says. A n d the fact that . M a u r i c e is t o o cautious and.

H e h a d m a d e it e x p l i c i t in his earlier n o v e l Howards End ( 1 9 1 0 ) : ' O n l y c o n n e c t . it is b e c a u s e w e h a v e c o m e a l o n g w a y from the i m m e d i a t e p o s t . H e w a s b o u n d f o r his n e w h o m e . n o o n e w h o c a n testify to the telling. I n literature it d r a g g e d at G e o r g e B e r n a r d S h a w a n d w a s e v e n t u a l l y to s h i p w r e c k L a w r e n c e o n a r e e f o f critical a n d legal c o n t r o v e r s y . Outwardly g r o u n d e d in their author's ostensibly f e c u n d h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y ( a l t h o u g h this. N o w h e w a s descanting o n the t h e m e a n d i m p r o v i s i n g o n the idea o f a future . H . W e can search the a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s a n d p r i v a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f the p e r i o d .a ' H a p p i e r Y e a r ' . a n d e n j o y a p h y s i c a l c o n n e c ­ tion w i t h the c o m p a n i o n o f one's choice w h i c h s o m e h o w went b e y o n d D e n t o n W e l c h ' s scx-qua-sex v i e w o f things a n d r e a c h e d a l m o s t spiritual heights. it w a s m i g h t i l y p o w e r f u l . best b r o u g h t it t o life. w i t h o u t relations o r m o n e y . c o m p l e t e . h o w e v e r .'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 47 ' O n l y c o n n e c t ' w a s a l w a y s Forster's m e s s a g e . T h e y m u s t l i v e outside class. h e is certainly in the foothills: H i s j o u r n e y w a s nearly o v e r . H e k n e w w h a t the call w a s . B e f o r e it d i d so. has latterly b e e n the subject o f s o m e critical interest). H e h a d b r o u g h t o u t the m a n in A l e c . i f a d m i t t e d l y small-scale.W i l d e a n w o r l d . In retrospect w e can p o i n t to the e m e r g ­ e n c e o f F r e u d a n d M a r i e S t o p e s . like that o f E r n e s t H e m i n g w a y . L a w r e n c e ' s n o v e l s t o o h a v e a subtext. B u t E n g l a n d b e l o n g e d to t h e m .in w h i c h it w o u l d b e possible to b e true to oneself. the p r o s e a n d the passion'. e v e n m o r e v i v i d l y than Forster. w a s their reward. legally a n o d y n e . b u t ( w i t h the d u b i o u s e x c e p t i o n o f the flamboyantly h e t e r o s e x u a l F r a n k Harris's) they are d i s c r e e d y . T h e r e is n o o n e alive n o w w h o w a s adult then. a n d try t o s h o w h o w the c l i m a t e o f the times h a d e m b o l d e n e d D . In Women . besides c o m p a n i o n s h i p . a n d w h a t his a n s w e r m u s t b e . 26 I f all this n o w sounds sentimentally unrealistic. L i k e so m a n y currents.t o w . E d w a r d i a n r e c r u d e s c e n c e o f the o p e n sexuality w h i c h h a d characterized the early 1 8 9 0 s a n d w o u l d not e m e r g e again until the 1 9 6 0 s . Maurice remains a u n i q u e w o r k in the h o m o s e x u a l c a n o n b e c a u s e it attempts to capture a n d m a k e c o n c r e t e s o m e t h i n g that w a s n e v e r m o r e than an u n d e r . L a w r e n c e . In the p e n u l t i m a t e c h a p t e r of Maurice the e p o n y m o u s h e r o has almost g o t there. t h e y m u s t w o r k a n d stick to e a c h o t h e r till death. it w a s L a w r e n c e w h o . T h a t . a n d n o w it w a s A l e c ' s turn to b r i n g o u t the h e r o in h i m . h o w e v e r .

attracted. I n the ' T e r m i n a l N o t e ' w h i c h h e left to b e a p p e n d e d to the posthumously published 1 9 7 1 edition o f the novel.o n l y after a b o u t o f n u d e w r e s t l i n g w i t h B i r k i n . w h o also hail f r o m separate social classes.' h e tells G e r a l d . w i t h o u t a n y possibility o f g o i n g b a c k o n it.b r o a d h e t e r o s e x u a l parallels o f M a u r i c e Hall and Scudder ' n o r m a l ' m e n .n o t Y o u understand w h a t I m e a n ? ' 2 7 love. L a w r e n c e c o u l d say things at w h i c h the c o n g e n i t a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e Forster c o u l d o n l y hint. O n e i n c i d e n t in the relationship h a d m a d e a particular i m p r e s s i o n . a n d perfectly. y o u a n d I. quite literally.tellingly . s e x . that h e w a s mistrustful. G e o r g e M e r r i l l .W i l d e a n .' 28 It is t o o easy n o w to n e g l e c t o r belitde E d w a r d C a r p e n t e r ' s impact o n the h o m o s e x u a l m e n left to fend for t h e m s e l v e s in the p o s t . h e levels w i t h his social inferior: ' I ' v e n e v e r felt it m y s e l f — n o t w h a t I s h o u l d call l o v e . N e a r l y h a l f a c e n t u r y later Forster w a s able to recall h o w M e r r i l l ' t o u c h e d m y b a c k s i d e — gently a n d j u s t a b o v e the b u t t o c k s .b r o t h e r h o o d ' ) . h a t i n g the attraction. resenting the b o n d a g e . his t h o u g h t s crystallize and. I d o n ' t b e l i e v e I ' v e e v e r felt as m u c h love for a w o m a n as I h a v e for y o u . I ' v e g o n e after w o m e n — a n d b e e n k e e n e n o u g h o v e r s o m e o f t h e m . W r i t i n g o u t o f i m p a t i e n c e w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i v e status q u o .c l a s s B i r k i n ' s s o m e w h a t u n l i k e l y enthusiasm for the ' o b s o l e t e ' m e d i e v a l G e r m a n c o n c e p t o f Blutbruderschaft ( ' b l o o d . c o m e close to s w e a r i n g their u n d y i n g allegiance to e a c h o t h e r in a platonic pact inspired b y the w o r k i n g . w i t h o u t involving m y thoughts. It s e e m e d to g o straight t h r o u g h the small o f m y b a c k into m y ideas. h o w e v e r . finally. b u t . so d e e p l y b o n d a g e d in fascinated attraction. w e r e r e s p o n d i n g to the rapidly c h a n g i n g m o o d o f the times. I b e l i e v e h e t o u c h e d m o s t p e o p l e ' s . B u t I ' v e n e v e r felt love. B o t h . h o w e v e r . as I r e m e m b e r the p o s i t i o n o f a l o n g v a n i s h e d t o o t h . Forster d e s c r i b e d h o w it w a s w r i t t e n as the 'direct result' o f his a c q u a i n t a n c e ­ ship w i t h the W h i t m a n e s q u e seer a n d s e x u a l p i o n e e r E d w a r d C a r p e n ­ ter a n d his ' c o m r a d e ' . L o v e a n d love in all its forms w e r e b e g i n n i n g to b e m e n t i o n e d .4 8 HEROES AND VILLAINS in Love ( 1 9 2 1 ) G e r a l d C r i t c h a n d B i r k i n . i m p l i c i d y . It w a s as m u c h p s y c h o l o g i c a l as physical. ' W e o u g h t to s w e a r to l o v e e a c h other. T h e latter is c o n f u s e d : ' H e l o o k e d d o w n at [ B i r k i n ] . E v e n the act o f w r i t i n g Maurice w a s n o a c c i d e n t . A s w e h a v e seen. T h e sensation w a s u n u s u a l a n d I still r e m e m b e r it.' L a t e r .

a c o l l e c t i o n o f the r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f h o m o ­ sexual m e n c o v e r i n g the years b e t w e e n 1 8 8 5 a n d 1 9 6 7 .the F e l l o w s h i p o f the N e w Life. t w e e d y cloth f r o m w h i c h h e m a d e his o w n clothes a n d s p u r n e d shoes entirely 'leather coffins'. T h o u g h h a v i n g solid sense a n d character. S o t o o d i d their h o u s e . n e w ideas w e r e . ' G o o u t to nature — t h r o w y o u r s e l f in h e r arms — s u b m i t to h e r destinies.preferably o f the w o r k i n g class. o f m y o w n age o r rather y o u n g e r . H e s p u n r o u g h . In 1 8 8 3 . there is o n l y o n e to W i l d e ' s . h e created his o w n v e r s i o n o f w h a t w a s t h e n called 'the S i m p l e L i f e ' . A t the t i m e . In the i n d e x o f Between the Acts. C a r p e n t e r later e x p l a i n e d : ' M y ideal o f l o v e is a p o w e r f u l . H e w a s b o r e d b y 'everlasting discussions o f theories w h i c h n e v e r c a m e a n y w h e r e n e a r actual life'. A n d h e . p r e . b y the a g e o f t w e n t y . T h e titles o f j u s t s o m e o f his m o r e . a b r o a d . B o r n in 1 8 4 4 into a secure.D a r w i n i a n w o r l d . C a r p e n t e r d i d m o r e than e x p a n d the c o n c e p t a n d v o c a b u l a r y o f E d w a r d i a n sexuality. strongly built m a n . H e a n d M e r r i l l s u n b a t h e d w h e n e v e r the and own home-made w e a t h e r w a s g o o d e n o u g h . W e l l s . outside Sheffield.' W h i t m a n h a d told h i m .a n d w r o t e . h o w e v e r . C a m b r i d g e .p r e f e r r i n g to w e a r his sandals.t h r e e h e h a d b e e n o r d a i n e d as an A n g l i c a n priest a n d a p p o i n t e d a clerical f e l l o w at T r i n i t y H a l l . w r o t e . h e m o v e d to an estate at n e a r b y M i l l t h o r p e w h e r e .g u e s t s . B u t a c a d e m i a d i d n o t suit h i m . H . natural lifestyle w h i c h w o u l d c o m e o f age in the c o m m u n e s o f the 1 9 6 0 s a n d 1 9 7 0 s . U n t i l v e r y shortly b e f o r e his death in 1 9 2 9 h e w a s a u n i q u e link b e t w e e n the t h e n e m e r g i n g B r i t i s h M o d e r n i s m a n d the avant-garde o f h a l f a c e n t u r y earlier . C a r p e n t e r . It d i d n ' t take C a r p e n t e r l o n g . h e called t h e m . his i n f l u e n c e w a s e n o r m o u s . T h e fact that h e w a s h o m o s e x u a l w a s almost incidental: his life story itself w a s almost e m b l e m a t i c . S i d n e y a n d B e a t r i c e W e b b a n d the p r o t o . G . quite literally. O n a visit to A m e r i c a h e h a d b e c o m e a friend a n d disciple o f W a l t W h i t m a n . ' 29 A t first C a r p e n t e r b o t h m a d e his life a n d f o u n d his ideal o f l o v e in the village o f T o d e y . h e n e e d n o t b e specially i n t e l l e c t u a l . T h e r e w a s o n e a b i d i n g reason for this. w i t h M e r r i l l . there are six references to his n a m e .s o c i a l i s t Fabian S o c i e t y . W i l l i a m M o r r i s a n d the Arts a n d Crafts m o v e m e n t . h o w e v e r .h e w a s n i c k n a m e d 'hairy l e g s ' - s w a m n a k e d in the n e a r b y river.'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 49 v a c u u m . H e e s p o u s e d v e g e t a r i a n i s m a n d p i o n e e r e d the free. b y 1 8 8 0 h e h a d d e c i d e d to ' g o a n d m a k e [his] life w i t h the mass o f the p e o p l e a n d the m a n u a l w o r k e r s ' .

H e w a s hardly a l o n e in this.p o l i t i c a l activist o f the t y p e w i t h w h i c h w e are familiar t o d a y . It w a s this last aspect o f h i m that attracted m e in m y l o n e l i n e s s . . ' M y c h i e f desire in l o v e is b o d i l y nearness o r contact. . H e w a s sentimental a n d a little sacramental [. w h o s e o w n y e a r n i n g s for a ' H a p p i e r Y e a r ' h a p p e n e d to c h i m e w e l l w i t h C a r p e n t e r ' s U r a n i a n i s m . ' h e w a s a b e l i e v e r in the L o v e o f C o m r a d e s ' . h e w a s a b e l i e v e r in the L o v e o f C o m r a d e s . b u t an i m p o r t a n t o n e . C a r p e n t e r w a s a g u r u . for a g e n e r a t i o n o f 'little m e n ' .] finally. those w o r d s are m o r e true than e v e r . H .] a socialist w h o i g n o r e d industrialism a n d a s i m p l e . at M i l l t h o r p e a n d in his b o o k s h e w a s r e a c t i n g to a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f u n e a s e . W i t h i n a v e r y f e w y e a n o f the f o u n d a t i o n o f Millthorpe t w o 'progressive' N e w S c h o o l s h a d b e e n established: A b b o t s h o l m e ( 1 8 8 9 ) . H a l f a lifetime o n .t i m e disciple o f C a r p e n t e r ' s .' C a r p e n t e r w a s to e x p l a i n . . as to sleep n a k e d . w h o m h e s o m e t i m e s called U r a n i a n s . H e w a s n o t a o n e . ( H e w a s . ' I h a d n e v e r h a d to d o w i t h actual paederasty. ) R a t h e r . w a s p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 1 6 . T h e r e w a s England's Ideal a n d Civilization. M y Days and Dreams. Sex a n d Love's and there w e r e of Age. the m o r e structured B e d a l e s ( 1 8 9 3 ) b y J . The Intermediate Coming a u t o b i o g r a p h y . . ' T h e L o v e o f C o m r a d e s ' . so called. that 'the great t o w n s r o b those w h o d w e l l a n d l a b o u r in t h e m ' . S e x w a s n e v e r the centre o f things at M i l l t h o r p e . c o m p u l s o r y n u d e b a t h i n g — w a s r u n b y a o n e . A n d this is n o idle t a x o n o m y . B a d l e y . w a s to recall in i 9 6 0 that C a r p e n t e r h a d 'a prestige w h i c h c a n n o t b e u n d e r ­ s t o o d t o d a y ' . the g u r u .s c h o o l h y m n .50 HEROES AND VILLAINS n o t a b l e p u b l i c a t i o n s accurately s u m u p his p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . for instance.l i f e r w i t h an i n d e p e n d e n t i n c o m e a n d a W h i t m a n n i c poet w h o s e n o b i l i t y e x c e e d e d his strength [. t h e n . w h o had been influenced b y both Carpenter and R e d d i e . d e d i c a t e d to the pursuit o f 'the life o f true f r e e d o m ' . Finally. C a r p e n t e r w a s a m a v e r i c k .i s s u e h o m o . His his later studies. C e c i l R e d d i e . Its Cause and Cure. I n effect. in a particularly graceless p i e c e o f prose. 30 says Forster. Forster. . a p a n i c w h i c h w a s w e l l s u m m e d u p b y the p o p u l a r n o v e l i s t S i r H e n r y R i d e r H a g g a r d (King Solomon's Mines) w h e n h e w r o t e .the M a u r i c e Halls a n d L e o n a r d Basts o f Forster's fiction — w h o w e r e also in q u i e t r e b e l l i o n against w h a t F o r s t e r called the ' v u l g a r i t y ' o f u r b a n life. Forster w e n t on: h e w a s a r e b e l appropriate to his a g e . . s e e m i n g l y c o n t e n t for M e r r i l l to b e taken as his ' m a n s e r v a n t ' . in 1 8 9 9 .

Possessing. w h a t ' s m o r e . I can r e m e m b e r g o i n g t h e r e . and spirit' (as R e d d i e p u t it). o w i n g to m y loveless early life. not unnaturally.'YOU AND I ARE OUTLAWS' 51 w i t h a n a k e d friend. L a w r e n c e . b e c a u s e w h e n I w e n t n o r t h . ' N o r m a n ' w a s o n e such. Of course. I r e a d Love's Coming of Age a n d 31 Towards Democracy. I w a s u p there in the clouds. I know that he was homosexual. a n d at the t i m e o f his visit a sales assistant in a south L o n d o n store. B e r t r a n d Russell a n d R u p e r t B r o o k e all a r r i v e d in the h o p e o f e n l i g h t ­ enment. B u t there were. r e a d the almost unreadable Towards Democracy .h o u s e in T a v i s t o c k S q u a r e . s o u l . I h a d a c o p y w h e n I w a s a s o l d i e r .that the Coming of Age w a s o n l y a part o f the M i l l t h o r p e m i l i e u . T h e s e r e c e n t b o o k s that y o u see in the papers. I w a s rather s h o c k e d . I l i k e r e a d i n g personal b o o k s . O n c e in L o n d o n . w h o naturally I w a s n ' t interested in. [but] I r e a d C a r p e n t e r at that t i m e . B o r n . almost s y m b o l i c a l l y .' T h e opportunities f o r n u d e s u n b a t h i n g a n d all that m i g h t f o l l o w f r o m it w e r e n e v e r the p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r v i s i t i n g h i m . as h e p u t it. and o h m y G o d . I n e v e r r e a d these n e w b o o k s a b o u t h o m o s e x u a l i t y n o w . N o t g o o d l o o k i n g . f o r a t i m e I t h o u g h t I w o u l d g o a n d see h i m again. Dostoevsky. 32 anything . m o r e brain than balls. a b r o a d cross-section o f the e m e r g i n g intelligentsia o f the Left h e a d e d n o r t h in search o f 'a blessed p h y s i c i a n for b o d y . I m u s t h a v e b e e n o n l y t w e n t y . H . R a t h e r . H . L a w r e n c e .g u e s t s . It w a s in the g a r d e n that M e r r i l l kissed m e . didn't I didn't even think of that. D . after all. I ' v e n e v e r read. w h e r e h e w a s s t a y i n g in a b o a r d i n g . I m u s t h a v e l i k e d the o l d m a n . I w a s also r e a d i n g C o m p t o n Mackenzie. I t h o u g h t h e w a s the g a r d e n e r . many homosexual men a m o n g the M i l l t h o r p e h o u s e . in 1 8 9 5 . I d i d n ' t k n o w about kissing. h e h a d already d i s c o v e r e d C a r p e n t e r ' s w o r k and was seemingly seeking some reassurance in the post-Wilde vacuum: I h a d read The Intermediate Sex b y [about 1 9 1 5 ] . for h i m I s a w C a r p e n t e r t w i c e . D .o n e . G e o r g e B e r n a r d S h a w . N o r m a n k n e w U r a n i a n i s m o f The Intermediate it hardly mattered: Sex a n d Love's he had. ' m o r e brain than balls'. H e l i v e d w i t h G e o r g e M e r r i l l . Fascinatingly.

M a u r i c e is a c o n v i n c i n g h o m o s e x u a l e m b l e m precisely b e c a u s e his creator is n o w i d e . He longed to embrace them and mingle his being with theirs.to the distinction b e t w e e n the platonic ideals o f ' m a n . in Maurice h e i d e n t i f i e d the u n d e r l y i n g . h o l l o w n e s s o f g a y life o v e r the n e x t fifty y e a r s .chaste w i t h a s c e t i c i s m ' in his search for a greater.e y e d C a n d i d e . a l l .p r e t e n d to care a b o u t w o m e n w h e n the o n l y s e x that attracted h i m w a s his o w n . v e r y s l o w l y . often u n r e c o g n i z e d . b e c a u s e 'this is m y f r i e n d ' . and count the world nothing. H e l o v e d m e n a n d a l w a y s h a d l o v e d t h e m . Maurice w o u l d n o t . E a r l y o n in the n o v e l h e h a d described h o w M a u r i c e had 'remembered that C l i v e a n d h e h a d o n l y b e e n t o g e t h e r o n e day! A n d t h e y h a d spent it c a r e e r i n g a b o u t l i k e fools instead o f in o n e a n o t h e r ' s arms! M a u r i c e d i d n o t k n o w that they h a d thus spent it perfectly . neither death nor distance nor crossness could part 36 them. albeit consensual s e x — e n o u g h to c h a n g e n o t j u s t the w o r l d o r d e r b u t the entire universe? Forster w a s far t o o a w a r e o f the realities o f the life w h i c h w a s l i v e d in the B r i t a i n o f the first t w o decades o f this c e n t u r y b y m e n l i k e h i m to g i v e a simple a n s w e r . ' 37 . he a l l o w s M a u r i c e to find it. Forster w a s a realist. G r a d u a l l y . B u t in d o i n g s o . they would make any sacrifice for each other. 35 H e c o u l d die for s u c h a friend. H e castigates a C a m b r i d g e in w h i c h the d o n s 'felt it right to spoil a l o v e affair w h e n they c o u l d ' 3 3 a n d a w o r l d in w h i c h s o m e o n e like C l i v e D u r h a m is 34 p r o m o t e d as 'the ideal m a n . perhaps u n w i t t i n g l y . as h e rushes to P e n g e for his r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h A l e c S c u d d e r . ' T h e u n i v e r s e h a d b e e n p u t in its p l a c e . h e w o u l d a l l o w s u c h a friend to d i e for h i m . In the n o v e l Forster g r o p e s his w a y t o w a r d s b r i d g i n g this g a p : ' o n l y c o n n e c t ' . Instead. B u t h a d it? W a s s e x — illicit. Forster's sense o f i r o n y suffuses the n o v e l ' s s u b ­ text.l o v e ' a n d the m o r e p h y s i c a l pull o f lust.h e w a s t o o y o u n g to detect the triviality o f c o n t a c t f o r contact's s a k e . u n l i k e C a r p e n t e r .e m b r a c i n g h o n e s t y .a n d this w a s the test . a pragmatist. insight o f a distincdy C a r p e n t e r i a n k i n d dawns. A n d s l o w l y . ' M a u r i c e thinks. B u t .52 HEROES AND VILLAINS W e are b a c k to Maurice . h e h e d g e d .

/ T h e most enticing o f mysteries'. 1 Increasingly. r e m a r k . A u d e n in a l i g h t . 3 a the conflagration had its i m p l i c a t i o n s for the A n d they w e r e just boys. h o w e v e r . a g e i n g v e r y rapidly. almost casually. It gives s o m e sort o f p e r s p e c t i v e to the tale o f h o m o s e x u a l e v o l u t i o n to n o t e that a b o y b o r n o n the day o f O s c a r W i l d e ' s c o n v i c t i o n in M a y 1 8 9 5 w o u l d h a v e b e e n n i n e t e e n . let a l o n e sexual. H . in c o n s e q u e n c e .1 4 . w h e n . IT A L W A Y S I S . fresh o u t o f p u b l i c s c h o o l perhaps. A n d . that that w a s o n l y b e c a u s e M a u r i c e h a d b e e n ' t o o y o u n g to detect the triviality o f c o n t a c t for contact's s a k e ' .'I'm Awfully Proud to Think He's My Friend' 'SEX W A S . for the 'trouble in the B a l k a n s ' w h i c h p r e c i p i t a t e d five-year pre-European British h o m o s e x u a l . W r i t i n g in 1 9 1 3 . t o o .h a r d e n e d f a c t o r y . for a m o m e n t . it is possible to flesh o u t that aside. during that s a m e p e r i o d sex in itself c a m e to b e s e e n as m e r e l y the b e g i n n i n g o f s o m e t h i n g m o r e serious.h e a r t e d squib o f a p o e m l o o k i n g b a c k to the E d w a r d i a n certainties o f his c h i l d h o o d .h a n d o r agricultural l a b o u r e r . E . W e c a n i m a g i n e M a u r i c e . Forster h a d b e e n m o r e p r e s c i e n t than he could have imagined. M . In the history b o o k s maps are r o l l e d u p a n d the lights g o o u t all o v e r E u r o p e at this p e r i o d . a n d the e x i g e n c i e s o f the G r e a t W a r o n l y accelerated the process. lives o f ' o u r b o y s ' o n 'the F r o n t ' . o r already a w o r k . After describing h o w M a u r i c e Hall and C l i v e D u r h a m h a d spent the majority o f their t i m e t o g e t h e r ' c a r e e r i n g a b o u t like fools — instead o f in o n e another's arms!' h e h a d g o n e o n 2 to If. litde has b e e n d i s ­ c o v e r e d o r at a n y rate r e p o r t e d a b o u t the e m o t i o n a l . called u p o n l y m o n t h s after 'taking u p ' w i t h A l e c S c u d d e r . h o w e v e r . S3 . w r o t e W . w e a l l o w the real w o r l d to i m p i n g e o n the fictional.

o v e r a tot o f w h i s k y . T a n t a l i z i n g e v i d e n c e exists. discuss the i m m i n e n t arrival o f a n e w y o u n g captain.) 4 O S B O R N E : m e n . It o p e n s w i t h a c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n t w o m i d d l e .b u t in all p r o b a b i l i t y that w a s d u e m o r e to the p r e s e n c e in the cast o f a y o u n g L a u r e n c e O l i v i e r than to the p l a y ' s o w n v e r i s m o d e p i c t i o n o f the w a y things w e r e b e t w e e n 1 8 a n d 2 1 M a r c h 1 9 1 8 (Sherriff is v e r y specific a b o u t specifics) in a f r o n t . I l o v e that f e l l o w .o n e w h e n L l o y d G e o r g e ' s c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t instituted the g e n e r a l c o n s c r i p t i o n into the a r m e d forces o f all single m e n a g e d b e t w e e n e i g h t e e n a n d f o r t y .f i v e . E v e n t o d a y .a g e d officers. S h e r r i f f ' s ostensibly c o n v e n t i o n a l play a b o u t t r e n c h life.o n e in M a r c h 1 9 1 6 . H e w o u l d have b e e n n o t quite t w e n t y .g r e y hair.c o m b a t a n t s : rare i n d e e d are t h o u g h t s s u c h as those o f S t e p h e n S p e n d e r w h o . has b e e n w i d e l y praised for h a v i n g c a u g h t 'the m o o d ' a n d b r o u g h t to the stage an accurate portrayal o f H o w T h i n g s S e e m e d at the T i m e . Journey's End. A 1 9 2 9 poster called it ' T h e P l a y T h a t Is S w e e p i n g the W o r l d ' .m a y . m u s e s that ' H e w a s a b e t t e r target for a k i s s ' . T h i s is p a r a d o x i c a l .i n f l u e n c e d R u p e r t B r o o k e are strangely silent a b o u t their feelings for their f e l l o w . o n c o m i n g across the b o d y o f a b o y shot d e a d in the Spanish C i v i l W a r .o u t at S a i n t .c a r e attitude e n g e n d e r e d b y a situation in w h i c h odds o n the s u r v i v a l o f a front-line infantry officer w e r e calculated in hours rather than days o r w e e k s .l i n e d u g .54 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S o n 4 A u g u s t 1 9 1 4 . S t a n h o p e : T h e r e isn't a m a n to t o u c h h i m as a c o m m a n d e r o f laughs. I ' d g o to hell w i t h h i m . if! (He O S B O R N E : Y o u d o n ' t k n o w h i m as I d o . E v e n the p u b l i s h e d w o r k s o f such labile participants as Siegfried S a s s o o n a n d the M i l l t h o r p e . E v e r since its first p r o ­ d u c t i o n in D e c e m b e r 1 9 2 8 . T h e y are ' o l d soldiers' and. i r o n . Britain declared w a r on G e r m a n y . w i t h c l o s e c r o p p e d . trenches a n d d u g . h o w e v e r .physically as hard as nails'). cheerful-looking') and Osborne ('a fine h e a d . that s o m e f o r m o f i n n o c e n t i n t i m a c y w a s present. the script is n o t w i t h o u t interest. C a p t a i n H a r d y ('redfaced. g i v e n the e n f o r c e d p r o p i n q u i t y o f w h a t memorialists w e r e q u i c k to d u b 'the c r e a m o f the n a t i o n ' s m a n h o o d ' in barracks. e v e n o n the front line.o u t s a n d the d e v i l . C . H e l o o k s a b o u t f o r t y . R . H e ' l l c o m m a n d the battalion o n e d a y if— H A R D Y : Y e s .Q u e n t i n in central F r a n c e . .

E d w a r d i a n bluster ('I l o v e that f e l l o w ' . S i n g ' e m ! ' A n d h e g a v e m e a bottle o f c h a m p a g n e ! 6 . ' S o h e said. ' W e l l . B u t the lads l i k e d it. j u s t a f e w .m a i d i s h . a n d after it w a s finished o u r sergeant c a m e u p a n d h e said. T h e y all j o i n e d in. b o y . A m e m b e r o f the O x f o r d s h i r e a n d B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e L i g h t Infantry r e m e m b e r e d the c a m a r a d e r i e a n d affection w h i c h u n i t e d t h o s e o f the r e g i m e n t ' s officers a n d m e n w h o w e r e f o r c e d to s p e n d the C h r i s t m a s o f 1 9 1 6 in F r a n c e : . sentimental o l d darling! C o m e a l o n g . a n d k e e p the lads g o i n g . A n d t h e y a l w a y s w a n t e d the apple s o n g . b y a n y m e a n s ! I c o u l d n ' t in all d e c e n c y repeat w h a t c a m e in the m i d d l e . . ' S o I w e n t u p to the table w h e r e all the officers w e r e . y o u s w e e t . and C o l o n e l B e s t ' s sitting t h e r e w i t h his j a c k e t u n d o n e . the C o l o n e l w a n t s to see y o u ! ' I t h o u g h t . ' T h i s is it! C o u r t martial for m e . T h e r e is a r e l a x e d b o n h o m i e h e r e . ' W e l l . I once k n e w a fellow his n a m e w a s B e n . T h e s e are m e n f o r c e d b y c i r c u m s t a n c e s to ' r u b along t o g e t h e r ' . ' R e a l b a w d y songs they w e r e . W i l l i a m s . H e says. ' C o m e o n . n o t h i n g in all the a v u n c u l a r l y — e v e n o l d . . A n y w a y at C h r i s t m a s w e ' d all h a d p l e n t y to d r i n k a n d the lads h a d m e o n to sing. . m y lad. g i v e us a s o n g . sing ' e m . N o w all y o u gents If y o u w a n t any m o r e . F i n i s h h a n d i n g o v e r a n d stop b l i t h e r i n g . I ' v e an apple u p m e arse A n d y o u can h a v e the c o r e ! A n d that w a s n ' t the w o n t o f it. 'stop b l i t h e r i n g ' ) betrays the slightest h i n t o f a h o m o s e x u a l under-tow. ' T h a t w a s a g o o d s o n g . ' W i l l i a m s . w h o are c o n t r i v i n g to d o e x a c d y that. S i r . 5 O S B O R N E : H A R D Y : T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g else to d o . H e h a d n i n e o f a family (nearly ten!) . D o y o u k n o w a n y m o r e l i k e that?' I said. b u t it g a v e t h e m a l a u g h a n d k e p t t h e m g o i n g . . o u r C o m p a n y O f f i c e r u s e d to get u p at the front a n d say. ' s e n t i m e n t a l old darling!'. S o I g a v e t h e m a f e w o f m y specials. s m o k i n g a cigar.' I ' M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D ' 55 H A R D Y : O h .

He rises heavily and crosses to the shadows . read.w i t h g r e y hair' ( O S B O R N E dears his throat) . H e said that D e n n i s is the finest officer in the battalion. I r e p o r t e d at B a t t a l i o n H e a d q u a r t e r s a n d the c o l o n e l l o o k e d i n a little b o o k .' a n d t h e n later D e n n i s c a m e in.u p . t h o u g h o l d a n d w a r . 7 T h e d e c i s i v e m o m e n t c o m e s in the c l o s i n g lines o f A c t 1 1 S c e n e I . c h e e r i n g t h e m o n w i t h j o k e s . T h e n I w e n t o n d u t y in the front l i n e .) S T A N H O P E has not moved while O S B O R N E has T h a t ' s all. H e l o o k e d tired. c o n f r o n t i n g Captain Dennis Stanhope but w i t h the u n e x p e c t e d arrival o f a o n e . h e s h o w s us O s b o r n e a n d S t a n h o p e c e n s o r i n g the letters h o m e w r i t t e n b y their m e n .' (There is silence.a n d it w n o m o r e than a h i n t - that there m i g h t h a v e b e e n a certain.C a p t a i n S t a n h o p e . repressed s e x u a l tension b e h i n d all this. h o w e v e r . ' R a l e i g h .) Shall I stick it d o w n ? ( S T A N H O P E sits with lowered head. He murmurs something that sounds like ' Y e s .b u i l t . Q u i t e r e a s o n a b l y . a n d said. rather from attractive features than the healthy g o o d l o o k s o f R a l e i g h . a n d m a k i n g t h e m k e e n a b o u t things. H e sets u p a classically c h a r g e d situation. SherrifF implies that a k h a k i . O n e is f r o m R a l e i g h : O S B O R N E (reading): H e says: ' A n d n o w I c o m e to the great n e w s . SherrifF keeps R a l e i g h o f f stage. a n d b e c a u s e o f the responsibility. l i k e h e d i d the kids at s c h o o l . is absurdly y o u t h f u l : 'a w e l l . broad-shouldered. in w h i c h reluctant subalterns c o u l d w e l l h a v e b e e n i n d u l g i n g o n l y a m a t t e r o f w e e k s b e f o r e their c a l l . ' Y o u r e p o r t to C C o m p a n y .s c h o o l 'pashes' a n d h e r o . R a l e i g h .q u i t e o l d . h e ' s a l w a y s u p in the front l i n e w i t h the m e n .c l a d v e r s i o n o f m o r e o r less serious p u b l i c . H e is g o o d l o o k i n g . t o o . c o n t i n u e d in the trenches. his uniform. ' C a n ' t y o u i m a g i n e w h a t I felt? I w a s taken a l o n g s o m e trenches a n d s h o w n a d u g o u t . Instead. a n d the m e n s i m p l y l o v e h i m . b u t that's b e c a u s e h e w o r k s so frightfully hard.t i m e s c h o o l friend. I ' m awfully p r o u d to t h i n k h e ' s m y friend. T h e r e w a s an a w f u l l y n i c e officer there . H e hardly e v e r sleeps in the d u g o u t . slimly built. h e a l t h y looking b o y o f about eighteen'.56 Journey's H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S End also hints.s t a i n e d . H i s dark hair is carefully b r u s h e d . S t a n h o p e h i m s e l f is ' n o m o r e than a b o y . tall. is w e l l cut a n d c a r e d for. please'.w o r s h i p . C l e v e r l y . a n d a sergeant t o l d m e all a b o u t D e n n i s . (Pause.

b u t I wasn't [. E a c h w a s also a m e m b e r o f 'the officer class' a n d w r i t i n g from direct e x p e r i e n c e . H e is h i m s e l f an aesthete. . T h i s is O w e n . . as a real-life D e n n i s S t a n h o p e . ) L i e u t e n a n t (acting C a p t a i n ) S o r r e l c o m e s o v e r . . I w a s 'familiar' w i t h t h e m . h o w e v e r . The sun is shining quite brightly in the trench outside.a d i s ­ gracefully u n o f f i c e r . b u t n o m a n swears in his p r e s e n c e . a n d n o t v i r t u o u s a c c o r d i n g to E n g l i s h standards. a n d shrank ' c h e c k i n g ' t h e m o r ' t a k i n g a n a m e ' o r d o i n g a n y t h i n g t o a d d to their miseries a n d discomforts. suffering f r o m s h e l l . b u t that Passion m a y b e s o .l i k e lapse in those days. h o m e s i c k for their w i v e s .] I wasn't from g o o d for the m e n : I w a s t o o sorry for t h e m . M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n .s i m p l y .s h o c k .V M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D 57 by O S B O R N E ' S bed. n o r b r o a c h e s those pleasantries w h i c h so a m u s e the E n g l i s h officer's m i n d . ( B u t w e m i g h t n o t e that O w e n ' s b i o g r a p h e r J o n S t a l l w o r t h y has established that. .s o m e t h i n g o f a real-life R a l e i g h b a c k in 1 9 1 8 . the pathetic elderly. S o r r e l w a s i n v a l i d e d h o m e . 1 0 . 9 Q u i t e w h a t O w e n m e a n s b y d e s c r i b i n g S o r r e l as 'an aesthete' a n d ' n o t v i r t u o u s a c c o r d i n g to E n g l i s h standards.m e n . a n d I m a d e favourites. o r try to d o .h i m a m b i g u i t y e n g e n d e r e d b y s e r v i c e life.) T H E C U R T A I N F A L L S 8 A s o n stage. so o n the p a g e : f r o m v e r y different p e r s p e c t i v e s b o t h W i l f r e d O w e n a n d M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n also r u m i n a t e d a b o u t the e m o ­ tional t h e . perhaps. p e r h a p s ' it is n o w as i m p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r as the true i m p o r t o f the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h . S i x t y years o n .l o v e . the y o u n g e s t a n d prettiest. shortly after this letter w a s w r i t t e n . H e seems to b e o n e o f the f e w y o u n g m e n w h o l i v e u p to m y principle: that A m u s e m e n t is n e v e r an e x c u s e for ' i m m o r a l i t y ' . d e s c r i b i n g a L i e u t e n a n t (acting C a p t a i n ) S o r r e l in a letter h e sent h o m e f r o m the S o m m e in the s p r i n g o f 1 9 1 7 : H e c h o k e s filthiness as s u m m a r i l y as I e v e r h e a r d a captain d o .w a s characteristically m o r e c a n d i d w h e n h e c a m e to w r i t e a b o u t the G r e a t W a r in his a u t o b i o g r a p h y : I was adjudged a 'good officer'.

' F r e d ' d i d — a n d r e m a i n e d m a r r i e d for the greater part o f his adult life. t o o . O b v i o u s l y . m o r e natural: that the m a j o r i t y o f the o t h e r ranks w e r e .a n d it w a s f r o m just such communities drawn. V i r t u a l l y all tell o f a w o r l d o f T o m B r o w n . It w a s s o m e h o w different. A n d o n e o f the m o s t telling features w h i c h the contributors to K e v i n P o r t e r a n d Jeffrey W e e k s ' s a n t h o l o g y o f h o m o s e x u a l r e c o l l e c t i o n s . ' h e says. t h e r e o f w e c a n n o t s p e a k ' . m o r e accurately.i s h affection a n d c o l d . h o w e v e r . non-metropolitan c o m m u n i t i e s . j u s t as the v e r y w o r d ' h o m o s e x u a l ' w a s n o t in c o m m o n c u r r e n c y at the t i m e o f the G r e a t W a r . T h e r e are. t h e r e w a s n o real n o t i o n that h o m o s e x u a l activity w a s ' w r o n g ' . a l t h o u g h w e m u s t b e cautious in o u r e x a m i n a t i o n o f e v e n this material.58 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S D e s p i t e their c o m p a r a t i v e rarity. N o t infrequently. ' O f c o u r s e . ' W h e r e o f w e d o n o t k n o w . ' I n e v e r w e n t w i t h a w o m a n in m y life. o t h e r than m y o w n w i f e . T h a t t h e y w e r e n o t officially n o t e d . c o m m e n t e d o n in letters h o m e o r e v e n specifically r e m e m b e r e d b y the great m a j o r i t y o f s u r v i v o r s . the p h i l o s ­ o p h e r L u d w i g W i t t g e n s t e i n w a s shortly to w r i t e . E v e n the m e m o r i e s o f o p e n l y g a y m e n in the m a i n paint a p i c t u r e o f a s e r v i c e life w h o s e w h o l e s o m e n e s s w o u l d h a v e a p p e a l e d to D r A r n o l d . relationships m u s t h a v e d e v e l o p e d f r o m t i m e to t i m e — j u s t as t h e r e w e r e isolated cases o f desertion o r (as the w a r t i m e G e n e r a l O r d e r s p u t it) o f ' m i s b e h a v i n g b e f o r e the e n e m y in s u c h a m a n n e r as to s h o w c o w a r d i c e ' . o v e r w h e l m i n g l y b e a r o u t officers' mess a c c o u n t s l i k e these. the lack o f it) in the trenches. I d i d n ' t k n o w t h e n that I w a s h o m o s e x u a l ' . t h e y d e s c r i b e h o w they virtually drifted i n t o m a r r i a g e . R a t h e r . the first-hand recollections o f the ' o t h e r ranks'. rather than sophisti­ cated. w h i l e e x p l a i n i n g that g o i n g w i t h m e n m e a n t p l a y i n g b y a different set o f rules. a b n o r m a l o r in a n y w a y unnatural . so it is to this slim b o d y o f a n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e that w e m u s t turn to try to estimate the nature o f p r e v a l e n c e o f a c t i v e h o m o s e x u a l i t y (or. is a c o m m o n c o m m e n t .s h o w e r purity. u r b a n p u r l i e u s . T h e r e is little o f the angst a n d isolation w h i c h fuels Forster's M a u r i c e . P o r t e r a n d W e e k s ' s i n t e r v i e w e e s share a simplicity a n d matter-of-factness. s e e m i n g l y . n o official figures. is in itself important. o f o r d i n a r y soldiers w h o h a d v o l u n t e e r e d o r w e r e c o n ­ scripted for s e r v i c e in the G r e a t W a r . F o r . h a v e in c o m m o n is a certain innocence. Between the Acts. it seems at least distincdy possible that in working-class.

D i c k a n d H a r r y . I m u s t o p e n l y confess that I w o u l d n ' t d o it w i t h e v e r y T o m . I w a s r e a d y a n d h e w a s r e a d y . . F e m a l e s n e v e r m e a n t a n y t h i n g to m e . o n e w i t h the o t h e r . C a u g h t u p in the g e n e r a l c o n s c r i p t i o n o f 1 9 1 6 .c l a s s homo­ sexuality d u r i n g that a r m y p e r i o d . ' H e y . b u t I d i d n ' t h e a r a n y talk. I can't r e m e m b e r a n y talk a b o u t s w e a r a lot. a n d I d o n o w today. B u t as regards s e x w i t h o t h e r m e n . I was honest and I n e v e r w e n t w i t h another w o m a n in m y life o t h e r than m y w i f e . his m e m o r i e s e x p l o r e the d i c h o t o m y b e t w e e n (physical) i n t i m a c y a n d true affection. d o n ' t y o u e v e r feel l i k e a bit o f s e x w h e n y o u see this g o i n g o n ? ' ' A y e . ' A n d o f c o u r s e that d i d it. a n d I r e m e m b e r the first t i m e I h a d it w i t h a y o u n g farm l a b o u r e r . a r o u n d 1 9 1 6 . I h a v e h a d s e x w i t h o t h e r m e n — a n d still d o i f it c o m e s m y w a y — a n d w e a g r e e . I was completely withdrawn. ' I says. I find a m a l e ' s c o m p a n y is w o n d e r f u l . E v e r y bit as g r a p h i c a l l y as the officers'. ' I w i l l i f y o u w i l l .quite literally. ' h e says. as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a t e x t b o o k e x a m p l e o f w h a t a n e w b r e e d o f F r e u d i a n psychoanalysts w a s j u s t b e g i n n i n g to describe as ' s u b l i m a t i o n ' : . H e w a s e i g h t e e n a n d I w a s a b o u t t w e n t y . really .s i x then. H e b r o u g h t the s o w to the d o o r a n d . . all the soldiers w e r e w o r k i n g .a l t h o u g h I a l w a y s kept m y v o w s . it takes a b o u t half-an-hour. ' h o w a b o u t it?' j u s t l i k e that. T h e r e w a s n o t h i n g b e t w e e n us. . . it's e n o u g h to l o v e a p e r s o n . the b o a r w a s s e r v i n g the s o w i n the p e n a n d this y o u n g f a r m e r . h e s o o n f o u n d h i m s e l f in F r a n c e . h a v e y o u e v e r seen a b o a r s e r v i n g a s o w ? W e l l . A litde c h a p c a l l e d W a l t e r . T h e r e ' s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t y o u r o w n s e x . I u s e d to k e e p the b o a r pigs. W e n e v e r talked a b o u t a n y t h i n g . In the a r m y I m a d e o n l y o n e friend. Y o u ' r e n o t b o u n d to h a v e s e x . w e l l .k i d d i e says to m e . T h i s particular t i m e . Y o u ' r e free a n d easy to talk a n d to g i v e a n d to l o v e . I d i d n ' t t h i n k n o m o r e . an i n n o c e n t a b r o a d . . . surprisingly [. T h e m e n w o u l d . I ' d rather c u d d l e a m a n than I w o u l d a w o m a n . I w a s q u i t e i n n o c e n t .] In F r a n c e it w a s v e r y p r i m i t i v e . " R e a d in the light o f material l i k e this the w a r t i m e e x p e r i e n c e s o f the p s e u d o n y m o u s ' N o r m a n ' fall i n t o a m o r e c o n v i n c i n g c o n t e x t . ' O h .V M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D 59 I ' v e a l w a y s preferred a m a l e ' s c o m p a n y to a female's c o m p a n y .

y o u k n o w . A s y o u ' r e g e t t i n g p r o m o t i o n s . I g o t p r o m o t e d to sergeant f r o m c o r ­ p o r a l . T h e s i m p l e reason [for m e w a s ] .' y o u g o t n o c h a n c e for v e r y m u c h . f r o m w h a t t h e y call. I m u s t n ' t . I mean I d i d n ' t w a n t to sleep w i t h h i m . b u t I w a s m u c h m o r e m e n t a l than sensual. Y o u c a n g a u g e ' e m . ' h e told J e f f r e y W e e k s in the late 1 9 7 0 s . a n d that w a s the first t i m e I actually g o t s e d u c e d b y a soldier. 13 T h e v e r y real fear o f e x p o s u r e w e i g h e d o n ' F r e d ' . y o u say to yourself. 12 ' G e r a l d ' (born in 1 8 9 2 ) is a n o t h e r o l d soldier w h o describes this i m p l i c i t c o d e o f chastity. A W e l s h m a n . nothing happened.' G e r a l d g o e s further than N o r m a n . is it m i n d o v e r matter? Y o u k n o w . it seems likely that this o c c u r r e d d u r i n g training. [to] p u t it bluntly. so w e ' d h a v e o n e underneath and three on top. It w a s n ' t suspicious. O f course. w h e n y o u c o m e to l o o k at it y o u say to y o u r s e l f . T h e r e w e r e all these m e n a n d I s a w t h e m b a t h i n g a n d e v e r y t h i n g . "bumming". b e f o r e a c t i v e s e r v i c e : ' I w e n t in the a r m y in 1 9 1 4 . b u t f r o m a different a n d rather m o r e interest­ i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . h o w e v e r . t o o .' T h a t incident notwithstanding. because if something happened y o u ' r e g o i n g to g e t a c o u r t m a r t i a l . it w a s a sergeant. a n d tries to e x p l a i n this a b s t i n e n c e . I g o t o n v e r y w e l l w i t h all o f t h e m . b u t the p o i n t is. m i n d y o u . It w a s t h e n I realised that I w a s that w a y . N o . born . N o t the slightest. A l b e i t fleetingly . b u t in the a r m y t h e y d i d n ' t b o t h e r a b o u t p e o p l e s l e e p i n g t o g e t h e r . y o u c o u l d n ' t take n o chances. Y o u ' r e jeopardising y o u r chances. m y life has g o n e that w a y . A f o r m e r barber. E v e r s i n c e . I h a d several c h a n c e s . a f o r m e r w a i t e r . T h a t w a s the first c o n t a c t I h a d w i t h a n y b o d y .6o H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S m e n . It all h a d to b e d o n e in a m o m e n t ' — h e had h a d sex in the a r m y . a n d I t h i n k that's p r o b a b l y w h y I wasn't interested. b e c a u s e w e h a d t w o blankets e a c h . P e o p l e d i d n ' t e v e n j o k e a b o u t h o m o s e x u a l i t y .W e l l . ' I w a s a l w a y s s c a r e d . w i t h t w o o r three different private soldiers I k n e w . I g o t v e r y friendly w i t h a b o y called D a v i d a n d I slept w i t h h i m . G e r a l d ' s testament is strikingly similar to N o r m a n ' s : ' A t that t i m e [during the G r e a t W a r ] t h e r e w a s n o talk a b o u t h o m o s e x u a l i t y . A l t h o u g h it is n o w i m p o s s i b l e to k n o w for certain. I d i d n ' t realise I w a s h o m o s e x u a l . at least in so far as h e w a s c o n c e r n e d : T h e r e w a s n o s e x u a l c o n t a c t w i t h a n y b o d y in the services.

d e v o t e d friend: as o n e ' s C h i n e s e o r M a l a y f a c t o t u m b e c o m e s . W e b o t h e n j o y e d this. ' I ' l l learn h i m a lesson!' as h e w e n t to p u l l the clothes off. m a d e h i m l o o k a fool. M i c h a e l D a v i d ­ son a d v a n c e d a n o t h e r reason for the p r e v a l e n c e o f his perhaps u n e x p e c ­ ted b u t still understandable s e l f . A n e p i s o d e w h i c h o c c u r r e d o n e n i g h t shortly b e f o r e his d e m o b i l i z a t i o n r e m a i n e d in his m e m o r y . e x c e p t as a casual. o f c o u r s e . b u t I ' v e b e e n told it w a s often a part o f t r e n c h life). A n d . this y o u n g c h a p c a m e in d r u n k . y o u ' v e g o t to h a v e this!' S o I c l u t c h e d h o l d o f the clothes. ' C o m e o n . W e ' d practically all g o n e t o b e d . F r e d b a c h . h e w a s a w a r e o f his s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the a r m y . . ' o n o n e c o n d i t i o n .d e n y i n g o r d i n a n c e . h o w e v e r . b u t his g e n d e p r e s e n c e w a s also a c o m f o r t . O n e o f his tasks w a s to a r r a n g e h o t w a t e r a n d m y canvas bath.' A n d .' t w o y e a n earlier'. a n d t h o u g h t to myself. " . h e l o o k e d after m e w i t h the o b j e c t i v e care h e g a v e t o [ D a v i d s o n ' s h o n e ] T r i x i e . ' I h a d n ' t even reached puberty': Thompson [his m i d d l e . t h o u g h n e i t h e r s t e p p e d o v e r the p u r e l y a b l u t i o n a r y b o r d e r (I n e v e r h a d a n y t h i n g 'to d o ' w i t h m y s o l d i e n . ' T h a t I shag y o u first. I think. . a n d t o o k great pains to c o n c e a l it.a g e d r e g i m e n t a l b a t m a n ] turned into a d u m b . a n d so h e strips o f f in the n u d e . 14 I n his a u t o b i o g r a p h y The World. It is i m p l i c i d y (the class-based a n d p r e d i c a t e d o n his o w n p a e d o p h i l e p r e f e r e n c e s b o o k b e g i n s w i t h the frank admission. H e w a s j u s t e i g h t e e n . w h e n h e c a m e o v e r to m y b e d h e h a d a hard o n . H e w a s at a barracks in Cardiff: . It is i m p o r t a n t . a n d h e said. o f c o u r s e . ' H e y ! h a n g o n a m i n u t e ! ' I said. since D a v i d s o n ' s a w a r e n e s s a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f his h o m o s e x u a l i t y o c c u r r e d at almost e x a c d y the s a m e t i m e as he w a s c o m m i s s i o n e d as an officer in the M a c h i n e G u n C o r p s . a n d s o m e h o w h e g o t i n t o the habit o f d r y i n g m e h i m s e l f after I ' d h a d it. sexuality at the front w a s for m e g e n e r a l l y q u i e s c e n t . H e s p o k e in sniffs a n d grunts. A n y h o w .I s u p p o s e t h e y w e r e t o o o l d for m e . . a n d c o m e s o v e r to m y b e d . . s e l f . the Flesh and Myself. H e n e v e r tried it o n after. his o l d b o y w e n t d o w n j u s t l i k e that! A n d t h e y all burst o u t l a u g h i n g . ' H e said. h e r e m e m b e r e d .c o n t a i n e d c h o r e . ' W h a t ' s that?' I said. h e did. a n d w e h a d the light o n a n d h e w a s s i n g i n g there.V M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D ' 6I in 1 8 9 4 . ' T h i s is the life-story o f a l o v e r o f b o y s ' ) .

c o n t a i n e d c h o r e ' . T h a t w a s at L e H a v r e in 1 9 1 7 . T h e y b a r e l y c o n t a i n the i m p a t i e n c e a n d l o n g i n g to b e b a c k in ' B l i g h t y ' . as a s c h o o l b o y . w h e t h e r it's t h r o u g h the c o n v e r s a t i o n . A l l o f a s u d d e n his a r m w a s r o u n d m y n e c k a n d this. M a u r i c e Hall's ' c h i e f i n d e c e n c i e s w e r e solitary' a n d ' b r o u g h t h i m m o r e fatigue than p l e a s u r e ' . O h . It w a s almost as i f s e r v i c e life n o t o n l y p e r p e t u a t e d b u t c o n c e n t r a t e d the pariah status assigned to h o m o s e x u a l s at h o m e b e f o r e the o u t b r e a k o f hostilities. But ironically. ' W e w a s o n the b o a t c o m i n g h o m e ' . o n e t h i n g led to another. o f c o u r s e . a n d v i e w e d in retrospect.62 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S In Maurice F o r s t e r h a d d e s c r i b e d h o w . N o m o r e p u t t i n g in for l e a v e . o r w h e t h e r it's the attitude o f the i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d . N o m o r e s o l d i e r i n g for m e . w r i t i n g a b o u t h o w ' q u i e s c e n t ' w a s the t r e n c h life o f an o t h e r w i s e priapic y o u n g m a n . understandably. o n e ' c o u l d n ' t take n o c h a n c e s ' . i r o n i c t o n e w a s m u c h later to c o l o u r the T h e a t r e Workshop musical Oh. sergeant-major. I shall kiss the Amen. Gerald goes on: I o n l y m e t o n e o t h e r h o m o s e x u a l in the a r m y . b u t w e s e e m e d to c o m e t o g e t h e r . What a Lovely War!: W h e n this l o u s y w a r is o v e r . w h o s e bitter. W h e n I g e t m y c i v v y clothes o n . see. W e w a s [51c] o n the b o a t c o m i n g h o m e . G e r a l d ' s m e m o r i e s o f the v e r y real fear o f courts martial are illustrative o f a r e g i m e in w h i c h . t h e y also p o i n t the w a y forward. a n d then. h o w h e ' l l g r i e v e ! . 16 T h e i m p o r t a n t w o r d s h e r e are. N o w h e r e is D a v i d s o n a v e r y different t y p e o f m a n s a y i n g a l m o s t the s a m e thing. w h i c h also f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n in the soldiers' songs o f the p e r i o d . H o w I'll miss h i m . s e l f . h o w s e x u a l e x p r e s s i o n b e c a m e n o m o r e than a 'casual. that a n d the other. h o w h a p p y I shall b e ! N o m o r e c h u r c h parades o n S u n d a y . I d o n ' t k n o w h o w these things w o r k .

' I ' M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D ' 63 T h e r e is. I d o n ' t w a n t to g o to w a r . I w a n t to g o h o m e . h a p p i l y a n d c o n v e n i e n t l y . ' m o a n e d the m o s t simplistic: . A r o u n d the streets t o r o a m . I d o n ' t w a n t to die.' P a r . . I d o n ' t w a n t to g o in the trenches n o m o r e . A n d l i v e o n the earnings o f a l a d y typist. 'a B l i g h t y o n e ' . ' I w a n t to g o h o m e . A n d fornicate m y b l e e d i n g life a w a y . the squaddies' v e r s i o n h a d an u r g e n c y all o f its o w n : I d o n ' t w a n t to b e a soldier. L i n e s l i k e ' l i v e o n the earnings o f a l a d y typist' ( e v e n m o r e m e n t w h i c h the p r o s p e c t o f h o m e l e a v e . ' 17 G a y o r straight. .a n d . S u n g to the t u n e o f ' I ' l l M a k e a M a n o f Y o u ' . w h i c h u n w i t t i n g l y m o s t accurately r e c o r d e d the m o o d o f r e t u r n i n g s e r v i c e m e n l i k e G e r a l d . I d o n ' t w a n t m y b o l l o c k s shot a w a y . I ' d rather stay at h o m e . a f e w days in Paris . T a k e m e o v e r the sea. W h e r e w h i z z b a n g s a n d shrapnel. M a n y o f the songs reflect it. In m e r r y . j u s t as m u c h in s e r v i n g h o m o s e x u a l s as in their loving or whore-hunting than references to ' m e r r y . m e r r y E n g l a n d ' ) e x a c d y s u m u p the febrile e x c i t e ­ eventual d e m o b i l i z a t i o n o r . ' T h e high-flying " s p i r i t u a l " e m o t i o n a l i s m o f the last y e a r o r t w o [ o f the w a r ] w a s r e p l a c e d almost o v e r n i g h t b y an insatiable h u n g e r for d o w n r i g h t carnal e x p e r i e n c e — a c r a v i n g to know the p h y s i c a l secrets o f as m a n y b o y s as p o s s i b l e . It w a s a n o t h e r s o n g . for m o s t single s e r v i c e m e n o n h o m e l e a v e t h e r e w a s o n l y o n e p l a c e t h e y w a n t e d to b e . m o r e rarely.a r o u s e d home-and-hearthheterosexual comrades. I ' d rather stay in E n g l a n d . I d o n ' t w a n t a b a y o n e t in m y b e l l y .e e ' . a p a r o d y o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c . t h e y w h i s t l e a n d roar. h o w e v e r . w h e r e the a l l e y m a n c a n ' t g e t at m e O h m y . I w a n t to g o h o m e . to V i c t o r i a a n d C h a r i n g C r o s s stations right in the heart o f the W e s t E n d . boat-trains from the C h a n n e l ports b r o u g h t them right there.h a l l hit. m e r r y E n g l a n d . significantly a n d q u i t e naturally. n o l a c k o f e v i d e n c e f o r this atavistic y e a r n i n g for h o m e a n d I v o r N o v e l l o ' s h o m e fires.

all it s e e m e d in n e e d o f a g o o d piss. T h e r e w a s r a t i o n i n g t o o . M y C l u b R o o m s are treatless. . T h e r e w e r e irregular Z e p p e l i n attacks a n d a i r ­ raids (on 9 J u l y 1 9 1 7 The Times r e p o r t e d that 'at least t w e n t y aeroplanes a p p e a r e d o v e r L o n d o n . a l t h o u g h these w e r e n o t a p p l i e d w i t h a n y t h i n g l i k e the s e v e r i t y o f those in force d u r i n g the B l i t z . b u t also a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to m a k e u p for lost t i m e : O n the arrival o f the train there w o u l d b e scores o f y o u n g sailors t u m ­ b l i n g o u t o f the train. T h e y ran h e l t e r . T h e r e w e r e b l a c k o u t restrictions. M y G o d . b u t I d o hate the K a i s e r ! 19 . the G r e a t W a r h a d c o m p a r a t i v e l y litde effect o n the life o f the capital. again. for u n l i k e the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . c h u m ? ' T h i s sally w o u l d b e f o l l o w e d b y gales o f l a u g h t e r f r o m all the o t h e r pissing f e l l o w s . . . . . 1 8 It m u s t h a v e s e e m e d l i k e a n o t h e r w o r l d to m e n w h o o n l y a c o u p l e o f days earlier h a d b e e n at Y p r e s o r o n the S o m m e . this w a s n o t h i n g l i k e as s e v e r e as that at the e n d o f the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . . C o m p l a i n t s a b o u t it w e r e litde m o r e than glum. M y trousers are seatless. t h o u g h serious e n o u g h . long-suffering grumbles: M y T u e s d a y s are m e a d e s s M y W e d n e s d a y s are w h e a d e s s I ' m g e t t i n g m o r e eadess e a c h day. t h e y w o u l d e x c l a i m .6 4 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S o f L o n d o n . M y h o m e it is headess M y b e d it is sheedess T h e y ' r e all sent to Y M C A . in J u n e ] . ' H e ' s a b e a u t y . T h e y h o v e r e d o v e r L o n d o n for a considerable t i m e [. M y stockings are feetless. M y coffee is s w e e d e s s E a c h d a y I get p o o r e r a n d w i s e r . a n d the d a m a g e d o n e w a s small w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h the m a g n i t u d e o f the r a i d ' ) .] F o r t u n a t e l y the casualties.s k e l t e r i n t o the large l a v a t o r y o n the platform. i f t h e y h a p p e n e d to n o t e s o m e e a g e r l o o k e r . B u t . ' W e w a s o n the b o a t c o m i n g h o m e ' - G e r a l d ' s Une is t y p i c a l o f m a n y a n d seems to encapsulate n o t j u s t relief at h a v i n g s u r v i v e d . w e r e far f e w e r than in the [ p r e v i o u s raid. isn't h e ? L i k e h i m u p y o u r b u m . a n d p u l l i n g d o w n the flap o f their trousers pissed for all t h e y w e r e w o r t h .

the C a r l t o n o r P r i n c e ' s in P i c c a d i l l y .' I ' M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D ' 65 E v e n this. the . s h o u l d b e seen in c o n t e x t . M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n w a s n o real 'toff'. E v e n in the w e e k s b e f o r e the A r m i s t i c e . d e l i c i o u s roast b e e f a n d Yorkshire pudding w h i c h she'd made with t w o o f o u r w e e k l y rationed eggs. h o w e v e r . b u t e v e r y (public) m o m e n t w h e n h e w a s in L o n d o n seems to h a v e b e e n spent in a r o u n d o f s o c i e t y d i n i n g a n d p a r t y i n g in a n d a r o u n d D u k e Street w h i c h w o u l d n o t h a v e d i s g r a c e d an E d w a r d i a n lush.u p s ' at H e p p e l ' s in the H a y m a r k e t . an a r m y c o l o n e l . B u t it is i m p o r t a n t to n o t e that their g a d d i n g a r o u n d w a s j u s t an o f f i c e r s . W o r k i n g as an instructor in the O f f i c e r C a d e t B a t t a l i o n at its headquarters C a m b r i d g e and later in w h a t h e rather g r a n d l y called the in 'Secret Service'. Lillie L a n g t r y w a s at the L o n d o n C o l i s e u m . w h e r e social life w e n t o n regardless. F o r e v e n a m o d e r a t e l y m o n e y e d m e m b e r o f w h a t w a s t h e n c a l l e d 'the officer class'.s t o p R i t z . a r r i v e d b a c k in L o n d o n o n h o m e l e a v e in 1 9 1 8 : ' O u r c o o k h a d d i n n e r all ready. A s s u r e d l y . the C a r l t o n o r the C a f é R o y a l ' . arrive at the C a f é R o y a l w i t h a b o y in t o w . drinks at the C a f é R o y a l .a f t e r ' p i c k . life c o n t i n u e d as n o r m a l . i n d e e d . at that t i m e . H e f o u n d t i m e .r o o m table. a n d m o r n i n g . Tail-Up. then. M r s A n i t a M o s t y n l o n g r e m e m b e r e d the e v e n i n g h e r father. A c c o r d i n g to his b i o g r a p h e r B r y a n C o n n o n . Hullo.o n l y v e r s i o n o f w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g all o v e r t o w n . laid o u t o n the d i n i n g . t o o . he enjoyed extended periods o f leave during 1 9 1 7 and 1 9 1 8 a n d m o v e d in v e r y m u c h the s a m e circles as D a v i d s o n . t h e r e w e r e r e v u e s w i t h tides l i k e Bubbly. it m u s t h a v e s e e m e d as i f n o t h i n g h a d c h a n g e d . b o t h D a v i d s o n a n d N i c h o l s spent m u c h o f their p r e c i o u s t i m e in t o w n in ' s y m p a t h e t i c ' c o m p a n y : o n e c o u l d h a r d l y . A farce called A Little Bit of Fluff w a s c o m i n g to t h e e n d o f its r u n o f o v e r 1 . L o n d o n ' s restaurants w e r e still o p e n a n d theatres w e r e p l a y ­ i n g to full houses. America! a n d A n d r é C h a r i o t ' s Buzz-Buzz p l a y i n g in the Strand a n d o n Shaftesbury A v e n u e . B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s also h a d 'a g o o d w a r ' . " G o o d n e s s ! I h a d n o idea y o u c o u l d still eat as w e l l as this in E n g l a n d .m e . " ' 2 0 I n m a n y respects. 2 0 0 p e r f o r m a n c e s at the C r i t e r i o n T h e a t r e . T h e r e w e r e prostitutes ( o f b o t h sexes) meetings w i t h friends in the setting o f the S a v i l e o r the B a c h e l o r s ' C l u b . w h i l e the m u s i c a l Chu Chin Chow w a s w e l l o n its w a y to n o t c h i n g u p almost d o u b l e that n u m b e r at H i s M a j e s t y ' s . F a t h e r k e p t saying. for haircuts at T r u e f i t t ( ' w h o m a d e G e o r g e I V ' s w i g s ' ) . h e t o o ' e n j o y e d n o n .all the m o r e so in the W e s t E n d .

'it w a s ' . I t h i n k . c r o w d e d full o f p e o p l e standing. ' 2 2 T h r e e . o r w h e t h e r it h a d a l w a y s b e e n a r o u n d in a similar f o r m a n d m e r e l y b e g a n to coalesce in the desperate. A l t h o u g h t h e y date f r o m a f e w years later. 21 think. I w e n t r o u n d those theatres quite a A l l in all. as M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n recalled. Y o u d i d m e e t n i c e p e o p l e in those days. It's b e e n tremendously altered n o w . ' R o y ' s m e m o r i e s o f the W e s t E n d s c e n e h a v e the ring o f authenticity: I t o o k m y aunt o u t o n e n i g h t to the theatre a n d w e w e n t to the gallery o f the o l d P r i n c e o f W a l e s theatre. O n b a l a n c e .q u a r t e r s o f a c e n t u r y o n . the s e c o n d sounds more l i k e l y ( D a v i d s o n a d d e d that it w a s in 1 9 1 7 that ' I deliberately b e g a n . m y first realisation that this w a s a scene w h i c h I w a n t e d to j o i n in. a l t h o u g h there w e r e a lot o f e m p t y seats. J u s t n e v e r o c c u r r e d to t h e m .b l a c k a n d c r o w d e d . I k e p t o n l o o k i n g at the b a c k a n d it w a s j e t .r a n k s h o m o s e x u a l . I w e n t b a c k t w o o r three days afterwards to see The Ghost Train a n d s t o o d at the b a c k a n d w h a t w a s g o i n g o n there w a s n o b o d y ' s business! T h e y w e r e b i g m e e t i n g places. w h i c h I t h o u g h t w a s n i c e . N o b o d y told m e . N e v e r o c c u r r e d to m e take m o n e y . I s h o u l d n ' t lot. T h e y w e r e not nasty p e o p l e . E v e n for the m o r e o r d i n a r y .66 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S p l y i n g their trade in P i c c a d i l l y a n d c h o r u s girls w a i t i n g to ' m a k e a m a n ' o f a n y o n e in u n i f o r m at a score o f stage d o o r s . W e w e n t to see The Ghost Train. It n e v e r o c c u r r e d to a n y o n e . a n d w e a l t h y p e o p l e too. a n d there w a s n o b l a c k o u t o r blitz to s e n d o n e h o m e . feverish m o o d o f the w a r t i m e capital. then. 'a L o n d o n where " B o a t R a c e N i g h t " r o w d i n e s s w a s the rule — e v e r y b o d y e x p e c t e d to b e k i l l e d as s o o n as his l e a v e w a s o v e r . it is difficult to d e c i d e w h e t h e r it w a s this d e t e r m i n e d r o w d i n e s s a n d carpe diem m e n t a l i t y w h i c h directly l e d to the e m e r g e n c e o f a r e c o g n i z a b l y ' m o d e r n ' h o m o s e x u a l u n d e r w o r l d in L o n d o n at this p e r i o d . the a t m o s p h e r e o f the capital in the years l e a d i n g u p to a n d i m m e d i a t e l y after the A r m i s t i c e w a s c h a r g e d a n d often p o s i t i v e l y electric. W e w e r e in the gallery a n d I realised then. A n d that w a s . T h e y ' d p r o b a b l y give you to a w h i s k y . o t h e r . s o m e t h i n g y o u d o n ' t d o these days. m y instinct.

T h a t . a w a r e o f the n o t i c e o n l y ' . T h e r e w a s a w o n d e r f u l lot o f j u v e n i l e n u d i t y there.w h a t w e m i g h t call the ' S a v o y H o t e l a n d cigarette cases' side o f things.d r a w e r s and. h e wrote: I h a d taken m y b a t h i n g . I d i d n ' t l o o k for b o y s " o n the g a m e " - / hardly knew there were any' ( m y italics)). a furtive visit to ' s o m e s w i m m i n g baths w h i c h a m p l y s u p p l i e d the needs o f the voyeur I w a s b e c o m i n g . h a d systematically b o r e d p e e p ­ holes t h r o u g h the w o o d e n partitions b e t w e e n e v e r y d r e s s i n g . b y the e n d o f the w a r the ' s c e n e ' h a d d e v e l o p e d i n t o s o m e t h i n g a p p r e c i a b l y different f r o m the L o n d o n w h i c h W i l d e h a d k n o w n o n l y a quarter o f a c e n t u r y p r e v i o u s l y . b e i n g o r d e r e d t o ' g o a l o n g ' w i t h h i m o u t o f the b a t h i n g e n c l a v e . W h i c h e v e r . I b e l i e v e h e likes little b o y s ! " ' D a v i d s o n ' s r e a c t i o n w a s w h o l l y in p e r i o d : ' O f c o u r s e . I h a d lent m y slip to a b o y w h o w a s s h y e r than m o s t a b o u t g o i n g in w i t h n o t h i n g o n .h a t e r . H i s particular p r o c l i v i t i e s also l e d h i m to 'a strip o f the S e r p e n t i n e in H y d e P a r k [ w h i c h ] h a d b e e n insulated b y tradition a n d a surprisingly u n p r u d i s h B o a r d o f W o r k s for the b a t h i n g o f " m a l e s o n l y " . A t a party that y e a r a w o m a n guest ' s u d d e n l y said: " T h e r e ' s s o m e t h i n g fishy a b o u t M i c h a e l — I t h i n k h e ' s a w o m a n . w a s sitting o n the grass w o n d e r i n g h o w c h i l l y the 'bathers breeze b l o w i n g f r o m the M a r b l e A r c h m i g h t b e . things h a d g o t a great deal m o r e ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' a n d c o d i f i e d . D a v i d ­ son seems to h a v e r e v e l l e d in the subterfuge a n d d u p l i c i t y it i n v o l v e d : a d i n n e r party o n e d a y . I w a s in the hands of the Law.besides. h a d f r e q u e n d y b e e n sordid a n d amateurish. O n e d a y . A l l at o n c e the d e l i c i o u s scene w a s harshly s h i v e r e d : I w a s b e i n g astonishingly s p o k e n to b y a p o l i c e m a n . . [ w h e r e ] g e n e r a ­ tions o f " d i r t y o l d m e n " . B u t t h e r e h a d also b e e n s o m e t h i n g dilettantish a b o u t it .b o x ' .c l a s s p a n d e r c a n n o t b e d e s c r i b e d as a n y t h i n g else.' I ' M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D ' 67 p u r s u i n g m y secret w a n t s . almost abruptly. A l f r e d T a y l o r ' s b r o t h e l and his m a l a d r o i t attempts to pass h i m s e l f o f f as a sort o f u p p e r . for instance. T h e r e w e r e p o l i c e m e n t o o . w h e n h e w a s still o n l y t w e n t y . as w e h a v e s e e n . I r o a r e d w i t h laughter. the n e x t . M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n w a s already adept at separating his p u b l i c from his v e r y m u c h less m o d i s h private life.' 23 A l t h o u g h there w a s n o realistic alternative to s u c h b e h a v i o u r .' h e recalled. apparently. It w a s all v e r y m u c h to his taste. N o w . my double life had taken shape. B y 1 9 1 7 .

E . T h e r e is m o r e than a t o u c h o f b r a g g a d o c i o in these passages. n o t e d l a c o n i c a l l y in his diary after o n e s u c h visit to the Russell S q u a r e b a t h s . . . y e t w a l k i n g a w a y u n d e r p o l i c e escort. H e w a s c o n v e r s a n t w i t h the processes o f ' p i c k i n g u p ' : as easy as w i n k i n g at that t i m e w h e n a m u l t i t u d e o f y e a r n i n g faces. a n d the b l a c k a n d dusty c o l o n n a d e s o f C o v e n t G a r d e n . I ' d b r o k e n a Parks R e g u l a t i o n . In w h a t is n o w almost r o u t i n e l y d e s c r i b e d as his ' c o u r a g e o u s ' a u t o b i o g r a p h y The World.to ' h a u n t the E m b a n k m e n t . ( ' U n e v e n t f u l n i g h t ' . five years b e f o r e the legalization o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y ) D a v i d s o n discusses all this a n d freely admits that b y 1 9 1 9 h e b e c o m e an ' o l d h a n d ' . f o r e i g n c o r r e s p o n d e n t (criss-crossing c o n t i n e n t s to file stories for the Observer. u s e d . H i s p a t h o l o g i c a l attraction to 'feasting w i t h partners' w a s several times to b r i n g h i m to the attention o f the p o l i c e and. often g i n . B u t the e x p e r i ­ e n c e s t h e y d e s c r i b e are n o t u n i q u e . puts m e in a c o l d s w e a t w h e n I t h i n k o f it.' a n d o n e shameful n i g h t w h i c h still. I felt that e a c h o f those staring e y e s w a s b o r i n g i n t o m y secret m i n d . the c a v e r n o u s arches o f C h a r i n g C r o s s . y o u n g a n d o l d . H o u s m a n c h o s e t o i n c l u d e in his Last Poems. b y d a l l y i n g o n the b a n k fully clad. 2 4 It w a s his first . 40 years later.s o a k e d . o n o n e o c c a s i o n lead h i m to p r i s o n d u r i n g the n e x t t w e n t y years.that w a s all. t h e y are a s e x u a l parallel to D a v i d s o n ' s a c c o u n t o f his life as a raffish. It h a d b e e n w r i t t e n b e f o r e the turn . than t h e y are t o d a y .t h o u g h hardly his last .brush w i t h the l a w . risking his life to report o n the w a r in K o r e a ) w h i c h forms the c o r e o f the b o o k . that e v e r y m a n a n d b o y d i s c e r n e d that I w a s ' l i k e that' . it is hardly t o o fanciful to catch a refined e c h o o f the t o n e o f D a v i d s o n ' s (and H o l b r o o k J a c k s o n ' s ) nostalgia for C h a r i n g C r o s s a n d C o v e n t G a r d e n in the start o f a p o e m A .68 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S B y n o t instantly undressing a n d p l u n g i n g i n t o the w a t e r .in H o l b r o o k J a c k s o n ' s w o r d s a b o u t Francis T h o m p s o n . . the Flesh and Myself (forgivably s o . R e a d in c o n t e x t . then more numerous 26 I n his m o r e private off-duty he m o m e n t s B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s c h o s e to cruise the capital's T u r k i s h baths. since it w a s first p u b l i s h e d as l o n g a g o as 1 9 6 2 . as w e shall see. I s m u g g l e d a b o y i n t o [our h o m e in] Q u e e n ' s Gate 2 5 had w h i l e m y m o t h e r w a s asleep a n d s m u g g l e d h i m o u t w i t h the d a w n . . ) I n d e e d .

h e is t o o strident. is s e e n as a c c e p t a b l e h o m o s e x u a l c o n d u c t . F o r a m o m e n t . the truth a b o u t myself: m y highest. A n d l o n g I used to stand a n d l o o k A t things I c o u l d n o t b u y . P e r c e p t i v e as e v e r . the flesh a n d the d e v i l ' . A r t h u r K o e s t l e r r e c o g ­ n i z e d this w h e n . h e d e s c r i b e d it in part as the story o f 'a c o u r a g e o u s a n d l o v a b l e p e r s o n ' s struggle to c o m e to terms w i t h his G r e c i a n h e r e s y ' . for the g e n e r a l reader. a n d c o m e s f r o m seeing. particularly o n matters s e x u a l . pleasure o r happiness is o f the mind. I can. E v e n the a r r a n g e m e n t o f the three n o u n s h e uses in the tide o f the b o o k is n o a c c i d e n t n o m o r e than is its n o d t o w a r d s the B o o k o f C o m m o n P r a y e r ' s r e f e r ­ e n c e to 'the w o r l d . s m u g g l e d in at u n e x p e c t e d m o m e n t s . e m o t i o n a l l y . B u t w h e r e ' s the lost y o u n g m a n ? 2 7 O v e r a n d a b o v e the b r a g g a d o c i o . N o w times are altered: i f I care T o b u y a thing. l o o k i n g i n t o the mind of. o f c o u r s e . s o m e o n e v e r y m u c h m o r e sensitive. B e c a u s e o f this. there is a t r u c u l e n c e in his style. a n o t h e r aspect o f D a v i d s o n ' s b o o k remains p r o b l e m a t i c . perhaps. T h e p e n c e are h e r e a n d h e r e ' s the fair. itself: T h e moralists w i l l e x e c r a t e . C e r t a i n l y . m o s t intense. b e i n g w i t h . . a b o y w h o . e v e n t o d a y . these p e r s o n a l a n i m a d v e r s i o n s o f D a v i d s o n ' s p u t m o r e lurid passages such as those q u o t e d a b o v e i n t o a m o r e accurate c o n t e x t . frankness is all — but. b u t its i n c l u s i o n in the significant: 1 9 2 2 c o l l e c t i o n is in itself W h e n first m y w a y to fair I t o o k F e w p e n c e in purse h a d I . m e n t a l l y . as far as I ' m able. A s a selfp r o c l a i m e d ' l o v e r o f b o y s ' (as against H o u s m a n ' s 'lads' o r ' y o u n g m e n ' ) . t o u c h i n g . w e m u s t p u t aside a n y p r e j u d i c e a n d a l l o w o n e o f these ' p u r p l e ' passages to s p e a k for B u t h e r e I ' m stating.p o o h me. this w o u l d b e w e l c o m e . O r d i n a r i l y . is simpatico. in r e v i e w i n g the b o o k . t h e n . s h o w h i m as s o m e o n e v e r y different. an insistence that w e m u s t share in e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h h e e x p e r i e n c e d . D a v i d s o n wants to b e the v e r y d e v i l . b u t s o m e o f the b o o k ' s k e y passages.' I ' M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D ' 69 o f the c e n t u r y . rather than b o d i l y . h e is teetering at the v e r y e d g e o f w h a t . the pundits doubtless p o o h .

In this respect. t o u c h i n g . a c c o m p a n y . unconsciously. w a s a social n o b o d y . R o y ' s r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f those e v e n i n g s h e spent at the P r i n c e o f W a l e s T h e a t r e are especially i m p o r t a n t .I t s a n d . t h e y catch the m o o d w h i c h F o r s t e r h a d so presciently identified b e f o r e w a r h a d e v e n b e e n d e c l a r e d . A n y s e x u a l acts w h i c h m a y . . the sake' . l i k e w i s e uncles. . T h i s is crucial. it n e v e r o c c u r r e d to h i m to take m o n e y f r o m a n o t h e r m a n . 2 8 T h e italicization h e r e is D a v i d s o n ' s o w n . b u t the l o n g i n g a n d b e i n g w i t h .p r o l o g u e o r e p i l o g u e to the essential m o n o g r a p h o f the m i n d . seers a n d p r o p h e t s s u c h as E d w a r d C a r p e n t e r ( w h o l i v e d until 1 9 2 9 ) c o u l d o n l y accept cups o f tea o r g i n . realization o f 'the triviality o f c o n t a c t for contact's U n b i d d e n . F o r all their b r a v e w o r d s . R o y . a n d generally d o .70 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S a n d f r o m visually a b s o r b i n g the m u l t i p l e delights o f his nakedness. . h e says. I n d e e d . for w h a t R o y w a s e n g a g e d in w a s a social rather than a c o m m e r c i a l transaction . at least in e s s e n c e . 'it n e v e r o c c u r r e d to a n y o n e ' . a n d w h i c h . b o r n in 1 9 0 8 a n d b r o u g h t u p in the south L o n d o n s u b u r b o f B r i x t o n . f o l l o w o r p r e c e d e this m e n t a l j o y are adjuncts . In c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the likes o f M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n a n d B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s . he w a s n ' t a rent b o y p u t t i n g h i m s e l f a b o u t to m a k e m o n e y . H e w a s n ' t there b e c a u s e h e w a s ' o n the g a m e ' . D e m o b i l i z a t i o n l e v e l l e d the g a p w h i c h h a d h i t h e r t o e x i s t e d b e t w e e n 'officers' and ' o t h e r r a n k s ' — ' m e n ' — a n d in so d o i n g established a c u r i o u s . spontaneously. is still the p a r a d i g m for the v e r t i g i n o u s c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the contemporary gay scene. F o r .albeit o n e in w h i c h s o m e f o r m o f sexual activity m i g h t o r m i g h t n o t h a v e p l a y e d its part (the offer o f tots o f .a n d . a n e w w o r l d was emerging. classless. . i n t e r d e p e n d e n t confraternity o f h o m o s e x u a l m e n w h i c h d e v e l o p e d in L l o y d G e o r g e ' s ' l a n d fit for h e r o e s to l i v e i n ' . j u s t as t h e w a r b r o u g h t m e n t o g e t h e r . e v e n ' w e a l t h y p e o p l e ' . . ' S e e i n g . A n d y e t . the w o r d s n o t o n l y g o s o m e w a y t o w a r d s vitiating w h a t m i g h t b e p e r c e i v e d as the 'nastiness' o f D a v i d s o n ' s m o r e g r a p h i c effusions. l o o k i n g i n t o the m i n d o f the loneliness w h i c h u n d e r p i n the w o r d s is far m o r e universal. at the theatre h e m e t ' n i c e p e o p l e ' . a w a i t n e w s f r o m the d e l i v e r y r o o m . so t o o did the p e a c e .

for that m a t t e r . In the h a p p y field o f h a y . a n y better . I m p l i c i t l y . 'things' w h i c h w e r e far completely different f r o m the c y n i c i s m a n d c o m m e r c i a l i s m so apparent i n A l f r e d T a y l o r ' s w o r l d w e r e h a p p e n i n g . A m a n has c o m e to stand b e s i d e h i m . l i k e o n e o f his classical sages. in the m o r n i n g . w h o p u t things i n t o a m o r e realistic p e r s p e c t i v e and. a n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y for o u r p u r p o s e s . i n d e e d . O n e o f the lesser o f his Last Poems s h r e w d l y p o i n t e d o u t that.w a r e p o c h .' I ' M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E ' S M Y F R I E N D ' 71 w h i s k y suggests that it p r o b a b l y d i d ) . ( W o m e n o v e r the a g e o f thirty w e r e g i v e n the right to v o t e in 1 9 1 8 . In the b l u e a n d silver m o r n i n g O n the h a y c o c k as t h e y l a y . ) E x p l i c i t l y . w o u l d it b e a n y m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e — or. is as perfect an encapsulation o f the h o m o s e x u a l w o r l d as it w a s in a r o u n d 1 9 2 0 as A l f r e d T a y l o r ' s is o f that s a m e w o r l d in the 1 8 9 0 s . H e smiles and. A t this p o i n t it is w h o l l y fitting that w e s h o u l d r e t u r n to G e r a l d . H i s n a m e is P h i l . it e x e m p l i f i e s a w o r l d in w h i c h n e w liaisons w e r e d e v e l o p i n g . M . .than the present: In the m o r n i n g . slips an a r m a r o u n d G e r a l d ' s shoulder. later. h o w e v e r m u c h m e n l i k e R o y o r F o r s t e r l o o k e d to a w o r l d in w h i c h ' t w o m e n s h o u l d fall in l o v e a n d r e m a i n in it for e v e r a n d e v e r ' . again. necessarily another A n d then they l o o k e d a w a y . it w a s e v e n possible to b e l i e v e that E . It w a s H o u s m a n . N o r . . O h t h e y l o o k e d at o n e B y the light o f day. O h t h e y l o o k e d at o n e another 2 9 indeed. It w a s possible.v e r y rapidly h e a n d G e r a l d h a v e fallen in . r e l a t i o n ­ ships w h i c h crossed b o t h class b o u n d a r i e s a n d social n o r m s . c o l d a n d l o n e l y o n the d e c k o f the ship b r i n g i n g h i m b a c k f r o m L e H a v r e in 1 9 1 7 . it hints at all the m a c r o c o s m i c social a n d p h i l a n t h r o p i c aspirations o f t h e p o s t . b u t . ' S p e c i a l friendships' w h i c h m i g h t o r m i g h t n o t d e v e l o p i n t o s o m e t h i n g more permanent w e r e b l o s s o m i n g . H i s story. Less than a d e c a d e after h e h a d d e d i ­ cated Maurice to it. a n d 'one t h i n g leads to a n o t h e r ' . that w o r l d w a s n o t g o i n g to a p p e a r o v e r n i g h t . w a v e d a h o r t a t o r y finger. Forster's 'better w o r l d ' m i g h t b e d a w n i n g .

I used to g o o u t a b o u t half-past e i g h t in the m o r n i n g . b e c a u s e that w a s 'the proper t h i n g to d o . t h e n I w e n t o u t to G e r m a n y . 'We Oscar the G e r a l d says. a n e w s c e n a r i o w a s p r e s e n t i n g itself: ' W h e n I c o m e [sic] o u t o f the a r m y .W i l d e trials w e r e b y 1 9 2 0 settling d o w n to e n j o y the b e g i n n i n g s o f a p e a c e f u l l y d o m e s t i c m i d d l e a g e . B u t e v e n the P o o t e r s h a d servants.72 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S l o v e .' belies its i m p o r t a n c e . it is difficult t o b e l i e v e that a n y o f the y o u n g m e n p a r a d e d in the witness b o x i n the T a y l o r . 3 0 T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y .D u n t o n sharing c l e a n i n g a n d p o l i s h i n g i n their P u t n e y ménage-à-deux. E x c e p t in hotels.D u n t o n at N o . h a d shared a P o o t e r i s h life w i t h T h e o d o r e W a t t s . W e shared e v e r y t h i n g fifty-fifty. a n d h e ' d g o o u t p r o b a b l y earlier. T h e poet A l g e r n o n Charles Swinburne. W e d o n e [sic] the h o u s e w o r k b e t w e e n us. Things had changed. s o m e w h e r e a b o u t half-past s e v e n . N o w . It is the b e g i n n i n g o f w h a t G e r a l d later r e m e m b e r e d as the 'affair I h a d for s e v e n y e a r s ' . let a l o n e m a d e his e v e n i n g m e a l . for instance. F o r s e v e n y e a n G e r a l d a n d P h i l w e r e p i o n e e r i n g w h a t w a s to c o m e — the e x c l u s i v e ' c o s y ' male—male relationship w h i c h h a d b e e n . G e r a l d ' s story is startling in its modernity: W e h a d q u i t e a h a p p y life together. for thirty years w h e n h e d i e d in 1 9 0 9 . n o r is it possible to p i c t u r e S w i n b u r n e a n d W a t t s . E q u a l l y . T h i s w a s u p to 1 9 2 6 . P u t n e y . W i l d e n e v e r l i v e d w i t h B o s i e . I f h e s a w the chest o f d r a w e r s [ w a n t e d ] p o l i s h i n g h e ' d p o l i s h the chest o f d r a w e r s . I f I s a w the s t o v e w a n t e d c l e a n i n g I ' d clean the s t o v e . 2 T h e P i n e s . I r e j o i n e d the a r m y in 1 9 2 0 . w e s t u c k t o g e t h e r . ' 2 7 .s o u n d i n g m u n d a n e n e s s o f this a c c o u n t o f w h a t n o w seems a v e r y o r d i n a r y partnership shared e v e r y t h i n g fifty-fifty. o f c o u r s e . B e f o r e m e e t i n g P h i l h e h a d b e l i e v e d that h e w o u l d enter i n t o a n o r m a l . I w a s l i v i n g w i t h P h i l at the same time and I saw h i m w h e n I came h o m e on leave and w e kept a flat t o g e t h e r . W h o e v e r c a m e h o m e first m a d e the m e a l . a l t h o u g h I h a d e x p e r i e n c e o f the o t h e r s i d e ' . b e e n h o m o s e x u a l couples before. ' T h i s is a v i r t u a l l y u n i q u e declaration. h e c a m e h o m e a b o u t half-past six. I w a s l i v i n g at the t i m e in Ilford. T h e r e had. I w a s h o m e a b o u t half-past five. O n a v e r a g e . T h e y certainly h a d n ' t g o n e a c c o r d i n g to p l a n w h e r e G e r a l d w a s c o n c e r n e d . h e t e r o s e x u a l m a r r i a g e .

. 3 1 bang. ' W e l l . essentially. I d o n ' t k n o w .c e n t u r y socio- sexual radicals a n d h a d f o u n d n o real p l a c e . that a n d the other. d o n ' t y o u k n o w I k n e w P h i l l o n g b e f o r e y o u k n e w h e r . u p c o m e s this o t h e r c h a p . It w a s a g a y c l u b at that t i m e . all a c c o r d i n g to the m o o d w e w e r e i n . I g o t a bit a n n o y e d . e v e n in the h u g g e r . I f o n l y to s e r v e as a foretaste o f w h a t w a s to c o m e .m u g g e r o f barracks a n d trenches. w h a t ' s it to d o w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ? ' A n d that w a s the true situation. .] as l o n g as w e l o v e e a c h other. I . I left the flat to h i m . to delineate the d e c l i n e a n d fall o f w h a t w a s . ' G o o d g r a c i o u s alive! G e r a l d darling. W e l l . T h a t w a s it.all o f a s u d d e n there w a s that o n e c l i m a x . a n d this c h a p t u r n e d r o u n d . a modem relationship. I t h o u g h t to myself. it is w o r t h q u o t i n g at s o m e l e n g t h : I d o n ' t t h i n k o u r friends o r families k n e w [about o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p ] . i n d e e d . w e w e n t o u t o n e n i g h t [to] the Q u e b e c C l u b i n P i c c a d i l l y . . y e t they h a d a v e r y g o o d suspicion. P h i l a n d I often t a l k e d a b o u t it. T h e y kiss e a c h o t h e r a n d all that sort o f business. G e r a l d ' s a c c o u n t g o e s o n . t h e y ' r e g e t t i n g a bit t o o close t o g e t h e r in their c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d this.I M A W F U L L Y P R O U D T O T H I N K H E S M Y F R I E N D 73 a n a t h e m a to E d w a r d C a r p e n t e r a n d the t u r n . o n c e a fortnight. O n e t h i n g l e d to another. o n l y h e said ' W e l l [.o f . there w a s n o t h i n g l i k e that. all o f a s u d d e n . It w a s n ' t a case o f i f h e w a n t e d to b r i n g s o m e b o d y h o m e h e ' d b r i n g ' e m h o m e . d u r i n g the G r e a t W a r . o f c o u r s e . bang. bang! . that a g g r a v a t e d it a n d t h e n left the flat. W e w e r e faithful to e a c h o t h e r . W e h a d n ' t b e e n in there t w o m i n u t e s w h e n . W e ' d p r o b a b l y h a v e s e x o n c e a w e e k .t h e . T h e n . H e said. .

' G a y ' w a s o n e o f the k e y w o r d s in its l i m i t e d v o c a b u l a r y . Jeune Homme' TO T H E M A J O R I T Y OF o r d i n a r y h o m o s e x u a l s w h o w e r e there.c e n t u r y . m a d e possible .the e m e r g e n c e in the W e s t E n d o f N o v e l l o . . as in 'so utterly'. H u g h W a l p o l e . N o v e l l o o p e n e d in L o n d o n w i t h the title Gay's infrequently r e v i v e d today. a n d N e d . the rise o f C e c i l B e a t o n . ' b e n d e r s ' . too .n o s e s ' . e x o t i c dandies as G e r a l d T y r w h i t t . understandably. the a p p e a r a n c e o f fashionable n e w novelists s u c h as B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s .) B u t it is i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r that the w o r d ' g a y ' t h e n still c o n v e y e d little m o r e than n o t i o n s o f g e n e r a l i n n o c e n c e a n d frivolity — a n d c o n t i n u e d t o d o so for the n e x t q u a r t e r . ' b r o w n .b o y s ' . 'poofters'.' L y t t o n S t r a c h e y w a s to n o t e o f the latter). The ' g a y n e s s ' o f the 1 9 2 0 s . T h e r e m u s i c a l b y the ( h o m o s e x u a l ) W e l s h c o m p o s e r a n d m a t i n é e i d o l I v o r w e r e n o titters w h e n the curtain w e n t u p . the success o f H a r o l d N i c o l s o n ' s ' f u n n y n e w friend'. a n d ' t o o . it is 2 e x a c t l y b r i n g a b o u t . h o w e v e r .i f it d i d n ' t A s late as 1 9 5 1 a the Word. j u s t as t h e y h a d b e e n a m o n g the Aesthetes. . B u t fashion­ able L o n d o n at least w a s b e g i n n i n g to e m b r a c e a n e w gay sensibility — i n b o t h senses o f the w o r l d . Rafael Sabatini a n d M i c h a e l A r l e n . N o ë l C o w a r d a n d J a c k B u c h a n a n . the d i s c o v e r y o f a y o u n g a c t o r called J o h n G i e l g u d ( w h e n he p l a y e d R o m e o in 1 9 2 4 ) . the one more decade 1 1920s might well have seemed just in which t h e y w e r e still c o m m o n l y c o n s i d e r e d ' q u e e r s ' .'Suivez-Moi. b u t . 74 . the c o u t u r i e r E d w a r d M o l y n e u x ( w h o c o n t i n u e d to design c o s t u m e s for C o w a r d p r o d u c t i o n s until 1 9 6 6 ) . ( ' S o ' .' a n d 'simply' w e r e a m o n g the others. the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f his friends D a v i d a n d S t e p h e n T e n n a n t ('His lips are t o o m a g e n t a for m y taste. the fourteenth L o r d B e r n e r s . ' n o n c e s ' . 'shirt-lifters' o r ' n a n c y . a n d the g l o r i o u s t w i l i g h t o f such w e a l t h y .

p l o v e r s ' eggs a n d caviare a n d c a n t a l o u p ' . It did n o t m a t t e r that b o t h B u c h a n a n a n d A r l e n w e r e (apparently) sturdily h e t e r o s e x u a l . o n e o f B r i t a i n ' s first ' t r o p h y . Always he either the referred to in the gossip c o l u m n s as 'that i n v e t e r a t e first-nighter'. the b i g b o w l s o f p i n k s w e e t s u n d e r p i n k g e r a n i u m s . a dilettante c o m p o s e r . There was. as i f to m a r k the e n d o f an era). a n d s u b s i d ­ i z e d the early careers o f ' b o y s ' such as N i c h o l s . T h e r e w a s B e r n e r s . the fabulously w e a l t h y L o r d L a t h o m . after all. w r i t e r a n d artist. in the climate o f the t i m e t h e y w e r e gay. oysters a n d strawberries.' S U I V E Z . w h i c h w a s first p u b l i s h e d in the s u m m e r o f 1 9 2 4 . h i g h spiritedly d y e i n g in pastel shades the d o v e s w h i c h fluttered o u t s i d e his h o u s e at F a r i n g d o n in O x f o r d s h i r e w h i l e m a k i n g sure that e v e r y t h i n g inside w a s w h a t N i c h o l s called ' a m u s i n g ' : 'the feather flowers. A l t h o u g h h e h a d a b s o l u t e l y n o use . English-sounding name around London in the pages o f the London the telephone glamorous d i r e c t o r y . the latter h e e x t r a v a g a n t l y b a n k . T h e f o r m e r he b a n k e d in front o f m i r r o r s b e f o r e e v e r y party. i n v a r i a b l y unsuccessful plays (one w a s called Wet Paint) a n d s h o w s w h i c h h a d b e e n refused a p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e l i c e n c e b y the L o r d C h a m b e r l a i n . w h o — w h e n h e w a s n o t in the S o u t h o f F r a n c e — d r o v e a canary-yellow Rolls-Royce. the c o p i e s Armenian called D i k r a n Kouyoumdjian from plucked grouse. Atalanta. H e m o u n t e d elaborate after-dinner m a s q u e s for the e n t e r t a i n m e n t o f his friends. too. insisted that his f o o t m e n h e a t e d i n c e n s e in s p o o n s to p e r f u m e his L o n d o n h o m e in C u m b e r l a n d P l a c e o r his c o u n t r y retreat in Y o r k s h i r e b e f o r e guests a r r i v e d . There was until Arlen. w e n t the full m i l e . the p a p e r shrines.m o d e r n b a t h r o o m s . the N o t t i n g h a m of surrealistic magazines.'. The Green Hat. b y his side.r o l l e d . This w a s the 'Jazz A g e ' . he originally a lace an new curtains in the u l t r a . H i s passions w e r e o r c h i d s a n d theatre. a r t i c h o k e s a n d asparagus. E v e r y o n e w a s h a v i n g a ball in a w o r l d w h i c h A r l e n d e s c r i b e d as o n e o f ' u n s e a s o n a b l e delicacies.M O I . ' I ' m e v e r y o t h e r i n c h a g e n t l e m a n ! ' h e gleefully told those real g e n t l e m e n w h o t h o u g h t they. E v e r y t h i n g h a d b e e n p a i d for b y the e x t r a o r d i n a r y success o f his s e c o n d n o v e l . n o t h e . N o v e l l o a n d C o w a r d w h o m h e f o u n d ' a m u s i n g ' to s u c h an e x t e n t that b y the e n d o f the d e c a d e h e w a s virtually penniless. H e f i n a n c e d W e s t E n d s h o w s a n d private p r o d u c t i o n s o f b o t h his o w n . J E U N E H O M M E ' 75 the fifth E a r l o f L a t h o m ( w h o w a s to die f r o m tuberculosis in 1 9 3 0 .w i v e s ' . etc.

e v e n i n v i t i n g h i m to stay for a m o n t h at the V i l l a M a u r e s q u e . t o o . T h e y i n t r o d u c e d t h e m to the delights o f fine w i n e .' he w r o t e . h e refused . . F o r W i n n this h o l i d a y w i t h his 'literary g o d ' w a s the first unsettling g l i m p s e o f a w h o l e n e w w o r l d . W a l p o l e . B e a t o n . w o m a n k i n d ' s gift to a b u l l d o g nation'. g o o d f o o d a n d w e e k e n d s in the c o u n t r y . the n o w . T h e wealthy novelist and playwright Somerset M a u g h a m took G o d f r e y W i n n u n d e r his w i n g . his h o m e at C a p Ferrat. J e u n e H o m m e ' — r e w a r d e d their attentions w i t h gifts o f C a r t i e r rings a n d cigarette cases for all the w o r l d as i f O s c a r W i l d e h a d n o t b e e n castigated for d o i n g m u c h the s a m e . N o v e l l o . as an o u t r i g h t gift.b u t i m m e d i a t e l y g a v e h i m £ 2 0 0 .] H a u g h t y b o y s . in m y o r t h o d o x E n g l i s h g r e y flannel suit. Later.] F a d e d b o y s . than r u i n i n g .M o i . a n o t .a n o t h e r o f the k e y w o r d s o f the d e c a d e s — splendidly theatrical. u n t a i n t e d b y a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n a n d . a n d L a t h o m at least — w h o preferred a c o l o g n e a p d y called ' S u i v e z . O l i v e r M e s s e l a n d R e x W h i s d e r . J o i n d y a n d severally. l i k e C o w a r d a n d N o v e l l o .7 6 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S for t h e m . o n the day o f m y arrival straight f r o m the train. N o ë l C o w a r d h a d the m e a s u r e o f t h e m : in o n e o f his slighter cabaret songs h e listed t h e m as ' P r e t t y b o y s . b e f o r e l u n c h . ' I h a d n o idea h o w m u c h w a s to b e a d d e d to m y p r e v i o u s l y constricted k n o w l e d g e o f h u m a n emotions. t h e y w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i d d l e a n d u p p e r m i d d l e class a n d p e r h a p s m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y . n o j a c k e t . w i t t y b o y s [. j a d e d b o y s . .y o u n g m e n b o r n a d e c a d e o r so after the W i l d e trials a n d g e n e r a l l y after W i l d e ' s death. . . . n o socks. B e r n e r s a n d L a t h o m a n d their likes (and t h e r e w e r e m a n y ) almost t o o literally t o o k t h e m to their b o s o m . F a r better. N e w c o m e r s to the s c e n e . m y host t o o k o n e l o o k at m e a n d g a v e m e m y first m a r c h i n g orders. . h e friendship . w h e n sum a C o w a r d k n e w h i m rather better a n d a p p r o a c h e d h i m for a loan. N i c h o l s .A e s t h e t e s . W h e n I p r e s e n t e d m y s e l f in the salon.i n c o n s i d e r a b l e in 1 9 2 1 . i f t h e y d i d n ' t h a v e the aristocratic b a c k g r o u n d o r the family m o n e y o f B e r n e r s a n d L a t h o m . n a u g h t y b o y s [. T h e r e w e r e the b o y s . h e b o u g h t t w o o f C o w a r d ' s earliest songs. T h i s is the S o u t h o f F r a n c e in said. ' N o tie. M o s t w e r e . the designers E d w a r d M o l y n e u x .f o r g o t t e n writers C o l l i e K n o x a n d G o d f r e y W i n n a n d the slightly o l d e r C o w a r d h i m s e l f w e r e de facto the n e o .

r o o m . d i d h e c a p t u r e a n d e c h o the c h a r m o f his s u r r o u n d i n g s — a l t h o u g h for m y s e l f that w a s c a n c e l l e d o u t b y his insistence o n a l w a y s b a t h i n g n a k e d . take G o d f r e y i n t o N i c e this afternoon a n d get h i m s o m e l i n e n slacks. . at that t i m e in his late thirties. E a c h guest set to w o r k o n the w h i t e walls 'fat to c o n t r i b u t e his o w n panel. ' G e r a l d . I s u p p o s e .] G e r a l d H a x t o n . h o w e v e r .p i n k b e a c h . L o r d B e r n e r s a C o l u m b i n e w i t h p e r f o r m i n g d o g s (a v e r y . w h o w a s h a n d i n g r o u n d drinks.' S U I V E Z .s u g a r p o l e s and flowered mirrors. as that I w a s still u n f l e d g e d . T h e r o o m w a s to b e p a i n t e d in garish c o l o u r s w i t h n i c h e s filled w i t h circus p e r f o r m e r s . b a r l e y . albeit a small a n d select o n e w h i c h w a s c e n t r e d o n the W e s t E n d o f L o n d o n a n d e x t e n d e d n o further than a belt o f c o u n t r y houses in the H o m e C o u n t i e s . [. A l r e a d y the signs o f the dissipation that w a s ultimately to destroy h i m w e r e b e g i n n i n g to s h o w o n his face. I c l u n g to m y b r i e f shorts t h r o u g h o u t m y visit. J E U N E H O M M E ' 77 A u g u s t . . It w a s n ' t so m u c h that I w a s p r i m . E v e r y o n e k n e w e v e r y ­ o n e else — a n d felt safe in his c o m p a n y . . a n d i n s t i n c t i v e l y s o m e t h i n g in m e revolted.s i x ) w a s setting u p h o m e for h i m s e l f at A s h c o m b e in W i l t s h i r e — a n d d o i n g so in s o m e c o n s i d e r a b l e style: Summer ig^o . h e a d d e d . set h i g h o n the hillside a n d s u r r o u n d e d b y o l e a n d e r bushes. ever. W i t h i n it.] O n l y w h e n h e d i v e d g r a c e ­ fully f r o m the p l a n k at o n e e n d o f the p o o l . . . e v e n w h e n t h e r e w e r e w o m e n s u n b a t h i n g o n the y e l l o w cushions a l o n g the m a r b l e v e r g e . R e x W h i s t l e r p a i n t e d a s u p e r b w o m a n ' . a n d in his increasingly b l o o d s h o t eyes [. 3 A n e w w o r l d w a s e m e r g i n g . a n e w h o m o s e x u a l h e d o n i s m .M O I . shirts a n d espadrilles at the B o n M a r c h é . ' W h e n I r e t u r n e d f r o m m y r o o m for his reappraisal. w a s . w h i c h in m a n y w a y s o u t d i d the c a m p n e s s o f W i l d e a n d the A e s t h e t e s . for e x a m p l e . the S u n d a y w a s d e d i c a t e d to transforming m y b e d r o o m i n t o a c i r c u s . e v o l v e d a n d flourished. B y 1 9 3 0 . To resemble you in any way.c l o t h e s . / don't want to look like you. . w i t h b a r o q u e e m b l e m s . n o t Finals D a y at W i m b l e d o n . C e c i l B e a t o n (then j u s t t w e n t y . l i k e y o u r s . the m a n w h o h a d b e e n M a u g h a m ' s c o m p a n i o n o n his e x t r e m e l y fruitful w o r l d travels. It h a p p e n e d that all m y guests w e r e painters a n d since the w e a t h e r w a s t o o i n c l e m e n t to t e m p t us o u t o f d o o r s . ' I g l a n c e d across at the m a n dressed in c a n d y .

F i v e years later still. as B e a t o n ' s diary entry i m p l i e s . m e t i c u l o u s l y a n d realistically. in 1 9 4 2 . it is n o t the archness o f h a v i n g a ' w e e k e n d e r ' w h e r e 'all m y guests w e r e painters' o r e v e n the n o t i o n o f w a n t i n g a circus b e d r o o m at all w h i c h s h o u l d interest us.m u s c u l a r b o d y . the b r a w n y chest. R e x ! ' I p l e a d e d . It s h o w s the p e e r at an elaborate A s h c o m b e jête-champêtre. R e x w a s u n a b l e to resist repainting. a n d so o n d o w n the w h o l e o v e r . M m e v o n B i s m a r c k p i c t u r e d an equestrienne on a flower-dappled circus p o n y . a hereditary p e e r a n d b y then a p p r o a c h i n g fifty.' B u t the t e m p t a t i o n w a s t o o great. it is the fact that L o r d B e r n e r s . a n d a s a u c y f e l l o w . the m u s t a c h i o s . H e w o u l d have been . a goldfish b o w l o n his feet. n a k e d e x c e p t for a p i n k f l a m i n g o ostrich feather w o r n o n his head. s h o u l d so w i l l i n g l y h a v e a g r e e d to m u c k in w i t h ' b r i g h t y o u n g things' scarcely h a l f his a g e . Y o r c k Bismarck eschewed the traditional circus m a n n e r o f carefully finished realistic p a i n t i n g for the m o r e m o d e r n slapdash strokes o f the b r u s h . o f c o u r s e . O l i v e r M e s s e l c r e a t e d a small n e g r o .w e i g h t s a n d chains. 'Please d o n ' t . H o w e v e r .e v e n y o u n g e r than B e a t o n . ' T h e r e ' l l b e hell to p a y i f Y o r c k ever discovered y o u ' v e touched a thing. a n d the n e x t w e e k e n d R e x W h i s t l e r c o u l d n o t resist t o u c h i n g u p the flowing c h e v e l u r e a n d m u s t a c h i o s . the crisply w a v i n g hair. the p a i n t e r a n d d e s i g n e r R e x W h i s t l e r t u r n e d t w e n t y . H e is w e a r i n g fifty-five years o f a g e w h e n it w a s taken.l i k e throat. the c o l u m n . the better to c o n f o r m w i t h the o t h e r murals. a m o n g o t h e r objects. it w a s all j u s t a sign o f the times. R a t h e r . tattoo m a r k s . C h r i s t o p h e r S y k e s p a i n t e d a t u m b l e r .f i v e o n l y in 1 9 3 0 — and have continued to d o s o . upside d o w n . h e a v y b a l l . b a r o q u e campness — t h e r e is n o o t h e r w o r d . t h o u g h . A s t h e y said. n o visual r e c o r d o f the fantastic. b a l a n c i n g . a n d h e r husband d e c i d e d to p o r t r a y 'the strong m a n o f the F a i r ' w i t h v o l u t e m u s t a chios. then.7S H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S u n g a i n l y mastiff w a s c a u g h t in the a g o n i z i n g act o f j u m p i n g t h r o u g h a p a p e r h o o p ) . H o w e v e r . ' 5 eighteenth-century around court costume and a pig's head mask. T h e m o s t f a m o u s p h o t o g r a p h of B e r n e r s is a snap w h i c h B e a t o n t o o k in 1 9 3 7 .o f the circus b e d r o o m seems to h a v e s u r v i v e d . F i e l d M a r s h a l L o r d W a v e l l w a s to i n t r o d u c e B e r n e r s to friends w i t h the phrase: ' H e ' s a m u s i c i a n . 4 U n f o r t u n a t e l y .

u n d e r g r a d u a t e s w e r e a c a p t i v e a u d i ­ e n c e . a l t h o u g h W i l d e ' s w o r d s o n that o c c a s i o n — ' H i s left l e g is a G r e e k p o e m ' — w e r e hardly m e m o r a b l e . R a t h e r — like m a n y an u n d e r g r a d u a t e b e f o r e a n d since — h e d e v o t e d days a n d w h o l e w e e k s to the t i m e . b e h i n d his h e a d the y e l l o w g l i m m e r o f candles set in c a r v e d a n d g i l d e d candelabra. the . ) W i t h i n a f e w decades. the n a r r o w .J o h n Buchan mould. At the e n d o f the G r e a t W a r h e h a d criss-crossed A m e r i c a p e r ­ f o r m i n g largely e x i g u o u s duties as the secretary o f a B r i t i s h d e l e g a t i o n c h a r g e d w i t h f i n d i n g w a y s in w h i c h closer c o .o p e r a t i o n c o u l d b e established b e t w e e n B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n universities. n o m a t t e r h o w footling. his life d u r i n g the early part o f the d e c a d e w a s in m a n y w a y s t h e m o s t typical.c o n s u m i n g business o f b e c o m i n g an O x f o r d 'character' a n d establishing w h a t h e called a 'suitable P l a t f o r m ' as s o o n as h e c a m e d o w n . C a m b r i d g e . in 1 9 0 9 t h e r e w a s the archly c a m p R o n a l d F i r b a n k . a m u s e d o r j u s t b e w i l d e r e d . S e t t i n g o u t to s h o c k in the O x f o r d o f the 1 8 7 0 s .p i t c h e d v o i c e . he was later to m a k e his n a m e w i t h n o v e l s w h o s e v e r y titles — Concerning 6 from w h i c h he c o u l d l a u n c h h i m s e l f i n t o a c a r e e r o f w e a l t h a n d c e l e b r i t y the Eccentricities of Cardinal Pirelli ( 1 9 2 6 ) . say. o n l y t o o e a g e r to r e c o r d a n d relate e v e r y last aperçu. h o w e v e r . B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s u n i q u e l y personifies w h a t we m i g h t call the ' s o c i e t y h o m o s e x u a l ' o f the t w e n t i e s . C o w a r d . ( O n e a c o l y t e s a w W i l d e d r o o l i n g o v e r a student athlete a n d w r o t e d o w n w h a t h e h e a r d .clearly i n t i m a t e d that they w e r e n o t in the Boys' Own Paper — ' S a p p e r ' . h e r e t u r n e d t o O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y to c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g t o w a r d s the B A for w h i c h h e h a d b e e n r e a d i n g w h e n h e w a s called u p . t h e y h a v e still g a i n e d a p l a c e in T h e C a n o n . H e h a d to. U p at T r i n i t y H a l l . H e n c e . Prancing Nigger ( 1 9 2 4 ) . trail-blazing p a t h o f this tiny. n o m a t t e r h o w foolish. A p p a l l e d . B e a t o n o r e v e n N o v e l l o . their f e l l o w . A s h e talked in his h i g h .M O I . J E U N E H O M M E ' 79 A l t h o u g h he is perhaps less w e l l k n o w n t o d a y than. self-advertising c l i q u e h a d b e e n c r o w d e d b y a t h r o n g o f fellow-travellers. I n d e e d . Nor was Firbank: In his r o o m [at C a m b r i d g e ] h e w o u l d sit i n c u r t a i n e d a n d s h a d e d t w i l i g h t . B u t his heart w a s n e v e r in the w o r k . A M a x B e e r b o h m de son jour. W i l d e a n d the Aesthetes h a d n o t n e e d e d to try v e r y hard.' S U I V E Z . F o r m a l l y d e m o ­ bilized in the first w e e k s o f 1 9 1 9 .

C . bears the n o w o v e r l o o k e d subtitle ' T h e S a c r e d a n d Profane 8 . A u d e n . Indifferent to it himself. in his a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l w r i t i n g P o w e l l rather d o w n p l a y s w h a t w e m i g h t n o w almost describe as its p r e v a l e n c e . w e m i g h t pause to n o t e . p r i v i l e g e d style o f the B r i d e s head Generation permeated O x f o r d and was remarkably pervasive. to g i v e h i m his full n a m e — in his n o v e l Brideshead Revisited. L i k e P o w e l l . W a u g h a n d B e t j e m a n w e r e also n o m o r e than dabblers (all w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y m a r r i e d a n d i n d e e d fathered c h i l d r e n ) . w o u l d pass across the light. E v e l y n W a u g h . W . 'indifferent to h o m o s e x u a l i t y ' . . W a u g h c a u g h t it w e l l w h e n h e l a m p o o n e d the O l d E t o n i a n B r i a n H o w a r d — B r i a n C h r i s t i a n d e C l a i b o r n e H o w a r d . w h e r e scientia (or. A t B a l l i o l a d e c a d e a n d a h a l f later N i c h o l s s a w the w a y that things w e r e g o i n g a n d realized that h e h a d n o t i m e to lose. H o w a r d a n d 'the fast set' — a m o n g w h o m P o w e l l c o u n t e d h i m s e l f — i f it w a s n o t strictly de rigueur. H i s s u a v e i r o n y belies the fact that. A l o n g w i t h a score o r so o f less literary c o n t e m p o r ­ aries. In the 1 9 2 0 s O x f o r d w a s feting the arrival o f s u c h as H a r o l d A c t o n . large a n d fleshy. made o f earthenware. In a p p e a r a n c e . B u t the effete a n d . in P o w e l l ' s w o r d s . B u t t h e y w e r e o n l y the i c i n g o n the c a k e : in the 1 9 2 0 s the w h o l e o f w h a t w a s t h e n an o v e r w h e l m i n g m a l e u n i v e r s i t y w a s . B r i a n H o w a r d and. g l i n t e d w i t h the s o m b r e c o l o u r s o f his rings. b u t o c c a s i o n a l l y h e preferred the c o l o u r o f s o m e b l u e E g y p t i a n rings. aquiline n o s e . as w e shall see. it has to b e said. with low brow. b e c a u s e o f their c a m p . cavalier d i s r e g a r d o f all traditional ideas o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e c o r u m . C a e s a r ' s 'scientia a t q u e usus m i l i t u m ' ) w a s traditionally rated as at least the e q u a l o f the humanitas o f the O x f o r d S c h o o l s . at least for A c t o n . H . t r i c k l i n g d o w n i n d e e d u n t o the third a n d fourth g e n e r a t i o n . A u d e n a n d S t e p h e n S p e n d e r . U s u a l l y h e w o r e a g r e e n j a d e C h i n e s e ring. J o h n high-profile Betjeman. h e a l w a y s r e m i n d e d A . these h a v e s u b s e q u e n d y b e e n labelled 'the B r i d e s h e a d G e n e r a ­ t i o n ' in d e f e r e n c e to W a u g h ' s n o v e l . a n d full lips. w h i c h . undergraduates A n t h o n y P o w e l l . h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s certainly m o r e than s i m p l y comme ilfaut. J A n d that w a s at C a m b r i d g e . L a n d s b e r g o f the portraits o f s o c i e t y w o m e n b y B o l d i n i . H i s hands. t o o — slightly y o u n g e r a n d n e v e r a m e m b e r o f a n y set — p l o u g h e d his o w n f u r r o w .8o H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S silhouette o f his face. clasping his ankles o r c i r c l i n g his h e a d in frequent gestures. a little later.

.' S U I V E Z .b r o w n suit w i t h l o u d w h i t e stripes. H o w m a n y copies of Aquarium d i d I a u t o g r a p h w i t h t e n d e r d e d i cations! W h e r e are t h e y n o w . D o t h e y r e m e m b e r o u r ecstasies o n the T h a m e s a n d at T h a m e ? D o they 10 The megaphone r e m e m b e r the p o e m s t h e y inspired? L e t t h e m blush as t h e y read these w o r d s in their nuptial c o u c h e s : I h a v e n o t f o r g o t t e n a single k i s s .M O I . . g r e e n e y e s . w i t h large s a u c y e y e s [.] H e h a d o n a s m o o t h c h o c o l a t e . T h e fly-leaf w a s t o r n out. A t least it h a d b e e n w e l l . In his a u t o b i o g r a p h y Memoirs of an Aesthete. .t h u m b e d a n d n i c e l y battered. as f r o m e v e r y t h i n g false. to h a v e k i n d l e d flames in E l g i n m a r b l e breasts. to gentle struggles a n d s h o w e r s o f b u r n i n g kisses [. a n d its r e d .for t h r e e . e v e n l u d i c r o u s excesses o f his first years at O x f o r d : Aquarium. H a d it c o m p r o m i s e d the o w n e r ? M y t h o u g h t s r e t u r n e d to the b y g o n e l o v e s to w h o m I h a d g i v e n c o p i e s .] I c u l l e d the prémices. T h i n l y disguised. to b l u e eyes. S i n c e I w a s free from false m o d e s t y . o r at least o n e a b o u t w h o m his creator is a m b i v a l e n t . e v e n in retrospect. 'tall. slim. . . part Y a n k e e . perhaps J e w . N o t l o n g a g o I c a m e across a c o p y in C h a r i n g C r o s s R o a d a n d p u r c h a s e d it . s u è d e shoes. a large b o w . m y first v o l u m e o f p o e m s . .p e n c e . e y e s like black d i a m o n d s . H e is an a m b i v a l e n t character. H e is. a n d it is a s u b d e satisfaction. ' 9 H a r o l d A c t o n n e e d e d n o W a u g h (although aspects o f his character t o o are m e l d e d i n t o the fictional character o f A n t h o n y B l a n c h e ) . p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 4 8 . part. the friend w h o m W a u g h o n c e d e s c r i b e d as an ' i n c o r r i g i b l e h o m o s e x u a l ' t h e r e appears as A n t h o n y B l a n c h e . A f t e r m a n y y e a n the breasts p r e t e n d to forget . b u t s h o u t e d t h e m lustily d o w n a m e g a p h o n e . W a u g h tells us. part G a l l i c . Sic transit gloria . . N o r w o u l d I tolerate interruptions. w h o l l y e x o t i c . h e l o o k e d b a c k w i t h a certain c o l d e y e o n the licentious. I n e v e r faltered w h e n I w a s asked to read t h e m . those witnesses o f y o u t h f u l passion? I t h i n k I k n o w the a n s w e r . w a s h . w a s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g my s e c o n d t e r m [in 1 9 2 3 ] . c o u l d also b e b r a n d i s h e d as a w e a p o n . F o r a b o o k o f p o e m s it h a d a prompt success. J E U N E H O M M E ' 81 M e m o r i e s o f C a p t a i n C h a r l e s R y d e r ' . rather s w a r t h y . .l e a t h e r g l o v e s as h e c a m e i n t o the r o o m .t i e a n d h e d r e w o f f y e l l o w . a n d possessed o f a resonant v o i c e . . b l a c k a n d y e l l o w striped c o v e r m e t m e e v e r y w h e r e l i k e a c h a l l e n g e .

as h e w a s later . B u t . m o n o m a n i a c a l a n d fiercely a m b i t i o u s .s h o e d campness. A s q u i t h o n his behalf. h o w e v e r .') A l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y . In this respect h e w a s an essentially m o d e r n character: e v e n W i l d e . trading o n his success w i t h Isis a n d the or irony m o t i v a t e d the d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i m w h i c h a p p e a r e d in a lesser student . s h o w e r s o f b u r n i n g kisses. N i c h o l s drifted into journalism. a l t h o u g h it is i m p o s s i b l e n o w to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a p o p h t h e m a t i s m m a g a z i n e d u r i n g his final term: J o c u l a r levity. . a n d finally a c h i e v e d a l o n g .h e l d a m b i t i o n w h e n h e w a s elected P r e s i d e n t o f the U n i o n . S i r W i l l i a m . florists a n d tailors'. N i c h o l s a b a n d o n e d plans to read for the B a r a n d half-heartedly set a b o u t t r y i n g to find s o m e f o r m o f suitable e m p l o y m e n t . g e n t l e struggles. . s u e d e . W i s d o m that's rare. w h e n h e c a m e d o w n f r o m C a m b r i d g e . despite a s o m e ­ w h a t p r e c i o u s . e v e n O x f o r d w a s a small p o n d . Y o u n g a n d so fair!" F o r a m a n o f N i c h o l s ' s p r e t e n s i o n . Seasoned with brevity.to w r i t e . w h i l e at O x f o r d N i c h o l s seems to h a v e h a d little interest in o r c o n t a c t w i t h the physical side o f things. g r e e n eyes. Instead o f E l g i n m a r b l e breasts h e e m b r a c e d the O x f o r d student m a g a z i n e his a n d v a r i o u s national periodicals in B r i t a i n a n d A m e r i c a .82 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S P o e t r y . published p o e t r y . T h a t at least g o t h i m n o t i c e d . H e had n o family estates to return to. this w a s the m i l i e u i n t o w h i c h N i c h o l s k n o w i n g l y launched himself. e v e n the p r e s i d e n c y o f the U n i o n hardly satisfied his idea o f a ' P l a t f o r m ' . n o family trusts to s u p p o r t h i m . E l g i n m a r b l e breasts . 'a stack o f u n p a i d bills f r o m w i n e m e r c h a n t s . b l u e eyes. W h a t w o u l d — w h a t could? H e c a m e d o w n w i t h a m e d i o c r e d e g r e e and. A s q u i t h let h i m k n o w that h e c o u l d d o n o t h i n g to h e l p : ' T h e r e are m o r e horses than oats. H . H a r k to o u r B e v e r l e y . H e had an easy facility w i t h w o r d s and. c o u l d e x p e c t as a last resort the support o f his father. u n l i k e A c t o n .and w h o l l y characteristically . ( Q u o t i n g A b r a h a m L i n c o l n . eyes l i k e b l a c k d i a ­ m o n d s . b o m b a r d i n g t h e m w i t h his o w n p o e m s as w e l l as articles a n d ideas. H e advertised his services in The Times a n d e v e n p e r s u a d e d friends to l o b b y the f o r m e r p r i m e m i n i s t e r H . T a l k i n g so c l e v e r l y .

T h e r e w a s also a string o f slight b u t generally w e l l . ( N o r . w h i c h b e g a n rather m o r e u n c e r t a i n l y at this t i m e . this t o o connection demonstrates. If these a n d the m a n y m o r e w h i c h w e r e to f o l l o w (by the e n d o f his life he h a d p u b l i s h e d s o m e sixty b o o k s o n subjects r a n g i n g f r o m politics to g a r d e n i n g a n d his b e l o v e d cats) are n o w f o r g o t t e n . g i v e n w h a t w e h a v e already seen o f the c l o s e . Revue ( ' T h e Little T h i n g s Y o u right through with it the twenties. as e v e n N i c h o l s ' s rather the theatre a n d in particular the m u s i c a l theatre w a s central to the 'gayness' o f L o n d o n . In 1 9 2 1 .) A d e c a d e later. largely d u e to the affection a n d i n f l u e n c e o f N e d L a t h o m . I n e v i t a b l y . acknowledged or even implicit homo­ sexuality at the heart o f it. is virtually u n k n o w n .M O I .r e c e i v e d n o v e l s : Prelude and ( 1 9 2 0 ) w a s f o l l o w e d in q u i c k succession b y Patchwork ( 1 9 2 1 ) Self (1922). N i c h o l s w a s b a c k in the W e s t End. was virtually a ' g a y ' g a n g . as w e l l as to the New York Evening Post a n d A m e r i c a n periodicals s u c h as Outlook. minor ' S i n c e E r o s W e n t A w a y ' a n d ' S e l e c t i o n ' ) . after the failure o f his d r a m a The Stag. feature p i e c e s ( ' H a v e Y o u Got T e l e p h o n e E a r ? ' ) a n d theatre r e v i e w s to papers r a n g i n g from the Sunday Times to the Daily Mirror. w h o t h o u g h t h i m a n o t h e r N o ë l C o w a r d .' S U I V E Z .s h o w for. in the r e v u e A to Z at the P r i n c e o f W a l e s T h e a t r e . to C h a r i o t (and w h i c h c o u l d as easily h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n b y N i c h o l s ) . w a s s o o n selling essays. this time u n d e r the aegis o f C h a r i o t ' s rival. does it c o m e as a n y surprise to d i s c o v e r that J a c k B u c h a n a n w a s the star o f the s h o w a n d I v o r N o v e l l o a m o n g the o t h e r contributors. C o c h r a n (familiarly k n o w n as ' C o c k y ' ) . w h i c h ran for j u s t six w e e k s at the G l o b e T h e a t r e . t o o .C h a r i o t d i d n o t take t o o m u c h p e r s u a d i n g since L a t h o m w a s almost s i n g l e . shortly after N e d L a t h o m h a d i n t r o d u c e d h i m . It is difficult i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e n o w to g a u g e the importance o f an open. N i c h o l s ' s theatrical career. v i v i d l y c o n v e y the m o o d o f the W e s t E n d at the time: . J E U N E H O M M E ' 83 O x f o r d U n i o n . H e w a s the c o m p o s e r a n d lyricist o f three songs in Cochran's îçjo Do'.h a n d e d l y b a c k i n g A to Z. the p r o d u c e r C . h e m a n a g e d to p e r s u a d e the impresario A n d r é C h a r i o t to i n c l u d e o n e o f his s o n g s . b u t extracts f r o m a c o u p l e o f letters w h i c h C o w a r d w r o t e in 1 9 2 1 a n d 1 9 2 2 .k n i t nature o f ' g a y ' L o n d o n at the t i m e . B . ' E v e ' .

. I ' v e j u s t p l a y e d all the m u s i c to C h a r i o t a n d he's d e l i g h t e d .o f the n u m b e r s really h o l d i n g the a u d i e n c e o f the d e l i g h t e d C o c k y .p l a c e d friends. I s a i d o f c o u r s e p r o v i d i n g that I w a s 1 indisputably in the s u p e r i o r position! A r e n ' t I a dear*} I n e v i t a b l y .l o o k i n g in a s l i g h d y effeminate w a y a n d s o m e t h i n g o f a b o u l e v a r d i e r . e v e r y o n e b e i n g a little w e a r y a n d w o n d e r i n g w h e t h e r t h e y o u g h t to patronize o r g u s h . g o o d . it's his solely and entirely. I n o w quite definitely enter the ranks o f B r i t i s h C o m p o s e r s ! [. I n d e e d .8 4 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S D a r l i n g . b e i n g g r e e t e d w i t h a r o a r o f ' a h ' . . w i t h a little h e l p f r o m w e l l . Y o u say y o u expect N e d is p u t t i n g u p m o n e y for the R e v u e — C e r t a i n l y h e is.so that's that.h e sat w i t h o u t a smile a n d t h e n t o o k m e aside a n d said they w e r e all g o o d . a n d b y the t i m e that Cochran's îgjo Revue o p e n e d h e w a s at the heart o f things: I v o r N o v e l l o h a d also b e e n i n v o l v e d in the w r i t i n g .h e ' s b e e n c h a r m i n g to m e a n d asked i f I ' d a g r e e to let C l i f t o n W e b b play it with m e (Clifton's salary is £ 8 0 ) . N i c h o l s w a s v e r y m u c h at h o m e in this m i l i e u . S o really w h a t more could I want? 1 3 . w o n ' t it? I a m v e r y e x c i t e d as the m u s i c is g o o d . w i t h i n a d e c a d e o f c o m i n g d o w n f r o m O x f o r d .o f s u p p e r at L a d y C u n a r d ' s afterwards. B e r n e r s h a d c o n t r i b u t e d a short ballet s e q u e n c e . after the success o f C o c h r a n ' s r e v u e h e w a s s o u n d i n g d o w n r i g h t c o m p l a c e n t . . C h a r i o t is o n a salary as D i r e c t o r ! H e is the usual taciturn m a n a g e r . then.] it w i l l b e v e r y thrilling to h e a r all m y songs d o n e b y a g o o d orchestra. N i c h o l s h a d s e c u r e d for h i m s e l f a p o s i t i o n o f sorts in L o n d o n society. the film.o f a l o n g line o f c h o r u s girls in s m o k e g r e y a n d b l a c k dresses s i n g i n g ' T h e Little T h i n g s Y o u D o ' too e n c h a n t i n g l y .o f the o p e n i n g n u m b e r .o f s o m e w o n d e r f u l l y g o o d a n d w o n d e r f u l l y b a d n o t i c e s the n e x t day — o f C o c k y at l u n c h a s k i n g m e to w r i t e the n e x t r e v u e . O l i v e r M e s s e l a n d R e x W h i s t l e r w e r e a m o n g the t e a m o f set a n d c o s t u m e designers. W i t t y . I n the spring o f 1 9 3 1 h e w r o t e in his diary: I h a v e v a r i o u s m e m o r i e s . . a n d m y s e l f n o t c a r i n g t w o h o o t s w h a t they d i d . . w h i l e the cast w a s l e d b y the m a g n i f i c e n t l y c a m p D o u g l a s B y n g .

b r o w newspapers (although his c o n t i n u i n g c a m p a i g n for p a c i f i c i s m g u a r a n t e e d h i m s p o r ­ adic f r o n t . H e m a y h a v e h a d to t r i m a n d accept a c o m f o r t a b l e m i d d l e . T h e Morning Post praised it.n o v e l i s t E l i n o r G l y n . charm. in the light o f N i c h o l s ' s s u b s e q u e n t career.t o w n .p a g e c o v e r a g e ) . T h a t w a s w h a t w a s so b e g u i l i n g a b o u t the small h o u s e h e f o u n d i n H a s k e r Street. 1 9 2 7 ) a n d the slightly y o u n g e r T e r e n c e R a t t i g a n — w i l l b r i n g e v e r y t h i n g to life. M e r e l y the barest details . A m e r e t h r e e — i r o n i c a l l y . 1 9 2 3 .l i z a r d ' for his a u t o b i o g r a p h y . he now d r a w i n g .b r o w ' p l a t f o r m ' o n the fringes o f W e s t E n d r e v u e a n d the inside pages o f m i d d l e . a n d e v e n W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l . B y 1 9 2 4 . m a n y o t h e r papers n a m e d Twenty-Five as their ' B o o k o f the W e e k ' . G . a n d a l e g i o n o f elderly. W o d e h o u s e (in the Weekly Dispatch) rallied r o u n d a n d d e l i v e r e d p r e d i c t a b l e 'puffs'.r o o m plays b y the likes o f C o w a r d (The Vortex. A n d b y a n d large it w a s . a n d set u p o n his o w n .a b o u t .1 9 2 0 s N i c h o l s w a s ' l a u n c h e d ' .s t a r t e d b y such self-perpetuating h y p e . so t o o d i d the Church of England Newspaper and. 14 c o u n t e d a m o n g his friends. B y 1 9 2 5 h e felt that the w o r l d w a s r e a d y has Twenty-Five. i n d e e d . w h e r e h e initially established h i m s e l f as a b a c h e l o r .s e v e n a n d l a r g e l y c o m p o s e d o f m o r e o r less f a w n i n g sketches o f these friends . T h e i r barbs did n o t matter. p u b l i s h e d w h e n N i c h o l s h i m s e l f w a s j u s t t w e n t y . M i c h a e l A r l e n . F r e d e r i c k L o n s d a l e (Aren't We All?. 1 9 2 5 .M O I . J u m p . J E U N E H O M M E ' 85 A s s i d u o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d c o n t e m p o r a r i e s s u c h as N o v e l l o (five years his senior) a n d C o w a r d (one y e a r his j u n i o r ) . C o w a r d . o n e w a s in the Gentlewoman m a g a z i n e — suggested that m u c h o f the b o o k s h o u l d n e v e r e v e n h a v e g o t as far as N i c h o l s ' s editor's desk at the p u b l i s h i n g firm o f J o n a t h a n C a p e . b u t such incidentals as u n p a i d florists' a n d tailors' bills w e r e things o f the past.r o o m . On Approval. S o m e r s e t M a u g h a m .M a u g h a m .a n d a m i n d c a p a b l e o f i m a g i n i n g the stage sets for c o n t e m p o r a r y d r a w i n g . K n i g h t s b r i d g e . the Architects' Journal. e v e n m o r e bizarrely. 1 9 2 4 ) . o f c o u r s e . H e h a d to b e in L o n d o n . w e l l h e e l e d h o m o s e x u a l 'patrons' h a p p i l y c a p t i v a t e d b y N i c h o l s ' s easy. as w e l l as the v e t e r a n s o p r a n o N e l l i e M e l b a .others m i g h t say ' l o u n g e . F r i e n d s s u c h as C o w a r d (in the Daily Mail) a n d P . a n d in the c e n t r e o f L o n d o n . h o w e v e r .attracted n o less than sixty r e v i e w s . A s his b i o g r a p h e r B r y a n C o n n o n demonstrated. M u c h . b y the m i d . The Last of Mrs Cheyney. f e l l o w .' S U I V E Z . L i k e C o w a r d a n d N o v e l l o . h e w a s in a position to l e a v e the parental h o m e in w h i c h h e h a d intermittently l o d g e d since the e n d o f the w a r .

H o w strange that great h o m e in P i c c a d i l l y is! . 23 February L u n c h at C l a r i d g e ' s w i t h M a b e l C o r e y . .] B a c k for a f e w m i n u t e s to C a t h e r i n e ' s . the D u k e o f M a r l b o r o u g h . a r a t d i n g A m e r i c a n w h o h a d c o l l e c t e d the K i n g o f G r e e c e . .that M r C o w a r d . . a M a r i e . 21 February L u n c h e d w i t h M a r y R i d g e l y C a r t e r at 4 1 P o r t m a n S q u a r e . the n e x t ten years w e r e to b e his salad days. N o b o d y w a s eating the s a m e c o u r s e at the s a m e t i m e . . H e o u g h t to p l a y a large part in a n y a u t o b i o g r a p h y I m a y w r i t e . o r R e b e c c a W e s t o r T a l l u l a h B a n k h e a d drop by. h a d t h e y a r r i v e d u n a n n o u n c e d : happen to 20 February L u n c h e d t o d a y w i t h L a d y M o u n t T e m p l e . A n i c e w o m a n . T h e p o o r t h i n g is in a great state o f agitation a n d told m e in a stage w h i s p e r that h e r h u s b a n d h a d left her.' she hissed. A l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e a f e w setbacks a n d failures.] D i n e d w i t h C a t h e r i n e d ' E r l a n g e r . W e n t to N o e l ' s Conversation Piece [.A n t o i n e t t e c o u c h . N e x t to m e w a s L a d y L y m i n g t o n w h o s e h u s b a n d has j u s t r e s i g n e d f r o m the T o r y party. an E m p i r e desk a n d several smaller items a n d paintings. E i t h e r she o r h e r s o n . O n e n e v e r does at C a t h e r i n e ' s .86 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S o f the h o u s e w a s furnished b y a rather pathetically b e s o t t e d N e l l i e M e l b a . I n l o v e w i t h m e .l a w J o h n n y w e r e [51c] at the t e l e p h o n e . P u b l i s h e d extracts f r o m the diary h e k e p t in the early m o n t h s o f 1 9 3 4 s h o w j u s t h o w far h e h a d c o m e — a n d h o w u n l i k e l y it w o u l d h a v e b e e n for a n y o f his f a m o u s friends to h a v e f o u n d h i m at h o m e . b u t u n p a r d o n a b l y m u d d l e . w h o g a v e N i c h o l s (on w h a t later transpired to b e o n l y p e r m a ­ n e n t loan) a set o f Q u e e n A n n e chairs. . H e d i n e d w i t h m e at the G a r r i c k . . L o r d . . ' H e is a sadist. . C a t h e r i n e w a s in great f o r m a n d d i n n e r w a s typical. D i n n e r w i t h P e t e r S p e n c e r . say. M a r y C . is a t i r e s o m e A m e r i c a n w h o o u g h t to h a v e b e e n cast as a h o u s e m a i d a n d m a k e s a v e r y b a d heiress. apparently. A c l e a n i n g lady c a m e in e v e r y d a y to m a k e sure that e v e r y t h i n g at H a s k e r Street w a s fit a n d r e a d y s h o u l d a n y o f M r N i c h o l s ' s f a m o u s friends .h e a d e d [.i n . n o w L o r d C h u r c h i l l .

M O I . N o b o d y there e x c e p t L a d y B i r k e n h e a d . W e l l s likes m e . G . the H u n g a r i a n genius.] I a m tired o u t as usual. O l g a L y n n a n d R o b e r t H e b e r . for h e struck m e as m e r e l y r u d e . motoring P e t e r C h u r c h i l l u p . ' 6 March J o h n G i e l g u d to l u n c h . T h e m a i n interest o f a dull w e e k e n d w a s the character o f o u r host w h i c h is a fluffy m i x t u r e o f a great m a n y talents w i t h o u t a n y basis o f w o r k or application. w h o told m e she g o t £ 8 5 for s a y i n g she u s e d L y o n s C o f f e e E x t r a c t w h i c h she h a d n e v e r tasted. H . L y n n Fontanne. J E U N E H O M M E ' 87 E l m l e i g h . T o l d m e h e h a d j u s t b o u g h t a c o u n t r y h o m e for . W e l l s a n d B a r o n e s s B u d b e r g (his l a d y l o v e ) . ' N o . to see N i c h o l s as b e i n g ' w i t h o u t a n y basis o f w o r k o r a p p l i c a t i o n ' . L a d y A l e x a n d e r H a i g a n d m e .' S U I V E Z . .a n d a d a r k e r side o f his character w a s also e m e r g i n g . I d o n o t k n o w . A r e y o u taking a n y measures to p r e s e r v e it?' I replied. Alfred Lunt. . o n l y m e a s u r e m e n t s . m u c h o f this m i g h t strike us as L o r d B e r n e r s struck N i c h o l s that w e e k e n d . generally k n o w n as 'the m a d b o y ' — w h y m a d . W h i l e t h e y r e v e l in the s n o b b i s h l y ' g a y ' side o f things (it is hardly accidental that the e n t r y d e s c r i b i n g the . In spite o f all the g a d d i n g a b o u t h e remained p r o d i g i o u s l y prolific t h r o u g h o u t this p e r i o d . H e said. 15 S i x t y years o n . 7 March L u n c h w i t h B a r b a r a B a c k [. V e r y g a y a n d c h a r m i n g . 14 March T o d a y I l u n c h e d at C l a r i d g e ' s w i t h A l e x a n d e r K o r d a . It w o u l d b e w r o n g . Victor C a z a l e t . 0 0 0 . . 5 March Supper with Lady Colefax.P e r c y . 17 March I spent the w e e k e n d w i t h G e r a l d B e r n e r s at F a r i n g d o n . L a d y B i r k e n h e a d . G . I sat n e x t to L a d y B . . . ' Y o u h a v e m a d e a profession o f perpetual y o u t h . as d o w n r i g h t 'fluffy' a n d superficial. I d o n ' t t h i n k H . . £ 1 . 1 3 March I d i n e d w i t h V i c t o r C a z a l e t at the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s . h o w e v e r .

. M i c h a e l t o o k o u t his c h e q u e . w r o t e o u t a c h e q u e for £ 2 5 0 . ' O h .w h e n h e w a s still n o t q u i t e thirty years o f a g e — h e m a d e perhaps the definitive a n n o u n c e m e n t o f his arrival o n the ' g a y ' s c e n e b y r e c r u i t i n g . they j u s t h a p p e n e d to b e l u n c h i n g t o g e t h e r a n d discussing their w o r k . S p e a k i n g m o r e than t w e n t y years a g o in a t e l e v i s i o n d o c u m e n t a r y . B r y a n C o n n o n has established that in the m i d .B e a t o n circle d u r i n g the 1 9 2 0 s : B y c h a n c e N o ë l h a p p e n e d to b e l u n c h i n g w i t h M i c h a e l A r l e n . 16 Vortex w a s in a ghastly mess E v e n as C a l t h r o p t o l d it. it all s o u n d e d so easy. in addition to his c l e a n i n g ladies. A t this t i m e .b o o k at the l u n c h e o n table.t i m e d e s i g n e r a n d factotum. a n d h a n d e d it to h i m w i t h o u t so m u c h as a s k i n g to read the play.L a t h o m .\ 88 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S C l a r i d g e ' s d i n n e r o n 2 3 F e b r u a r y lists his f e l l o w guests w i t h a pedantic r e g a r d for social o r d e r ) his diaries discreetly fail to m e n t i o n another d i v e r s i o n w h i c h n o t i n f r e q u e n d y k e p t N i c h o l s a w a y f r o m the h o u s e i n H a s k e r Street. . a n d w i t h that. N o ë l j u s t h a p p e n e d t o k n o w n e w l y w e a l t h y . the A r m e n i a n n o v e l i s t w h o s e n e w b o o k The Green Hat w a s a best-selling success in L o n d o n that y e a r .C o w a r d . . g a v e g r a p h i c t e s t i m o n y to h o w c o s y e v e r y t h i n g h a d b e e n w i t h i n the c h a r m e d N i c h o l s . t o o . T h e y w e r e discussing their w o r k . B u t absolute discretion w a s o b v i o u s l y essential i n s u c h a post. ? ' G a y ? H e a l m o s t i n v e n t e d it!' a c o n t e m p o r a r y w h o k n e w b o t h N i c h o l s a n d G a s k i n later recalled.1 9 2 0 s h e b e g a n r e n t i n g a series o f a n o n y m o u s flats in a n d a r o u n d C h e l s e a w h e r e h e c o u l d m o r e p r i v a t e l y a n d c o n v e n i e n t l y entertain r o u g h trade a n d g u a r d s m e n f r o m the n e a r b y barracks w h o s e c o m p a n y h e s o u g h t w h e n e v e r his p u n i s h i n g p u b l i c s c h e d u l e a l l o w e d . c a m e h i g h l y r e c o m m e n d e d . ' N o ë l replied.c o m p a n i o n s w h o w o u l d l o o k after h i m for m o s t o f the rest o f his life. T o d a y .b u d e r .o n e . A n d h e w a s using the w o r d in its c o n t e m p o r a r y sense. G l a d y s C a l t h r o p .. a b o u t £ 2 0 0 .v a l e t . w e l l you know.. W a s G a s k i n . G a s k i n . ' H o w m u c h d o y o u n e e d to p u t it o n ? ' M i c h a e l asked. t h e n j u s t t w e n t y . N o ë l C o w a r d ' s l o n g . the first o f a series o f c o o k . a n d N o ë l t o l d h i m that [his play] The b e c a u s e o f the financial p r o b l e m . best-selling n o v e l i s t M i c h a e l .

W a l p o l e a n d C o w a r d . E v e n in a w o r l d i m m e a s u r a b l y m o r e i n n o c e n t a n d less p r u r i e n t t h a n o u r o w n . It is as difficult n o w as it w a s t h e n to m a k e a n y m o r a l differentiation b e t w e e n A r l e n a n d the a m b i t i o u s . They were unconditionally. h o w e v e r . h o w e v e r . 'taken u p ' o n their o w n terms b y s o c i e t y w h i l e still m a n a g i n g to pass as ' n o r m a l ' in a w i d e r w o r l d .w e a r y a n d " j a g g e d w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t i o n " as w e possibly c o u l d ' . if sometimes uncomprehendingly. the c o m p a n y o f a c o m p l a i s ­ ant female friend ( G l a d y s C o o p e r w a s especially in d e m a n d ) and. L o o k i n g b a c k in 1 9 5 7 (incidentally. plus a stiff collar. the denizens o f G r o s v e n o r S q u a r e w e r e discreet in those days. a c q u i e s c e n t a n d — w i t h i n their o w n circle — o p e n l y h o m o s e x u a l y o u n g m e n .c o l u m n f i g u r e in the n e w f i r m a m e n t o f stars w o u l d h a v e b e e n s i m p l y u n i m a g i n a b l e . S o m e r s e t M a u g h a m ' s d o u b l e life w a s not atypical.it w a s r e f l e c t e d in the c o m p a n y h e k e p t . It w a s .w a r years. A n early l e a v e r f r o m o n e o f L a d y E m e r a l d C u n a r d ' s e x h a u s t ­ i n g l a t e . E v e r y bit as m u c h as h e w a s .p l a t e d t h e m f r o m i n n u e n d o a n d the w r o n g sort o f gossip.f l a m m e r y a b o u t him. J E U N E H O M M E ' 89 it is quite i m p o s s i b l e to d e c i d e w h e t h e r in 1 9 7 3 she w a s m o r e a b s o r b e d b y f o n d m e m o r i e s o f an e p o c h e v e n t h e n l o n g d e a d o r b y t h e social solecism w h i c h the e g r e g i o u s A r l e n h a d c o m m i t t e d b y t a k i n g o u t his c h e q u e b o o k at a l u n c h e o n table. T h e A r m e n i a n . N o v e l l o . i n the 1 9 2 0 s a n d 1 9 3 0 s t h e d i s s e m b l i n g w a s easy e n o u g h . I f there w a s an e l e m e n t o f s h a m a n d n i m .s o m e t h i n g slightly shady. a g o o d dinner-suit a r m o u r .b o r n .' S U I V E Z . w o r l d . in a letter to B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s ) .A r l e n certainly o c c u p i e d a u n i q u e place in the literary w o r l d o f the i n t e r .C a l t h r o p effortlessly g o t that i n t o the i n t e r v i e w .o n l y to h a v e his d i s i n g e n u o u s hostess ask. h e e x c u s e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e w o r d s 'I h a v e to k e e p m y y o u t h ' . H a p p i l y for t h e m . F o r e x a c d y the s a m e reasons that A r l e n felt it necessary to disguise his eastern E u r o p e a n o r i g i n s .M O I . a n d the .a b o u t t o w n like N i c h o l s . w h e n the o c c a s i o n d e m a n d e d . they h a d n o o p t i o n b u t to p u b l i c l y play d o w n their s e x u a l p r o c l i v i t i e s . they t o o w e r e p l a y i n g a g a m e . T h a t . C o w a r d recalled that it t o o k n o m o r e than ' a p p e a r ­ i n g to b e as blasé. a m a j o r n e w personality o r a g o s s i p . s o m e t h i n g o f a s c h i z o p h r e n i c e x i s t e n c e .n i g h t parties in the 1 9 3 0 s . h o w e v e r . ' T h e n w h y d i d n ' t y o u b r i n g h i m w i t h y o u ? ' H a p p i l y for h i m . slightly b o g u s . a n y s u g g e s t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y in a 'man-about-town' such as N i c h o l s . (Impossible to i m a g i n e the fifth E a r l o f L a t h o m d o i n g that w h e n he c a m e to w r i t e C o w a r d a c h e q u e ! ) Q u i t e possibly it w a s m i x t u r e o f b o t h .

W e m i g h t c o m p a r e .s t a g e partnerships w i t h G e r t r u d e L a w r e n c e as m u c h as later 'friendships' w i t h the y o u n g Princess M a r g a r e t a n d M a r l e n e D i e t r i c h effectively b l u r r e d the issue for d e c a d e after d e c a d e . it must h a v e b e e n 1 9 4 5 o r 1 9 4 6 . close a n d w o n d e r ­ ful f r i e n d s . the reactions to C o w a r d o f G i n e t t e S p a n i e r a n d the y o u n g J o h n G i e l g u d w h e n The Vortex finally o p e n e d in 1 9 2 4 . a n d w e n t o n : D o y o u realise that u p till t h e n n o b o d y h a d e v e r called s o m e ­ b o d y ' d a r l i n g ' unless they w e r e h a v i n g a l o v e affair w i t h them? A n d the fact o f e v e r y b o d y b e i n g so sophisticated a n d calling each o t h e r ' d a r l i n g ' w a s a habit started b y N o ë l w h i c h has g o n e o n till t o d a y .] I w a n t e d to m e e t h i m so badly. A f t e r visiting the o n e . ' N o ë l C o w a r d w a s the B e a t l e s o f o u r d a y . for instance. v e r y a p p r e h e n s i v e o f c o u r s e . this necessary discretion w a s also to have did u n e x p e c t e d a n d l o n g . i n d e e d . n o t least b e c a u s e it a p p e a l e d as m u c h to w o m e n as it d i d to those w h o w e r e m e m b e r s o r putative m e m b e r s o f his o w n circle. E n i g m a t i c o n . M o r e fundamentally. ' 1 8 C o w a r d w a s to p r e s e r v e this s e x u a l a m b i v a l e n c e until the v e r y e n d o f his life. 17 G i e l g u d w a s similarly g u s h i n g . ' S a p p e r ' a n d C o m m a n d e r S t e p h e n K i n g .t o . h e w r o t e : ' I w e n t to see N o ë l at the R o y a l t y T h e a t r e in D e a n Street. ' S p a n i e r o n c e recalled.H a l l . [. B . for the subterfuge m u c h to t e m p e r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s i m a g e o f the h o m o s e x u a l m a n . w i t h t w e n t y d r e s s i n g .e a r t h figures s u c h as J . .l a s t i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s .g o w n s in the w a r d r o b e . Priestley. T o t h e m . A n d t h e n after the w a r . .go H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S fashionable y o u n g n o v e l i s t a n d p l a y w r i g h t c o u l d rest assured that his secret w o u l d r e m a i n h i d d e n from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . h e w a s j u s t a n o t h e r author: in a series o f cigarette cards celebrating f a m o u s w r i t e r s w h i c h w a s issued at a r o u n d this t i m e his portrait (as w e l l as those o f A r l e n . N i c h o l s a n d H u g h W a l p o l e ) a p p e a r e d reassuringly a l o n g s i d e those o f bluffer. m o r e d o w n . b u t v e r y thrilled to m e e t h i m . I used to l o o k r o u n d the c o r n e r in case h e c a m e d o w n the street. 5. T h e m a t i n é e . quite b y c h a n c e w e m e t in the S o u t h o f F r a n c e a n d in three m i n u t e s w e b e c a m e intimate.r o o m w a s full o f b o t d e s o f C h a n e l N o .i d o l carapace w h i c h N o ë l C o w a r d built a r o u n d h i m s e l f in particular w a s to b e especially e n d u r i n g .t i m e m i d d l e class b o y f r o m an o b s c u r e L o n d o n s u b u r b in his dressing room f o l l o w i n g a p e r f o r m a n c e o f The Vortex. H i s d r e s s i n g .

the o u t r a g e o u s M r were c o n t e n t to accept w i t h o u t c o m m e n t the idea o f E r i c M o r e c a m b e a n d Humphries ( ' I ' m free!') w a s able to m i n c e a r o u n d the m e n s w e a r f l o o r o f G r a c e . the i m p l i c i t off-stage p r e s e n c e o f ' c h o r u s b o y s ' . S i m i l a r l y .as it w a s e n d u r i n g . an effete.h o l d e r in o n e h a n d . essentially harmless caricature ' q u e e r ' h a d e m e r g e d as the safe p o c k e t c a r t o o n i m a g e o f a 'certain t y p e ' o f B r i t i s h m a n (think hairdresser. h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s q u i c k l y b e c o m i n g associated w i t h the ' i n n o c e n t ' e c c e n t r i c i t y o f the m e m b e r s o f his n e w beau monde w h o s e lifestyle w a s far m o r e frequently c h r o n i c l e d o n the inside feature pages. at the s a m e t i m e as h u g e a u d i e n c e s E r n i e W i s e apparently sharing a b e d . b u t as props o n a par w i t h the l a b o u r e r ' s cloth cap a n d D e n n i s the M e n a c e ' s catapult. l e v e l .' S U I V E Z . b u t at the s a m e time a n d at a d e e p e r . J E U N E H O M M E ' 91 . think antiques-dealer.p a g e headlines in the 1 9 3 0 s . B y the 1 9 3 0 s .M O I . think b a l l e t . T h e 'darling's. his p r e d i l e c t i o n for cocktails a n d c h a m p a g n e .a n d as useful .t o n i c o r dry M a r t i n i in the o t h e r . increasingly typified his a u d i e n c e .1 9 6 0 s . n o o n e w a s seriously affronted b y their exploits o n Round the Home. e v e n w h i s p e r s o f s u c h telltale signs o f d e b a u c h e r y as his taste for black satin sheets all e n t e r e d the national c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Until very recendy the 'sophisticated'. it is i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r that b y the t i m e h e c o u l d h a v e discreetly ' c o m e o u t ' h e w a s trapped in a g i l d e d c a g e e v e r y bit as s e c u r e as the o n e w h i c h h a d i m p r i s o n e d his p o o r little rich girl: the i m a g e h a d l o n g since taken o v e r f r o m reality. Chanel-scented figure he gin- particularly c a m e to personify . i n d e e d . the B B C radio c o m e d y series w h i c h r e m a i n e d a p o p u l a r S u n d a y l u n c h t i m e f a v o u r i t e as late as the m i d . B u t i f h e c a n b e c r i t i c i z e d for m a i n t a i n i n g the p r e t e n c e far l o n g e r than w a s stricdy necessary.a g e d w o m e n o f W o k i n g ' w h o . a n d . at least in the y e a n b e f o r e w h a t h e h i m s e l f called ' D a d ' s R e n a i s ­ s a n c e ' . Stories o f m e n arrested in p u b l i c lavatories.d a n c e r ) . A l t h o u g h J u l i a n a n d his friend S a n d y m i g h t (and f r e q u e n d y did) ape the c a m p excesses o f the C o w a r d era.not least in the eyes o f the ' a d o r i n g m i d d l e .s o m e h o w t r a n s c e n d e d s e x a n d defused the w h o l e idea o f w h a t w e m i g h t call the p h y s i c a l side o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y . almost u n c o n s c i o u s . o f e r r i n g clergymen or desperate businessmen caught with guardsmen still periodically m a d e f r o n t . T h e s t e r e o t y p e w a s to p r o v e as harmless .c i g a r e t t e .

b u t o n l y b e c a u s e p e r f o r m e r a n d a u d i e n c e alike k n e w that t h e y w o u l d n e v e r see h i m d o i n g it. In the s a m e w a y .92 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S B r o t h e r s d e p a r t m e n t store w h o l l y free o f a n y libidinous pre-life in the 1 9 7 0 s t e l e v i s i o n series Are You Being Served? It w a s as i f t h e r e e x i s t e d a tacit a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n the h o m o s e x u a l a n d the w i d e r c o m m u n i t y . i n d e e d . w e ' v e g o t to p u t o n a s h o w . o n l y days after P a r l i a m e n t ' s d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n o f m a l e h o m o s e x u a l acts. G r a y s o n w a s able to talk a b o u t w h a t his 'friend' E v e r a r d h a d d o n e . b e l i e v e d e x a c t l y that. y o u k n o w .i 9 3 0 s . w e r e it n o t for A I D S . S u p e r f i c i a l l y t h e n . a n d w i t h e x a c t l y the s a m e lack o f p r u r i e n t curiosity w h i c h h a d b e e n afforded the C o w a r d s a n d N i c h o l s e s o f h a l f a c e n t u r y earlier. " A n d h e started to pull his trousers d o w n . as if. . a line h a d b e e n d r a w n w h i c h n e i t h e r side either cared o r d a r e d to cross. O n e o f t h e m said to m e . W i l l i a m s h i m s e l f w a s struck b y this.large n u m b e r s o f t h e g a y s c e n e .w a r subfusc w h i l e still insisting o n a n d — against all the e v i d e n c e — c o n v i n c i n g a u d i e n c e s o f their o w n heterosexuality . " E r n i e acceptable face o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y — in his own a c c o u n t o f the East E n d e v e n i n g the n o r m a l l y fastidious W i l l i a m s a d m i t t e d h e ' e n j o y e d it v . as late as the early 1980s it a p p e a r e d as i f n o t h i n g h a d c h a n g e d f o r m o r e than fifty years. " E r n i e ! N o w then! W e ' l l h a v e n o n e said. " the landlady said. O r t o n n o t e d in his diary: H e told m e h o w h e ' d visited an East E n d p u b . at s o m e t i m e in. trading o n w h a t a m o u n t e d to parodies o f the p r e . . the m i d . as h e told J o e O r t o n in J u l y 1 9 6 7 . In clubs their loudest . " N o t that k i n d o f s h o w . n o t h i n g e v e r w o u l d . T h u s D a n n y L a R u e ' s o u t r a g e o u s drag a n d the innuendo-laden patter o f K e n n e t h W i l l i a m s a n d L a r r y G r a y s o n w e r e a c c e p t e d at face v a l u e . It w a s still possible to i m a g i n e that. until AIDS f o r c e d their hands.persisted w e l l i n t o the 1980s b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e p l a y e d b y rules w h i c h C o w a r d ( w h o d i e d in 1 9 7 3 ) w o u l d have understood. 1 9 of the t h a t . S h e w a s disapproving type. " " B u t he's a celebrity. say. A n d the landlady said.' This comfortable. it's legal n o w . " K a w ! K e n . ' A n d all these y o u n g chaps w e r e c r o w d i n g r o u n d . p e r f o r m e r s such as L i b e r a c e and F r e d d i e M e r c u r y w e r e able to e n j o y h u g e international celebrity. m u c h ' .

h a d a n y real effect o n the h o m o s e x u a l w o r l d (or.y o u n g . w h i c h h a d b e e n subsidising o t h e r nations a n d w a s the e n v y o f E u r o p e . M a r i l y n M o n r o e . for that matter. rightly o r w r o n g l y . a n y o t h e r ) .m a n .' S U I V E Z . w h e r e g a y m e a n t g a y per se.A I D S ) w o r l d o f C o w a r d a n d N i c h o l s w h e r e the champagne a l w a y s flowed.o f f i c e success a n d a largely female readership w a s first d i s c o v e r i n g its taste for N i c h o l s ' s sugary p r o s e . w i t h his t h e n w i f e 2 . T h e g a y w o r l d o f the t w e n t i e s a n d thirties as w e h a v e p r e v i o u s l y seen it w a s n o m o r e i m m u n e to the vicissitudes o f a w i d e r fate than the m o r e q u o t i d i a n w o r l d o f the straights: . e v e n in the rather etiolated f o r m practised b y the likes o f G e r a l d B e r n e r s a n d N e d L a t h o m . s u d d e n l y . C a r m e n Miranda and other d o y e n n e s o f w h a t . u n c o m p l i c a t e d b o y s o n e v e r y street c o r n e r . w h o s e sense o f d o o m w a s a g g r a v a t e d b y w h a t t h e y h a d to lose in a d d i t i o n to their lives. o l d e r .B o s i e . a n d there w e r e w i l l i n g .relationships b a s e d o n the W i l d e . . F e w w e r e able to w e a t h e r the s t o r m w i t h the i n s o u c i a n c e o f the B o h e m i a n socialite D a v i d T e n n a n t w h o . It w a s as i f t h e y w e r e desperate to p e r p e t u a t e the safe ( p r e . and the subsequent international depression. the c o n s e q u e n c e s w e r e devastating. the e c o n o m i c a n d social m a y h e m w h i c h f o l l o w e d the Wall Street Crash. " Q u i t e s i m p l y . Bette Davis. .a n d . the w o r d ' q u e e r ' w a s a w h i s p e r e d t e r m o f endearment. b u t b y the e n d o f the d e c a d e a v a r i e t y o f circumstances h a d c o n s p i r e d to p u t p a i d to the full M e d i c i style. f o u n d itself o n the v e r g e o f b a n k r u p t c y [. . t h e y still p e r c e i v e d as their o w n belle époque.p a r t n e r m o d e l . the day c a m e w h e n B r i t a i n w e n t o f f the g o l d standard. h o w e v e r . F o r those subsisting o n i n v e s t m e n t i n c o m e o r w h a t h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n called ' o l d m o n e y ' . J E U N E H O M M E ' 93 applause w a s r e s e r v e d for drag entertainers w h o i m p e r s o n a t e d J u d y Garland. p e r s o n a l p a t r o n a g e .a t t r a c t i v e . that v e r y w o r l d w a s c o m i n g to an e n d e v e n as C o w a r d w a s s c o r i n g his first b o x .M O I . o n e m o r n i n g in the a u t u m n o f 1 9 3 1 . T h i s i m m e n s e l y rich c o u n t r y . T h e late 1 9 2 0 s w e r e the last years in w h i c h paternalistic. T h e r e w e r e still — a n d o f c o u r s e there c o n t i n u e to b e . c h a n g e d e v e r y t h i n g .] T h e a t m o ­ sphere w a s that o f w e a l t h y p e o p l e o n the Titanic. Ironically. It w a s i n e v i t a b l e . the w o r l d w h e r e e v e r y J u l i a n h a d his S a n d y (and m o n e y e n o u g h f r o m s o m e w h e r e to set h i m s e l f u p in an a n t i q u e s h o p ) . .a n d .

bolstered b y the appearance o f Beaton's Book of Beauty. H e b o u g h t a h o u s e in W i l t s h i r e . 23 B e a t o n w a s n o t a l o n e i n h a v i n g this access to w h a t w e m i g h t call ' n e w m o n e y ' . H e d r o v e v e r y fast d o w n c o u n t r y lanes in r a c i n g cars o f the latest m o d e l . o r rent. E . D a v i d d i d n o t h a v e to w o r r y a b o u t a n y t h i n g e x c e p t fun. I s u p p o s e I a m w e l l off' .w u m p s ' . W h i l e B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s a n d G a s k i n the ' b u d e r ' w e r e settling into . E v e n w h e n h e w a s y o u n g . A s it is. ' I rely o n E i l e e n [ H o s e . his secretary] to b e l e v e l h e a d e d e n o u g h to say w h e n I a m in a really serious j a m . H e filled his W i l t s h i r e h o u s e w i t h L o n d o n friends a n d rarely s a w 'the c o u n t y ' w h o m h e referred to as 'the m u g . h a d kept real p o v e r t y f r o m the d o o r . b u t n e v e r later o n in life. A f t e r a w h i l e I w r o t e again. ' O n e c a n b e p o o r w h e n y o u n g .n o t far a w a y f r o m C l o u d s [the h o m e o f his friend T . the small h o u s e at A s h c o m b e . already c o n s i d e r i n g a s s u m i n g the r o l e o f m a n o f p r o p e r t y .' I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s o m e . as w e h a v e seen. P e r h a p s this c r e a t e d an effect o f abject p o v e r t y : the n o t e r e c e i v e d n o r e s p o n s e . m a n a g e d to m a i n t a i n s o m e t h i n g o f the seigneurial style: W i t h a p r i v a t e i n c o m e o f £ 1 5 . B e f o r e h e h a d t u r n e d thirty h e w a s .w u m p s o f W i l t s h i r e : I w r o t e to M r B o r l e y o f Shaftesbury asking h i m i f h e w o u l d b e w i l l i n g to sell. I w r o t e o n a small sheet o f e x t r e m e l y thin tracing p a p e r . the fifth earl w h o . w a s virtually penniless w h e n h e d i e d in 1 9 3 0 . m o n e y w h i c h h e h a d e a r n e d rather than inherited. I n o r d e r that I s h o u l d n o t g i v e the effect o f affluence.a n d k e p t a fleet o f c a n a n d a G y p s y M o t h a e r o p l a n e .' C e c i l B e a t o n w a s later to n o t e . it is a battle to m a k e m o n e y e n o u g h to p a y the i n c o m e t a x . this t i m e o n s o m e rather p r e t e n t i o u s stationery that I h a d ordered from Frank Smythson o f B o n d Street. 0 0 0 a y e a r . 2 1 M u c h m o r e t y p i c a l w e r e figures l i k e L a t h o m .94 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S H e r m i o n e B a d d e l e y . a rapidly a c q u i r e d social éclat. T h r o u g h o u t his life h e w a s almost p a t h o l o g i cally w o r r i e d a b o u t m o n e y : ' I a m in the hopeless c o n d i t i o n o f k n o w i n g n o t h i n g a b o u t m y o w n m o n e y affairs. as w e h a v e already seen.a n d rivalling T e n n a n t in the p a t r o n i z i n g m a n n e r in w h i c h h e dealt w i t h the m u g . L a w r e n c e ] . o r t o o k his p l a n e o n trips to Paris. h o w e v e r . ' 22 E v e r y t h i n g w a s relative.' he w a s fretting as late as 1 9 6 8 .a n d a l w a y s h a d b e e n .

N o ë l C o w a r d t o o w a s facing w h a t w a s almost literally an e m b a r r a s s m e n t o f riches. w a s already a c c u s t o m e d to l i v i n g u n d e r the ' g e n e r o u s . ' M a d D o g s a n d E n g l i s h m a n ' w a s to b e c o m e indelibly associated w i t h C o w a r d for the rest o f his life (he w a s still s i n g i n g it in cabaret thirty years later). again in 1 9 2 7 . S u b t l y . B u t m o r e recently critics a n d b i o g r a p h e r s h a v e s h o w n greater interest in ' M a d A b o u t the B o y ' . a n d for n o o t h e r reason than that the o n c e o b e d i e n t B o s i e s . h o w e v e r . the c r a v e n l y grateful ' b o y s ' . as g e n e r o u s w i t h his ' l o a n s ' — a steady o f that n e w m o n e y a l l o w e d h i m . b e g i n n i n g to display a certain brash i m p e r i o u s n e s s . flow 24 I f h e w a s n o t as w e a l t h y as N e d L a t h o m h a d b e e n a d e c a d e earlier — n o r . J E U N E H O M M E ' 95 H a s k e r Street. W r i t i n g to his m o t h e r . I ' m twenty-three!' B u t he was not complaining. h a d g r o w n u p . t h o u g h u n t h i n k i n g . H e h a d b e c o m e his o w n master (if n o t quite y e t T h e M a s t e r ) a n d . I w a s b o r n in 1 9 0 4 . ' O r n o ! I d o b e l i e v e it is t w e n t y . attitudes w e r e shifting. t h e n p l a y i n g at the T h e a t r e R o y a l . t o o . a w h o l e ' n e w ' v e r s e full o f s u p p o s e d l y h o m o s e x u a l a n d a u t o - . h e w a s w e l l o n his w a y to b e c o m i n g . Words and Music q u i c k l y s e t d e d i n t o w h a t w a s to b e c o m e a respectable e i g h t . to m i x w i t h the best a n d b u y virtually a n y t h i n g (or a n y o n e ) h e w a n t e d . it w a s to all intents a n d purposes true.t w o . h e had boasted. a c c o r d i n g to his secretary a n d c o m p a n i o n C o l e L e s l e y . n o t least b e c a u s e there does n o t a p p e a r to b e a d e f i n i t i v e v e r s i o n o f the lyrics.i Q 3 0 s . d a m n it! H e l l take it. B y 1 9 3 2 Cavalcade h a d b e e n j o i n e d in the W e s t E n d b y his intimate r e v u e Words and Music. I n d e e d . the s o n g certainly p r e ­ sents c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e s w i t h m u c h f o o d for t h o u g h t . b y all accounts. A l t h o u g h the 'notices w e r e terrible'. i n a m o d e r n phrase.m o n t h r u n l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f the p o p u l a r i t y o f o n e s o n g . it is possible to a r g u e .M O I . Socially. O r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n to b e s u n g b y a w o m a n . G o o d L o r d .' B e a t o n w r o t e o n his birthday in 1 9 2 7 . D r u r y L a n e . o n e o f the masters o f the u n i v e r s e . a s s u m p ­ tion that e v e r y o n e a r o u n d h i m h a d e n o u g h m o n e y to d o as t h e y pleased'. a n o t h e r C o w a r d standard w h i c h w a s first h e a r d in the s h o w . ' I ' m n o t the E m p r e s s E u g é n i e . C o w a r d w a s e m p e r o r o f all h e s u r v e y e d — and.' S U I V E Z . economically a n d n o t least s e x u a l l y . l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f the h u g e p o p u l a r i t y o f his j i n g o i s t i c epic Cavalcade.t h r e e ! Y e s . I ' m N a p o l e o n ! ' A t the t i m e that m i g h t h a v e b e e n a slight e x a g g e r a t i o n . S o w a s C o w a r d . I n retrospect it w a s a d a n g e r o u s situation. A s early as the m i d . w i t h i n five years. ' T w e n t y . h e w a s certainly financially s e c u r e .

A l o n e w i t h his p a s t e l . I f changing t h e y w e r e . the m i d d l e . i n t e n d e d for p u r e l y p r i v a t e c o n s u m p t i o n . It m a y w e l l h a v e b e e n n o m o r e than a party s q u i b .s u i t e d t u m b l i n g s w e h a v e so far . m o r e d e m o t i c v e r s i o n o f the d i n n e r . N i c h o l s ' s v o l u m i n o u s diaries h a v e litde to say o n the subject (and are e v e n less r e v e a l i n g a b o u t his C h e l s e a p i c k . ( S o t o o d i d the story ' M a d A b o u t the B o y ' . / I rise a b o v e i t . a n d n o t all o f t h e m w o r e dressing g o w n s . . I rise a b o v e i t . . b u t n e i t h e r w e r e their p r o t é g é s necessarily o f the C o w a r d .) T h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e that C o w a r d e v e r sang this v e r s e in p u b l i c . A similar reticence i n f o r m s B e a t o n ' s a n d the a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f N o ë l C o w a r d . after a gap o f h a l f a c e n t u r y a n d m o r e it is difficult to recreate w i t h a n y a c c u r a c y the precise social a n d s e x u a l d y n a m i c s o f the relationships w h i c h existed b e t w e e n . C o w a r d ' s w o r d s suggest the e x i s t e n c e o f a h i e r a r c h y . T o a large e x t e n t this w a s true.a g e d L o r d B e r n e r s h a d o n c e b e e n t h o u g h t o f as the e p i t o m e o f the 'saucy f e l l o w ' . N i c h o l s o r B e a t o n class. A s w e h a v e seen in earlier chapters. A w a y from the b r i g h t lights t h e r e w e r e p o c k e t B e r n e r s e s a n d L a t h o m s in e v e r y part o f B r i t a i n . earthier.u p s ) .' C o n t e m p o r a r y o r not. .] w r e s t l i n g m a t c h o n the floor'. T h e y m i g h t n o t h a v e b e e n tided. a m i c r o . b u t phrases such as ' P e o p l e I e m p l o y / H a v e the i m p e r t i n e n c e to call m e M y r n a L o y . that C o w a r d h a d w r i t t e n w h i l e infatuated b y J a m e s C a g n e y . it is possible to detect from o t h e r sources the b e g i n n i n g s at a r o u n d this t i m e o f a m o r e p r a g m a t i c attitude to sex. w i t h w h o m h e h a d o n c e e n j o y e d a ' r o u g h a n d t u m b l e [. B u t n o w ? F o r o b v i o u s reasons. . Beverley Nichols and Gaskin or C o w a r d and his 'companions'. . .9 6 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S b i o g r a p h i c a l references o n l y e m e r g e d a d e c a d e o r so after C o w a r d ' s death. / B e c a u s e I ' m absolutely m a d a b o u t the boy' s e e m to h a v e b e e n d r a w n f r o m direct p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . an encountered. t h e y are u n i q u e — a c o n t e m p o r a r y allusion to times a n d a hubristic c h a l l e n g e to the w o r l d to d o its w o r s t . ' P e o p l e I e m p l o y . H o w e v e r .e c o n o m y o f w h i c h h e a n d his peers c o m p r i s e d o n l y o n e stratum.c o l o u r e d d o v e s at F a r i n g d o n . / F r a n k l y l o v e i t . the a p p a r e n d y franker diaries o f H u g h W a l p o l e regrettably r e m a i n u n p u b l i s h e d . e v e n in the 1 9 2 0 s h o m o s e x u a l m e n d i d n o t exist o n l y in a n d a r o u n d Shaftesbury A v e n u e a n d P i c c a d i l l y . o r e v e n w r o t e it d o w n . say.

I ' m g o i n g to teach you. H e l i v e d in D e v o n .' S U I V E Z . S o h e said. W e l l . T h e y said. t h e r e are t w o sides to the story — j u s t as the phrase 'to b e h a d ' has t w o v e r y different m e a n i n g s . s c h e m i n g ' r e n t . A lot o f m y pupils knew. O f c o u r s e w e h a d a w o n d e r f u l t i m e . H i s is a n e w . H e w a s an E n g l i s h m a n . y o u k n o w . a n d they all used to c o m e d o w n . h e w a s so o l d to m e at the a g e o f e i g h t e e n . ' B e r n a r d ' l o o k s b a c k to v e r y m u c h the s a m e t i m e t h r o u g h w h o l l y different eyes. b u t I can't d o a n y t h i n g . O n e n i g h t at the P a l l a d i u m I m e t a q u e e r f e l l o w w h o m I k n e w . [ B u t ] the f e l l o w h e w a s w i t h g a v e h i m m y address. h e said.M O I . a n d s o m e v e r y n i c e b o y s I h a d used to enter in the fun. a n d m y fees [for d r a m a . H e said. I a l w a y s u s e d to ' d o ' t h e m .b o y ' . n o r is h e m e r e l y the p r e c u r s o r o f the callous. to b e h o n e s t I d i d n ' t really w a n t to d o a n y t h i n g . q u i t e an elderly m a n . A s a m a t t e r o f fact m y parties g o t quite w e l l k n o w n a n d t h e y u s e d to c o m e d o w n f r o m L o n d o n . I f I m a d e a p l a y f o r t h e m t h e y t h o u g h t it w a s w o n d e r f u l to b e l o v e d b y a P r i n c i p a l at the s c h o o l o f d a n c i n g . a n d w i t h h i m h e h a d this m a n . H e g a v e m e e n o u g h m o n e y to l i v e o n . I h a d [sex w i t h ] lots o f m y pupils. w h a t d o y o u w a n t to d o ? W e l l . that I c o u l d n ' t possibly b e interested. Y e s . as ' S a m ' graphically recalls. W e u s e d to p u t o n s h o w s for o u r s e l v e s a n d o n e o r t w o o f the pupils. W e l l . H e ' d b e e n in the I n d i a n A r m y . W e l l . H e ' s the o n l y o n e I feel g u i l t y a b o u t . H e is n o t the pathetic ' u n e m p l o y e d g e n t l e m a n ' s servant'. o b v i o u s l y . h e recollects a w o r l d in w h i c h it w a s fast b e c o m i n g difficult to establish w h o w a s h a v i n g w h o . p r a g m a t i c h o m o s e x u a l i t y . o f c o u r s e . J E U N E H O M M E ' 97 R a t h e r . b o y pupils. the m e n d a c i o u s i n a d e q u a t e w h o a p p e a r e d in the witness b o x in the W i l d e trials. S o m e t h i n g o f a drifter. L a d y M a y ' s p u t t i n g o n a n o t h e r d o . I ' d l i k e to g o o n the stage. as a l w a y s . I n the late 1 9 2 0 s he h a d o p e n e d a d a n c e studio in C a m b r i d g e : I used to s o m e t i m e s g i v e tea dances o n a S u n d a y a f t e r n o o n at the studio. o r perhaps a drag s h o w . t h e y w e r e there 'to b e h a d ' . w a s m a r r i e d a n d h a d t w o b o y s . H e c a m e to see m e the v e r y n e x t day. 25 W o n d e r f u l it m i g h t h a v e b e e n . but. W o u l d y o u l i k e to g o o n the stage? S o I said. for all that h e m i g h t h a v e a p p e a r e d as such to the ' S a m ' s h e encountered: I w a s n o w a b o u t e i g h t e e n . T h e y used to call m e L a d y M a y C a m b r i d g e .

W e w e r e t o g e t h e r a b o u t s e v e n y e a r s . he c o u l d h a v e b e e n referring to a n y o f the s u b s e q u e n t decades. v i r i l e . b u t I w e n t to the races. I d i d n ' t l o o k after the h o u s e . I t o o k this studio in C h e l s e a . H e used to g o o f f to w o r k .] I w a s b e i n g t a k e n to the S a v o y H o t e l a n d to a restaurant in C h e l s e a called T h e Q u e e n s . T h i s great A m e r i c a n w a s t h i r t y . H e m e n t i o n e d h e r q u i t e often. T h e r e w a s n ' t a n y t r o u b l e . . B u t I u s e d to k e e p a w a y from discussing that sort o f thing. Y o u n g . g o a n d take a h o u s e . A n d that w a s that. ' H e w a s w r i t i n g a b o u t the 1 9 2 0 s and 1 9 3 0 s but. a l t h o u g h I d i d n ' t at the t i m e [. T h i s A m e r i c a n l i v e d in Pall M a l l . l o v e d the theatre. I k e p t o u t o f p e o p l e ' s n o r m a l lives. A l l right. 26 T o w a r d s the e n d o f his life N o ë l C o w a r d n o t e d that ' P e o p l e w e r e g r e e d y a n d p r e d a t o r y . O f c o u r s e I d i d n ' t b e l i e v e h i m . . I d i d n ' t w a n t to. as w e shall see. to the d o g s . N o t o n l y w a s h e v e r y rich b u t h e w a s v e r y g e n e r o u s . . S h e w a s a m a r r i e d w o m a n . S o I said.e i g h t . W h i c h I l o v e d t o o [. H e w e p t a n d h e said. F o r a b o u t t w o years I d i d n ' t g o ! T o this day I d o n ' t k n o w w h e r e the R o y a l A c a d e m y o f D r a m a t i c A r t is! I feel v e r y b a d a b o u t that n o w . . those p e o p l e w h o h a d n o r m a l lives. H e s u p p o r t e d m e . T h e A m e r i c a n w a s a bastard. H e u s e d to m e n t i o n the telephonist w h e r e h e w o r k e d .9 8 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S s c h o o l ] . l o v e d g o i n g to restaurants. Y o u ' v e let m e d o w n .] I n the e n d I m e t [an] A m e r i c a n . W h e n the T a u n t o n f e l l o w c a m e b a c k to L o n d o n I confessed to h i m that I w a s l e a v i n g h i m . I t h o u g h t this w a s w o n d e r f u l . W e h a d a h o u s e k e e p e r . . H e w a s n o t e x c l u s i v e l y h o m o s e x u a l . H e said. a n d i f y o u g a v e t h e m the c h a n c e t h e y w o u l d steal u n s c r u p u l o u s l y the heart and soul o u t o f y o u w i t h o u t really w a n t i n g to o r e v e n m e a n i n g t o .

2 2 ) s e e m e d e x a c t l y to s u m u p the Zeitgeist w h e n it w a s p u b l i s h e d in E n g l i s h as The Decline of the West b e t w e e n 1 9 2 6 a n d 1 9 2 9 . Politics rather than j a z z . Untergang des Abendlandes ( 1 9 1 8 . ' B u d d y C a n Y o u S p a r e a D i m e ? ' w a s the p o p u l a r s o n g o f the d e c a d e . U n e m p l o y m e n t w a s at (then) r e c o r d levels a n d . there w a s a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f q u e a s i ness as political p o w e r s e e . dishonest d e c a d e ' . A f t e r it lost a v o t e o f 99 . H . under Prime Minister R a m s a y M a c D o n a l d . 'a l o w . w a s in the air. perhaps e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y . m o r e e x a c t l y . the G e n e r a l S t r i k e o f M a y 1 9 2 6 a n d the A m e r i c a n W a l l Street C r a s h o f 1 9 2 9 . B r i t a i n e l e c t e d its first L a b o u r g o v e r n m e n t a n d s a w R a m s a y M a c D o n a l d installed as its first L a b o u r p r i m e minister.'The Homintern' A W A Y F R O M T H E W E S T E N D the 1 9 3 0 s w e r e .l a d e n historicism. in a G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n .s a w e d b e t w e e n Labour. j u s t as a b o o k l i k e G e o r g e O r w e l l ' s The Road to Wigan Pier ( 1 9 3 7 ) n o w seems as r e d o l e n t o f the thirties as M i c h a e l A d e n ' s The Green Hat does o f the ' r o a r i n g t w e n t i e s ' — certainly m o r e so than the i n c r e a s ­ ingly s m u g a n d self-satisfied effusions a b o u t g a r d e n i n g w h i c h B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s h a d taken to p r o d u c i n g b y that t i m e . in W . T h a t Zeitgeist or. A u d e n ' s famous phrase. the m o o d o n the streets h a d shifted palpably since the b e g i n n i n g o f 1 9 2 4 w h e n . the ripples o f w h i c h rapidly crossed the A t l a n t i c . N e i t h e r g o v e r n ­ m e n t n o r p r i m e minister lasted l o n g . ) T h e thirties h a d their origins in the e c o n o m i c depression o f the late 1 9 2 0 s . h o w e v e r . and Stanley B a l d w i n ' s Conservatives. B u t l i k e m o s t decades t h e y h a d in fact b e g u n b e f o r e their t i m e . as w a s e x e m p l i f i e d b y the v o g u i s h p o p u l a r i t y o f a rather d a n g e r o u s proto-fascistic b o o k b y the G e r m a n w r i t e r O s w a l d S p e n g l e r . ( T h e sixties b e g a n in 1 9 5 6 a n d w e r e largely o v e r b y 1 9 6 7 . a l o n g w i t h a certain d o o m .

n o n e w s p a p e r s (apart from the g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i s h e d British Gazette) o r postal c o l l e c t i o n s . e v e n p o l i c e m e n virtually disappeared from the streets. O n 4 M a y 1 9 2 6 the c o u n t r y c a m e to a stop w h e n the T r a d e s U n i o n C o n g r e s s called a G e n e r a l S t r i k e in s u p p o r t o f the m i n e r s . a n d the w h o l e c o u n t r y . O n 1 2 M a y the T U C was f o r c e d to c o n c e d e defeat and. n o trams. O n 1 2 M a y she n o t e d in h e r diary: ' I s a w this m o r n i n g 5 o r 6 a r m o u r e d cars s l o w l y g o i n g a l o n g O x f o r d Street.m i n i n g . V i r g i n i a W o o l f . b u t a c o r n e r h a d b e e n t u r n e d n o t least b e c a u s e the L i b e r a l Party. a n d .p a c k e t s from the national coffers. o r at least a p e r i o d o f d e e p m u t u a l mistrust b e t w e e n 'the toffs' a n d the rest. those w o r k e r s w h o still h a d j o b s to g o to m a d e their w a y b a c k to w o r k . w a s virtually w i p e d o u t in P a r l i a m e n t . a l t h o u g h the superficial scars w e r e q u i c k to heal. a n d m o r e particularly the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s .100 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S c o n f i d e n c e in the N o v e m b e r o f that y e a r the L a b o u r P a r t y w e n t o n to lose the s e c o n d G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n o f 1 9 2 4 . a n d o n e s t o o d w i t h his h a n d at the g u n w h i c h w a s p o i n t e d straight a h e a d r e a d y to fire. Practically all p u b l i c services g r o u n d to a halt. a l t h o u g h i n s t i n c t i v e l y a toff. that the W e s t really w a s in d e c l i n e . it w o u l d r e m a i n so until C h u r c h i l l ' s c l a r i o n calls to u n i t e in 1 9 4 0 effected s o m e sort o f rapprochement. factories w e r e closed. T h e strike lasted for j u s t n i n e days. resentfully. n o lorries to m a k e deliveries. T h e ramifications o f their a c t i o n . o n e a c h t w o soldiers sat in tin h e l m e t s . w a s n o t a l o n e in sensing that those n i n e days h a d i r r e v o c a b l y c h a n g e d the nation. w e r e l o n g . F o r a w h i l e the political divisions b e t w e e n Left a n d R i g h t intensified i n t o social w a r f a r e . h o w e v e r . B a l d w i n a n d the C o n s e r v a t i v e s w e r e b a c k in office. last in p o w e r in 1 9 1 8 . t o o .l a s t i n g . d i v i d e d i n t o the b r o a d L e f t . O p i n i o n s o n l y b e c a m e m o r e p o l a r i z e d e i g h t e e n m o n t h s later w h e n the M i n e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n o b j e c t e d to a w a g e cut i m p o s e d b y the o w n e r s o f Britain's then privately managed coal mines and B a l d w i n declined to t o p u p their p a y . B u t I also n o t i c e d o n o n e a p o l i c e m a n s m o k i n g a cigarette. N o t o n l y w a s there n o c o a l .' W i t h i n less than a fortnight B r i t a i n h a d b e c o m e a d i v i d e d nation.R i g h t factions w h i c h h a v e e n d u r e d for s e v e n t y y e a n . . t h e r e w e r e n o trains.

a casualty o f m o r e c a r e . T h i s is s o m e t i m e s difficult to b e l i e v e . ' a characteristically elegiac C y r i l C o n n o l l y c l a i m e d nearly h a l f a c e n t u r y later.l a d e n times. ' m a y I stroke y o u r b o t t o m ? ' ' O h . ' i f y o u must.u p v e r s i o n s o f d o r m i t o r y f u m b l i n g — n o t least b e c a u s e virtually . post H o w a r d . T h e r e is the story o f h o w E v e l y n W a u g h ( L a n c i n g ) a n d another.' than g r o w n . ' v e r y i n d e c e n t a n d v e r y v i v i d ' p o e m called ' B a g s in D o r m ' at this time. b u t the essential b r i o h a d e v a p o r a t e d . M e n w h o l i k e d w o m e n w e r e apt to get sent d o w n . A n e w g e n e r a t i o n o f students h a d a r r i v e d in the m i d . B r i a n H o w a r d a n d C y r i l C o n n o l l y l i n g e r e d . T h e r e ' s the o n e a b o u t h o w W . W a u g h ' s t o n g u e inside the latter's m o u t h .1 9 2 0 s a n d m o s t o f the likes o f the B r i d e s h e a d 'aesthetes' h a d already g o n e d o w n .' T h e y e a r m u s t h a v e b e e n 1 9 2 5 w h e n still the tales o f H a r o l d A c t o n .) C e r t a i n l y the frequently r e p o r t e d . e v e n w i t h i n collegiate c o m m u n i t y itself.' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' IOI A l l this h a d a shattering i m p a c t o n the intellectual life o f the c o u n t r y . H u g h G a i t skell ( W i n c h e s t e r ) . .' A u d e n later rather indelicately r e v e a l e d . e v e n w i t h i n their o w n set s u c h h o m o s e x u a l activity as still s u r v i v e d at O x f o r d seems to h a v e a m o u n t e d to little m o r e than a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f p u b l i c . w r o t e a l o n g . ' H u g h . B e y o n d W o o l f 's B l o o m s b u r y . for t h e r e is a false j a u n t i n e s s a b o u t the later m e m o r i e s o f m a n y o f those w h o w e r e there. ' W e w e r e the last g e n e r a t i o n o f w o m a n l e s s O x f o r d . A u d e n ( G r e s h a m ' s ) w a s d i s c o v e r e d b y his c o l l e g e s c o u t ( b e d .' J o h n B e t j e m a n w a s later to sigh. T h e r e ' s the 'fact' that B e t j e m a n actually preferred the future L a b o u r leader. ' h e w a s o n c e h e a r d to ask h i m . w h o a r r i v e d at M a g d a l e n C o l l e g e f r o m M a r l b o r o u g h in 1 9 2 5 . 2 d e s c r i b e d a similar s e x u a l climate: ' w o m e n [ w e r e ] s o m e w h a t d e r i d e d .s c h o o l larkiness. I s u p p o s e s o .m a k e r ) in b e d w i t h B e t j e m a n a n d h a d to p a y the s c o u t £ 5 to k e e p quiet: 'It w a s n ' t w o r t h it. S o m e t h i n g o f their spirit l i v e d o n . homosexuality and autoeroticism 1 the Almost primly. A n t h o n y P o w e l l approved'. w h e r e . Post Acton. things w e r e falling apart. T h e freshmen g a m e l y tried to l i v e u p to w h a t t h e y t h o u g h t w a s e x p e c t e d o f t h e m . deep u n n a m e d student w e r e f o u n d prostrate a n d in flagrante delicto o n a sofa in the p r e d o m i n a n t l y g a y H y p o c r i t e s ' C l u b . ' said G a i t s k e l l . H . h o w e v e r . .a n d p r o b a b l y n o t entirely a p o c r y ­ phal — tales o f the p e r i o d w h i c h s u r v i v e tell o f little m o r e all the n a m e d participants w e r e fundamentally h e t e r o s e x u a l . there w a s a radical c h a n g e o f m o o d at its universities a n d particularly at O x f o r d . ( B e t j e m a n . h o w e v e r .

F a c e d b y a G e n e r a l S t r i k e . the ' A c t o n i t e s ' o n l y became socialists d u r i n g their t i m e at O x f o r d . (and dons) life w e n t o n as it a l w a y s had. It is 4 3 a n d h a d already c a u g h t the w h i f f o f cordite. S t r i k e w a s the catalyst. F o r t h e m .L e w i s . " I w o n d e r i f I shall e v e r c o m e b a c k . S e e n in c o n t e x t . P.w a s o n e s u c h . c o n c o m i t a n t u p o n the national political t u r m o i l o f 1 9 2 4 . others i n c l u d e d G a i t s k e l l . When the call to arms c a m e in M a y 1 9 2 6 the vast majority of u n d e r g r a d u a t e s (or at least o f those undergraduates w h o d i d a n y t h i n g at all) naturally n a i l e d their c o l o u r s s o m e w h e r e b e l o w the U n i o n F l a g o n B a l d w i n ' s mast a n d m o r e o r less seriously s i g n e d u p as special constables.t r a v e l l e r s . v a n drivers a n d chauffeurs. ' O n l y a small g r o u p o f students rallied to the s u p p o r t o f the T U C a n d the w o r k e r s .6 . the s t u b ­ b o r n l y M a r x i s t artist J o h n S t r a c h e y ( L y t t o n ' s n e p h e w ) a n d a m o r e disparate g r o u p o f f e l l o w . J . the G e n e r a l between . U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e a n d C h r i s t C h u r c h ( ' T h e H o u s e ' ) to B o l s h e v i s m . w e r e his f e l l o w poets W . d o i n g little m o r e than rather frigidly g o i n g t h r o u g h the m o t i o n s . S o c i a l l y a n d aesthetically in the years b e t w e e n . l i k e G a i t s k e l l a small b u t significant n u m b e r o f those a r r i v ­ i n g at O x f o r d in the n e x t f e w years came up as h a r d e n e d socialists.102 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S A l l in all t h e y d o n o t a m o u n t to m u c h .s c h o o l u p b r i n g i n g s . a g e n e r a t i o n . say. t h e y are n o m o r e than tales o f a w o u l d . t o o .k n o w n as A . 1 9 2 2 a n d 1 9 2 7 the heart o f the u n i v e r s i t y s k i p p e d a beat as it seems n o w . b u t for the m o v e r s a n d shakers. fighting for e v e r y t h i n g their class h e l d dear: 'It w a s A u g u s t 1 9 1 4 all o v e r again. O x f o r d h a d c h a n g e d . there is a certain inevitability a b o u t this. O n e o f t h e m said to m e . B e t j e m a n w a s a m o n g s t these. F o r all their p u b l i c . w i t h i n n o m o r e than five years ' B r i d e s h e a d ' h a d all b u t c e d e d B a l l i o l . T h e [ g o v e r n m e n t ] v o l u n t e e r s s a w t h e m s e l v e s gallantly at w a r against the r e v o l u t i o n . H . F o r the m a j o r i t y o f undergraduates the o n e . In retrospect.o f f s a n d true originals w h o define a g e n e r a t i o n . A l a n (later b e t t e r . a n d battle-lines w e r e swiftly d r a w n t h e m a n d their f e l l o w . T h e y w e r e u n i q u e l y p o l i t i c i z e d b y their e x p e r i e n c e s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l . " T h e e n r o l m e n t w a s T o m B r o w n ' s Last S t a n d . t h e y w e r e u n e q u i v o c a l l y o n the g o v e r n m e n t side. c o u r i e r s .b e coterie desperately t r y i n g to perpetuate a s u d d e n l y alien past — a n d e n d i n g u p .s t u d e n t s . something f u n d a m e n t a l h a d h a p p e n e d . l i k e G a i t s k e l l a n d Betjeman. s o . and.) T a y l o r the a u t h o r o f the w o r d s q u o t e d a b o v e . a n d a p r o m i n e n t m e m b e r o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y band. In short. A u d e n a n d C e c i l D a y .

It h a d n e v e r o c c u r r e d to m e that a n y o n e t o o k the G e n e r a l S t r i k e s e r i o u s l y . B e t j e m a n w a s certainly there b e c a u s e h e b e l i e v e d it w o u l d b e a 'lark'. difficult. " W h e r e u p o n . F o r o u r present purposes. h o w e v e r . to assess their true c o m m i t m e n t A l t h o u g h they w e r e members o f a uniquely politicized O x f o r d genera­ tion — future L a b o u r cabinet m e m b e r s R i c h a r d C r o s s m a n . to m y utter astonish­ m e n t . " N o . . h e h a d litde t i m e for ' M a r x i s t p u b l i c s c h o o l p r o d u c t s r a m b l i n g o n a b o u t the e x p l o i t e d w o r k e r s a n d the n e e d for a socialist r e v o l u t i o n ' : athletics w e r e m o r e to his taste ('If I c o u l d o n l y get m y c r o s s . " I a m d r i v i n g a car for the T U C . 1 9 3 4 . ' I ' l l w a i t till n e x t t e r m for that sort o f thing. . Stuffing e n v e l o p e s .7 ) w a s m y s t i f i e d b y the first f e w m e e t i n g s h e attended. h e f o u n d h i m s e l f near the B l o o m s b u r y h o m e o f a f e m a l e c o u s i n a n d h e r h u s b a n d . f i n d i n g t h e m p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h ' s q u a b b l i n g a b o u t tiffs w i t h o t h e r sections o f the L a b o u r P a r t y instead o f getting d o w n to s o m e t h i n g c o n c r e t e ' . E v e n the y o u n g H a r o l d W i l s o n (Jesus C o l l e g e . w r i t i n g t r a d e s . M u c h later h e recalled: '. T h e t h r e e o f us w e r e j u s t sitting d o w n to l u n c h w h e n h e r h u s b a n d a s k e d m e i f I h a d c o m e u p to L o n d o n to b e a S p e c i a l C o n s t a b l e . W i l s o n ' s reservations h i g h l i g h t an i m p o r t a n t point. H e w a s q u i c k l y — i f t e m p o r ­ arily . ' h e w r o t e h o m e in 1 9 3 4 .disillusioned: ' C o l e is s p e a k i n g at the L a b o u r C l u b t o n i g h t b u t I d o n ' t think I'll g o . Patrick G o r d o n W a l k e r and Barbara C a s t l e (née Betts) w e r e a m o n g their a p p r o x i m a t e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s — m a n y s e e m to h a v e m a n n e d the barricades p r i n c i p a l l y pour épater les parents.c o u n t r y really w e l l u p . " I said.u n i o n bulletins a n d d r i v i n g cars for the T U C m a d e a g l a m o r o u s c h a n g e f r o m the m o r e mundane routines o f student life.) of around 500 despite the s o m e w h a t austere i m p r e s s i o n it m a d e o n outsiders.u p m e m b e r s h i p (subscription 2/6d. M i c h a e l Stewart.' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 103 to the cause. O x f o r d . h e o r d e r e d m e to l e a v e the h o u s e . ' 5 A t the centre o f this disparate cell o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e r e v o l t w a s the n e w l y f o u n d e d U n i v e r s i t y L a b o u r C l u b ( U L C ) . so I p a i d a call. I m i g h t g e t m y half-blue n e x t y e a r ' ) .' It w a s almost i n e v i t a b l e that W i l s o n s h o u l d h a v e t h o u g h t l i k e this. A u d e n t o o w a s t h e r e p r i m a r i l y (and a l m o s t literally) for the ride. U n t i l the L a b o u r Club l u r c h e d d e c i s i v e l y to the Left a n d m e r g e d w i t h the Communist- d o m i n a t e d O c t o b e r C l u b in 1 9 3 5 to establish a ' p o p u l a r front'. A n t h o n y G r e e n w o o d . E d u c a t e d at a n o r t h e r n g r a m m a r s c h o o l . D r i v i n g a T U C car a r o u n d L o n d o n o n e d a y . h o w e v e r . B y the early 1 9 3 0 s this h a d a p a i d .

this e v e n seems to h a v e i n c l u d e d a tacit a c c e p t a n c e o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y . U n l i k e l y as it s e e m s . w h i l e the t h i r t y .b a c k to the days o f E d w a r d C a r p e n t e r a n d E . w e m u s t a s s u m e . in the era o f B e t j e m a n a n d A u d e n . w e l l b e f o r e 1 9 3 4 . S u r p r i s i n g l y . D . as e v e r it b e c a m e in the c o u r s e o f a h e a d y d e c a d e . perhaps. to see h o w C o l e . R e f l e c t i n g this. o n l y b y his socialism). w h o rapidly b e c a m e C o l e ' s unofficial l i e u t e n a n t in that d e p a r t m e n t . the appeal w h i c h h e a n d the L a b o u r C l u b h e l d for a social a n d s e x u a l dilettante s u c h as the lives o f a w h o l e g e n e r a t i o n o f s e x u a l l y a n d politically labile u n d e r ­ . ' 6 C o m p a r a t i v e l y f e w h a d — W i l s o n ' s early letters h o m e are p e p p e r e d w i t h phrases s u c h as 'It m i g h t p a y to send b u t t e r (it is v e r y d e a r h e r e ) ' — b u t those w h o d i d f o u n d that there w a s i n d e e d s o m e t h i n g e v e r y b o d y in the p e o p l e ' s party. T h e r e w a s . as w e h a v e seen. B u t in the l i g h t o f C o l e ' s h o m o s e x u a l s y m p a t h i e s . so t o o w a s H u g h G a i t s k e l l . it w a s a m a t t e r o f historical a c c i d e n t . B e n P i m l o t t has s h o w n that. if y o u h a d the m o n e y a n d the leisure to sustain the l i f e s t y l e . a y o u n g r e a d e r in E c o n o m i c s (and the a u t h o r o f n u m e r o u s d e t e c t i v e stories) w h o w a s b o t h o p e n l y socialist a n d at the v e r y least h o m o s e x u a l l y i n c l i n e d . N o r e c o r d o f these early gatherings o f w h a t w a s t h e n k n o w n m e r e l y as the ' C o l e g r o u p ' n o w exists. H . ' T h e student Left w a s as febrile. e v e n s u c h p r e v i o u s l y apolitical students as S t e p h e n S p e n d e r h a d ostentatiously b e g u n s p o r t i n g r e d ties. n o t h i n g doctrinal a b o u t this. i n f o r m a l gatherings h e l d a w a y f r o m the u n i v e r s i t y at the h o m e in H o l y w e l l o f G . a n d as o u t o f t o u c h w i t h reality.104 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S socialism a n d the U L C itself w e r e the upstart successors o f ' B r i d e s ­ head'.f i g h t e r . in the late t w e n t i e s . C o l e . the L a b o u r C l u b h a d b e c o m e 'the c r u c i b l e o f fashion'. ' P i m l o t t o b s e r v e s .a d d i n g that 'it w a s fun to b e a C o m m u n i s t at O x f o r d in the 1 9 3 0 s . o r at least the abstract n o t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y . F o r s t e r a n d t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y a F a b i a n rather than a f r e e d o m . R a t h e r . a influenced for t h r o w . a relic o f the days w h e n U L C m e e t i n g s h a d b e e n little m o r e than s m o k e r s o r conversaziones. b u t it is possible to i m a g i n e discussion straying far b e y o n d the m i n u t e d s q u a b b l i n g a n d r a m b l i n g to w h i c h H a r o l d W i l s o n w a s f o r c e d to listen w h e n ULC the w a s f o r m a l l y established. graduates. o f c o u r s e . It is possible. t o o . M .o d d m e m b e r s o f the Socialist D o n s ' L u n c h e o n C l u b instituted a p r o g r a m m e o f w e e k l y m e e t i n g s . attracted b y his socialism (and. H a r o l d W i l s o n w a s .

it is futile to speculate. Cole's w h e r e forbidden a n d actually j o i n i n g the party. for all that his close (heterosexual) friend D a v i d A y e r s t w a s also the U L C ' s student c h a i r m a n . In a n y case. . T h e g a m e is u p for y o u a n d the others . U l t i m a t e l y . 7 poetry h e w a s to publish o n l y a f e w y e a n later s h o w s an almost hysterical W e h a v e seen. . o f c o u r s e . A u d e n ' s case is. h a d h o m o s e x u a l t e n d e n c i e s . ' F a s h i o n ' a l o n e w o u l d h a v e b r o u g h t the f o r m e r . the L a b o u r C l u b satisfied a m o r e basic n e e d a n d b r o u g h t h i m i n t o contact. . in O c t o b e r 1 9 2 4 .w h o . A u d e n n e v e r g o t r o u n d to f o r k i n g o u t his 2/bd. t o o . A f e w m o n t h s earlier h e had n a r r o w l y e s c a p e d e x p u l s i o n from his p u b l i c s c h o o l ( L a n c i n g ) w h e n . to say n o t h i n g o f the h o m o s e x u a l b u t innately u n c l u b b a b l e A u d e n . w i t h w h a t e v e r d e g r e e o f sincerity. besides b e i n g o n e o f the m o s t brilliant a n d attractive o f the y o u n g e r dons. h a d a r r i v e d at O x f o r d d e t e r m i n e d to b e c o m e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h 'the g r a n d set' — i n t o C o l e ' s a m b i t s o o n e n o u g h . T o m D r i b e r g i m p l i c i t l y confessed that h e m i g h t h a v e m a d e a mistake: ' M a y b e I w o u l d h a v e b e e n m o r e interested i f I h a d k n o w n that C o l e . O x f o r d . already trading the clouds o f n o t o r i e t y w h i c h w e r e to d o g his heels for the rest o f his life. w i t h the t y p e o f proletarian rough w i t h w h o m h e w o u l d later b e c o m e b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d in B e r l i n . It w a s as i f the m e r e k n o w l e d g e o f the e x i s t e n c e o f a 'safe h o u s e ' s u c h as subjects c o u l d b e o p e n l y discussed h a d a reassuring appeal for the p o e t w h o s e w o r k w a s i n c r e a s i n g l y full o f references to spies. Y o u ' l l n e e d y o u r typist a n d y o u r b o y n o m o r e . l e a v i n g y o u r litde r o o m W h e r e the m o n e y is m a d e b u t n o t spent. T h e revolutionary fervour: F i n a n c i e r . a n o t h e r ULC n o n . that h e w a s . also m a k e s sense.j o i n e r has left a further tantalizing h i n t o f the sympathy felt b y s o m e elements o f the Left t o w a r d s the u n i v e r s i t y ' s h o m o s e x u a l fraternity. b y his o w n admission. albeit v i c a r i o u s contact. m y s t e r i o u s outsiders a n d l o n e l y agents. ' 8 T h o m a s E d w a r d N e i l D r i b e r g a r r i v e d at C h r i s t C h u r c h . at least p r e p a r e d to t h r o w in his lot w i t h the U L C activists d u r i n g the G e n e r a l S t r i k e . t o o . as if. h o w e v e r . In an a t t e m p t to e x p l a i n w h y h e h a d n o t j o i n e d the L a b o u r C l u b . .' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 105 B e t j e m a n . A n d y e t . m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d .

w h e r e the n e e d for c o n c e a l m e n t a n d d u p l i c i t y w a s c o n s i d e r a b l y less pressing than it h a d b e e n at L a n c i n g .c a r r y i n g m e m b e r o f t h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . w h e n h e h a d spent a s u m m e r h o l i d a y t r y i n g to sell copies o f the Daily Worker for the B r i g h t o n b r a n c h o f the C o m m u n i s t P a r t y . H e w a s a r o u é . H i s life w a s a l w a y s a mass o f contradictions. a morass o f inconsist­ e n c i e s . a B y r o n i c — e v e n Satanic — b u c k e r o f trends. ' W i t h his dark hair a n d l o n g n o s e ' . the o n e . L i k e m a n y an u n d e r g r a d u a t e b e f o r e h i m . ) H e b e g a n w r i t i n g for the u n d e r g r a d u a t e magazine Cherwell .io6 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S t w o b o y s ' b e t r a y e d ' h i m to the headmaster after h e h a d tried to s e d u c e t h e m in a d o r m i t o r y . h e s i m p l y t h r e w c a u t i o n to the w i n d s . at H a l l B r o t h e r s in the H i g h .a n d i n d u l g e d his innate s n o b b e r y b y c u l t i v a t i n g e v e r y bit as assiduously as B e t j e m a n the u n i v e r s i t y ' s f e w . a n d in an unusual c o l o u r . albeit o n e w i t h an apostate passion for the r e d b r i c k a n d H i g h M a s s o f W e s t m i n s t e r C a t h e d r a l . ' 9 A t O x f o r d . still m o r e . I n its turn. ' M o r e p e r t i n e n d y .b l o o d e d . ' h e l o o k e d as t h o u g h h e h a d I n d i a n b l o o d — the s o n o f a M a h a r a j a h . a friend w a s to n o t e a f e w years later.b r i g h t g r e e n . a c a d e m i c w o r k c a m e v e r y l o w o n his list o f priorities as h e g a v e full v e n t to e v e r y aspect o f his character. it h a d b e e n difficult e n o u g h to k e e p the disparate sides o f his life apart: ' I w a s l e a d i n g a triple life i n d e e d . h e c a m e u p to ' T h e H o u s e ' n o t as a m e r e socialist b u t as a f u l l . I n m y first y e a r at O x f o r d I g o t the w i d e s t pair I c o u l d find. m y ecclesiastical a n d s e x u a l tastes. h e w a s d e t e r m i n e d to g e t h i m s e l f n o t i c e d . c a r d . the L a b o u r M P modern w h o h a d to all intents a n d purposes i n v e n t e d (he w a s the Daily Express's the gossip c o l u m n first W i l l i a m H i c k e y ) . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y . far w i d e r than the N a v y ' s b e l l b o t t o m s . ' 1 0 ( H e does n o t r e c o r d w h e t h e r h e w o r e these o n the frequent trips h e m a d e to L o n d o n to see. p e r f o r m a n c e s b y the D i a g h i l e v B a l l e t .t i m e restaurant plongeur w h o e n d e d his life as a m e m b e r o f the H o u s e o f L o r d s . the s c h o o l m u s t k n o w n o t h i n g o f the s e x o r the P a r t y . ' T h i s w a s the p e r i o d w h e n " O x f o r d b a g s " w e r e w o r n . D u r i n g his s c h o o l days. I h a d to c o n c e a l f r o m m y n e w c o m r a d e s b o t h the fact that I w a s b e i n g e d u c a t e d at a b o u r g e o i s p u b l i c s c h o o l and. a m o n g o t h e r things. H e w a s the C o m m u n i s t w h o w a s also a d e v o u t H i g h A n g l i c a n . the i n v e t e r a t e ' c o t t a g e r ' w h o l i v e d in a G e o r g i a n c o u n t r y m a n s i o n .' p r o b a b l y the nearest I c a m e to d o i n g a n y sort o f r e g u l a r w o r k w h i l e I w a s at O x f o r d ' . 'trousers v e r y w i d e a n d flapping at the ankles. ' h e w r o t e in his a u t o b i o g r a p h y Ruling Passions.

I n this last case. A n d it w a s s i m p l y sex. A l a n T a y l o r . at the v e r y most. w h e n finally e x t r i c a t e d h i m s e l f f r o m the L a b o u r C l u b . b e c a u s e o f all that it says a b o u t D r i b e r g a n d his attitudes at the t i m e . F o r m u c h o f the t i m e h e w a s associated w i t h it. w h e n he w a s in L o n d o n . n e i t h e r l o v e n o r r o m a n c e h a d a n y part in it. A f t e r h a v i n g tried his h a n d at prostitution . D r i b e r g s a w h i m s e l f as a professional.k i s s i n g .c l a s s y o u t h c o u l d take his fancy . " encountered ' l o o k e d far a university from don.' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 107 r e m a i n i n g A c t o n i t e s a n d a n y o n e else w h o m i g h t c o n c e i v a b l y h a v e b e e n a m e m b e r o f 'the g r a n d set'.a n d in full graphic detail — the a c c o u n t h e g a v e in Ruling Passions o f o n e s u c h p i c k . ' I a m a respectable m a r r i e d m a n a n d i f that g e n t l e m a n c o m e s o u t to m e again I shall g o h o m e . w h i l e ' c o t t a g i n g ' in o n e o f O x f o r d ' s p u b l i c lavatories. D e s p i t e h e l p from national party organizers a n d his o w n c o n s i d e r a b l e efforts.u p m e m b e r s — D r i b e r g h i m s e l f (president) a n d . D r i b e r g (he time. donnish'.n i g h t stand in a c h e a p h o t e l w i t h a bit o f r o u g h w h o m he h a d n e v e r m e t before a n d w o u l d n e v e r m e e t a g a i n — these w e r e all that interested h i m . almost a n y w o r k i n g . Parallel w i t h all this w a s i n e v i t a b l y the i n d u l g e n c e o f his ' s e x u a l tastes'. t h e y w e r e o n l y dabblers. . this n e v e r h a d a n y t h i n g like the p o p u l a r appeal o f the U L C . h o w e v e r . an a n o n y m o u s e n c o u n t e r in a p u b l i c l a v a t o r y o r . H a r o l d A c t o n h i m s e l f w i t h ' k i n d l i n g flames in E l g i n m a r b l e breasts'. O f h o w any a n y w h e r e . with inevitable consequences 1 he O f h o w . as w e h a v e seen. I m p a t i e n t w i t h the L a b o u r C l u b b e c a u s e o f w h a t h e called the ' m o d e r a t i o n ' o f its stance. a ' r u l i n g p a s s i o n ' i n d e e d . D r i b e r g b e g a n p e s t e r i n g o n e o f the w a i t e r s . A q u i c k f u m b l e . . but. O f h o w . a n d the t y p i c a l l y forthright m a n n e r in w h i c h D r i b e r g s o u g h t to assuage t h e m is v i v i d l y illustrative o f the difference b e t w e e n the attitudes o f the d e c o r o u s o l d g u a r d a n d the n e w y o u n g turks. T h e s e w e r e litde short o f gargantuan. E v e l y n W a u g h m i g h t h a v e b e e n satisfied w i t h passionate F r e n c h . there w e r e j u s t t w o p a i d . It t o o k place d u r i n g o n e o f his l o n g v a c a t i o n s f r o m O x f o r d . it is w o r t h q u o t i n g at s o m e l e n g t h . a o n e . at A l a n T a y l o r ' s t w e n t y . Driberg explained). F o r h i m s e x w a s a passion. causing the latter to c o m p l a i n to T a y l o r . T h e r e are c o p i o u s e x a m p l e s o f t h e m all.f i r s t b i r t h d a y party. h e set a b o u t establishing a university b r a n c h o f the Communist Party.u p . h e also r e m a i n e d politically a c t i v e . B e t j e m a n w i t h s t r o k i n g H u g h G a i t s k e l l ' s b o t t o m . S e e m i n g l y u n a w a r e o f a n y possible conflict o f interest. i n d e e d .

his b o t t o m pressing against m y genitals. w e s m o k e d a f e w cigarettes to d r o w n the smell o f his socks. b e a t i n g a n d t h r o b b i n g against m e . a " s p o r t s " shirt a n d j a c k e t ' . b u t n o w . his ribs w e r e t o o p r o m i n e n t . W e s p o k e litde.a n d . B u t b e f o r e m y w i t h d r a w a l h a d b r o u g h t a b o u t this . v e r y early in the m o r n i n g . a t t e m p t i n g to earn m o n e y as a p a v e m e n t artist w i t h a ' p i t c h ' o n the T h a m e s E m b a n k m e n t . I fear I m u s t say. W e t u r n e d to e a c h other. H e w a s r e a s o n a b l y clean (he h a d b e e n to the p u b l i c baths that day) and. h e s h o w e d w h a t h e really w a n t e d . p r o v e d to b e the case. suspiciously easy: this m e a n t either that the o r i f i c e h a d b e e n c o a t e d w i t h V a s e l i n e (or the rather better-class ' K . h a r d o r g a n . free o f 'crabs' . h e s m i l e d . to m y relief. for. w i t h o n l y a sheet o v e r us. b u t his b o d y w a s w e l l . a n d kissed: the alternate thrust a n d w i t h d r a w a l o f his t o n g u e . b u t the y o u n g m a n n e v e r t h e l e s s ' a c c e p t e d w i t h alacrity' a n d D r i b e r g l e d h i m o f f to a h o t e l he knew: It w a s a w a r m night: w e a g r e e d to sleep n a k e d . a n d s l i g h d y flavoured w i t h p e p p e r m i n t c h e w i n g . w a r m . c h a n g e clothes w i t h m e ? ' T h i s m i g h t n o w s o u n d distincdy d i s i n g e n u o u s . alas. bizarrely.perhaps t w e n t y years o l d . his skin delicate a n d fair. S o d o m y does n o t h a p p e n to be my f a v o u r i t e s e x u a l pastime.the Pediculi pubis w h i c h w e r e . 'a y o u n g m a n . so often transmitted in s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s . a n d are. o r that m y bed-mate w a s suffering f r o m diarrhoea.p r o p o r t i o n e d . . w a s a surprisingly thick. B e f o r e g e t t i n g i n t o b e d . after a n o t h e r kiss. Y . T h e latter. in ' g r e y flannel trousers.soft b u t firm.w i t h a face that w a s pale a n d thin a n d wistfully a p p e a l i n g ' .f e e d i n g . T h e n his e y e lit u p o n o n e o f the m a n y shabbily dressed d o w n . I h a d n o t e x p e c t e d a strong s e x u a l response. I n v i e w o f his g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n . . N o d o u b t as a result o f p r o l o n g e d u n d e r .o u t s w h o t h e n (as n o w ) c o n g r e g a t e d in that area.g u m . ' ) to facilitate p r e v i o u s entries. b u t I c o u l d hardly refuse so u n a s s u m i n g a c h a r m e r [. as a saffron s m e a r o n the c h e a p cotton sheet testified.s u g g e s t e d e x p e r i e n c e . h e w a s .p r o d u c t o f dietary i m p o v e r i s h m e n t . T h e n .] T h e actual entry w a s . o r t h o u g h t that I did. h e w a s hardly dressed for the part. B u t . T h e s o l u t i o n s e e m e d o b v i o u s : ' I p r o p o s ­ i t i o n e d h i m : w o u l d h e c o m e a n d sleep the n i g h t w i t h m e at a c h e a p h o t e l a n d then.io8 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S ('harmless e n o u g h ' ) .again that wistful l o o k w h i c h h a d first m o v e d m e . a c o m m o n b y . still w i t h o u t s p e a k i n g . h e r o l l e d o v e r w i t h his b a c k t o w a r d s m e .

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regrettable result, h e h a d already, s u d d e n l y , u n c o n t r o l l a b l y 'shot his load' o f semen a n d a pitiably thin, w e a k , l i q u i d l o a d it w a s ( p o v e r t y , again), n o t sufficient in quantity to f o r m o n the sheet that o t h e r stain w h i c h c h a m b e r m a i d s call a ' m a p o f I r e l a n d ' [. . .] W e w e r e u p b e t i m e s a n d I ( h a v i n g g i v e n the b o y a l m o s t all the m o n e y I h a d left) hastened to a pitch that I h a d t h o u g h t p r o m i s i n g in Russell S q u a r e .
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O n e can easily i m a g i n e D r i b e r g e x c i t e d l y r e p o r t i n g all this to W . H . A u d e n w h e n h e g o t b a c k to O x f o r d for the start o f M i c h a e l m a s T e r m . The frank a c c o u n t o f the s e x u a l act, baldly stated a n d h i t c h e d to s o c i o l o g i c a l detail ('diarrhoea, a c o m m o n b y - p r o d u c t o f dietary i m p o v ­ e r i s h m e n t ' ) , c o u l d almost h a v e b e e n d e v i s e d to appeal to the ' c l i n i c a l ' m i n d o f the m a n w h o , e v e n b e f o r e h e attained the a g e o f m a j o r i t y , had, a c c o r d i n g to S t e p h e n S p e n d e r , 'an e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f the theories o f m o d e r n p s y c h o l o g y ' — the m a n w h o m c o n t e m p o r a r i e s h a d e v e n t h e n taken to calling ' U n c l e W i z ' . W y s t a n A u d e n h a d a r r i v e d at O x f o r d - a n d b y c o i n c i d e n c e at C h r i s t C h u r c h — a y e a r b e h i n d D r i b e r g , in O c t o b e r 1925. The two men s o o n m e t , a n d w h a t D r i b e r g d e s c r i b e d as a 'chaste' friendship certainly existed b y the f o l l o w i n g s u m m e r , for it w a s at this t i m e that D r i b e r g i n t r o d u c e d A u d e n to the w o r k o f T . S. E l i o t . H e s h o w e d h i m the first p r i n t e d v e r s i o n o f The Waste Land ( w h i c h h a d a p p e a r e d in the Criterion m a g a z i n e s o m e three years p r e v i o u s l y ) . ' R e a d it, at first, w i t h i n c r e d u l o u s hilarity (the M r s P o r t e r bit, for i n s t a n c e ) , ' h e told the unprepossessing fresher w h o w o u l d b e c o m e the greatest E n g l i s h - b o r n p o e t o f his g e n e r a t i o n . ' R e a d it, again a n d again, w i t h g r o w i n g a w e . ' ( T y p i c a l l y , D r i b e r g d i n e d o u t o n this story for years afterwards, c l a i m ­ i n g it w a s h e w h o h a d set the t o n e for the w h o l e ' A u d e n e s q u e ' s c h o o l o f poetry.) B u t the t w o m e n h a d a lot besides p o e t r y in c o m m o n . W e h a v e already seen that, l i k e D r i b e r g , at this p e r i o d in his life A u d e n w a s s e e m i n g l y c o m i n g to terms b o t h w i t h s o c i a l i s m a n d his o w n homo­ sexuality. ' S e e m i n g l y ' b e c a u s e , b y refusing to w r i t e an a u t o b i o g r a p h y a n d expressly (but ineffectively) f o r b i d d i n g a n y b i o g r a p h y - h e e v e n asked his friends to b u r n all those o f his letters w h i c h t h e y after his d e a t h
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his social a n d e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t than m a n y o f his c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . E n o u g h r e m a i n s , h o w e v e r , for us to see h i m as s o m e t h i n g o f a m i n o r k e y D r i b e r g — o r , in his o w n c o d - p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms, an i n t r o v e r t e d extrovert. S p e n d e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m a n h e first m e t at O x f o r d a c o u p l e o f y e a r s later p r o v i d e s a c o n v e n i e n t starting-point: H e s a w h i m s e l f - as I t h e n e n v i s a g e d h i m - w i t h certain potentialities a n d talents, certain desires, certain attitudes o f m i n d , l i v i n g w i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y g o v e r n e d b y certain rules a n d traditions, a n d consisting also o f p e o p l e w i t h different potentialities, desires a n d attitudes. H i s aims w e r e to fulfil his potentialities, o b t a i n satisfaction for his desires, a n d m a i n t a i n his attitudes w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e a n d w i t h o u t a c c e p t i n g a n y a u t h o r i t y outside his o w n j u d g e m e n t .
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S p e n d e r w a s w r i t i n g i n 1 9 5 1 . N e a r l y half a c e n t u r y o n , it is n o t difficult to d e c o n s t r u c t w h a t h e w a s t r y i n g to say. A u d e n h a d 'certain desires' b u t w a s ' l i v i n g w i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y g o v e r n e d b y certain rules a n d [. . .] p e o p l e w i t h different [. . .] desires'. H e w a n t e d to ' o b t a i n satisfac­ t i o n for his desires' . . . E v e n in 1 9 5 1 this m u s t h a v e b e e n clear e n o u g h . M o r e r e c e n t l y , h o w e v e r , b o t h the i n e v i t a b l e nature o f A u d e n ' s 'desires' a n d the e x t e n t to w h i c h h e m a n a g e d to satisfy t h e m h a v e b e e n e x p l i c i t l y d e l i n e a t e d b y H u m p h r e y C a r p e n t e r in his b i o g r a p h y o f the p o e t .
1 5

H e paints a p i c t u r e o f A u d e n e x p l a i n i n g i n F r e u d i a n

terms that his s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y h a d its roots in a ' c o m p l e x ' h e h a d d e v e l o p e d a b o u t the smallness o f his penis. H e has D a v i d A y e r s t s a y i n g h o w A u d e n w a s a l w a y s falling for unsuitable (i.e. h e t e r o s e x u a l ) u n d e r ­ graduates. H e describes A u d e n f i n d i n g s o m e sort o f solace in l a t e - n i g h t w a l k s a r o u n d the b a c k streets o f O x f o r d (on a r o u t e w h i c h C e c i l D a y - L e w i s r e m e m b e r e d as t a k i n g in the canal t o w - p a t h a n d the city g a s - w o r k s ) , a n d b y p i c k i n g u p m e n o n rail trips: ' W y s t a n c o u l d always, o n the b r i e f train j o u r n e y to L o n d o n , m a k e a c o n t a c t , ' A . L . R o w s e noticed. T e l l i n g l y , C a r p e n t e r also describes h o w , e v e n w i t h a c o m p l i a n t fellow-student, Auden's ' w o o i n g ' was minimal. Completely un­ a b a s h e d , h e w o u l d s i m p l y w a l k i n t o the u n d e r s t a n d a b l y startled m a n ' s r o o m s and announce: ' Y o u k n o w w h a t I ' v e c o m e for.' L i k e Driberg, at this p e r i o d A u d e n s a w s e x (his p r e f e r e n c e , C a r p e n t e r reveals, w a s for fellatio) as j u s t s e x . L o v e d i d n o t c o m e i n t o it - was not allowed to

T H E

H O M I N T E R N

III

come into it. A c c o r d i n g to S t a n l e y Fisher, h e b e l i e v e d that 'lust w a s an appetite a n d n e e d e d to b e satisfied, b u t l o v e w a s to b e a v o i d e d as a snare.' S p e n d e r t o o seems to h a v e b e e n a w a r e o f this side o f w h a t h e called A u d e n ' s ' a m o r a l ' nature. ' S e l f - k n o w l e d g e , ' h e w r o t e , ' c o m p l e t e lack o f i n h i b i t i o n a n d sense o f guilt, a n d k n o w l e d g e o f others w e r e essential to the fulfilment o f his a i m s . ' his friends'
16

' K n o w l e d g e o f others', the intimate k n o w l e d g e o f e v e r y aspect o f personal a n d s e x u a l lives, w a s especially i m p o r t a n t to A u d e n . B u t i f there w a s a streak o f p r u r i e n c e b e h i n d his attempts at o m n i s c i e n c e it is i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r that those friends — m o s t notably S p e n d e r , C h r i s t o p h e r I s h e r w o o d a n d I s h e r w o o d ' s 'closest h e t ­ e r o s e x u a l m a l e friend', the novelist E d w a r d U p w a r d - a l m o s t literally beat a path to his d o o r , so a n x i o u s w e r e t h e y to take the a d v i c e o f U n c l e W i z . I s h e r w o o d has v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e d the e x p e r i e n c e . In his 1 9 3 8 n o v e l Lions and Shadows his y o u n g narrator visits an o l d s c h o o l friend, ' H u g h W e s t o n ' ( A u d e n ' s g i v e n n a m e s w e r e W y s t a n H u g h ) : T o several o f us, i n c l u d i n g myself, h e c o n f i d e d the first naughty

s t u p e n d o u s b r e a t h - t a k i n g hints a b o u t the facts o f s e x . I r e m e m b e r h i m chiefly for his naughtiness, his i n s o l e n c e , his s m i r k i n g tantalizing air o f k n o w i n g disreputable a n d e x c i t i n g secrets. W i t h his h i n t e d f o r b i d d e n k n o w l e d g e a n d stock o f m i s p r o n o u n c e d scientific w o r d s , p o r t e n t o u s l y uttered, h e e n j o y e d a m o n g us, his s e m i - s a v a g e c r e d u ­ lous s c h o o l f e l l o w s , the status o f a k i n d o f w i t c h - d o c t o r [. . .] W e s t o n ' s o w n attitude to s e x , in its s i m p l i c i t y a n d utter l a c k o f i n h i b i t i o n , fairly t o o k m y breath a w a y . H e w a s n o D o n J u a n : h e d i d n ' t r u n a r o u n d h u n t i n g for his pleasures. B u t h e t o o k w h a t c a m e to h i m w i t h a matter-of-factness a n d an appetite as hearty as that w h i c h h e s h o w e d w h e n sitting d o w n to d i n n e r . I d o n ' t t h i n k that, e v e n in those days, h e e x a g g e r a t e d m u c h : certainly, his m a n n e r o f d e s c r i b i n g these adventures b o r e all the hallmarks o f truth. I f o u n d his shameless prosaic anecdotes o n l y t o o hard to f o r g e t . . . '
7

S p e n d e r , t o o , has g i v e n a fictionalized b u t v i v i d l y realistic a c c o u n t o f A u d e n ' s s e x u a l socialism. The Temple, r e - w o r k e d in 1988 from infatuation material h e first w r o t e nearly sixty years p r e v i o u s l y , is the transparently a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l story o f a y o u n g O x f o r d s t u d e n t - p o e t ' s w i t h an u n c a r i n g h e t e r o s e x u a l friend n a m e d M a r s t o n . I n e v i t a b l y , P a u l

112

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S c h o n e r ( S p e n d e r ) consults his friend S i m o n W i l m o t ( A u d e n ) the matter. S i m o n does n o t m i n c e his w o r d s : S i m o n asked: ' B y the w a y , are y o u a V e r g e r ? ' ' A what?' ' A virgin?' P a u l b l u s h e d furiously: ' I s u p p o s e s o . ' ' W e l l , y o u m u s t k n o w w h e t h e r y o u are o r y o u a r e n ' t . ' 'I a m then. A r e y o u ? "
8

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V i r g i n a l o r not, this n e w O x f o r d sexuality, i n f o r m e d Cambridge-educated Hirschfeld's m e d i c a l student C h r i s t o p h e r

as it w a s b y the were Sexual

F r e u d i a n a n d o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l influences - b o t h A u d e n a n d Isherwood

attracted b y the w o r k o f J o h n L a y a r d a n d the r e p u t a t i o n o f D r M a g n u s Institut Fur Sexual- Wissenschaft o r Institute for S c i e n c e in G e r m a n y — w a s s y m p t o m a t i c o f the c l i m a t e o f the times. H o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s n o l o n g e r the solitary ' i n v e r s i o n ' o r ' p e r v e r s i o n ' it h a d b e e n , e v e n in Forster's (or M a u r i c e ' s ) day. R a t h e r , it h a d b e c o m e politicized. \ T h i s is n o t the place for detailed literary exegisis, b u t it w o u l d b e p e r v e r s e n o t to pause to c o n s i d e r w h a t the t w o k e y 'thirties poets' w e r e w r i t i n g at this p e r i o d . P e r v e r s e b e c a u s e , in m u c h o f the early p u b l i s h e d w o r k o f b o t h A u d e n a n d S p e n d e r , the v e r y lexis fuses the political w i t h the i m p l i c i t l y h o m o - e r o t i c . I r o n i c a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l p o e m s take o n s o m e t h i n g o f the nature o f L e n i Riefenstahl's films o f the
1 9

B e r l i n O l y m p i c G a m e s . S p e n d e r thinks, wistfully, o f 'the truly great' a n d 'great m e n ' s u c h as his friend ' T r i g o r i n ' ( ' T h i s k n o w n great o n e ' ) ; e v e r y t h i n g is a struggle, a battle for p e r f e c t i o n in b o t h the physical a n d the social sense. ' O h y o u n g m e n o h y o u n g c o m r a d e s ' , h e i m p l o r e s , p u n c t u a t i o n the first casualty o f his struggle, 'it is t o o late n o w to stay in those h o u s e s . . .' C o u n t rather those fabulous possessions w h i c h b e g i n w i t h y o u r b o d y a n d y o u r b u r n i n g soul the hairs o n y o u r skin the m u s c l e s e x t e n d i n g in ranges w i t h lakes across y o u r limbs C o u n t y o u r eyes as j e w e l s a n d y o u r g o l d e n s e x . . .

' T H E

H O M I N T E R N '

113

C o u n t h i m , t o o ; c o u n t S p e n d e r in; o n e o f the c o m r a d e s , o n e o f t h e chosen, o n e o f the f e w , w h o expects ' T h u n d e r , struggles w i t h m e n / A n d c l i m b i n g ' .
20

fighting,/

Long

M o r e assured, m o r e certain o f his p l a c e in the s c h e m e o f things, A u d e n t o o w a s s e e m i n g l y m e l d i n g his s e x u a l feelings i n t o a greater Weltpolitik at this time — a n d t h r o u g h the industry o f his literary e x e c u ­ tor E d w a r d M e n d e l s o n w e can precisely chart t h e progress o f his s o c i o - s e x u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h u s w e c a n date to the A p r i l o f 1 9 2 9 his p o e m b e g i n n i n g 'It w a s Easter . . .' (Easter S u n d a y fell o n 3 1 M a r c h that year) w i t h its e c h o o f K e a t s : ' S e a s o n w h e n l o v e r s a n d writers f i n d / A n altering s p e e c h for altering t i m e s ' .
21

W e c a n see t o o h o w at

precisely that time those lovers a n d writers w e r e b e i n g i m p l i c i t l y allied to his m o r e characteristic dramatis p e r s o n a e o f spies, agents, a i r m e n , strangers a n d o t h e r loners a n d outsiders. E v e n t h e n , e a c h h a d . . . taught h i m s e l f this b a l a n c i n g subterfuge O f the a c c o s t i n g profile, t h e erect carriage. T h e song, the v a r i e d action o f the b l o o d W o u l d d r o w n the w a r n i n g f r o m the i r o n w o o d W o u l d cancel the inertia o f the b u r i e d : T r a v e l l i n g b y daylight o n f r o m h o u s e to h o u s e T h e longest w a y to the intrinsic p e a c e , W i t h l o v e ' s fidelity a n d w i t h l o v e ' s w e a k n e s s .
22

In retrospect it is t e m p t i n g t o take t h e conflation o f t h e o u t s i d e r / s p y / s o c i a l i s t / h o m o s e x u a l t o o far; t e m p t i n g t o m e r g e all t h e thirties archetypes into a single f i g u r e . T o a greater e x t e n t than it d i d s o c i e t y as a w h o l e , the process m a y h a v e p r e o c c u p i e d the O x f o r d o f the late 1 9 2 0 s a n d early 1 9 3 0 s but, as w e h a v e seen, f o r m a n y reasons O x f o r d was a special case. R a t h e r m o r e typical in its reactions t o c h a n g i n g times w a s C a m b r i d g e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y m o r e e a r t h - b o u n d than M a t t h e w A r n o l d ' s ' h o m e o f lost causes', typically a n d illuminatingly as early as 1 9 2 2 C a m b r i d g e had, for instance, h a d litde t i m e f o r the angst-ndden w h e n h e a r r i v e d as an u n d e r g r a d u a t e . Cecil Beaton terrible ' I ' m really a terrible,

h o m o s e x u a l i s t a n d try so hard n o t to b e , ' h e h a d a d m i t t e d t o h i m s e l f

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at a r o u n d this t i m e . ' I try so terribly hard to b e g o o d a n d n o t c h e a p a n d horrid.'
23

T h e u n i v e r s i t y h a d f o u n d this difficult to b e l i e v e . ' W e a r i n g an i n t o the street from his r o o m s in he

e v e n i n g j a c k e t , r e d shoes, b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e trousers, a n d a h u g e b l u e cravat' w h e n e v e r h e v e n t u r e d St J o h n ' s C o l l e g e , the p r e c i o u s O l d H a r r o v i a n l o o k e d as t h o u g h

w a s t i t t u p p i n g u p O x f o r d ' s H i g h to m e e t H a r o l d A c t o n o r B r i a n H o w a r d . ( M o r e p r o b a b l y , h e w a s o n his w a y to the university's A m a ­ t e u r D r a m a t i c S o c i e t y w h e r e , b y accident o r design, h e h a d b e e n put in c h a r g e o f 'dresses a n d s c e n e r y ' . ) It w a s a b a d miscalculation, but it t o o k B e a t o n s o m e t i m e to realize the fact: ' A s the w e a t h e r g o t chillier, he brightened
24

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fur gauntlet g l o v e s , a c l o t h - o f - g o l d tie, a scarlet j e r s e y a n d bags.'

B y their o w n a c c o u n t s at least, it w a s k i n d r e d spirits at C a m b r i d g e a n d the b r a c i n g , matter-of-fact ethos o f the u n i v e r s i t y itself w h i c h s a v e d B e a t o n o r at least l i m i t e d the d a m a g e h e c o u l d d o to himself. G e o r g e ' D a d i e ' Rylands noted: ' O x f o r d w o u l d have been very bad for C e c i l . H e w o u l d h a v e g o n e straight d o w n the E v e l y n h o p e d , w o u l d it e v e r b e . ' T h e y [ W a u g h ' s O x f o r d set] drank Waugh cham­ drain.' C a m b r i d g e w a s n o t l i k e that, R y l a n d s w a s i m p l y i n g - n o r , h e p a g n e at e l e v e n in the m o r n i n g , w h i l e w e d r a n k b e e r at n i g h t — o r o c c a s i o n a l l y B u r g u n d y . W e l i v e d in a rather p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n , priggish
>25

way. ' P r i g g i s h ' is perhaps a m i s l e a d i n g w a y o f p u t t i n g it; ' c o n c e i t e d o r d i d a c t i c ' (as the OED defines the w o r d ) hardly describes the C a m ­ the m u s e , m i n d w a s b r i d g e m i l i e u a n d its h o m o s e x u a l demi-monde. ' P r a g m a t i c ' m i g h t better express the ethos in w h i c h scientia r e m a i n e d paramount a n d things w e r e m o r e controlled than e v e r they w e r e at

O x f o r d . J u s t as t h e r e w e r e n o d r e a m i n g spires, so there w e r e f e w d r a w l i n g poets at C a m b r i d g e . R a t h e r , its c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f O x f o r d ' s n e o - A e s t h e t e s w e r e , c o m p a r a t i v e l y speaking, m e n o f action. B y the early 1 9 3 0 s G u y B u r g e s s , D o n a l d M a c l e a n a n d A n t h o n y B l u n t at least already h a d o n e e y e o n the real w o r l d , the w o r l d b e y o n d e v e n the w i d e h o r i z o n s o f the C a m b r i d g e s h i r e F e n s . Patricia P a r r y (later L a d y L l e w e l y n - D a v i e s ) has recalled that ' T h e S p a n i s h w a r w a s v e r y real a n d m a n y p e o p l e [at C a m b r i d g e ] t h o u g h t that it w a s a rehearsal for a b i g g e r w a r that w a s c o m i n g . I f y o u h a v e a lot o f m e n w h o k n o w there's a w a r c o m i n g t h e n o f course they w i l l b e interested in politics because

v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as ' c l e v e r .m i n d e d n e s s a b o u t e v e n this. b i s e x u a l - o f the n o w n o t o r i o u s C a m b r i d g e C o m m u n i s t c o t e r i e . essentially n o m o r e t h a n 'a scholarship b o y l i v i n g o n a l i m i t e d i n c o m e ' . i n f o o d . o n l y the best w o u l d . H e s t o o d 'a g a n g l i n g six feet t w o inches tall'. ' 26 T h o u g h hardly t h e m o s t c h a r i s ­ members matic o f the h o m o s e x u a l . w i t h his h a n g . w h e r e ruthlessness which would hinting perhaps at o n l y later m a k e itself h a d b e e n a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f j o h n B e t j e m a n ) . b y n o m e a n s least. a l t h o u g h he h a d p i t c h e d u p in the w e a l t h y e n v i r o n m e n t T r i n i t y C o l l e g e ( h a v i n g matriculated f r o m M a r l b o r o u g h . I f h e w a s innately d e b a r r e d f r o m p e r s o n i f y i n g the aesthetic ideal o r . in M a c l e a n ' s case. T h e r e w a s n o f a m i l y w e a l t h . It r a n k l e d . B u t there w a s a c o l d s i n g l e . a n d o n l y s e r v e d to strengthen B l u n t ' s s i n g l e . E v e n physically. b o t h p o l i t i c a l l y a n d sexually the b r o a d c o u r s e o f his life h a d b e e n set. B u t .or. i n d e e d . U n d e r n e a t h e v e r y t h i n g .dazzle spectacularly. as the s o n o f a c l e r g y m a n he d i d n o t h a v e a traditional T r i n i t y b a c k g r o u n d . ' v e r y w e l l read a n d c u l t u r e d ' . Cru­ of he cially. H e w a s quite literally an outsider. h e w a s v i e w e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g l i k e a w e b y m a n y o f his c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . in student snapshots h e resembles n o t h i n g so m u c h as a spectre at the feast. h a v i n g g r a d u a t e d w i t h a First in m o d e r n l a n g u a g e s . that w a s a field i n w h i c h h e c o u l d . as t h e r e w a s a b o u t so m a n y o t h e r aspects o f B l u n t ' s life — a b e l i e f that ' o n l y the best w o u l d d o ' w h i c h w a s to i n f o r m his taste in fine art. h e w a s ' r e m o t e a n d d e e p l y serious'.' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 115 they k n o w t h e y w i l l b e the s o l d i e r s . Patricia P a r r y c o n c l u d e s a single-minded apparent. in 1 9 3 0 . o n c e again. 'patronising'.m i n d e d pursuit o f a c a d e m i c success. this w a s e s p e c i ­ ally true o f B l u n t .d o g . N o r w a s it o n l y in this respect that the y o u n g M a r x i s t s e e m e d to e x e m p l i f y the C a m b r i d g e v e r s i o n o f the A u d e n e s q u e o u t s i d e r . f r o m cutting a n y sort o f dash as a sportsman. B e f o r e h e h a d e v e n left p u b l i c s c h o o l . T h e r e . erudite a n d a m u s i n g ' .a n d d i d . B l u n t w a s o u t o f the o r d i n a r y . in the cigarettes h e s m o k e d . in the lovers h e t o o k . the m a j o r i t y o f w h o m o f c o u r s e k n e w n o t h i n g o f his d e e p e r p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . 27 i n d e e d . h e b e g a n w o r k i n g for a T r i n i t y f e l l o w s h i p in E u r o p e a n art history. in the c o m p a n y h e k e p t a n d . ' a l w a y s v e r y s u p e r c i l i o u s ' o r j u s t c o l d l y 'intellectual'. H e m a n a g e d t o w i n e l e c t i o n to the e x c l u s i v e A p o s d e s and. t o o t h y f a c e .

A little later there was V i r g i n i a W o o l f 's n e p h e w J u l i a n B e l l w h o . H e h a d quite a sensual m o u t h . s h o r d y after h e h a d taken u p his T r i n i t y f e l l o w s h i p . c o n t e m p o r a r y p h o t o g r a p h s suggest. I n e v i t a b l y h e w a s d r a w n to the brilliant. w a s d e s c r i b e d b y a m u t u a l friend as b e i n g possessed o f 'fair rather w a v y hair a n d a b r o a d f o r e h e a d . C y r i l C o n n o l l y has recalled B u r g e s s at that t i m e as b e i n g ' t a l l .d i s s e m b l e r . exhibitionist.g e n e r a l . they m o s t certainly h a d to b e . t o o . B u t t h e r e w a s a n o t h e r b o n d . the s o n n o t o f a m e r e c l e r g y m a n b u t o f a full m a j o r . flagrantly.p a t e d S a n c h o P a n z a . e x t r o v e r t . cynical and argumentative. sensual m o u t h . it s e e m s i n c o n c e i v a b l e that t h e r e w a s n o t a s e x u a l e l e m e n t in their relationship. T h e history o f it is this: I h a d a sabbatical y e a r f r o m C a m b r i d g e in 1 9 3 3 .m e d i u m in h e i g h t . B l u n t s e e m i n g l y first m e t B u r g e s s in 1 9 3 2 . g o l d e n . A t C a m b r i d g e the first o f these. . yet sometimes v a g u e and incompetent. fell i n t o v e r y m u c h the s a m e c a t e g o r y a n d w h o w a s . a n d t h e r e w a s this v e r y p o w e r f u l g r o u p . ' c o m p l e t e l y a n d hopelessly infatuated' w i t h B l u n t . . despite B l u n t ' s denials. B l u n t a n d B u r g e s s w e r e at this t i m e ( 1 9 3 2 — 5 ) s i m u l t a n e o u s l y m o v i n g closer a n d closer t o w a r d s the Communist P a r t y . a n d n e v e r m o r e so than after his ' n a m i n g ' in 1 9 7 9 .t e r r i e r e x p r e s s i o n [.4 a n d w h e n I c a m e b a c k in O c t o b e r 1 9 3 4 I f o u n d that all m y friends. w i t h b l u e e y e s . t h e r e w a s G u y Francis d e M o n e y B u r g e s s . F o r w h a t it is w o r t h — h e w a s an a r c h .B l u n t has left a detailed a c c o u n t o f his o w n c o n v e r s i o n : I b e c a m e a C o m m u n i s t a n d m o r e particularly a M a r x i s t in 1 9 3 5 — 3 6 . an e n o r m o u s n u m b e r o f m y friends a n d almost all the intelligent a n d b r i g h t u n d e r g r a d u a t e s w h o h a d c o m e u p to C a m ­ b r i d g e h a d s u d d e n l y b e c o m e M a r x i s t u n d e r the i m p a c t o f H i d e r c o m i n g to p o w e r . t o o . an i n q u i s i t i v e n o s e . h e w a s l i k e a reincarnation o f his first l o v e .in o t h e r w o r d s he w a s the e m b o d i m e n t o f the traditional aesthetic Ideal. v e r y r e m a r k a b l e g r o u p o f C o m m u n i s t intellectuals in C a m b r i d g e — G u y .] D e s p i t e his i n t e l l i g e n c e [he] w a s a r o u n d . avidly curious. a cleft c h i n a n d b l u e e y e s ' 2 8 .l o o k i n g . A t s o m e t i m e . r e c k ­ lessly h o m o s e x u a l .f a c e d .' 29 T h e t w o w e r e for a t i m e inseparable. pleasingly. manic.n 6 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S d o : i f h e w a s n o t c o n v e n t i o n a l l y g o o d . c u r l y hair a n d alert f o x . A l t h o u g h c o m i n g f r o m v e r y different angles. p r i z e .w i n n i n g O l d E t o n i a n : n o t o n l y w a s h e o p e n l y .

h o w e v e r .a n d are thus discreet. b a r e l y a y e a r after B u r g e s s ' s d e f e c t i o n to M o s c o w w i t h D o n a l d M a c l e a n . T h i s is plausible e n o u g h . J a m e s K l u g m a n was another. T h o s e w r i t t e n b y his friends a p p e a r e d l o n g b e f o r e B l u n t ' s e x p o s u r e and. b o o k s s u c h as A n d r e w B o y l e ' s The Climate of Treason ( 1 9 7 9 ) a n d B a r r i e P e n r o s e a n d S i m o n F r e e m a n ' s Conspiracy of Silence ( 1 9 8 7 ) try to tell the 'full' political story b u t rather marginalize B u r g e s s ' s f o r m a t i v e y e a n . Burgess had a typically m o r e down-to-earth explanation for his f r i e n d ' s / l o v e r ' s c o n v e r s i o n . w h o k n e w B u r g e s s w e l l at this p e r i o d . r e m e m b e r e d h i m constantly b o a s t i n g o f his ' c o n q u e s t s ' — B l u n t a m o n g t h e m . h o w B u r g e s s a c q u i r e d his. Guy Burgess: A Portrait with Back­ ground was p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 5 6 ) .] G u y p u t it to m e that the best w a y to h e l p anti-fascism. the 1 9 6 7 d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n o f m a l e h o m o s e x u a l i t y (The Missing Diplomats b y C y r i l C o n n o l l y w a s r u s h e d o u t in 1 9 5 2 . is a m o r e difficult q u e s t i o n . R e e s . e v e n s o m e t i m e s d o w n r i g h t m i s l e a d i n g . A t E t o n h e h a d b e e n a c a d e m i c a l l y f o r m i d a b l e . T o m D r i b e r g ' s fuller. h e w a s a l w a y s s e e n as s o m e t h i n g o f an outsider. J o h n C o r n f o r d was a n o t h e r [. F r o m admittedly rather fragmentary e v i d e n c e it is still possible to l i n k B u r g e s s ' s h o m o s e x u a l i t y w i t h his espousal o f C o m m u n i s m — i n d e e d . h e h a d b e e n abruptly r e m o v e d f r o m the c o l l e g e a n d sent as a c a d e t to the D a r t m o u t h R o y a l N a v a l C o l l e g e . o r t h o u g h t it w a s . w h i c h w a s o b v i o u s l y the issue o f the m o m e n t a n d w h i c h b e c a m e m u c h m o r e acute w i t h the Spanish C i v i l W a r in ' 3 6 . R e e s insisted. B y contrast. R e e s i m p l i e d . w a s to h e l p h i m in his w o r k w i t h the R u s s i a n s . w a s j u s t a ' c o n v e n i e n t f a l s e h o o d ' o f B l u n t ' s . after the s u d d e n death o f his father. in its essentials it is a story w i t h w h i c h w e are already familiar. ) T h e c o l l e g e k n e w w h e n it w a s . E v e n w h i l e h e w a s there. H e left n o a u t o b i o g r a p h y o r first-hand a c c o u n t a n d the w r i t i n g s a b o u t h i m d i v i d e i n t o pre. h o w e v e r . B l u n t h a d c a u g h t his M a r x i s m in b e d . h o w e v e r . T h a t they d i d n o t g o to b e d t o g e t h e r . . Q u i t e s i m p l y . o n to a g o o d . i f hagiographical.t r a v e l l e r G o r o n w y R e e s . i n d e e d . B u t there his e y e s i g h t w a s f o u n d to b e d e f e c t i v e . 30 A c c o r d i n g t o friend a n d f e l l o w . w i n n i n g b o t h the R o s e b e r y a n d G l a d s t o n e history prizes in 1 9 2 9 as w e l l as a T r i n i t y scholarship. .a n d ante-bellum c a m p s .' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 117 Burgess was one. ( N o t the least part o f this oddness w a s that. a n d — almost u n i q u e l y — h e w a s s o o n a c c e p t e d b a c k as an o p p i d a n at E t o n . s o m e h o w ' o d d ' .

' 32 B u t at a d e e p e r l e v e l e v e n t h e n t h e r e w e r e essentially t w o G u y B u r g e s s e s . T h e r e w a s the g o o d . n o m a t t e r h o w d e m o n s t r a b l y h e t e r o s e x u a l . w h o h a d e x p e c t e d to w i n easy e n t r y i n t o a p o s i t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e w h i c h w o u l d h a v e a l l o w e d h i m his o w n fag. T h u s w h e n elections w e r e h e l d for m e m b e r s h i p o f the e x c l u s i v e E t o n S o c i e t y (familiarly k n o w n as ' P o p ' ) . w a s Certainly he n e v e r forgot it. A t first [Burgess] m a d e tentative amorous a d v a n c e s b u t q u i c k l y a n d cheerfully desisted w h e n h e d i s c o v e r e d that I w a s as h e t e r o s e x u a l as h e w a s the o p p o s i t e . H e w a s ' q u i t e a c a r d ' ( w e can o n l y guess w h e t h e r delicate e u p h e m i s m lay b e h i n d those w o r d s ) .t i e . w e d r a n k w h i s k y t o g e t h e r for a l o n g t i m e . It w a s a shattering b l o w to his s e l f . n o t to m e n t i o n the r o u n d l y defeated. in all p r o b a b i l i t y c o m b i n e d to m a k e h i m u n p o p u l a r w i t h the p o w e r f u l E t o n C o l l e g e r s . 31 right to w e a r g a u d y waistcoats. a n d basically ' t o o c l e v e r b y h a l f . h e w o u l d h a v e d o n e the s a m e to a n y y o u n g m a n . affable. w h o t o o k his fancy: '. . e x t r e m e l y able O l d E t o n i a n .w h o w a s a natural a n d a c t i v e m e m b e r o f w h a t .n 8 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S m a n . that p e r c e i v e d oddness a n d i n d e p e n d e n t thinking. e v e n catastrophic.m a k e s a k i n d o f sense. h e w a s n ' t g o o d e n o u g h for t h e m . a n d h e p o s i t i v e l y e n j o y e d the thrill o f c h a s i n g a n y m a l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e .t o . the m a n u n i v e r s a l l y t i p p e d for a h i s t o r y f e l l o w s h i p . H e m a d e n o particular secret o f his h o m o s e x u a l i t y . he'd show them! V i e w e d in this light.c o n f i d e n c e . A l o n g w i t h his already apparent h o m o s e x u a l i t y . T h e b o o k s h e l v e s in his r o o m s in N e w C o u r t c o n t a i n e d 'an e x t r a o r d i n a r y array o f e x p l i c i t a n d e x t r e m e l y unpleasant p o r n o g r a p h i c literature'. A l l the s a m e . B u r g e s s . . i n d e e d . h e flaunted it.the s o o n . P s y c h o l o g y has t a u g h t us that such s e e m i n g l y trivial slights can h a v e d r a m a t i c . v e r y possibly the single m o s t w o u n d i n g setback o f his l i f e . c o n s e q u e n c e s in later life.b e A p o s t l e .l o o k i n g . O r E t o n . E v e n d u r i n g the l o n g years o f his l o n e l y e x i l e in M o s c o w h e c o n t i n u e d t o w e a r an O l d E t o n i a n b o w . it seems to h a v e h a r d e n e d a streak o f r e b e l l i o n in B u r g e s s : h e w a s different. h o w e v e r : ' T h e great t h i n g is that h e really thinks for h i m s e l f the h e a d m a s t e r n o t e d at this t i m e . e v e n t h e n m a n i f e s t i n g itself in an interest in socialism. b e c a u s e s e x to h i m w a s b o t h a c o m p u l s i o n a n d a g a m e w h i c h it w a s almost a d u t y t o p r a c t i s e . his b e h a v i o u r w h e n h e w e n t u p to C a m b r i d g e — it w a s o n e o f the dark ironies o f fate w h i c h t o o k h i m to T r i n i t y a n d B l u n t .

equally u n e x p e c t e d l y . L e e s ( w h o w e n t o n to b e c o m e a l e c t u r e r at N o t t i n g h a m U n i v e r ­ sity) w a s u n l i k e a n y o n e G u y h a d e v e r k n o w n b e f o r e . seems to h a v e b e e n able to p r i c k B u r g e s s ' s c o n s c i e n c e . B u t s i m u l ­ taneously. B u t . b e c a u s e o f the class-prejudices o f the e x a m i n e r s . ' Y o u ' .c l a s s p r i ­ v a t i o n . 6 d . H e e x p e n d e d a great deal o f e n e r g y in an (ultimately . I m a d e e p i g r a m s : h e g o t the right a n s w e r s . o n e c o u l d describe the m o s t influential o f these. I shall d o ten times as m u c h w o r k as y o u ' H e k n e w a great deal m o r e than I d i d . the o n e .c o a l m i n e r called J i m (or J i m m y ) L e e s . a n e x .c l a s s friends. ' S o m e h o w L e e s . 3 3 a n d the B u r g e s s w h o . t h e r e w a s also the B u r g e s s w h o w a s p l o u g h i n g his w a y t h r o u g h L e n i n ' s The State and Revolution a n d o t h e r b o o k s w i t h tides such as The X VIIIth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte a n d Class Struggles in ('as "king-and-country" France. M o n t h b y m o n t h u n d e r his tutelage. w a s c o l l e c t i n g w o r k i n g . [he] t a u g h t h i m a lot. ' w i l l get a First b e c a u s e y o u r energies are n o t e x h a u s t e d b y life. 4 the brilliance o f i g n o r a n c e . ' B a l d i s h a n d spectacled'. ' B u r g e s s t o l d D r i b e r g ( a l t h o u g h h e o m i t t e d to m e n t i o n that. searingly. as a 'bit o f r o u g h ' . h e w o u l d tell h i m . a n d A n d r e w B o y l e has called the ' v u l g a r l y ostentatious' w h o s o o n palled u p w i t h the y o u n g V i c t o r R o t h s c h i l d . a n d t r o u b l e d his c o n s c i e n c e . left C a m b r i d g e w i t h o n l y an aegrotat d e g r e e ) . Superficially.p u b l i c i z e d debate at the O x f o r d U n i o n ' ) . e v e n at C a m b r i d g e . h e u n e x p e c t e d l y 'collapsed in tears d u r i n g his finals' a n d . in a m o s t u n . l ) e v e r y d a y at l u n c h e o n ' a c q u i r e d a n e w seriousness.W a r M o v e m e n t significant at C a m b r i d g e as the m u c h . ' H e w a s interested in truth. a c c o r d i n g to T o m D r i b e r g . B u r g e s s a n d L e e s w e r e e v e r m o r e than friends — the story is m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d than that. e v e n i f his grass-roots l e f t .a n d t h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e that.' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 119 Pitt C l u b . a n d a m e m b e r o f the I n d e p e n d e n t L a b o u r P a r t y . I d o n ' t h a v e — a n d get a g o o d S e c o n d . I in brilliance. w i t h his first-hand stories o f w o r k i n g .w i n g a c t i v i s m t o d a y seems c h a r a c t e r ­ istically w h i m s i c a l . h o w e v e r c o n v e n i e n t this m i g h t b e . far from g e t t i n g the First w h i c h L e e s h a d p r e d i c t e d .O l d E t o n i a n m a n n e r . Politics b e c a m e m o r e than 'a lark'.t i m e Pitt C l u b s w e l l w h o in his first y e a r ' d r a n k a bottle o f L i e b f r a u m i l c h ' 2 1 (at 3 5 . a n d b e c a u s e y o u g o t h e r e easily a n d a r e n ' t frightened b y it all. the B u r g e s s w h o h a d j o i n e d the A n t i .

D r i b e r g a n d his ' c o t t a g e ' p i c k . l i k e S t A u g u s t i n e . B u t there is an important difference. .u p s . h e c a u g h t a train to L o n d o n in o r d e r to b e present at their final rally in H y d e P a r k . for the present h e h a d n o plans to forsake. ' H e used to say. a n d k e e p y e r 'ands o f f it. T h a t e v e n i n g h e w a s a p p e a r i n g at the s o u t h L o n d o n P a l a c e T h e a t r e : ' V i r t u a l l y the w h o l e o f the m e n ' s c h o r u s w a s g a y . d e a r . a n y t h i n g f r o m s e v e n t e e n to s e v e n t y .' I t h i n k h e i n v e n t e d p r o m i s c u i t y . . i n d e e d . ' ) . G u y w a s w a i t i n g b y the stage d o o r f o r o n e o f t h e b o y s . B e s i d e s the luckless D o u g l a s they h a d o t h e r friends in c o m m o n a n d m a n a g e d t o k e e p in t o u c h . b u t w a l k e d w i t h t h e m o n l y f o r the fifteen o r so miles b e t w e e n H u n t i n g d o n a n d C a m ­ b r i d g e . " ' 3 5 B u t the attraction w a s r e c i p r o c a l a n d that c h a n c e m e e t i n g m e a n t as m u c h to B u r g e s s as it h a d to H e w i t . . . B u r g e s s finally s e d u c e d t h e y o u n g b u t n o t i n e x p e r i e n c e d H e w i t in 1 9 3 7 and. . . A u d e n w a s later to describe h i m ) t h e n h a d a j o b in the c h o r u s o f a t o u r i n g p r o d u c t i o n o f No. this ' h a l f c h i l d a n d h a l f w a r l o c k . ' H e w i t has recalled. o n the o t h e r the infinitely m o r e s e d u c t i v e pleasures o f t h e flesh w h i c h . flight to B u r g e s s a n d H e w i t . . . t h e y w e r e to c o i n c i d e o n e e v e n i n g in the m i d .f i v e ! " ' . No. . " O h .1 9 3 0 s w h e n B u r g e s s first e n c o u n t e r e d J a c k H e w i t . / w i t h a truly f e m i n i n e s o u l ' (as W . O n o n e side there w a s the intellectual dialectic o f L e e s ('If y o u t h i n k l i k e that. a l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e to b e m a n y separations a n d infidelities o n b o t h sides . S e v e n t e e n y e a n o l d at the t i m e a n d the s o n o f a G a t e s h e a d shipyard riveter.120 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S successful) c a m p a i g n to i m p r o v e the w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the hall w a i t e r s at T r i n i t y . It g o e s b a c k to M a u r i c e a n d S c u d d e r . it g o e s b a c k . t h e n ? " a n d h e said " A friend o f m i n e w h o w o r k s in the B B C . the pattern is the s a m e .the t w o w e r e to r e m a i n n o t i o n a l l y t o g e t h e r until B u r g e s s ' s a b r u p t R u s s i a in 1 9 5 1 .b o y s . A u d e n a n d his l a t e . h o w e v e r . T w o paths w e r e c o n v e r g i n g . H . y o u r place is in t h e P a r t y . H a p p i l y . W i t h o t h e r C a m b r i d g e students h e t u r n e d o u t in s u p p o r t o f the J a r r o w H u n g e r M a r c h e r s in 1 9 3 4 .n i g h t w a l k s . Nanette. Essentially. T h e fastidious B l u n t a n d his A e s t h e t i c t o y . . I s a w h i m a n d asked m y friend D o u g l a s afterwards " W h o w a s that. F o r s t e r described how Maurice m e r e l y w a n t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f a 'bit o f r o u g h ' — a n d w e h a v e already . a great deal farther than that.

w i n g beliefs w o u l d n o t a l l o w anything which smacked o f the e x p l o i t a t i v e .' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 121 seen h o w that sort o f nostalgie de la boue has a l w a y s b e e n central t o t h e h o m o s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e . O u t s i d e r s all. ' F a i r ­ g r o u n d L a d R i d e s ' a n d t h e blatant ' R o u g h a n d R e a d y ' c o n t i n u e t o p a n d e r to the fantasy.n i n e . others d i k e A u d e n ) h e r o i c T h i r d s . C o n s t r u c t i o n W o r k e r ' a n d a l l e g e d l y real-life confessional stories w i t h titles l i k e ' B u i l d e r W o r k s H i s E r e c t i o n ' .f i v e . A u d e n .t h e y w e r e t h r o w n o n to their o w n d e v i c e s . 1 8 . l i k e B l u n t . ( ' N o w it o c c u r r e d t o m e that. a n d particularly o n a personal l e v e l . I w o u l d . S o m e h a d starry Firsts. T h u s . ' O n l y c o n n e c t ' .s p r e a d s o f ' B o b b y . F o r s t e r h a d c o u n s e l l e d . t h e y t u r n e d t o o n e a n o t h e r for s u c c o u r a n d support. at the a g e o f t w e n t y . a l m o s t s p o n t a n e o u s l y t h e r e d e v e l o p e d an inclusiveness. I n the 1 9 3 0 s . N o w that w a s n o longer enough. h o w e v e r .l i n e s to appreciate its c o n t i n u i n g appeal. F a r m ­ h a n d ' o r ' C h r i s t o p h e r . I n their place.e i g h t . et nos mutamur in illis — the times h a d c h a n g e d . I m i g h t still b e c o m e a p o e t a n d painter. P h o t o . as others h a d d o n e . B l u n t . m o r e than o n e ( S p e n d e r a n d I s h e r w o o d a m o n g t h e m ) n o d e g r e e s at all. 36 . w h a t J a c k H e w i t called a ' f r e e m a s o n r y ' . B u r g e s s a n d the rest o f their g e n e r a t i o n f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s f o r c e d t o c o n f r o n t a w o r l d s u d d e n l y bereft o f the c o m f o r t a b l e certainties t o w h i c h t h e y h a d b e e n b r o u g h t u p . ' ) T h e i r l e f t . say. t w e n t y . A l l w e r e faced w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f establishing themselves b o t h professionally a n d p e r s o n a l l y . B u r g e s s w a s j u s t t w e n t y . Freshly d o w n f r o m O x f o r d o r C a m b r i d g e . a n d e v e n B r i a n H o w a r d o n l y thirty . a n d they h a d n o o p t i o n b u t t o c h a n g e w i t h t h e m . at a N e w Y e a r ' s E v e party i n 1 9 3 8 A u d e n c o u l d address H e w i t in a specially c o m p o s e d p i e c e o f d o g g e r e l w i t h t h e lines: I f I c o u l d b u t p e n e t r a t e t i m e ' s vista A n d tell y o u y o u r future. 2 0 . T h r e a t e n e d b y the p r o s p e c t o f w a r i n S p a i n a n d t h e n o n a w i d e r E u r o p e a n front (although n o t perhaps particularly w o r r i e d b y Patricia P a r r y ' s n o t i o n that they t h e m s e l v e s m i g h t actually h a v e to fight i n it). master-and-servant relationships w h i c h h a d characterized the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n .a fact w h i c h is often forgotten: in 1 9 3 5 . A u d e n . E v e n t o d a y o n e has o n l y to l o o k at t h e m o d e l s p o r t r a y e d in g a y m a g a z i n e s a n d the tides o f g a y t e l e p h o n e s e x . largely p r e d i c a t e d o n h o m o s e x u a l i t y . Tempora mutantur. the emphasis w a s different.

the C o m m u n i s t side o f things w a s n e v e r really o f a n y great i m p o r t a n c e . w i t h o u t e v e r c o n s c i o u s l y t r y i n g to. for all the o b l o q u y w h i c h has b e e n h e a p e d o n B u r g e s s and. also m o r e male-female amorous. 3 8 F e e l i n g s o m e w h a t e x c l u d e d . R a t h e r . I o n l y k n o w that y o u ' r e g o o d . m o r e latterly.w i n g c o t e r i e 'the H o m i n t e r n ' the t h e n p a n . scandal­ ous a c c o u n t s o f w h i c h w e r e already b e g i n n i n g to circulate: 'the party d i d n ' t b r e a k u p . their friends and. infected b y the p r e v a i l i n g m o o d o f Weltschmerz. H u n g e r allows no choice T o the citizen o r the p o l i c e . he w a s t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y averse to the m o r e lurid aspects o f their lives. n o o n e e v e r really i n t e n d e d to b r i n g a b o u t the 'radicalisation o f the masses' for w h i c h the C o m m u n i s t International C o n g r e s s h a d called as far b a c k as 1 9 2 8 . to b e honest. A m o r a l perhaps.c l a s s y o u n g m e n w h o h a d v e r y o b v i o u s l y b e e n p i c k e d up o f f the streets' . Pace B u r g e s s a n d B l u n t . . an i n t r o v e r t e d g a y society. . . 1939': T h e r e is n o such t h i n g as the State A n d n o o n e exists alone. H e w e n t o n : ' O n e p e r s o n in o n e circle k n e w o n e in a n o t h e r a n d that's h o w p e o p l e m e t . H e w i t o n c e d e s c r i b e d the H o m i n t e r n as b e i n g ' l i k e the f i v e c o n c e n t r i c circles in the O l y m p i c e m b l e m ' . W e must l o v e one another or d i e . B l u n t . I w a s n ' t a t r o l l o p . ' t h e r e w e r e t w o v e r y t o u g h w o r k i n g .122 H E R O E S A N D V I L L A I N S B u t I o n l y k n o w y o u ' r e m y sister.f e m a l e c o u p l e s o p e n l y e m b r a c i n g o n cushions in corners'. in fact it g o t noisier. b o t h sexually a n d politically. N o r w e r e t h e y o u t to create a n e o Carpenterian M i l l t h o r p e . A l t h o u g h friendly w i t h m o s t o f its ' m e m b e r s ' as individuals. with quite a n d also m a l e .E u r o p e a n C o m m u n i s t International (the after Comintern). C y r i l C o n ­ n o l l y d u b b e d this c l o s e . ' 40 T h i s has the ring o f truth. this rather h e t e r o ­ g e n e o u s g r o u p o f O x b r i d g e alumni. c l o s e d to all strangers.m a l e a n d f e m a l e . A n d p e o p l e like m e w e r e passed a r o u n d . a n d H e w i t ' s frankness suggests that. 3 7 N i n e m o n t h s later. b u t n o t a t r o D o p .k n i t l e f t . h e w a s to elaborate o n this t h e m e a n d g i v e it a w i d e r p u b l i c significance (and a r e s o n a n c e he was much later to repudiate) in his poem 'September i. 3 9 I n a strikingly effective simile.

' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 123 m o r e than a f e w o f the ' v e r y t o u g h w o r k i n g . It c o n c l u d e s : M a y y o u r life in the States b e c o m e better M a y y o u find lots o f happiness there B u t m y G o d if y o u ever turn heter I won't wish you a Happy N e w Year! . H . A u d e n again p r o v i d e s the m o s t s u c c i n c t statement o f this. w i t h w h o m less than three w e e k s later h e w a s to l e a v e for the U n i t e d States. W .c l a s s y o u n g m e n ' b e t w e e n them showed what could be achieved w h e n homosexuality was r e g a r d e d as n o t h i n g m o r e — b u t n o t h i n g less — than a fact o f life. H i s N e w Y e a r ' s E v e 1 9 3 8 p o e m includes a stanza d e d i c a t e d to C h r i s t o p h e r I s h e r w o o d .

PART TWO .

t h e old J o h n L e w i s ' s in O x f o r d Street. G i v e n p r o p e r treatment. r e c k o n e d t h e m s e l v e s ' r o a d . Nevertheless hundreds o f temperamental people nighdy argued w i t h this d o o r a n d g o t the w o r s t o f it.s i t e s .d e l i v e r y systems. careless. the trams.G a m a g e s .'I Had the Time of My Life' FOR A N Y O N E B O R N S I N C E . a h a n d l e l i k e a d u m b . the d e c a y i n g P o o t e r i s h semis. o r i n c r e d u l o u s as to i g n o r e this friendly a d m o n i t i o n w a s instandy s n u b b e d . say. the c o r n e r shops. the g r a n d l y s w a g g e r i n g ' d e p a r t ­ m e n t a l stores' .h o u s e s ' .w a r L o n d o n - p r e . A r d i n g a n d H o b b s . the terraces o f b a c k . for this d o o r w o u l d o n l y s u c c u m b to P u s h i n g . A 2 1 a n d A 4 0 (the r o a d to O x f o r d ) . still less c a n t h e y recall w h a t o n c e o c c u p i e d t h e m : the g r a n d O d e o n and Gaumont cinemas. Y o u n g L o n d o n e r s n o w see o n l y the a c c r e t i o n s o f the fifties a n d sixties. A n y o n e t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y s o w i l f u l .w a r Britain i n d e e d — is a fantasy land.t o . a n d a brass adjuration to P u s h . t w o stages r e m o v e d f r o m reality. the p u b s in w h i c h social d i s t i n c ­ tions still h e l d s w a y : T h o s e e n t e r i n g the S a l o o n B a r o f ' T h e M i d n i g h t B e l l ' f r o m the street c a m e t h r o u g h a large d o o r w i t h a fancifully frosted glass p a n e . A 4 . it s w u n g b a c k in the most a c c o m p l i s h e d w a y . B o n M a r c h é in B r i x t o n — w i t h their u n i f o r m e d d o o r ­ m e n a n d p i n g i n g m e c h a n i c a l o r p n e u m a t i c c a s h .b e l l . the L y o n s C o r n e r H o u s e s . a n d a n n o u n c e d y o u to the S a l o o n B a r w i t h a w e l c o m i n g c r e a k . i f t h e y h a p p e n e d to b e situated o n 'arterial r o a d s ' l i k e the A i . p r e . T h e S a l o o n B a r w a s n a r r o w a n d a b o u t thirty feet 127 . a brass inscription 'Saloon Bar and Lounge'. h o w e v e r . t h e p u b s w h i c h w e r e also ' c o m m e r c i a l hotels' and.b a c k h o u s e s a r o u n d the n o w v a n i s h e d d o c k s . the mid-fifties. T h e y c a n n o t r e m e m b e r the b o m b .

. M o r r i s .and Hillman-driving w o r l d - B r i t a i n ' s o t h e r m a j o r cities in the i m m e d i a t e p r e . T h i s w a s the w o r l d Chronicle-vending. A r o u n d e a c h table w e r e three o r f o u r w h i t e w i c k e r armchairs. square r o o m . c o p p e r . It cost £ 1 a w e e k . o r o n the l e a t h e r .1 9 2 0 s . A t t h e far e n d the S a l o o n B a r o p e n e d o u t i n t o the S a l o o n L o u n g e . ing. a n d o n e a c h table t h e r e lay a large stone ash-tray s u p p l i e d b y a W h i s k y firm [. b y e v e r y h o m o s e x u a l : it w a s w h a t the G e r m a n s call sturmfrei — it w a s free o f s n o o p e r s . . O n y o u r right w a s the bar itself.the p r i m a r y o n e s o u g h t .] T h e h i g h . . a n d o n y o u r left w a s a r o w o f tables set against a c o m f o r t a b l e a n d c o n t i n u o u s l e a t h e r seat w h i c h w e n t the w h o l e l e n g t h o f the bar.c o v e r e d tables.g e n t i l i t y o f the S a l o o n B a r . in all its bottly glitter. Priestley's News 'gin-and-it'-drinko f L o n d o n and 'chessboard oil-cloth'-floored. r o u n d . e n s c o n c e d in o n e o f the w h i t e w i c k e r armchairs.f l y i n g 'spiritual' e m o t i o n a l i s m o f the [previous] y e a r o r t w o w a s r e p l a c e d almost o v e r n i g h t b y an insatiable h u n g e r for d o w n r i g h t carnal e x p e r i e n c e — a c r a v i n g to know the p h y s i c a l secrets . T h e P u b l i c B a r c o u l d nevertheless b e g l i m p s e d b y a c u s t o m e r in the Saloon B a r . b u t . . filled w i t h a d o z e n o r so small. b u t so uneasily f o u n d . B . T h i s w a s a l a r g e .] T h i s w a s n o scene for the b r a w l e r . Austin-. H e h a d first a r r i v e d in L o n d o n in the m i d .w a r years. h e w a s a n o l d h a n d a n d k n e w the scene: W h e n I c a m e t o L o n d o n I f o u n d a r o o m at the t o p o f G o w e r Street. the ' p r i n c i p l e d a n d restrained d r i n k e r ' c o u l d still catch a g l i m p s e o f the 'collarless a n d frankly downtrodden' drinker in the Public. P a t r i c k H a m i l t o n ' s . seatless. Class ruled. J . . b u t rather f o r the p r i n c i p l e d a n d restrained d r i n k e r . b a r e b o a r d e d structures wherein drunken­ ness w a s d i s p e n s e d in coarser tumblers a n d at a c h e a p e r rate to a m o s d y collarless a n d frankly d o w n t r o d d e n stratum o f society.c o v e r e d b a n q u e t t e s in the s h a m . Tantalizing . .the t w o o t h e r bars (the P u b l i c a n d the Private) b e i n g d r e a r y . o n e . T h e j o u r n a l i s t M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n w a s far f r o m a l o n e in m a k i n g the m o s t o f it. . w i t h his w i f e . I n h e r e a n d in the S a l o o n B a r ' T h e M i d n i g h t B e l l ' did m o s t o f its business . .128 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E i n l e n g t h . It w a s the first a b o d e o f m y own in the b o t t o m l e s s w e l l o f w i c k e d n e s s w h i c h I e x p e c t e d L o n d o n to b e [.t h i r d o f m y i n c o m e . b u t the h o u s e h a d o n e great a d v a n t a g e .

for C o r v o ' s ' d i v i n e friend.h o p p e d . the barely e d u c a t e d y o u n g G e o r d i e m i g h t w e l l h a v e f o u n d h i m s e l f l i v i n g in D a v i d s o n ' s S a v o y H i l l 'hutment'). as it a l w a y s h a d b e e n : m y o w n sensual e n j o y m e n t b e i n g o f m u c h s m a l l e r m o m e n t ) . o r d e r e d y o u r tea a n d toast. 2 flea-bitten hours. A n d . ' T h e first floor w a s k n o w n as the L i l y P o n d . h e s o o n b e c a m e familiar w i t h a n e t w o r k o f relatively 'sturmfrei' cafés a n d bars in the W e s t E n d o f L o n d o n . I n that d e c a d e after [the G r e a t W a r ] ' p i c k i n g u p ' w a s easy: the E m b a n k m e n t a n d the furtive arches o f C h a r i n g C r o s s w e r e p e o p l e d w i t h w a n d e r e r s o f e v e r y a g e . y o u n g as h e w a s at the t i m e . o n l y a f e w d o o r s a w a y f r o m a particularly p o p u l a r L y o n s C o r n e r H o u s e . I n m y resdess search the eternal search. t h e n t a b l e .I e v e n d i s c o v e r e d a k i n d o f h u t m e n t . T e d d y A s h t o n o w n e d it. ' E v e r y b o d y i n the gay set m e t u p there o n S u n d a y afternoons. . I s u p p o s e . says D a v i d s o n . w h e r e b o y s s h e l t e r e d at night. A m o n g m a n y others there w e r e the S p h i n x . beautifully furnished. the Swiss a n d the F i t z r o y T a v e r n . Still a t e e n a g e r (but for an a c c i d e n t o f fate. q u e u e i n g to g e t i n .h o u s e across the river in t h e B o r o u g h . r u n M u r i e l B e l c h e r a n d D o l l y M a y e r s . the P l o u g h . b u t the best w a s L e B o e u f sur le T o i t . a n d u n d e r the c o l o n n a d e s o f C o v e n t G a r d e n r o w s o f h o m e l e s s b o y s slept. T h e n . . . the Standard B a r at the t o p o f C o v e n t r y Street. Y o u w e n t i n . O n c e . the Festival a n d the C a r e l e s s Stork. a n d s o m e t i m e s I ' d c r e e p in there. to s p e n d f e v e r e d . much desired' . ' H e w i t recalls. L e o n a r d B l a c k e t t at the p i a n o . D o l l y a n d M u r i e l o p e n e d a n o t h e r c l u b t o g e t h e r called the M u s i c B o x in L e i c e s t e r Street w h i c h w a s a howling success d u r i n g the w a r . the C a v o u r w a s in L e i c e s t e r S q u a r e . w h i c h p r o v i d e d drag e n t e r t a i n m e n t b o t h o n a n d o f f the stage. J a c k H e w i t r e m e m b e r s w h a t c o u l d easily h a v e b e e n taken for a g o l d e n a g e as lasting w e l l i n t o the 1 9 3 0 s . ' N o r w a s there a n y l a c k o f ' p r i v a t e ' after-hours d r i n k i n g clubs w h e r e half a c r o w n w o u l d b u y o n e annual a n d n o t i n f r e q u e n d y life by m e m b e r s h i p . I p a i d a shilling for a b e d in a P i c k i n g u p w a s easy in the 1 9 2 0 s . p u t t o g e t h e r w i t h c o r r u g a t e d sheets in an alley b y S a v o y H i l l . the g r o c e r s in P i c c a d i l l y . the C a r a v a n . c o m m o n l o d g i n g . M o s t h a v e l o n g d i s a p p e a r e d : there w a s W a r d ' s Irish H o u s e in P i c c a d i l l y C i r c u s . for the e x c i t e m e n t .'i H A D T H E T I M E OF M Y L I F E ' 129 o f as m a n y b o y s as possible (this w a s the i m p o r t a n t d e l i g h t . H e h a d an antiques shop u n d e r n e a t h J a c k s o n ' s .

in contrast w i t h the period 1 9 0 1 —5 ( w h e n s u c h figures w e r e first r e c o r d e d ) . actually. T h e s e s h o w that. 6 . p u s h e d o r flung i n t o v a n s b y a relatively small s q u a d o f p o l i c e m e n .o n . . T h e r e is h a r d e v i d e n c e . shrieking. Ironically. M u r i e l o p e n e d the C o l o n y a n d D o l l y b o u g h t the B o e u f a n d c h a n g e d its n a m e to the R o m i l l y C l u b w h i c h is w h e r e G u y [ B u r g e s s ] fell d o w n the stairs a n d h a d to g o to hospital. h o w e v e r . 3 T a k e n at face v a l u e . t h e y the m o r e a n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e o f the likes o f D a v i d s o n a n d confirm Hewit c o n c e r n i n g the e x t e n t o f h o m o s e x u a l activity. r e m i n i s c e n c e s s u c h as these can easily g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n that the W i l d e trials a n d all the e n s u i n g m o r a l o u t r a g e o f o n l y thirty years p r e v i o u s l y h a d n e v e r o c c u r r e d — that the l i v i n g w a s easy. T h e y cast a b o u t for a w a y o f e x t e r m i n a t i n g t h e m in herds [. still a distant p r o s p e c t . S o m e ­ b o d y pushed him. k i c k i n g b o y s in feathered head-dresses 5 and d i a m a n t e trains c o u l d b e s c o o p e d . the increases for h e t e r o s e x u a l offences o v e r the s a m e p e r i o d w e r e 1 5 5 p e r cent a n d 2 8 2 p e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . . they also suggest s o m e t h i n g o f the d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h w h i c h s o c i e t y w a s still — a c c o r d i n g to Q u e n t i n C r i s p again — ' s t u m b l i n g a b o u t in search o f a w e a p o n w i t h w h i c h to e x t e r m i n a t e this m o n s t e r [ h o m o s e x u a l i t y ] w h o s e shape a n d size w e r e n o t y e t k n o w n o r e v e n g u e s s e d a t ' .130 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E after the w a r . s u c h statistics are as q u o t e d a b o v e are n o t i r r e l e v a n t to the present a r g u m e n t . h o w e v e r . ' c o t t a g i n g ' o r f o r cases o f gross i n d e c e n c y b r o u g h t after p o l i c e raids o n the t y p e o f clubs so enthusiastically f r e q u e n t e d b y J a c k H e w i t a n d Q u e n t i n C r i s p : ' T h e p o l i c e t h o u g h t o f h o m o s e x u a l s as N o r t h A m e r i c a n Indians t h o u g h t o f b i s o n . ' R e l a t i v e l y u n r e v e a l i n g as t h e y are. C h i e f a m o n g s t these are official r e c o r d s o f the y e a r . ( B y contrast. ) 4 It is difficult to g i v e a n y accurate interpretation the majority o f the convictions recorded would o f these statistics have been for - since specific details are n o l o n g e r available. for those l i v i n g in p r o v i n c i a l t o w n s in particular. h o m o s e x u a l offences h a d risen b y 1 7 8 p e r cent in the years u p to 1 9 2 1 .] In a raid a h u n d r e d o r m o r e s c r e a m ­ ing. fighting.y e a r p e r c e n t a g e rise in the n u m b e r o f c o n v i c t i o n s f o r i n d i c t ­ able s e x u a l offences. A t the s a m e t i m e . a n d b y n o less than 5 7 2 p e r c e n t at the o u t b r e a k o f w a r in 1 9 3 9 . facts a n d figures w h i c h p r o v e that for the m a j o r i t y o f h o m o s e x u a l m e n the g o l d e n age w a s y e t t o arrive a n d . that it w a s not. In all l i k e l i h o o d .

F o r ' t r e e . w h i c h w a s n ' t the style in o u r day at C a m b r i d g e [. o n l y ten years p r e v i o u s l y . ' W h o w a s the l a d y in the d r a w i n g r o o m ? H e has a v o i c e l i k e a girls. A m o n g those f o r w h o m the phrase ' s o m e o f m y best friends are q u e e r s ' w a s b e c o m i n g a b a d g e o f liberalism this h a d shifted significantly. i f n o t y e t perhaps for ' o p i n i o n . that n a m e w a s m o r e a n d m o r e f r e q u e n t l y on o t h e r t o n g u e s . W o o l f ' s v i e w s m o r e c l o s e l y e c h o e d w h a t passed for ' e n l i g h t e n e d o p i n i o n ' . M . at least a m o n g w h a t w e w o u l d n o w call the chattering classes. E . for s o m e reason.t h i n k e r s ' . . all the y o u n g m e n t e n d to b e pretty a n d l a d y l i k e . . A l l the y o u n g m e n are so i n c l i n e d . it h a d b e c o m e a l e g i t i m a t e subject for discussion (and it is n o t t o o fanciful to suggest that its a p p e a r a n c e o n the a g e n d a at this t i m e b e g a n the process w h i c h w o u l d l e a d to an a c c e p t a n c e o f the idea o f its d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n thirty o r m o r e years later). T h e y paint a n d p o w d e r . h o w e v e r . in 1 9 2 5 . a n d I c a n ' t h e l p f i n d i n g it m i l d l y foolish. F o r o n e thing. D e s p i t e h a v i n g c o m e to m a t u r i t y in the c o m p a n y o f such n o t a b l e h o m o s e x u a l m e n as L y t t o n S t r a c h e y . F o r s t e r a n d J o h n M a y n a r d K e y n e s in the early years o f the c e n t u r y . a n d a face l i k e a persian cats.f o r m e r s ' . 1 W i t h i n a v e r y f e w years. she h a d talked o f h o m o s e x u a l s in terms w h i c h m u s t h a v e s e e m e d as caricatured in the mid-thirties as t h e y d o t o d a y : H a v e y o u a n y v i e w s o n l o v i n g o n e s o w n sex? [she w r o t e in a letter to J a c q u e s R a v e r a t ] . A l t h o u g h the L o v e T h a t D a r e N o t S p e a k Its N a m e itself m i g h t still h a v e b e e n t o n g u e . ' W e l l . I n e v i t a b l y perhaps. y o u c a n ' t respect the a m o u r s o f a creature l i k e that. all w h i t e a n d serious. m o s t n o t a b l y V i r g i n i a W o o l f . a n d in an a t m o s p h e r e w h e r e intellectual h o n e s t y w a s p r i z e d a b o v e e v e r y t h i n g else.] M y c o o k said.e a s y a t m o s p h e r e o f its own clubs a n d bars. a n d as early as 1 9 3 0 h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s b e i n g a c c o r d e d a n e w seriousness. W h i l e t h e r e w a s still r o o m for the p u b l i c a t i o n that y e a r o f an alarmist b o o k entided . this n e w a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f o r m e d c u r i o s i t y is e x e m p l i f i e d b y the attitudes displayed b y the s u r v i v i n g m e m b e r s o f the B l o o m s b u r y G r o u p . T h r o u g h o u t the 1 9 3 0 s the existence . w i t h l a r g e v i o l e t eyes a n d fluffy c h e e k s .'i H A D T H E T I M E OF M Y L I FE ' 131 In less i n f l a m m a t o r y l a n g u a g e w e m i g h t say that ' c o n c e r n ' w a s b e i n g s h o w n .i f n o t the t o l e r a n c e — o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s increasingly a c k n o w l e d g e d . at the m o m e n t .t i e d e x c e p t in the s p e a k . t h o u g h I h a v e n o particular r e a s o n .

o n e . she h a d offered to appear as a d e f e n c e w i t n e s s . w h i l e his 1 9 0 2 n o v e l LTmmoraliste M o r g a n [Forster] w a s h e r e for the w e e k e n d . T h u s .132 Degenerate Oxford? 9 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E ( h o m o s e x u a l s . y e s . t o o . t i m i d t o u c h y . she r o u t i n e l y a n d n o n .s t a n d i n g friend o f Lytton Strachey).p e j o r a t i v e l y e m p l o y e d such terms) is clear. c o u l d b e spotted b y their ' g a y s u e d e s h o e s ' ) . Frustratingly. T h e y w r o t e articles [defending it] all day a n d g o t u p petitions [.y e a r . as w e shall see.so m u c h so that n e x t day h e said h e h a d b e e n d r u n k . T h i s w a s started b y R a d c l y f f e H a l l a n d h e r m e r i t o r i o u s dull b o o k . almost G i d e a n m o o d . she i m p l i e d .] M o r g a n said that D r H e a d [ W o o l f ' s d o c t o r ] 9 can c o n v e r t the s o d o m i t e s . a n d A n d r é G i d e in particular. it a v e r r e d . G i d e had published first a p p e a r e d in E n g l i s h translation in 1 9 3 0 . n o .H a l l ' s discreetly lesbian n o v e l The Well of Loneliness w a s attracting interest a n d c o n t r o v e r s y in e q u a l m e a s u r e — a n d n o w h e r e m o r e so than a r o u n d the d i n n e r tables o f B l o o m s b u r y . . O n e n i g h t w e g o t d r u n k a n d talked o f s o d o m y and s a p p h i s m . m o r e c o n s i d e r e d attention w a s b e i n g paid to w o r k b y m o r e significant writers. o c c u r in h e r diaries f r o m this t i m e until shortly b e f o r e her death in 1 9 4 1 .w e find the f i f t y . i m p a t i e n t w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i s m . ' N o ' . that the p u b l i c a t i o n a n d p r o s e c u t i o n o f R a d c l y f f e . S o m e t h i n g o f Parisian ' B l o o m s b e r r y ' in his o w n right (and a l o n g . as W o o l f n o t e d in h e r diary: Cory don. ' 1 0 . a neo-Socratic d e f e n c e o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y in 1 9 2 4 . S h e w a s .o l d n o v e l i s t w r i t i n g to h e r n e p h e w Q u e n t i n B e l l in a r e f l e c t i v e . quite d e f i n i t e l y . barely m o r e than five years after the Well of Loneliness trial — in w h i c h . It w a s at this t i m e . she s a w a r o u n d her: ' H o w far can o n e say o p e n l y w h a t is the relation o f a w o m a n a n d a sod? I n F r e n c h . ' q u e e r s ' a n d ' B u g g e r B o y s ' (like m a n y o f h e r a g e a n d class. ' W o u l d y o u like to b e c o n v e r t e d ? ' L e o n a r d [ W o o l f ] asked. . h o w e v e r . b o t h literary a n d social. infinitely c h a r m i n g . said M o r g a n . T h a t she herself r e m a i n e d i n t r i g u e d b y the status o f ' s o d s ' . despite h e r reservations a b o u t the b o o k . b u t in M r [ J o h n ] G a l s w o r t h y ' s English. w i t h e m o t i o n . n e i t h e r h e r e n o r e l s e w h e r e in h e r diaries does W o o l f g i v e specific details o f e x a c d y w h a t late B l o o m s b u r y t h o u g h t o f ' s o d o m y a n d s a p p h i s m ' . f r o m the references to t h e m w h i c h .

t h r o u g h o u t the e v e n i n g t h e y a t t e m p t e d o n l y to speak E n g l i s h . H e i n r i c h H i m m l e r d e c r e e d . It all s e e m e d t o o g o o d to b e true.c a l l e d ' B r o w n s h i r t s ' w e r e a c t i v e l y h o m o s e x u a l . A l o n g s i d e its A r y a n culture o f health. a close associate o f H i d e r a n d c o m m a n d e r o f the S A (Sturmabteilung). E r n s t R o e h m . . T h e dancers w e r e an appalling sight. H a d they o n l y b e e n able to read it. w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n . I n d e e d . H i t l e r h a d n o t i m e for h o m o s e x u a l i t y o r a n y o t h e r manifestation o f m o r a l w e a k n e s s . a reputation w h i c h c o n t i n u e d e v e n after A d o l f H i t l e r c a m e to p o w e r in 1 9 3 3 . H . b y s i n g i n g the E n g l i s h w o r d s .] T h e p a r t i c i ­ pants a c c o m p a n i e d the dances a n d songs.w a r W e i m a r R e p u b l i c h a d a c q u i r e d a r e p u t a t i o n for s e x u a l t o l e r a n c e . T h e r e w e r e e v e n r u m o u r s o f a g r o w i n g climate o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y w i t h i n elite corps o f the G e r m a n a r m y . a quarter o f a c e n t u r y later. Fiihrer. N o n e o f the c o u p l e s d a n c e d . w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n f i r m e d in the radicalism o f their beliefs b y an internal H i t l e r Y o u t h r e p o r t o n a ' s w i n g ' festival w h i c h w a s h e l d in H a m b u r g as late as F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 0 : T h e d a n c e m u s i c w a s all E n g l i s h a n d A m e r i c a n [. a y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n o f W o o l f 's ' B u g g e r B o y s ' h a d l o n g shared this i m p a t i e n c e . t o o . p r o v i n c i a l a n d puritanical. to t h e m B r i t a i n still s e e m e d c o l d . it w a s . w h o h a d m o v e d o r (in A u d e n ' s case) seasonally m i g r a t e d to G e r m a n y d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s d e c a d e . I n c o n c e n ­ tration camps t h e y w e r e identified b y the p i n k triangle s y m b o l w h i c h . in the n a m e o f the (Schutzstaffel) o r p o l i c e officer purposes will be condemned 'engaging to death i n d e c e n t b e h a v i o u r w i t h a n o t h e r m a n o r a l l o w i n g h i m s e l f to b e a b u s e d O u t s i d e the military. the p o s t . 0 0 0 w e r e killed. that a n y S S b y h i m for i n d e c e n t executed'. a n d ultimately. R e p o r t s o f the l o u c h e n e s s a n d ' d i v i n e d e c a d e n c e ' o f bars in H a m b u r g a n d B e r l i n w e r e a r r i v i n g a l m o s t daily. to their e y e s s o m e w h e r e l i k e G e r m a n y w a s w h e r e the future lay. It has b e e n estimated that s o m e 6 0 . C e r t a i n l y . fitness a n d h i k i n g . 11 on in and 1 5 N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 1 . a n d m a n y other officers in the s o . T h e B r o w n s h i r t s w e r e d i s b a n d e d in 1 9 3 4 and.'i H A D T H E T I M E O F M Y L I F E ' 133 I n e v i t a b l y . F o r all the furtive pleasures w h i c h L o n d o n offered. H i t l e r c l a m p e d d o w n o n h o m o ­ sexuals almost as ruthlessly as h e d i d o n gypsies a n d the J e w s . at s o m e tables e v e n F r e n c h . w a s a d o p t e d as an international s y m b o l o f g a y p r i d e . o f c o u r s e . A u d e n . In c o m p a r i s o n w i t h ' a b r o a d ' a n d the f o r b i d d e n fruit everyone k n e w to b e available there. h o w e v e r . . the likes o f C h r i s t o p h e r I s h e r w o o d a n d W .

12 I s h e r w o o d w a s later to l e a v e n o o n e in a n y d o u b t a b o u t his m o t i v e s for m o v i n g to G e r m a n y : in his t h i r d . . found 1 3 h e states e x p l i c i t l y that ' T o C h r i s t o p h e r . l o o s e j o i n t e d ' . B e r l i n m e a n t J o h n L e h m a n n . h o w e v e r . always with t w o cigarettes in the m o u t h . the preternaturally looking J o h n L e h m a n n . H u g h W a l p o l e o r B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s . R a t h e r . H e t h o u g h t h i m s e l f the greatest p o e t o f all t i m e .134 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E n o r m a l l y [. fresh-faced a n d articulate in a diffident k i n d o f w a y . H e w a s a ' s o d ' u n l i k e a n y she h a d p r e v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r e d and. H e w a s tall. . in a B e r l i n Lokal as h e w a s in a n y B l o o m s b u r y d r a w i n g r o o m — a n d i n e v i t a b l y . he was a generation y o u n g e r and fundamen­ tally different in attitude to the likes o f F o r s t e r a n d S t r a c h e y . a n d b e g a n e x p l o r i n g the h i t h e r t o u n i m a g i n a b l e s e x u a l f r e e d o m a v a i l ­ able in B e r l i n a n d o n R i i g e n Island. enthusiastically ' t o o k h i m u p ' . F o r t h e m . w a s d r a w n there at this p e r i o d a n d rapidly 14 h i m s e l f 'in a daze.] t h e y all ' j i t t e r b u g g e d ' o n the stage l i k e w i l d creatures. L a d y C o l e f a x a n d L a d y O t t o l i n e M o r r e l l . h e r e p r e s e n t e d a ' g o o d c a t c h ' . H e s e e m e d as at h o m e . a d e c o r a t i v e addition to the guest-lists o f their w e e k l y 'at h o m e s ' a n d a n o v e l alternative to the likes of.p e r s o n a u t o b i o g r a p h y Christopher and His Kind Boys'. H e w a s 'a rattle h e a d e d b o l t e y e d y o u n g m a n . B u t S p e n d e r ' s is a c o m p l e x story .a n d brings us b a c k to L o n d o n . A w a r e o f b u t t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y quite u n s u i t e d to the w h o l l y u n . S p e n d e r w a s rather m o r e than that. the S p e n d e r o f this p e r i o d ( r o u g h l y f r o m 1 9 3 1 until his precipitate first m a r r i a g e at the e n d o f 1 9 3 6 ) w a s in m a n y respects the e p i t o m e o f a n e w . h e s o o n c a m e to k n o w a g o o d n u m b e r o f these. r a w b o n e s . h e w a s n e v e r really a part o f the p r o m i s c u ­ ous w o r l d o f A u d e n a n d I s h e r w o o d . at least to b e g i n w i t h . she o b s e r v e d h i m w i t h forensic detachment. Several boys could be observed dancing together. Like another a b o u t h i m there is the goods u g g e s t i o n that she f o u n d h i m n o t quite ' o n e o f us'. F o r W o o l f . In h e r c a n d i d a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y caustic c o m m e n t s intrigued. as an a m b i t i o u s y o u n g w r i t e r .E n g l i s h m o r e s o f the K i t K a t C l u b . o r equally ill-at-ease.W i l d e a n a n d specifically E n g l i s h h o m o s e x u a l i t y . m y h e a d s w i m m i n g w i t h pretty b o y s ' i n v i t i n g E v e n S t e p h e n S p e n d e r t o o k the p l u n g e smiles a n d i n v i t i n g t h i g h s ' . say. she n o t e d . o n e in each c o r n e r . p o s t . as w e l l as the indefatigable V i r g i n i a W o o l f a n d the o t h e r s o c i e t y hostesses o f the day. t o o . b u t she w a s o f h e r p r o t é g é s .

c l a s s district o f C a r d i f f a n d s e e m i n g l y r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g m o r e than an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n .' D o n ' t c h a n g e o f c o u r s e . in w h i c h his relationship w i t h that ' S e r g e a n t in the G u a r d s ' is discreetly d o w n . H e w a s . [ S p e n d e r ] is w r i t i n g a b o u t H e n r y J a m e s a n d has tea a l o n e w i t h O t t o l i n e a n d is m a r r i e d to a S e r g e a n t in the G u a r d s . that seems to h a v e b e e n a flight o f W o o l f s i m a g i n a t i o n . 1 6 is S i e g f r i e d W r i t i n g a b o u t the s a m e p e r i o d . R a t h e r . T h e r e s W i l l i a m P l o m e r . the m a n S p e n d e r calls J i m m y Y o u n g e r in World Within World (a p s e u d o n y m m a i n t a i n e d b y I s h e r w o o d in Christopher and His Kind) w a s n o m o r e than an o r d i n a r y e x .b u t she a n d h e r h u s b a n d L e o n a r d still t h o u g h t it w o r t h i n v i t i n g h i m to a succession o f l u n c h e s a n d dinners. w i t h his p o l i c e m e n . a sergeant.'i HAD THE TIME OF M Y LIFE' 135 ('I daresay h e is — it's n o t a subject that interests m e e n o r m o u s l y at the m o m e n t ' ) 1 5 . t h e n A u d e n a n d J o e A c k e r l y [sic] all l o d g e d in M a i d a V a l e . a n d w e a r i n g different c o l o u r e d Lilies. I e x p e c t w e shall b e a l o n e . already t h e w o u l d ostensibly h a v e h a d n o t h i n g in c o m m o n . I p r o p o s e to call t h e m the Lilies o f the V a l l e y . T o n y H y n d m a n h a d b e e n b o r n in a w o r k i n g . O n e w a n t s to cut a f i g u r e . o r e v e n in the G u a r d s . W e s h o u l d b e grateful that t h e y h a p p e n e d at all. she is w r i t i n g the day after S p e n d e r h a d b e e n to d i n n e r o n e n i g h t in D e c e m b e r 1 9 3 3 . the sort o f m a n w h o m an O x f o r d . H e w a s n ' t . h o w e v e r .t w e n t i e s — h a l f the age o f his host a n d hostess. t h e n S t e p h e n [ S p e n d e r ] . for instance. T h e y [the n e w g e n e r a t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l writers] h a v e set u p a n e w quarter in M a i d a V a l e .m i n d e d W o o l f s it m i g h t j u s t as w e l l h a v e b e e n : I see b e i n g y o u n g as hellish. S p e n d e r h i m s e l f is characteristically m o r e restrained — n o w h e r e m o r e so than in his 1 9 5 1 a u t o b i o g r a p h y World Within World. I n f o r m a l b y their standards .u p .n a r r o w . b l u s h i n g p o e t t h e n still o n l y in his m i d . with supper-time pet o f hostesses s u c h as V i r g i n i a W o o l f a n d L a d y O t t o l i n e M o r r e l l .p l a y e d . It w a s n o B e r l i n she w a s describing. .e d u c a t e d w o u l d .b e p o e t . a p i c k . ' she w a s w o n t to w r i t e in h e r terse notes o f i n v i t a t i o n — these w e r e nevertheless a terrifying o r d e a l f o r a s t a m m e r i n g . a bit o f r o u g h . f o r a start.s e r v i c e m a n . t h e b e t t e r to get to k n o w h i m . b u t for the n o r m a l l y farf r o m . H e r e . he's g o n e a n d m a r r i e d a w o m a n . s i n c e W o o l f 's r e c o l l e c t i o n s p r o v i d e a u n i q u e outsider's e y e v i e w o f the faste v o l v i n g h o m o s e x u a l c o m m u n i t y . in short. T h e i r great s o r r o w at the m o m e n t Sassoon's d e f e c t i o n .

o f c o u r s e . there w e r e the b o y s w h o w e r e n ' t o n the g a m e b u t w h o w e r e a m e n a b l e (pick s o m e o n e u p . t h e y find a b o y t h e y l i k e a n d t h e n t h e y try to r e m o d e l h i m . life for y o u n g m e n l i k e h i m — a n d the s l i g h d y o l d e r T o n y H y n d m a n .h a d b e c o m e a business: D u r i n g the thirties the w h o l e o f the q u e e r w o r l d w a s d i v i d e d into castes. ' T h e y t e n d e d to b e o l d e r a n d b e t t e r o f f and. h e ' l l g i v e y o u h a l f a c r o w n . g o to b e d w i t h t h e m ) . h e h a d r e c e i v e d an a d v a n c e for his b o o k o n H e n r y J a m e s (published as The Destructive Element in 1 9 3 5 ) a n d w a s g e n e r a l l y e n j o y i n g life in médias res. a n d g o a n d h a v e d i n n e r w i t h t h e m . almost s e i g n ­ eurial relationship between the Wildean buck and the cowed. m o r e c o m m e r c i a l b u t i r o n i c a l l y rather less e x p l o i t a t i v e . ' N e v e r m i n d . H e w a s a p u b l i s h e d p o e t . W h a t a l o t o f p e o p l e d o is.f a s h i o n e d t e r m f o r t h e m . T h e r e w e r e the b o y s o n the g a m e . there w e r e the 'steamers' o r p u n t e r s t h e m s e l v e s . right. h e ' s a steamer. A s ' J o h n ' . things w e r e n o t as simple as that. Y o u w e r e n ' t j u s t t a k e n o u t b e c a u s e y o u w e r e pretty. y o u w e r e t a k e n o u t b e c a u s e y o u w e r e a pretty face in the first p l a c e . H e w a s o n the crest o f a w a v e . b u t y o u w e r e n ' t t a k e n o u t the s e c o n d t i m e b e c a u s e y o u w e r e j u s t a pretty face. in high society. 17 S p e n d e r s e e m i n g l y m e t T o n y w h i l e o u t ' c r u i s i n g ' in the W e s t E n d o f L o n d o n . T h e o t h e r day a cissy friend o f [his b r o t h e r ] H u m p h r e y ' s g o t o f f a bus. a T y n e sider b o r n in 1 9 1 7 .b o y w a s e v o l v i n g i n t o s o m e t h i n g m o r e formal. A n d then. a n d there w e r e the ' k e p t ' b o y s . T h a t ' s the o l d . ' I s p e n d m o s t o f m y e v e n i n g s in the A m u s e m e n t P a r k n e a r M a r b l e A r c h o r the H a y m a r k e t . W h i c h is s t u p i d . y o u s e e . I first h e a r d it w h e n I w a s a b o u t thirteen and s o m e b o d y said. ' O h . ' T w o days a g o I . as m u s t h a v e b e c o m e clear b y n o w . c o m p l i a n t s e r v a n t .136 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E B u t . T h e o l d . for S p e n d e r o r a n y o n e else. I'll c o m e a l o n g e r o n e n e x t t i m e . ' h e t o l d I s h e r w o o d at a r o u n d this t i m e . o f c o u r s e . tries to e x p l a i n . ' so E d d y said. a n d as h e a l i g h t e d the c o n d u c t o r s m i r k e d & said. H e went on: L o n d o n seems m u c h i m p r o v e d . Politics a n d the e c o n o m i c situation h a d c h a n g e d the essential d y n a m i c o f the h o m o s e x u a l w o r l d as f u n d a ­ m e n t a l l y as t h e y h a d c h a n g e d e v e r y t h i n g else. ' W h a t a short ride y o u ' v e b e e n . k n o w i n g that I s h e r w o o d w o u l d k n o w w h a t h e m e a n t .

then. I w a s in t h e m o o d w h e n p e o p l e advertise f o r a c o m p a n i o n i n the n e w s p a p e r s . B y his o w n a c c o u n t h e w a s e a r n i n g a bare £ 3 a w e e k f r o m h a c k j o u r n a l i s m at this t i m e . o n e o f t h e m o r e pedestrian. l a r g e l y b e c a u s e I w a s furious w i t h h i m f o r h a v i n g so litde t o d o .t h e n I r e p e n t e d b e c a u s e I realized that t h e r e really w a s v e r y litde h e c o u l d d o . t h e g r a c e . 21 .m a k e s t h e S p e n d e r .T o n y relationship a useful a r c h e t y p e . ' S o o n . S p e n d e r h i m s e l f has a d m i t t e d that a s k i n g T o n y to ' w o r k f o r m e ' m a d e n o e c o n o m i c sense at all. ( ' T h e r e w e r e g a y marriages g o i n g o n . H e w a s hardly i n t h e B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s league. ' I a m .'i H A D THE TIME OF M Y L I F E ' 137 w e n t t o Sadler's W e l l s w i t h m y sister. Spender found the apparently g o o d . It w a s u n d o u b t e d l y o n l y o n e a m o n g m a n y — t h e r e w a s ' P l o m e r . although the periphrasis f o o l e d n o o n e . as these things w e n t . g o o d . t o o . o f c o u r s e — and. Nevertheless. and he had neither the means n o r the n e e d for a 'secretary'. called J i m m y Y o u n g e r . I w o r k e d .a n d . possibly e v e n sarcastic.n a t u r e d i f rather a r g u m e n t a t i v e J i m m y Y o u n g e r / T o n y H y n d m a n rather m o r e than a o n e . I u s e d t o e n q u i r e o f m y friends o f their friends in case t h e y k n e w a n y o n e suitable. f o r s o m e t i m e the relationship s e e m e d t o w o r k : ' W e p a i n t e d o u r M a i d a V a l e flat. ' 2 0 T h e r e is s o m e t h i n g b r e a t h t a k i n g l y a u d a c i o u s e v e n i n this e u p h e m ­ istic a c c o u n t . H o w e v e r . ' J o h n ' 's m e m o r i e s suggest that t h e almost casual ' a s k e d h i m to l i v e in m y flat' w a s m e r e l y comme il faut for s o m e o n e o f S p e n d e r ' s class a n d p e r s u a s i o n — a n d V i r g i n i a W o o l f s i r o n i c .n i g h t stand: ' I d i d n o t w a n t to l i v e a l o n e a n d I d i d n o t c o n s i d e r m a r r y i n g . ' ) B u t the w e a l t h o f detail available — sanitized a n d selective t h o u g h it u n d o u b t e d l y is . ' h e r e p l i e d w i t h an e n t i c i n g s m i l e . S o w h e n b y c h a n c e I m e t a y o u n g m a n w h o w a s u n e m p l o y e d . least o f all V i r g i n i a W o o l f .l o o k i n g . ' A n g e l ? ' i n a q u e r y i n g v o i c e . O n e w o u l d get i n t o drag as a b r i d e a n d s o m e b o d y w o u l d m a r r y t h e m a n d [they w o u l d ] h a v e a p a r t y . so I h e l d o u t o u r tickets to the c o l l e c t o r a n d said. 19 18 S o m e t h i n g o f a 'steamer' . w e e n t e r t a i n e d a n d w e r e entertained. J i m m y c o o k e d . I d i d n o t k n o w w h e t h e r w e w e r e in the right t u b e f o r A n g e l [station].f a v o u r r o l e w h i c h T o n y w a s assigned. O c c a s i o n a l l y w e quarrelled. W e h a v e already seen that it w a s b a s e d o n a c h a n c e encounter. description o f S p e n d e r as ' m a r r i e d ' t o T o n y o n l y serves to e m p h a s i z e the ' n o r m a l i t y ' o f t h e situation. w i t h his p o l i c e m e n ' . I asked h i m to l i v e i n m y flat a n d w o r k f o r m e .

o l d m e n faced m i c r o p h o n e s to l e a v e us a v i v i d .' show. ( W e w e r e n o t p u t t i n g u p w i t h a n y such n o n s e n s e as ' A u C h a t N o i r ' w h i c h w a s w r i t t e n o v e r the w i n d o w . 'Isn't it terrible t o n i g h t . . T h a t w e k n o w so m u c h a b o u t it is also significant since it is from a b o u t this p e r i o d .b y w o u l d h a v e to b e v e r y i n n o c e n t i n d e e d n o t to catch the m e a n i n g o f the m a n n e q u i n w a l k a n d the stance in w h i c h the h i p w a s o n l y p r e v e n t e d f r o m total dislocation b y the h a n d p l a c e d u p o n i t . b o o k s w e r e p u b l i s h e d a n d a l r e a d y .138 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E h o w e v e r . liberal. S o . I passed y o u n g m e n standing at the street corners w h o said. B u t the q u e s t i o n w a s m a d e rather theoretical b y the fact that i f h e h a d left m e h e w o u l d s i m p l y h a v e b e e n t h r o w n a m o n g s t the millions o f the u n e m p l o y e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g a m a l g a m o f their i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s tells a story w h i c h is g r e a t e r than the s u m o f its parts: A s I w a n d e r e d a l o n g P i c c a d i l l y o r Shaftesbury A v e n u e . h o w e v e r .w i n g mistake? ' I s o m e t i m e s asked m y s e l f w h e t h e r I shouldn't be doing h i m m o r e g o o d b y turning h i m o u t . I h a d n e v e r b e l i e v e d that I w o u l d actually see o n e . w a s s y m p t o m a t i c o f the a g e . H e r e they w e r e for all the w o r l d to r e c o g n i z e — o r almost all the w o r l d . T h e i r e m o t i o n a l f a n d a n g o . the strains in this inter-class ' m a r r i a g e ' b e g a n to F o r it w a s h e w h o w a s l i v i n g m y life. ' T h o u g h the I n d i a n b o y at s c h o o l h a d o n c e a m a z e d us all w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n that in B i r m i n g h a m there w e r e m a l e prostitutes. w e sat h u d d l e d t o g e t h e r in a café called the B l a c k C a t . l e f t . dear? N o m e n a b o u t . than b y k e e p i n g h i m w i t h m e . n o t I his. ' 2 2 S p e n d e r a n d T o n y stayed t o g e t h e r — S p e n d e r a d o p t i n g increasingly desperate strategies to k e e p t h e m so — for a r o u n d three years. . T h e D i l l y ' s n o t w h a t it u s e d to b e . F r e e d from the fear o f p r o s e c u t i o n b y the d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y in 1 9 6 7 .that w e c a n b e g i n to t u r n to the w r i t t e n a n d oral records o f other. S p e n d e r realized that 'the pressure w a s greater o n h i m than o n m e . h a d n ' t it all b e e n a b i g . I n o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s it w o u l d certainly h a v e b e e n better to force h i m to stand o n his o w n feet. 23 . m e n w h o w e r e there.the years l e a d i n g u p to the o u t b r e a k o f w a r in 1 9 3 9 . m o r e o r d i n a r y . first-hand p i c t u r e o f the h o m o s e x u a l w o r l d as it e x i s t e d in the late 1 9 3 0 s . ) T h i s w a s in O l d C o m p t o n . A p a s s e r .

b u t it w a s m o s d y a r o u n d S o h o . n i g h t after loveless n i g h t . t h e y w o u l d doubtless h a v e he done m u c h m o r e to p r o v o k e h i m . c o m b i n g e a c h o t h e r ' s hair a n d t r y i n g o n each o t h e r ' s lipsticks. 2 4 I used to b e l o n g to all the clubs. 27 . ' A n d I a g r e e d . A s it w a s w e o n l y b o r e d h i m b y m a k i n g . ' W h a t a l o v e l y d a y . H a d the denizens o f the B l a c k C a t k n o w n w a s such a desperate character. e a c h c u p o f tea last as l o n g as a f o u r course m e a l . T h e f a m o u s o n e . it w a s h a l f a c r o w n a y e a r t o b e a m e m b e r . T h e y w e r e mostly around S o h o . o f c o u r s e . A n d h e said. 2 5 D a y after u n e v e n t f u l day. a n d she g o t to k n o w y o u e v e n t u a l l y . there w e r e a couple in M a y f a i r . It w a s a f o r m a l g a m e o f i n n u e n d o e s a b o u t o t h e r p e o p l e b e i n g o l d e r than t h e y said. it w a s a beautiful spring day. w a s a c l u b in P a n t o n Street. F r o m t i m e to t i m e h e t h r e w love or m o n e y or both. ' . w h o later a c h i e v e d a f a m e that w e w o u l d h a v e then t h o u g h t quite b e y o n d h i m . U s u a l l y r u n b y a w o m a n for h o m o s e x u a l customers. It h a d a h o r s e s h o e bar o f occasionally s c r u b b e d w o o d . R o m i l l y Street. ' I l i k e the l o o k o f y o u . 2 6 us o u t . It l o o k e d l i k e a d o z e n o t h e r cafés in S o h o . N o t h i n g at all w a s m e a n t b y it.l o o k i n g m a n w h o m I d i d n ' t k n o w . b l a c k a n d w h i t e c h e c k l i n o l e u m o n the floor a n d mirrors e v e r y w h e r e . T h a t ' s h o w o n e u s e d to m e e t p e o p l e . In that h a p p i e r t i m e all w a s squalor a n d a silence spangled o n l y w i t h the s w i s h o f k n i v e s a n d the tinkle o f glass as the w i n d o w s o f the B l a c k C a t g o t p u s h e d i n . S u c h c o n v e r ­ sation w a s t h o u g h t to b e smart a n d so v e r y f e m i n i n e . W h e n this h a p p e n e d w e w a l t z e d r o u n d the n e i g h b o u r i n g streets in search o f In the café there w a s a lot o f stylized cattiness. Y o u h a d to s h o w a card. W e w e r e w a i t e d o n w i t h i n d u l g e n t c o n t e m p t b y an elderly g e n t l e m a n . M o s d y o n l y a r o o m u p a staircase. o n e day I ' d b e e n s t o p p e d in the street b y a g o o d . . T h e d e a f e n i n g glass b o x e s in w h i c h n o w a d a y s customers sit a n d eat w i t h their ankles o n v i e w to the p u b l i c h a d n o t t h e n b e e n built. w i t h l a d y l i k e sips. a b o u t their teeth b e i n g false a n d their hair b e i n g a w i g . w h o said. a n d also the M u s i c B o x . b y b e i n g i n v o l v e d in a m u r d e r case. .D e a n Street. Y o u got a membership through another m e m b e r or y o u w e r e taken and m a d e a m e m b e r . b u t this w a s n e v e r u n k i n d l y m e a n t .'i HAD THE TIME OF M Y LIFE' 139 Street. w e sat in this café b u y i n g e a c h o t h e r cups o f tea.

h o m o s e x u a l and heterosexual. In A p r i l 1 9 3 9 . a large table c o v e r e d w i t h paints a n d brushes. In L o n d o n a n d o t h e r m a j o r cities t h e r e w a s a m a n d a t o r y n i g h t . a n d w o u l d b r i n g a bottle. a n d a h a l f e m p t y b o t d e of wine. ' A n d w e n t . A U I c o u l d find to say w a s : ' L e t ' s d o it a g a i n . y o u k n o w . I l i k e the l o o k o f y o u .140 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E ' M u t u a l .t i m e b l a c k o u t . A n d I realised this w a s w h a t p r o b a b l y w e n t o n in small g r o u p s o f p e o p l e m e e t i n g ostensibly for b i r t h d a y parties. " 3 T h e clubs d i d n ' t close a n d the p a r t y i n g d i d n ' t o b e d i e n t l y e n d w h e n .a n d then. i f rather lazy l o v e r [. W e w o k e u p late. It w a s all m a l e . the greatest imposition was already a fact o f life. ' ' I n the m o r n i n g . a n d it p r o v e d to b e . R o u g h l y a b o u t fifteen m e n o f all sorts. a n d g a v e m e a l o n g kiss. Neville Chamberlain. for m o n t h after m o n t h . a n d dark a n d fair. ' w h i s p e r e d D u n c a n . ' a n d I hesitated. M y e y e o p e n e d o n a l a r g e u n t i d y studio w i t h a n o r t h light in the r o o f w h i c h h a d n ' t b e e n c l e a n e d for a l o n g t i m e . s m i l i n g happily. 2 8 I used to g i v e parties l i k e m a d .] W h i l e w e l o o k e d i n t o o n e another's eyes. I ' d l o v e t o . a n d h e ruffled m y hair. bottle parties. I m u s t say — a party entirely o f m e n in a private h o u s e . 2 9 Have . w h i s p e r e d : ' I ' m g o i n g to take y o u b a c k to m y studio n o w . W h e n w e w e r e l i v i n g in r o o m s w e u s e d to h a v e p a y parties. the P r i m e Minister. B u t n o r did w a r c o m e i m m e d i a t e l y o n that bright S u n d a y m o r n i n g . . ' W o u l d y o u like to c o m e to m y b i r t h d a y party o n S a t u r d a y . a n d in s o m e c u r i o u s w a y pleased. D u n c a n p l i e d m e w i t h m o r e d r i n k — it w a s a v e r y strong c u p w i t h w h i t e w i n e a n d gin in it . ' T h a t n i g h t w a s the first h a p p y s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e I h a d in m y life. a f e w b o o k s . v e r y litde did c o m e . b u t for m o s t adult males. h e said s u d d e n l y : ' Y o u take m e j u s t as i f I w e r e a w o m a n . and s o m e shy a n d s o m e quite o u t g o i n g . d e c i d i n g that I w a s not l i k e l y to resist a n y m o r e . tall a n d short.to m y surprise. O r p e o p l e w o u l d b r i n g cut s a n d w i c h e s so t h i c k n o b o d y w o u l d eat t h e m . . a c o p y o f the New Statesman. t o o . a n n o u n c e d that 'this c o u n t r y is at w a r w i t h G e r m a n y ' .in the p o s t . D u n c a n w a s a g o o d .M u n i c h lull w h i c h . ' Y e s . ' H e said. on 3 September 1 9 3 9 . v e r y secret. ' I w a s startled. t h e n said. . In fact. T h e r e w a s a l w a y s a party s o m e w h e r e . . as I lay o n t o p o f h i m after w e h a d c o m e .

A p p r o v e d b y P a r l i a m e n t a n d g i v e n r o y a l assent the f o l l o w i n g m o n t h . official e n v e l o p e s w e r e d r o p p i n g t h r o u g h tens o f thousands o f letter b o x e s s u m m o n i n g m e n . n o b l o o d y n o n s e n s e .I said. the a n d e v e n their a p p e a r a n c e b e f o r e a m e d i c a l b o a r d p o s e d particular p r o b l e m s . W i t h i n thirty-six hours o f C h a m b e r l a i n ' s declaration o f w a r . B a s i c training w a s u n d e r s c o r e d b y a sense o f dull f o r e b o d i n g a n d u n d e r t a k e n w i t h the n u m b e d q u i e t u d e w h i c h S t e p h e n S p e n d e r f o u n d a m o n g the m e n w h o .b a s h i n g .'i H A D THE TIME OF M Y LIFE' 141 n o m i n a l l y passed for p e a c e — the g o v e r n m e n t h a d i n t r o d u c e d a l i m i t e d form o f c o n s c r i p t i o n . this h a d b e e n s u p e r s e d e d b y the e m e r g e n c y N a t i o n a l S e r v i c e ( A r m e d Forces) A c t . a n d v e r y f e w f o u n d themselves t u r n e d d o w n for a c t i v e s e r v i c e p u r e l y b e c a u s e o f their . I ' d l i k e to g o i n t o the N a v y . T o h a v e a d m i t t e d their h o m o s e x u a l i t y t h e n a n d t h e r e w o u l d h a v e resulted in the threat o f later p r o s e c u t i o n . h a v e y o u a n y particular p r e f e r e n c e for w h i c h s e r v i c e y o u w a n t to g o i n t o ? ' A n d I said. a n d that's a f u n n y little story.m u g g e r that w a s s e r v i c e life. there's a w a r o n . ' B e c a u s e I ' d h e a r d things a b o u t the N a v y ! A n d h e said. ' 32 3 F o r g a y m e n in particular rigours o f basic training the h u g g e r . w e r e m a d e liable to c o n s c r i p t i o n . A n d [the r e c r u i t i n g officer] said. S o o n .o n e to u n d e r g o six m o n t h s o f basic s q u a r e . ' H a v e y o u a n y special r e a s o n ? ' A n d — I w a s j o k i n g . ' H e w a s furious. regardless o f their class o r s e x u a l orientation. v e r y A m e r i c a n . I w e n t a n d v o l u n t e e r e d [recalled ' T r e v o r ' ] . ' S u r e . w e r e m a d e to o b e y h u m i l i a t i n g and often ridiculous orders g i v e n to t h e m b y officers w h o m t h e y s o m e t i m e s c o n s i d e r e d to b e their inferiors. T h e n c e f o r t h . A p e r i o d o f e n f o r c e d military service t h r e a t e n e d to destroy the w h o l e t e n o r o f their lives. to hastily o p e n e d r e c r u i t m e n t offices. I w e n t to this office a n d g a v e m y n a m e a n d address. H e said. w e r e d i r e c t e d to the A u x i l i a r y F i r e S e r v i c e : ' T h e y w o r e d u n g a r e e s l i k e r o m p e r s . s a v i n g o n l y those d e e m e d e x e m p t b y a 1 9 3 8 S c h e d u l e o f R e s e r v e d O c c u p a t i o n s . ' L i s t e n mister. h o w e v e r .at least for w h a t w a s e v e n t h e n b e c o m i n g k n o w n as 'the d u r a t i o n ' — all m e n a g e d b e t w e e n e i g h t e e n a n d f o r t y o n e . ' Y e s . l i k e h i m . ' ' G a y o r straight. n o t e v e r y p r o s p e c t i v e c o n s c r i p t d i s p l a y e d s u c h s a n g ­ froid w h e n faced b y the call-up b o a r d . t o o . a n d w e r e r o b b e d o f the little d i g n i t y w h i c h they h a d attained in c i v i l i a n l i f e . ' W e l l . the M i l i t a r y T r a i n i n g A c t c o m p e l l e d all m e n a g e d t w e n t y a n d t w e n t y . I t h i n k N a v y b l u e a n d m y b l u e eyes w o u l d l o o k fine t o g e t h e r .

t o o . I n s p i r e d b y the qualified success o f a similar c a m p a i g n in the U n i t e d States. a n d I k n e w that h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s absolutely f o r b i d d e n in the a r m e d forces a n d that t h e r e w e r e h o r r e n d o u s sanctions against it — b u t I fully i n t e n d e d to c o n t i n u e l e a d i n g an a c t i v e h o m o s e x u a l life. A s part o f m y m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n I w a s s e e n b y a psychiatrist w h o asked m e w h e t h e r I was homosexual. 35 w a s m a d e sociable b y o u r t o l e r a n c e o f each S e c o n d e d to I n t e l l i g e n c e . . I realised it w a s g o i n g to b e d a n g e r o u s . in the m i d . o r at least n o t nearly as b a d as t h e y h a d i m a g i n e d it w o u l d b e . T h i s d e s c r i b e d m e as b e i n g i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g in grades A . u n t y p i c a l l y perhaps.] ' Y o u ' l l n e v e r b e w a n t e d . 33 worn immediate T h e m a j o r i t y o f h o m o s e x u a l m e n h a d n o o p t i o n b u t to m a k e the best o f things. b u t I w e n t i n t o it quite deliberately.142 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E s e x u a l p r o c l i v i t i e s . S o I just l o o k e d shocked a n d said.' h e recalled. g o o d nature a n d h u m o u r o f the m e n [. . f o u n d his days in u n i f o r m u n e x p e c t e d l y c o n g e n i a l . w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n u n s y m p a t h e t i c in other other'. d e t e r m i n e d sense o f a d v e n t u r e ' : I k n e w I w a s o n e h u n d r e d p e r cent h o m o s e x u a l . f o u n d s e r v i c e life u n e x p e c t e d l y c o n g e n i a l . ' N e i l ' . t o o . ' I h a d the t i m e o f m y life. w i t h m y eyes wide open. B . b e c a u s e I suffered from sexual perversion. circumstances. etc. . b u t the authorities w e r e n o t h a v i n g a n y o f that [. an o c c u p a t i o n in w h i c h I h a d h a d considerable practice. .1 9 9 0 s B r i t i s h g a y a n d lesbian pressure g r o u p s l e d b y . ' N o ! ' 3 4 to play the s y s t e m at its o w n g a m e a n d l o o k e d f o r w a r d to service life w i t h 'a ' N e i l ' h a d a ' g o o d w a r ' a n d r e m a i n e d in the services after 1 9 4 5 . ' [the d o c t o r ] said a n d thrust at m e a smaller p i e c e o f paper. S p e n d e r f o u n d that life in his fire station billet ' b r o u g h t o u t the w a r m t h .] character. B e v e r l e y N i c h o l s . O t h e r s . O n l y e x t r e m e cases l i k e Q u e n t i n C r i s p — w h o at the t i m e o f his m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n h a d d y e d c r i m s o n hair at 'hooligan length' — were granted a complete and exemption: I w a s fully p r e p a r e d to m a r c h at the h e a d o f m y m e n .

36 toleration Fascinatingly. H e w a s the first o f m a n y g a y s e r v i c e m e n a n d w o m e n I m e t d u r i n g f o u r years i n the n a v y a n d later the R .m i n d e d with w h i c h they w e r e generally accepted: In 1 9 4 3 I h a d a D i v i s i o n a l O f f i c e r . Fearful as m a n y w e r e that m i l i t a r y life w o u l d b e ' l i k e s c h o o l o r e v e n O x f o r d ' all o v e r again. letters c i v i l liberties b u t a different. C u r r e n t affairs p r o g r a m m e s o n radio a n d t e l e v i s i o n preferred to rehearse the c o n t e m p o r a r y side o f the a r g u m e n t . impartial a n d u n s o l i c i t e d r e c o l l e c t i o n s s u c h as these c o r r o b o r a t e a tantalizingly small a r c h i v e o f first-hand r e m i n i s c e n c e s b y the h o m o s e x u a l m e n w h o s e r v e d in a n y o f the t h r e e services d u r i n g the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r . O v e r a l l . A s e n t e n c e l i k e ' I w a s six years a n d a h u n d r e d a n d . . .b o y s a n d aggression w e r e still part o f the a t m o s p h e r e ' a n d ' y o u .a l t h o u g h ' h o m o p h o b i a . t h e m a j o r i t y o f those w h o h a v e recalled the e x p e r i e n c e l o o k b a c k w i t h a m i x t u r e o f relief.the b r o a d .r u n n i n g c a m p a i g n to o v e r t u r n a b a n o n lesbian a n d g a y m e n s e r v i n g in the B r i t i s h a r m e d forces.despite M i n i s t r y o f D e f e n c e statistics p u r p o r t i n g to s h o w d e e p . nostalgia a n d affection. A simple rule w a s o b s e r v e d b y b o t h h e t e r o s e x u a l s a n d h o m o s e x u a l s — n o s e x u a l activity w i t h i n the confines o f the barracks o r e l s e w h e r e on duty. D e a r Sir. o f the b a n e m e r g e d in the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e Unexpectedly perhaps. I s e r v e d in the a r m y as a b a n d b o y in the late F o r t i e s [rising] to S e r g e a n t in 1 9 5 9 .'i H A D THE TIME OF M Y LIFE' 143 S t o n e w a l l a n d R a n k O u t s i d e r s intensified their l o n g . the issue briefly b e c a m e the subject o f national debate. a captain o f M a r i n e s . D u r i n g this p e r i o d I w a s a w a r e that I w a s s e r v i n g w i t h s o m e h o m o s e x u a l s a n d can c o n f i r m that it w a s n o t a p r o b l e m . w h o w a s o v e r t l y g a y . I did n o t see o r h e a r o f a n y t r o u b l e [or] loss o f discipline . newspapers. parallel case for the reversal columns o f broadsheet from heterosexual ex- s e r v i c e m e n h i g h l i g h t e d b o t h the role w h i c h h o m o s e x u a l f i g h t i n g m e n p l a y e d in the services from the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r until the present day and . W h i l e legal battles r a g e d at the H i g h C o u r t in L o n d o n and questions w e r e r e p e a t e d l y raised in P a r l i a m e n t . H e w a s also a h e a v i l y d e c o r a t e d h e r o . a n d r a v i s h i n g it w a s t o o ! ' e c h o e s a c o m m o n l y h e l d feeling. F .t w e l v e days in the a r m y .s e a t e d resistance to their p r e s e n c e . A . j o k e s a b o u t n a n c y .

b o y . Y o u k n o w . 3 7 ' C l a r a ' [a transvestite internee] w a s quite l i k e d a n d a p p r o v e d of. that n o o n e w a s g o i n g to b l a m e e v e n ostensibly h e t e r o s e x u a l a n d n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y m a r r i e d . b u t i f a n y stranger d i d it h e u s e d to b e k i c k e d to death. T h e y u s e d to s e n d m e u p l i k e m a d .j o b from 'Clara'. so o f c o u r s e h e w a s d e t e r m i n e d to g o o u t w i t h a b a n g . T h e a r m y t u r n e d a b l i n d e y e t o p e o p l e ' s little e c c e n t r i c i t i e s . T h e r e is also m o r e than a s u g g e s t i o n apply. sailors.m a l e e n v i r o n m e n t : W h e n p e o p l e are g e t t i n g b l o w n u p all a r o u n d y o u b y a b o m b o r s o m e t h i n g o r o t h e r y o u o n l y care a b o u t the m o m e n t . c o m f o r t for the t r o o p s ! 39 I n the early years o f m y captivity [in S i n g a p o r e ] I ' d b e e n g i v e n a sarong.j o b i f a n y b o d y w a s interested. y o u k n o w ? I w a s r e g a r d e d as rather strange. a i r m e n a n d prisoners o f w a r e v o k e an a t m o s p h e r e o f w h a t almost that in e x t e n u a t i n g circumstances n o r m a l rules d i d n o t amounted necessarily t o official a n d p r i v a t e f o r b e a r a n c e . O h n o h e w a s n ' t . T h i s a m u s e d m e — the idea that y o u c o u l d n ' t be brave and g a y . Permanent and 4 0 semi-permanent sexual relationships inevitably d e v e l o p e d . T h e n i m m e d i a t e l y a b u t c h C o c k n e y b o y said. he w a s terribly b r a v e in a c t i o n .144 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E h a d to b e so b l o o d y careful!' — the m e m o r i e s o f soldiers. b u t m y turn o f phrase a n d attitude w a s r e g a r d e d as rather strange. I w a s a sort o f E v e l y n H o m e to the b o y s — y o u k n o w . b o t h b e t w e e n m e n in barracks at h o m e a n d those o n a c t i v e s e r v i c e a b r o a d .m e n for f i n d i n g w h a t s e x u a l relief t h e y c o u l d in a stressful. e v e r y m a n d u r i n g the w a r t h o u g h t e v e r y n i g h t c o u l d b e his last.a n d v e r y often I w a s that b a n g . a n d o n m y w a y b a c k I h e a r d t h r o u g h the straw sides o f o u r hut s o m e b o d y s a y i n g t h e y r e c k o n e d that [I] w a s a n a n c y . I w a s w e a r i n g this o n e day w h e n I w e n t o u t to the latrines. 38 often T h e attitude to h o m o s e x u a l i t y in the a r m y w a s p r o t e c t i v e . . M a n y m e n recalling that 'it w a s v e r y easy to p i c k u p o t h e r s e r v i c e m e n ' a n d that ' t h e r e used to b e a lot [ o f sex] to b e h a d ' allude to relationships w h i c h w e r e v e r y m u c h m o r e m e a n i n g f u l than a desperate. anonymous 'bang' or a quick b l o w . S h e u s e d to g o d o w n to the m a n g r o v e s w a m p a n d w a s available for a q u i c k b l o w . I h a v e n e v e r b e e n particularly ' f e m m e ' . a l l .

m e n t i o n the etiquette w h i c h s u r r o u n d e d these. n e v e r to h a v e s e x w i t h an N . N . the d i s ­ cretion w i t h w h i c h t h e y w e r e e m b a r k e d u p o n a n d the series o f a d h o c rules a n d c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h g o v e r n e d their progress. f o r instance. a l t h o u g h I d i d h a v e s e x relations w i t h t h r e e separate g u a r d s m e n . that w a s n o b i g deal. b u t i f I h a d s e x w i t h a sergeant o r a c o r p o r a l . h e m i g h t feel that h e w o u l d l i k e to b r a g to his c o l l e a g u e s a b o u t it.w o u l d n ' t have sex with m e . that there w a s n o s e x u a l relationship. O . I m e a n it w a s u n d e r s t o o d b y e v e r y o n e that s o . ' m a d e it a p o i n t o f p r i n c i p l e n e v e r . 42 4 . a l t h o u g h i f [the authorities] w e r e r u n n i n g an investigation.'i H A D T H E T I M E OF M Y LIFE' H5 S e v e r a l . / c o u l d n o t b e i n t i m i d a t e d b y rank. ' I n e v i t a b l y . n e v e r . these relationships reflected the social d y n a m i c s o f the w i d e r society f r o m w h i c h the a r m e d forces w e r e d r a w n . attempts to d r a w a line b e t w e e n a fully s e x u a l relationship a n d an intense b u t chaste ' c o m r a d e s h i p ' w h i c h f l o u r i s h e d in the G u a r d s : S t r a n g e to say. b e c a u s e I h a d quite an e m o t i o n a l f e e l i n g [for h i m ] . n o s e x . he w o u l d v e r y likely be intimidated and m a k e a confession. T h e s e w e r e n o t e x t e n s i v e o r d e e p o r e v e n v e r y close relationships. R a n k b r o a d l y paralleled but n e v e r c o m p l e t e l y o v e r r o d e class distinction. O n a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n perhaps three times.s o w a s the p e r s o n a l friend o f so-and-so. C o m r a d e s h i p w a s p e r m i t t e d . a n d in the r e g i m e n t there w e r e pairs. v e r y easily. so that there w a s a relationship apart f r o m j u s t s e x . I think I h a d s e x t w i c e . g i v e n the a p p r o p r i a t e circumstances. o f c o u r s e . T h u s ' N e i l ' . O . I m e a n w e used to g o o u t to the c i n e m a t o g e t h e r . H e was a heterosexual type. C . m o r e v u l n e r a b l e a n d less r e l i a b l e . T h u s . Comradeship was allowed — on the understanding. s a n d O t h e r R a n k s w e r e h i g h l y d a n g e r o u s as partners. ' D a v i d ' . I n the third case there w a s s o m e t h i n g l i k e a relationship. C . Y o u c o u l d h a v e s e x w i t h a f e l l o w g u a r d s m a n j u s t l i k e that. W i t h o n e m a n . the c h a p that I really l i k e d — y o u c o u l d say l o v e d i n a w a y . T h i s is v e r y i m p o r t a n t . G i v e n that situation it h a p p e n e d j u s t l i k e that. Y o u ' d g o t to b e g a y y o u r s e l f a n d the other c h a p ' d g o t to b e g a y . t o o . s o o n c o m m i s s i o n e d in the R A F . H e reciprocated on the l e v e l o f c o m r a d e s h i p . A n d . really. Y o u ' d g o t to b e a l o n e in the g u a r d r o o m . o r an O t h e r R a n k ' a n d is quite c a n d i d in e x p l a i n i n g w h y : I f I h a d s e x w i t h a n o t h e r officer.a n d .

w h a t s e e m e d to m e then. b e c a u s e d u r i n g the w a r I w a s h a v i n g affairs w i t h sergeants o f the a r m y o r air m e c h a n i c s from the n a v y . f o u n d that the v e r y constraints w h i c h rank i m p o s e d a c t u ­ ally v a l i d a t e d p r e c i s e l y the sort o f m o d e r n . a l t h o u g h h e c a m e from the s a m e starting-point (and i m p l i c i d y shared the s a m e class values) as ' N e i l ' . It o p e n e d u p to m y eyes the idea that there could be homosexual relationships with your equals w h i c h c o u l d h a v e . a really e l e v a t e d nature. ' 44 A n d t h e n there w a s — officially at least — the b l a c k o u t : ' I w o u l d n ' t say there w e r e b l a c k o u t s . as the historian A n g u s C a l d e r has p o i n t e d out: '. a n d there w a s n o social i m p l i c a t i o n there. 4 5 ' T h e b l a c k o u t m a y h a v e b e e n a curse. N o t necessarily socially inferior. I n L o n d o n .146 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E S i g n i f i c a n t l y . ' A n a t m o s p h e r e o f h e i g h t e n e d e m o t i o n d o m i n a t e d . I hate to say s o . for o n e r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r . kisses w e r e e x c h a n g e d w i t h those o n e w o u l d n e v e r in n o r m a l times h a v e r e a c h e d the p o i n t o f k i s s i n g .' U n e x p e c t e d l y . ' T h i s w a s the season o f farewells to the y o u n g w h o w e r e b e i n g p r e p a r e d for their r o l e in the a r m e d m i g h t that w a s steadily b e i n g built u p . b u t to p e o p l e like us 46 it w a s a b o o n . 43 B a c k at h o m e m a n n e r s a n d morals w e r e . in an e v e n greater state o f flux. ' N e i l ' r e m e m b e r s . to m a k e o n e ' s w a y f r o m b a c k street o r s u b u r b to the city centre w a s a . w a s s o m e t h i n g b e t w e e n y o u a n d — w e l l . b u t I s u p p o s e w h a t I m e a n is — inferior p e o p l e . ' J o h n L e h m a n n w a s later to w r i t e . C h a o s r e i g n e d . i f a n y t h i n g . w i t h every k i n d o f s e x ' . T h e 'trade' w a s there for the asking a n d I t o o k full advantage o f it. . ' C e c i l ' . I d o n ' t k n o w h o w m u c h w e n t o n in d o o r ­ ways'. S o that e x p e r i e n c e w a s an e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e o n e . . b e c a u s e y o u h a d b l u e lights e v e r y w h e r e a n d e v e r y b o d y c a r r i e d a t o r c h w i t h a bit o f tissue p a p e r o n it. o r the i n d u l g e n c e in h o m o s e x u a l s e x . the streets a n d parks ' w e r e h u m m i n g w i t h all kinds o f s e x . a naval c o m m a n d e r . guilt-free relationship h e s e e m s to h a v e d e s p a i r e d o f finding in the c i v i l i a n w o r l d : U p until [I j o i n e d the n a v y ] I h a d t h o u g h t that h o m o s e x u a l i t y . the b l a c k o u t w a s to d o m o r e for the h o m o s e x u a l m e n w h o . h o w e v e r . f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s in L o n d o n o r o n e o f B r i t a i n ' s o t h e r m a j o r cities than a n y o t h e r e v e n t until decriminalization o f homosexuality more the than t w e n t y years later.

L E F T Oscar Wilde and Lord Alfred Douglas. L o n g before his infatuation with Bosie brought his sexual predilections to public notice. which emphasizes both Wilde's commanding presence and the youthful beauty o f ' B o s i e ' . Wilde had cultivated the public persona w h i c h later generations would recognize as camp. 1895 A studio portrait. . 1880. c. B E L O W Oscar Wilde in his 'Aesthetic' lecturing costume. taken shortly before Wilde appeared at the Old Bailey.

1900. Forster. mentally torpid. M . Caught in 'the Valley of the Shadow of Life'. c. . B y contrast. T h e beard and rough tweeds so characteristic o f the earthy 'manlove' espoused by the sexual pioneer at his commune in Milthorpe survive in this studio photograph. A . Housman. E . E . the donnish Housman. 1900. . c. yearning for a nostalgic Shropshire 'ladslove'.'handsome. bodily attractive. the novelist created Maurice Hall . healthy. c. not a bad business man' — as his o w n antithesis .Edward Carpenter. maintains a more conservative appearance. and the 'ideal' . 1900.

B E L O W Cecil Beaton relaxing at home: left to right — M r J . with Miss Peggy Broadbent and Miss J o y c e Greig. A B O V E Cecil Beaton en fête in the studio: a 1 9 3 7 portrait by Gordon Anthony. Princess Paley. . T h e designer and photographer cut a dash wherever he went: B E L O W Cecil Beaton at Leicester R a c e s . Mrs Harcourt Smith. Lutro.'JAGGED WITH SOPHISTICATION' N o e l Coward's phrase aptly sums up the lifestyle of his friend Cecil Beaton in the inter-war years. Cecil Beaton. 1 9 2 5 . Lady Charles Cavendish.

many prominent individuals kept their sexual tastes very private. .HAPPY IN THE CLOSET Like the majority of more ordinary homosexual men.

in L o n d o n in 1938 . . H .well after each had discovered that 'Berlin meant boys'.Christopher Isherwood (left) and W. Auden.

Sir J o h n Wolfenden T h e unlikely patron saint of gay liberation was Vice-Chancellor of R e a d i n g University w h e n he was appointed the chairman of a government committee on sexual offences. 1 9 7 1 T h e elder statesman o f the Labour Party was not quite the patrician figure he wanted to appear. . in the 'police state' of the 1950s Wilson was not alone in keeping an eye on what was happening behind his back.Angus Wilson. 1 9 5 2 As discreet in life as he was in his novels and short stories. T o m Driberg.

. 1966. 'the Oscar Wilde of Welfare State gentility'.A B I T OF ROUGH A homosexual nostalgie de la boue. T h e East End gang-leaders quickly caught the lizard eyes of Tom Driberg and the Conservative M P B o b Boothby. re-emerged in the 1960s. with twin brother Reggie). brought 'the language of the tribe' to the West E n d stage before he was battered to death by his lover Kenneth Halliwell in 1 9 6 7 . first discovered by the public in the late nineteenth century. J o e Orton. R o n n i e Kray (right.

later. a television personality. Ian McKellan in 1979 — years before coming out and receiving a knighthood — displays the defiance of the gay man of an earlier era (see picture of Beaton at the races in 1925). embodied ideas first made acceptable fifty years earlier. Kenneth Williams. . B u t . . as one half of radio's 'Julian and Sandy' and. .CARRYING ON T h e decriminalization of most homosexual acts in 1 9 6 7 freed gay men to be themselves.

is it?' P o l i c e m e n a l l o w e d t h e m s e l v e s a certain skittishness. T h i s e x c l u d e s others w h o w a l k e d i n t o canals. N o o n e k n e w w h a t m i g h t h a p p e n that night. i f v e n a l . anything w e n t — and m e n like J o h n L e h m a n n and Q u e n t i n C r i s p w e r e h a v i n g the t i m e o f their lives. T h e B l i t z a l o n e c a u s e d s o m e 4 4 . attention t o the needs o f o l d e r a n d perhaps l o n e l y inverts in L o n d o n a n d o t h e r cities w h e r e t h e y h a p p e n . that m o n t h — a n d w i t h s o m e reason ('Careless talk costs l i v e s ! ' ) .f a b l e d g u a r d s m e n . m o r e civilians o n the H o m e F r o n t w e r e k i l l e d as a result o f e n e m y a c t i o n than s e r v i c e m e n o n a c t i v e s e r v i c e overseas. ' s o r e n o w n e d ' . as J o h n L e h m a n n puts it. ' D o n ' t care. I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 9 the total [ n u m b e r ] o f p e o p l e k i l l e d in r o a d accidents i n c r e a s e d b y nearly o n e h u n d r e d p e r cent. I n a c o s y g l o o m y o u n g m e n a n d w o m e n strolled a r m in a r m a l o n g P i c c a d i l l y m u r ­ m u r i n g . b u t it is n o w possible to say that. . hands r e a c h e d o u t i f y o u s t o o d still a n d in d i m l y lit trains p e o p l e c a r r i e d o n as they h a d o n c e b e h a v e d o n l y in taxis [. C o v e n t r y a n d P o r t s m o u t h . T h e Y a n k s (and the C a n a d i a n s ) w e r e c o m i n g a n d in the perilous darkness the phrase ' O v e r here' took on w h o l l y n e w connotations: F o r m o s t o f 1 9 4 0 L o n d o n b y n i g h t w a s l i k e o n e o f those d i m l y .' 47 O n c e again a carpe diem attitude resurfaced. p l u n g e d t h r o u g h glass roofs a n d t o p p l e d f r o m railway platforms. h u h ? ' t h e y c r i e d as I passed t h e m sheltering in d o o r w a y s .l i t parties that their hosts h o p e are s l i g h d y w i c k e d . the city b e c a u s e l i k e a p a v e d d o u b l e bed. 4 8 A n d t h e n . N o figures w e r e released at the t i m e . 'for their d e e d s o f v a l o u r a n d also for their u n i n h i b i t e d . a m o n g t h e m 8 1 8 officers o f the L o n d o n F i r e S e r v i c e . h e kissed m e o n the lips. V o i c e s w h i s p e r e d s u g g e s t i v e l y to y o u as y o u w a l k e d a l o n g .b y w h e r e I w a s . Chaos reigned. that w e e k . w h e n I emerged from Leicester Square Underground station. there w e r e the m u c h . A s s o o n as t h e b o m b s started to fall. 'It's n o t as b a d t o n i g h t as last night. b e t w e e n the o u t b r e a k o f w a r in S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 9 a n d the e n d o f 1 9 4 2 .'i H A D THE TIME OF M Y LIFE' 147 p r o s p e c t fraught w i t h depression a n d e v e n d a n g e r . W h e n I asked an invisible p a s s e r .d r i v e r s u n b e n t so far as to take o n e part o f the w a y h o m e free o f c h a r g e .] O n c e . 0 0 0 fatalities in L o n d o n a n d ports a n d cities s u c h as H u l l . T a x i . . o f c o u r s e . fell d o w n steps. the o u d i n e o f the buildings o n the o p p o s i t e side o f the r o a d l o o k e d so unfamiliar that I t h o u g h t I m u s t h a v e t a k e n the w r o n g e x i t . t o l d m e I w a s in N e w p o r t Street a n d w a l k e d o n .

i f all w a s g o i n g w e l l . m i l d a n d bitter.o u t p r o p o s a l . h e b e l i e v e d . a n d o n e m i g h t d r o p a f e w hints o n e s e l f a b o u t w h e r e o n e l i v e d .148 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E to b e stationed'. . M o r e drinks f o l l o w e d . a n d o n e ' s b a c h e l o r state. ' T h u s l a u n c h e d . ' ' M y car is j u s t r o u n d I f all this t o d a y sounds trite a n d h a c k n e y e d . G r e n a d i e r G u a r d s ' a n d later t o o k u p w i t h a y o u n g t r u m p e t e r f r o m the H o u s e h o l d Cavalry. they w e r e best a p p r o a c h e d in pubs: O n e w o u l d gradually e d g e o n e ' s w a y . b u t n o t h i n g like an o u t . gradually m o v i n g closer to the y o u n g m a n ' s o w n life. ' D o n ' t m i n d i f I d o . his r e g i m e n t a l duties. T h e r e is n o reason to d o u b t the c l a i m h e m a k e s in his a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o v e l In the Purely Pagan Sense that h e (or his alter e g o . the relationship d e v e l o p e d w i t h d e s u l t o r y c o n v e r s a t i o n (it m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d that E n g l i s h ­ m e n n e v e r m i n d silences). o f the 3 r d B a t t a l i o n . O n e w o u l d stand b e s i d e h i m for a f e w m o m e n t s . a n d h e m a d e m e feel that in his eyes n o o n e else m a t t e r e d as l o n g as h e . 4 9 another d r i n k w i t h m e at h o m e ? ' ' T h a n k s v e r y m u c h . a n d so o n . testing as it w e r e w i t h o n e ' s a n t e n n a e w h e t h e r h e w a s w a i t i n g for o n e to m a k e a move. I f the response a p p e a r e d friendly. I k n e w I w a s o n l y o n e o f his m a n y clients. It m i g h t b e c o m e a n i m a t e d . p l e a s e . the situation. H i s n a m e w a s F r e d . o r s o m e s p o r t i n g e v e n t o f the day. as c l o s i n g t i m e a p p r o a c h e d — o n e n e v e r d e p a r t e d t o o early — the crucial s u g g e s t i o n w a s m a d e : ' W h y n o t c o m e a n d h a v e the c o r n e r . it certainly seems to h a v e w o r k e d f o r L e h m a n n himself. o n e w e n t o n to offer h i m a drink. the b o o k ' s J a c k M a r l o w e ) e n j o y e d a b r i e f r e l a t i o n ­ ship w i t h ' J i m W a l k e r . t o w a r d s a l i k e l y lad o n e h a d spotted s o m e w h e r e r o u n d the bar. T h i s w o u l d b e f o l l o w e d b y a casual r e m a r k about the w e a t h e r . r e l a x e d . Initially. a n d h a d a w e a l t h o f e x p e r i e n c e t o pass o n w h e r e g u a r d s m e n w e r e c o n c e r n e d . T h e n . a n d w i t h w h o m o n e h a d perhaps e x c h a n g e d a q u i c k g l a n c e . . a n d a b o d y as s m o o t h b u t n o t so h a r d as J i m ' s . L e h m a n n (born in 1 9 0 7 ) e v i d e n t l y v i e w e d h i m s e l f as o n e s u c h . in as u n r e m a r k a b l e a m a n n e r as p o s s i b l e . b u t h e h a d a c a p t i v a t i n g a b a n d o n w h i c h a p p e a l e d v e r y s t r o n g l y to m e . with long and well-shaped thighs. ' A n d o u t o n e w e n t .a n d . A b o u t J i m ' s height he was slimmer. h e m i g h t s h o w an e a g e r w i s h to u n b u r d e n himself.

a n d busily compliant as F r e d . h o w e v e r .D a i s y ' a n d C o l e P o r t e r ' s ' L e t ' s D o It (Let's Fall in L o v e ) ' the w h o l e p a c e h a d q u i c k e n e d . w h a t w e n t o n w a s n o o n e ' s business!' recalled ' D a v i d ' .a . E v e n in the w i d e r . d i d n o t think so: ' I t h i n k the r e p u t a t i o n for m a l e p r o s t i ­ tution in the G u a r d s has b e e n b l o w n u p a n d e x a g g e r a t e d a bit. After dinner. a n d h e said. H e n e v e r said ' O u c h ! ' o r a p p e a r e d a n y t h i n g b u t satisfied w h e n I p u s h e d m y c o c k into h i m . a n d there w a s a C a n a d i a n . a riot! to A n d e v e n L o n d o n .] S o m e w e r e . a n d y e t I a m certain h e w a s n o t q u e e r . it j u s t w a s n ' t true that all g u a r d s m e n w e r e m a l e prostitutes [. K n e e s a n d B o o m p s . w e w o u l d put on a g r a m o p h o n e record.w a r c a r e e r in the theatre. . lubriciousness a d d e d unfamiliar thrills a n d u n d r e a m e d . W e n t E d i n b u r g h — the place w a s a riot. ' W h e r e d o I g o ? ' A n d I t o o k h i m to the S a l v a t i o n A r m y a n d they shut the d o o r in his face b e c a u s e h e w a s d r u n k . ' W h a t d o y o u m e a n . . a n d slip into b e d . a little C a n a d i a n . I said.'i H A D T H E T I M E OF M Y LIFE' 149 was with m e . o r rather w o u l d n o t turn o u t to b e q u e e r w h e n h e g r e w o l d e r . b u t I w o u l d say perhaps the sort o f p e r c e n t a g e that y o u w o u l d find in c i v i l i a n s o c i e t y a n y w a y .t i m e g u a r d s m a n w e h a v e p r e v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r e d . 50 W e s h o u l d b e careful.g u m date f r o m this p e r i o d . I l o v e d it. a b o u t t a k i n g t o o literally L e h m a n n ' s s u g g e s t i o n that virtually e v e r y g u a r d s m a n . L e h m a n n ' s small h o t e l h a d n e v e r h a d it so g o o d . C e r t a i n l y ' D a v i d ' . the o n e . w h o m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d to h a v e seen a n d d o n e e v e r y t h i n g d u r i n g a p r e . Tiger Rag o r There's a Small Hotel perhaps. ' 5 1 W i t h o r w i t h o u t the active participation o f e a c h a n d e v e r y g u a r d s ­ m a n . I w a s o n l e a v e . n o w to the strains o f the 1 9 3 9 hit ' H a n d s . S e x w a s in the air. . y o u k n o w . a bar o f c h o c o l a t e o r a p a c k e t o f c h e w i n g . I w a s passing t h r o u g h L o n d o n . a n d as h e w a s m o v e d f r o m o n e p o s t i n g to a n o t h e r in different parts o f B r i t a i n ' R o y ' c o u l d hardly catch his breath: I g o t o n v e r y w e l l in the a r m y . the b o m b s are falling. N u m e r o u s tales o f B r i t i s h girls ' g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h ' A m e r i c a n G Is a n d e v e n ' g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e ' for the sake o f a pair o f n y l o n s . w a s as easily p i c k e d u p a n d as m e e k l y . B l o o d y b o m b s falling all o v e r the p l a c e . regardless o f his o w n s e x u ­ ality.o f o p p o r ­ tunities to life o n the H o m e F r o n t . I m e a n . h e t e r o s e x u a l w o r l d there h a d b e e n a s u r g e in the n u m b e r o f w e d d i n g s celebrated in the m o n t h s after the d e c l a r ­ ation o f w a r . ' O h . A n y t h i n g w e n t .

E d i n b u r g h w a s a t r e m e n d o u s city. T h e place w a s as i f the w o r l d h a d g o n e m a d b e c a u s e it w a s so e a s y . It w a s so full o f sailors a n d q u i t e easy. I used to have married men. h e w a s T B H . I said. a n d t o o k h i m across there. ' Y o u f o l l o w m e . the shrapnel!' ' C a n ' t h e l p it. I k n e w a lot o f m a r r i e d m e n . q u i t e easy. 52 . . . H e w a s w i l l i n g . I h a d a b o o k i n g for the U n i o n J a c k C l u b across the r o a d in W a t e r l o o . quite. Y e s . ' S o h e slept w i t h m e that night.150 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E the shells. A n d then peace broke o u t .' S o .

A n d then. h a d b e e n m a r k e d b y a s p o n t a n e o u s outburst o f n a t i o n a l r e j o i c i n g .'The Horrors of Peace Were Many' Q U E N T I N CRISP C H O S E his w o r d s carefully a n d k n e w e x a c d y w h a t h e m e a n t w h e n . I n Observer the f o l l o w i n g S u n d a y advertisements for a p a m p h l e t the entitled . setting a g r a n d l y j u b i l a n t n o t e . U n i o n flags w e r e w a v e d . s i n g l e . I n t o w n s a n d villages across the c o u n t r y .' VE Day. ' N a o m i M i t c h i s o n n o t e d . in a p o r t e n t o u s . ' T h e r e w e r e A m e r i c a n s and y o u n g A T S girls m a k i n g w h o o p e e . a n o n y m o u s l y . 5 0 0 strong. all the lights c a m e o n . b u n t i n g r a t i o n e d f o o d t h e y c o u l d get their hands o n . M e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t h e l d a special T h a n k s g i v i n g S e r v i c e . as n i g h t fell. w i t h the w h o l e n a t i o n g i d d i l y p o i s e d b e t w e e n w a r t i m e necessity a n d a b r i g h t n e w future.a m o n g t h e m . street parties feasted o n w h a t e v e r ' A l l the searchlights s h o n e in the s k y . adding: 2 'I have s e l d o m seen so m a n y A T S so m u c h d r u n k o n so l i t d e ! ' It w a s a g e n u i n e l y j o y o u s o c c a s i o n .s e n t e n c e p a r a g r a p h . 1 fluttered in the b u r n t a n d g u t t e d E a s t E n d . proclaimed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill on 8 M a y 1 9 4 5 . ' G e o r g e B e a r d m o r e r e c o r d e d i n his d i a r y . c h e e r e d b y tens o f thousands o f p e o p l e w h o t h r o n g e d the M a l l . ' W e m u s t h a v e l o o k e d l i k e a p i c t u r e b y G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i as w e minster]. h e w r o t e : 'Peace broke out. ' C h u r c h i l l s t o o d a l o n g s i d e the K i n g a n d Q u e e n o n the b a l c o n y there. ' T h e curtains w e r e left u n d r a w n b e c a u s e a c o m m u n i t y spirit is a b r o a d a n d e v e r y o n e w a n t s to share in e v e r y o n e else's r e j o i c i n g s .' the Conservative M P Henry 'Chips' Channon filed. c h u r c h bells rang. t o o . t h e y o u n g Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret R o s e . the office girls a n d front of [ M r ] G a t e s w e n t u p to T o w n to j o i n the vast c r o w d s in B u c k i n g h a m P a l a c e . and. into St M a r g a r e t ' s [the p a r l i a m e n t a r y c h u r c h in W e s t ­ wrote.

m y n a m e w a s called. B u t all in all that w a s small c o n s o l a t i o n . ' Y o u l o o k 5 terrible. indirectly. it s e e m e d . w a s truly a w a r e o f w h a t the c o m i n g o f p e a c e really m e a n t . In The Naked Civil Servant h e n o t e d : ' T h e lights w e r e all o n for the first t i m e in f o u r years w h i c h w a s rather a s h a m e since I preferred it w h e n the lights w e r e off. T o h i m . w h i c h m a d e L o n d o n v e r y beautiful a n d e x c i t i n g . the sheer availability o f s e r v i c e m e n offered e x t r a o p p o r t u n i t i e s .a n d .' T h e horrors o f peace w e r e m a n y . a staging-post in his life and. I p a u s e d q u e s t i o n i n g l y in front o f h i m . a n d T e l e p h o n e R e n t a l s L t d a s e r v i c e w h i c h w o u l d let ' k e y m e n contact e a c h o t h e r o n the instant'. the celebrations that e v e n i n g m a r k e d the e n d o f an era. l a u g h i n g . b u t n o t e v e n C r i s p c o u l d b e w h o l l y a b o v e the law: . 3 O n l y Q u e n t i n C r i s p . It w a s n o t as i f h e h a d e n j o y e d a particularly ' g o o d w a r ' . S u d d e n l y all that c a m e to an e n d a n d w e n t b a c k to b e i n g o u r dreary s e l v e s . in 1 9 9 5 . ' T h e A m e r i c a n soldiers w e r e still w i t h us then. I h e a r d it a b o v e the s h o u t i n g .S e w ) a n d the M i n i s t r y o f F u e l a n d P o w e r ' s b u l l e t i n 'Practical Ideas for B e t t e r S t e a m U s a g e ' jostled w i t h upbeat prognostications o f a c o m i n g consumerist peace.152 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E ' G o l d e n R u l e s f o r P a t c h i n g ' (by M r s S e w . as I w a s w e a v i n g m y w a y t h r o u g h the W e s t E n d w i t h a p r o l o n g e d ' g r a n d c h a i n ' m o v e m e n t as t h o u g h I w e r e d o i n g the lancers w i t h the w h o l e w o r l d . F o r t y L o n d o n theatres w e r e advertising s h o w s ( e v e r y t h i n g f r o m I v o r N o v e l l o in Perchance to Dream at the H i p p o d r o m e to The Duchess of Malfi at the H a y m a r k e t ) . ' h e admitted. C l a r k s w e r e offering a n e w r a n g e o f shoes. H e said. the d o c k s b u r n i n g a n d the streets 4 fire. ' N e a r l y t w e n t y years later. r e m e m ­ b e r i n g V E D a y . T u r n i n g . s i n g i n g that w e n t o n all n i g h t . P r i n g l e w e r e advertising clothes. T h e b l a c k ­ o u t g a v e s o m e p r o t e c t i o n . I s a w in a d o o r w a y the m a n w h o h a d p u t u p w i t h m y airs a n d graces all those l o n g h o r r i b l e m o n t h s in B a r o n ' s C o u r t w h e n I h a d first c o m e to L o n d o n f o u r t e e n y e a n earlier. in that o f e v e r y o t h e r h o m o s e x u a l m a n . the p r i v a t e catastrophe that w a s V E n i g h t w a s still h a u n t i n g him: O n that terrible e v e n i n g . I actually f o u n d w i t h anti-aircraft the w a r v e r y e x c i t i n g w i t h rattling we the sky p i n k w i t h d o o m .

] E v e r y o n e w h o s p o k e o n m y b e h a l f w a s a s k e d b y the magistrate's clerk i f h e k n e w that I w a s h o m o s e x u a l a n d r e p l i e d that h e did.t i m e h o o l i g a n called M r P a l m e r . I w a s often in the p o l i c e courts to act as chorus to t h e m o r their friends a n d to c r y " W o e u n t o I l i u m " i f an unfair v e r d i c t w a s g i v e n . aided b y the special circumstances o f the b l a c k o u t .f o u r times h i g h e r than it h a d b e e n i n the early years o f the c e n t u r y . . ' Y e s ' . I slapped o n t o his plate his ration o f eternal w i s d o m for the day a n d t u r n e d i n t o C o v e n t r y Street. h o w e v e r . c h a r g e d .y e a r increase in the n u m b e r o f r e p o r t e d i n d i c t ­ able h o m o s e x u a l offences w h i c h w a s to p e a k in 1 9 6 3 (see g r a p h ) at a l e v e l t w e n t y . as l o n g as hostilities c o n t i n u e d it w a s as i f they d i d n o t m a t t e r o r w e r e n o m o r e t h a n a distraction. A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y I w a s s t o p p e d b y the s a m e t w o men [ p l a i n . T h i s q u e s t i o n w a s in e a c h case f o l l o w e d i m m e d i ­ ately b y the w o r d s . m o r e serious offences i n c l u d i n g the inevitable 'gross i n d e c e n c y ' h a d c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t the w a r . M r P a l m e r w e n t i n t o t h e w i t n e s s b o x to declare that h e h a d s p o k e n to m e the p r e v i o u s a f t e r n o o n b e c a u s e h e k n e w m e [. a t i r e s o m e i r r e l e v a n c e to the business o f the m o m e n t . to m y relief.o n . y e a r . 7 C o n v i c t i o n s for soliciting a n d other. in a c u r i o u s sense.' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 153 a certain Outside the Hippodrome Theatre I met by chance p a r t . almost e x p o n e n t i a l . I w a s dismissed.but. 'Just a m i n u t e . . ' N o w . it w a s a h o p e l e s s . t h e y actually increased. T h e w a r years s a w the b e g i n n i n g o f a d r a m a t i c . a n d bailed to appear the n e x t d a y in a p o l i c e c o u r t . y o u . i n d e e d .' 6 C r i s p w a s arrested. ' t h e y said. ' W e are t a k i n g y o u in f o r soliciting. u t t e r e d in a v o i c e hoarse w i t h i n c r e d u l i t y . h e f o u n d h i m s e l f in the d o c k . taken to S a v i l e R o w p o l i c e station. . B u t . ' A n d y e t y o u describe h i m as respectable?' A l l said. W h e n the magistrate tired o f this recital o f m y praises h e said that the e v i d e n c e against m e w a s insufficient to c o n v i c t m e . h a p p i l y for h i m . v a i n g l o r i o u s case w h i c h the p o l i c e h a d b r o u g h t : V a r i o u s k i n d p e o p l e g a v e e v i d e n c e as to the i r r e p r o a c h a b i l i t y o f m y character and.c l o t h e d p o l i c e m e n w h o h a d earlier i n t e r v i e w e d h i m in the street]. H e h a d b e e n in s u c h places b e f o r e : ' W h e n I k n e w the Irish a n d S c o t t i s h b o y s .

Trends in British Society Since IQOO. W i t h the c o m i n g o f p e a c e . H. A m o n g homosexual m e n there w a s a palpable sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y : n o w that the lights h a d c o m e o n again. In the p o p u l a r d e m o n o l o g y o f the day t h e y w e r e h a r d l y differentiated f r o m the spivs w h o .g u i n e a suits. p. utilitarian p e a c e . Macmillan. e p i t o m i z e d the 'selfishness' w h i c h w a s h o b b l i n g the establishment o f a g e n u i n e .1 9 0 5 = 100] 1921 H o m o s e x u a l offences H e t e r o s e x u a l offences Indictable crimes (males a g e d 15-19) 178 155 115 1938 572 282 130 1948 1405 588 135 1900-1963 1961 2513 1218 131 1963 2437 1248 130 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 • S 1600 1400 1200 o •- 2 < D O) c a> g 1000 800 600 400 200 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 Year c From: A . everything changed — or seemed to change. 5 3 3 . h o w e v e r . as Q u e n t i n C r i s p suggests. 1972. flashy ties a n d sharp f i v e .). I n the straitened. w i t h their silk shirts. t h e y felt e x p o s e d . t h e y w e r e . Halsey (ed.154 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E Rates of change in the increase in indictable offences [Average 1 9 0 0 .

the w h o l e b l o o m i n ' lot. all right. dear. in 1 9 6 1 . its script (by J a n e t G r e e n a n d J o h n M c C o r m i c k ) also offered an a l m o s t . .T h e y ' r e g o o d for a l a u g h .D o n ' t l o o k at m e l i k e that. M o r e n o r m a l w a s a n i m p a t i e n c e w i t h ' e n l i g h t e n e d ' ideas a n d a r e j e c t i o n o f the v e r y n o t i o n o f a ' c u s h y ' welfare state culture w h i c h c o u l d e v e n c o u n t e n a n c e ' e x c u s i n g ' h o m o ­ sexuality. t h e h o m o s e x u a l did n o t fare so w e l l . -Who? . . E v e n such a d e e p l y u n s y m p a t h e t i c f i g u r e as t h e B i s h o p o f S o u t h w a r k c o u l d tell the H o u s e o f L o r d s in 1 9 5 4 that ' B e h i n d a n i m m e n s e n u m b e r o f these cases o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y there still lie unsatis­ factory o r b r o k e n h o m e s .E d d i e a n d P h i p a n d the rest o f t h e m . G e n e r ­ ous t o o . A l t h o u g h p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a w e l l . .I thought they amused y o u . w h o b i l l e d h i m s e l f as ' T h e P r i n c e o f the W i d e B o y s ' ) to its heart. as D a v i d H u g h e s w a s t o p o i n t o u t . w h i c h p r o p o s e d an e n d to flogging and hard l a b o u r a n d a m a s s i v e e x p a n s i o n o f the p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e . rotten part o f nature. it's part o f nature. .S o r r y for t h e m ? N o t m e . A f e w years later.' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 155 w e l f a r e state . t h e y can't h e l p it. W e l l . to m y m i n d it's a w e a k .s c h e m a t i c insight i n t o the ' l o w e r o r d e r s ' ' attitude to 'the p r o b l e m ' : — I d o n ' t k n o w h o w y o u can stand t h e m . V e r y w i t t y at times. t o o little l o v e as kids. a n d i f t h e y e v e r m a k e it legal they m a y as w e l l license e v e r y o t h e r p e r v e r s i o n .c o n n e c t e d barrister ( D i r k B o g a r d e ) a n d his a t t e m p t to e x p o s e a b l a c k m a i l ring. . It's a l w a y s e x c u s e s .b r e a k i n g film Victim.the spivs w h o .e n v i r o n m e n t . w e r e n o t shared b y the c o u n t r y at l a r g e . T h e liberal aspirations o f the authors o f the 1 9 4 8 C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e B i l l . this w a s to b e w e l l c a u g h t in the g r o u n d . w e r e t h e m s e l v e s 'almost f e m i n i n e ' a n d full o f ' p a n s y b r a g g a d o c i o ' . E v e r y n e w s p a p e r y o u p i c k u p . it's e x c u s e s . W h a t ' s that m a t t e r to y o u ? I f t h e y h a d g a m m y legs o r s o m e t h i n g .t o o . h o w e v e r . W h i l e the n a t i o n c o u l d take the spiv (or at least the v a r i e t y p e r f o r m e r A r t h u r E n g l i s h . A l l the s a m e .T h e y ' r e j u s t n o t q u i t e n o r m a l . ' T h e r e w e r e differences. y o u ' d b e s o r r y for t h e m . a n d s u c h w a s the m o o d o f the times 8 They a 'social p r o b l e m ' . w e r e aberrants. t o o m u c h l o v e as kids. B u t I hate their b l o o d y guts! -Hey! .

I s h o u l d b e glad to k n o w i f y o u w i s h to offer further e v i d e n c e against h i m . slightly C o c k n e y v o i c e . M o r e r e c e n t l y . I h a v e h a d o c c a s i o n to n o t i c e that h e a p p r o a c h e d y o u a f e w m i n u t e s a g o . A t the h e i g h t o f the C o l d W a r h o m o s e x u a l s o n the streets o f L o n d o n c a m e to fear a tap o n the s h o u l d e r f r o m ' M a v i s earlier: B e r n a r d w a s startled [. as often as n o t w i t h their true i n t e n t m a s k e d b y p s e u d o . R a b i d l y h o m o ­ p h o b i c b o o k s w e r e b e i n g p u b l i s h e d .o v e r . it raised 'intense m o r a l i n d i g n a t i o n in m a n y m i n d s . a n d perhaps s o m e k i n d o f p r i m i t i v e radical h o r r o r . 11 D e m o r a l i z e d b y an e x p l o s i o n in the o v e r a l l c r i m e rate — 2 6 6 . ' 10 F u r t h e r e c h o e s o f this m o o d w e r e n o t hard to find. . . the B i s h o p o f S o u t h w a r k c o u l d o n l y a g r e e . ' A t o l e r a n c e w h i c h is p r e p a r e d t o take n o n o t i c e o f that w h i c h is essentially evil a n d w i c k e d is n o t at all the sort o f t o l e r a n c e w e w a n t . 13 Polizei . 6 8 4 . b u t h e w i s h e d h e h a d n ' t r e a d it a n d h e w a s n o w g o i n g to w a s h o u t his m o u t h a n d w a s h his h a n d s ' . ' B e r n a r d ' s e y e s w e r e riveted u p o n the face o f the y o u n g m a n w i t h the l o n g dark hair. I ' m a p o l i c e officer. b e c a u s e it feels that such practices are injecting p o i s o n into the b l o o d s t r e a m .p o l i c e forces in e v e r y part o f the c o u n t r y t o o k the lead in this flight from liberalism a n d a d o p t e d a m o r e than usually rébarbative a p p r o a c h .s c h o l a r s h i p . T h e w h o l e subject o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s 'intensely r e p u g n a n t ' . at a n y rate . ' E a r l J o w i t t h a d fulminated in the H o u s e o f L o r d s in 1 9 5 4 . in 1 9 4 8 there w e r e 5 2 2 . S o c i e t y .]2 e v e r y bit as m u c h as their counterparts in B e r l i n h a d d o n e a d e c a d e H i s u n d e r l i p w a s t r e m b l i n g . S i r D i r k B o g a r d e has recalled that the l a w y e r responsible f o r c l e a r i n g the script o f Victim. .] b y a firmly e n u n c i a t i n g . 9 H i s insight i n t o the origins o f that evil a n d w i c k e d n e s s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g . w h i c h w a s 'critical' in e v e r y sense. ' E x c u s e m e . h e t o l d their lordships.o u r society. W h a t e v e r b r o u g h t it about. t a l k i n g o f 'potential e v i l ' .l a r g e w i t h terror . 'said h e s a w n o t h i n g libellous in it at all.w e r e o n the p o i n t o f t e a r s . W e ' r e c h a r g i n g this y o u n g man with importuning. his eyes . Society and the Homosexual ( 1 9 5 2 ) and Homosexuality ( 1 9 5 5 ) w e r e f o l l o w e d b y They Stand Apart: A Critical Survey of Homosexuality ( 1 9 5 5 ) . ' c o r r o d i n g practices' a n d the h o m o s e x u a l ' s 'filthy e r r a n d ' .reacts v e r y v i o l e n d y against it.156 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E N o r w e r e s u c h attitudes w h o l l y c o n f i n e d to the likes o f the b a r m a n a n d the ' m o d e l ' featured in the film. 2 6 5 i n d i c t a b l e offences h a d b e e n c o m m i t t e d in 1 9 3 7 .

' T h e p o l i c e were after m e . the idea that the b e d sheets m i g h t b e i n s p e c t e d for s e m e n stains Fifties.c l o t h e s officer w a s sitting o n the o p p o s i t e side o f the bus. . a n d as w e s t o o d there w e i g h i n g e a c h o t h e r u p a n d k e e p i n g a sharp ear o p e n for a p o l i c e m a n ' s o m i n o u s tread.] T h e y w e r e terrified o f the k n o c k o n the d o o r in the early m o r n i n g o r late at night. I h a d an o r g a s m r o u n d a b o u t P i c k w i c k . ' the poet J a m e s K i r k u p w a s c o n v i n c e d . W h e r e v e r h e w e n t . w h e r e t h e r e w e r e m a n y e m p t y seats. the o n e that passes t h r o u g h C o r s h a m . t h o u g h in v e r y different c i r c u m s t a n c e s .a regretful n e g a t i v e w a s m y a n s w e r . ' I felt g u i l t y b e c a u s e I w a s " q u e e r " a n d therefore a c r i m i n a l . ' the n o v e l i s t P a u l B a i l e y r e m e m b e r e d . the ' q u e e r ' h a d p e r p e t u a l l y to b e o n his g u a r d : . ) ' G o t the t i m e o n y o u ? ' ' G o t a l i g h t ? ' ' W h a t a b o u t a bit o f F r e n c h ? ' . w e e x c h a n g e d the usual pleasantries: ' D o y o u c o m e h e r e often?' ' G o t a n y w h e r e to g o ? ' 'Is this the o n l y c o t t a g e in t o w n ? ' ' D o y o u d o G r e e k ? ' ( ' A n c i e n t o r M o d e r n ? ' w a s m y r e p l y to this n e v e r v e r y h o p e f u l q u e r y as t o w h e t h e r I a c c e p t e d anal i n t e r c o u r s e . a f e w seats i n . l i k e those I usually h a d y e a r s later w i t h the J a p a n e s e . o n e o f the m o s t frightening episodes. o r so it w a s b e l i e v e d . 'It w a s a v e r y unpleasant t i m e to l i v e i n . r u b i c u n d gent. . H e r e I p i c k e d u p an elderly. ' the w r i t e r C o l i n S p e n c e r has recalled: I can r e m e m b e r p e o p l e s e n d i n g m e letters w h i c h h a d little bits o f sticky p a p e r o n the b a c k to s h o w i f t h e y h a d b e e n o p e n e d o r n o t [. w a l l s h a d ears (sometimes q u i t e literally so — the first a u t h o r i z e d use o f t e l e p h o n e t a ppi ng in S c o t l a n d h a d b e e n to a c q u i r e e v i d e n c e o f a suspect's h o m o ­ sexuality). . so w e g o t the s a m e b u s a n d w e n t upstairs. It transpired that m y g e n t h a d to catch a bus to B a t h . i n retrospect. T h e s e v e r y predictable c o n v e r s a t i o n s w e r e o f the u t m o s t b o r e d o m . started i n the charmless toilet standing at the top o f the m a i n street in C h i p p e n h a m .' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 157 F o r the m a j o r i t y o f m e n . etc. this w a s a fear m o r e real a n d m o r e v i s c e r a l than that o f the b l a c k m a i l e r . a n d it w a s o n l y t h e n that I n o t i c e d o u r l o c a l p l a i n . etc. . 14 w h i c h w a s s o m e t h i n g that actually h a p p e n e d ! T h e r e w a s s u d d e n l y a p o l i c e state i n E n g l a n d i n the P o l i c e spies w e r e e v e r y w h e r e . a n d i n d u l g e d i n m u t u a l masturbation all the w a y to m y stop.

squalid bedsits existentialism o f M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r a n d a n d f l y . ' 1 6 but It w a s a g r u b b y g a m e . in case I gave myself away.s t r e e t . It w a s the t i m e o f m i s s i n g diplomats. The Third Man ( G r a h a m G r e e n e / C a r o l R e e d . F o r i f ' q u e e r s ' w e r e terrified o f d i s c o v e r y . ' O u t w a r d l y r e s p e c t a b l e .b l o w n terraces in the early fiction o f M u r i e l S p a r k a n d A n g u s W i l s o n a n d the angst-fûled J e a n . ' 17 'Richard'.i n . l o o k s b a c k l a c o n i c a l l y at this w o r l d o f i n g e n u o u s a t a v i s m a n d tells a story o f p r e p s c h o o l life w h i c h w o u l d m a k e tabloid headlines w e r e it to h a p p e n today: . I n e v i t a b l y .) I n an a g e w h i c h h a d y e t to absorb the c a m p a r c h e t y p e s p r o v i d e d o n t e l e v i s i o n b y L a r r y G r a y s o n a n d Are You Being Served?'s M r H u m p h r i e s (or e v e n to c o n f r o n t J u l i a n a n d his friend S a n d y o n radio's Round the Home). ' d i s c r e e d y dressed.158 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E front o f us. 1 9 4 9 ) .a s o m e w h a t r e c h e r c h é tip. it is n o t at all clear w h e t h e r . d u p l i c i t y a n d R e d s u n d e r the b e d .P a u l Sartre (the latter's Roads to Freedom t r i l o g y h a d first a p p e a r e d in an E n g l i s h P e n g u i n e d i t i o n in 1 9 4 7 ) . W e h a d c o v e r e d ourselves carefully w i t h coats w h e n t h e c o n d u c t o r c a m e upstairs to take o u r fares. their p u t a t i v e d i s c o v e r e r s w o u l d e v e n h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h e m . ' w r o t e P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d . 15 It w a s a t i m e o f b l u f f a n d counter-bluff. a n d in c o m m o n w i t h m a n y o t h e r h o m o s e x u a l m e n o f the p e r i o d . a n d tried to c o v e r o u r passion w i t h stony faces a n d n o n c h a l a n t c i g a r e t t e s . (Paul B a i l e y recalls a b o o k p u b l i s h e d at t h e t i m e w h i c h r e v e a l e d that m a l e h o m o s e x u a l s a l w a y s u r i n a t e d o n to the side o f the toilet b o w l . P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d t o o felt h e h a d n o c h o i c e b u t to dissemble: 'It w a s necessary for m e t o w a t c h e v e r y w o r d I s p o k e . the m a n . for the m o s t part h o m o s e x u a l s . o t h e r than the p o l i c e a n d the practised b l a c k m a i l e r s o f the p r o m i n e n t . n e v e r directly i n t o the w a t e r . I h a t e d m y s e l f at s u c h m o m e n t s . w h o was a t e a c h e r at the time.t h e . W h e n jokes w e r e made about "queers" I had to l a u g h w i t h the rest. a n d e v e r y gesture that I m a d e . o f spies.real h o m o s e x u a l s . a n d fittingly o n e p l a y e d w i t h a w h o l l y c o n t e m p o r a r y m i x t u r e o f seriousness a n d i n n o c e n c e . a n d w h e n the talk w a s a b o u t w o m e n I h a d to i n v e n t c o n q u e s t s o f m y o w n . careful in their b e h a v i o u r [they w e r e ] the last p e o p l e e v e r to b e suspected b y that l e g e n d a r y character.w e n t almost u n n o t i c e d . M c C a r t h y i s m . t h e r e s e e m e d n o t h i n g else that I c o u l d d o .

e v e n t h e n k n e w itself as s u c h ) . T h e r e w a s o n e s c h o o l I w a s at. w a s o b v i o u s l y b e i n g lulled i n t o cosiness b y S h e r m a n ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y m a l i c i o u s chatter. y o u l o o k tired.at the headmaster's suggestion! .o r .' h e said to E r i c . ' O h I k n o w . b u t in 1 9 5 5 P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d r e c a l l e d 'a s u r g e o n . In a v e r y f e w cases t h e r e w e r e also o t h e r w i s e ordinary m e n w h o . v e g e t a r i a n in fact. it w a s rare for a n y m a n w h o w a s fortunate enough it to b e a m o n g such 'friends' v o l u n t a r i l y to b r e a k c o v e r . It suits h i m to the g r o u n d .there w a s a ' g a y s c e n e ' (and o n e w h i c h . N e i l l .' A n d as B e r n a r d w a s a b o u t to speak. respected a n d discreet.u p process w h e n h e w a s 'among friends'. a n d o n o n e s c h o o l c a m p . b u t a v e r y s e x u a l y o u n g m a n . ' y o u l o o k a p r o p e r little fidget to m e . Bless his little K e n s i n g t o n heart. feet u p a n d forty w i n k s . T h a t ' s h o w n a i v e p e o p l e w e r e in those d a y s ! 18 In the purlieus o f s o c i e t y . 'is b a t d i n g at the bar. a n d r u n a l o n g the Unes o f A . B e r n a r d a w a i t e d uneasily the three o r f o u r brutal thrusts w i t h w h i c h S h e r m a n usually f o l l o w e d such a s o f t e n i n g . w h e r e t h e r e w a s a lad I w a s attracted to. Y o u m u s t m a k e h i m rest. w h o t h r e w a w a y his g o o d n a m e i n o r d e r to . 20 19 U n d e r s t a n d a b l y . ' E r i c . ' y o u k n o w . B u t it w a s p r e c i o u s a n d intensely i n t r o s p e c t i v e : ' T e r e n c e ' . a l t h o u g h s o m e t i m e s h a p p e n e d . m o r e typically perhaps. H e d i d n o t g i v e n a m e s o r dates. he stared E r i c u p a n d d o w n . P u r e B a r k e r s ' sales. despite all h e h a d h e a r d f r o m B e r n a r d . I g o t h i m to h e l p m e a r o u n d the s c h o o l . I g o t a c h a r g e o u t o f teaching. B e r n a r d . N o t that I s h o u l d t h i n k y o u ' d b e m u c h g o o d at m a k i n g p e o p l e rest'. basically straight. dear.a g e b o y s ] in those days. if o n l y in the pages o f A n g u s W i l s o n . h e said.h e shared m y tent f o r a fortnight w i t h o u t a n y o n e t h i n k i n g a n y t h i n g o f it.' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 159 I w a s i n t o ' c h i c k e n s ' [ u n d e r . b i t c h i n g m e ! T i r e d equals o l d . for o n e reason o r another. felt it i m p e r a t i v e t o ' c o m e o u t ' (although that is a t e r m t h e y w o u l d n o t h a v e u n d e r s t o o d ) .in their v e r y different w a y s G u y B u r g e s s a n d Q u e n t i n C r i s p b o t h e s c a p e d the n o r m a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d i s p l a y i n g flamboyant b e h a v i o u r p r e c i s e l y because o f the w a y t h e y flaunted their differentness. m y dear. S. in the c r u s h bars o f W e s t E n d theatres . a p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l . I taught best w h e n there w a s s o m e o n e in the class w h o m I fancied a bit.

22 E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . M a t t e r s h a d s i m p l y b e e n t a k e n o u t o f their hands: 'It's absolutely beastly. h o w e v e r . n i g h t a n d day.i6o O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E r e m a i n . N e d L a t h o m function as ' p a t r o n s ' o r ' u n c l e s ' . 21 C a u g h t in the m i d s t o f this w o r l d o f s e c r e c y . b u t there's n o t h i n g o n e can d o . guilt a n d suspicion w e r e m a n y y o u n g b u t fundamentally h o m o s e x u a l m e n w h o h a d g r o w n u p d u r i n g the w a r y e a r s . & so kills himself.t r a d i t i o n a l . a n d decides to kill his o w n w i c k e d self. b h e w i s h e s to s h o w that the frustration i n v o l v e d w i t h a b n o r m a l i t y is so great that the h u m a n spirit c a n n o t b e a r the strain. w e r e d i s i n c l i n e d to discharge their o n c e . understandably p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h their o w n s u r v i v a l . I k n o w . as K e n n e t h W i l l i a m s w a s to r e m a r k : T h e a u t h o r m a y h a v e his h o m o s e x u a l c o m m i t suicide (or cause h i m s e l f to b e killed) b e c a u s e a h e w i s h e s to s h o w that the m a n decides that his p o s i t i o n as a b n o r m a l is i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h his p o s i t i o n in society. T h e i r s w a s a p e c u l i a r a n d u n i q u e p r e d i c a m e n t . a n d therefore takes his o w n life. for it w a s to b e this i m m e d i a t e p o s t . d h e w i s h e s to s h o w that the h o m o s e x u a l . T h e y w e r e t o o c a m p .w a r g e n e r a t i o n w i t h its v i v i d a n d u n p a r a l ­ l e l e d m e m o r i e s o f fear a n d loneliness w h i c h w a s to b e the p r i m a r y catalyst o f the legal a n d social u p h e a v a l s w h i c h w o u l d i m m e a s u r a b l y b e t t e r the lot o f the h o m o s e x u a l in s u c c e e d i n g decades. t o o effeminate. L i t e r a t u r e a n d the m e d i a w e r e u n a b l e (or at least u n w i l l i n g ) to p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h p o s i t i v e r o l e m o d e l s . b e l i e v i n g his desires w o u l d horrify those h e l o v e s .' * 2 . oneself. A t the t i m e . ' an o l d q u e e n w a s to l a m e n t in A n g u s W i l s o n ' s n o v e l Hemlock and After ( 1 9 5 2 ) . their elders. ' 2 3 frightening for I n retrospect all this w a s to h a v e i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s . t h e y j u s t w e r e n ' t the k i n d o f p e o p l e I w a s attracted t o . c h e w i s h e s to s h o w that the h o m o s e x u a l b e l i e v e s his desire to b e w i c k e d . I rather w a n t e d to get to k n o w t h e m . at the b e d s i d e o f his friend w h o w a s d y i n g in hospital'. t h o u g h simply because I wanted to meet some gay people. I m e a n . these m e n w e r e f o r c e d to c o p e as best t h e y c o u l d : ' T h e p e o p l e e v e r y o n e a s s u m e d to b e g a y w e r e n o t m y t y p e . sacrifices h i m s e l f in o r d e r to spare their f e e l i n g s . 'It's so frightening.

T h e r e I m e t an i n c r e d i b l y attractive b o y . w a s actually p u r s u i n g m e . b u t I d i d n ' t r e c o g n i z e them for w h a t t h e y w e r e . n o c o m m o n g r o u n d . ' H e ' s t r y i n g to p r o p o s i t i o n m e .l o o k i n g b o y .s e x boarding and s c h o o l . ' W h y d o n ' t y o u c o m e o u t a n d sunbathe w i t h m e ? I l o v e s u n b a t h i n g in the nude. D . ' N i c h o l a s ' r e m a i n e d an o u t s i d e r . b u t I d i d n ' t r e c o g n i z e s e x u a l invitations for w h a t t h e y w e r e in t h o s e days. 20 May: D i d n o t h i n g . H e said. naivety: T h e r e w e r e o n e o r t w o b o y s [at s c h o o l ] I felt s e x u a l l y attracted t o . A .' — a n d still I d i d n ' t t h i n k to myself.all those things w h i c h I a m attracted to — a n d h e m a d e a d v a n c e s to m e . N o r w a s he b y a n y m e a n s u n i q u e .' T h e n he asked m e to stay w i t h h i m at his h o m e o v e r the h o l i d a y s — ' I ' v e o n l y g o t a single b e d . for instance.n o t necessarily shut out. S u c h fun. .c l a s s suburbs o f Leicester) w a s s e e m i n g l y s o m e t h i n g o f an i n n o c e n t a b r o a d d u r i n g his first f e w w e e k s as a d r a m a s t u d e n t in L o n d o n . a really n i c e . certainly p r e s e r v e d an almost u n b e l i e v a b l e i n n o c e n c e T h e r e w a s as y e t n o h o m o s e x u a l c o m m u n i t y . n o m e e t i n g .p l a c e .' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 161 It w a s m e n s u c h as this w h o w o u l d later d e s c r i b e h o w t h e y h a d h a d to l o o k u p w o r k s l i k e ' h o m o s e x u a l ' a n d ' p e r v e r s i o n ' in dictionaries and e n c y c l o p a e d i a s to reassure t h e m s e l v e s that t h e y w e r e n o t u n i q u e . M E M O S o m e o n e in the o t h e r class k e e p s l o o k i n g at m e . ' It j u s t n e v e r o c c u r r e d to me! 2 5 born in 1 9 3 4 and educated at a s i n g l e .h i t h e r .] 18 May: D i g s in G o w e r Street. . . w h o w a s b l o n d a n d b u t c h a n d m a s c u l i n e a n d sporty . ' B u t it n e v e r c r o s s e d m y m i n d that h e was attracted to m e ! T h i s w e n t o n until I w e n t u p to C a m b r i d g e in 1 9 5 3 . T h i s at a n y rate is the i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n b y a g n o m i c diary h e b e g a n at the t i m e : 15 May 1951: Started at R . E v e n the y o u n g J o e O r t o n ( w h o h a d g r o w n u p in the w o r k i n g . b u t . O n e o f t h e m . A . 19 May: O h the larks.i s h things s u c h as ' W h a t w o n d e r f u l legs y o u ' v e g o t . 'Nicholas'. . . j u s t w h o l l y i g n o r a n t o f the e x i s t e n c e o f the d o o r . H e used to say e x t r e m e l y c o m e . O bliss! [.

. 1 1 June: M u s t l e a v e o u r digs. 2 June: F l o r a n g K e n . [. 10 June: D i d n o t h i n g . 14 June: K e n offers again. 3 June: D i d n o t h i n g . 1 2 June: K e n offers to share flat again. T h i s t i m e w i t h R e x B u t l e r . T o a c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e . it g o e s so far as to c h a r a c ­ terize those i n the upper reaches o f the Metropolitan P o l i c e as . it c o m p l e t e l y misses the p o i n t : its c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n the r e l a t i v e l y p e r i p h e r a l p r o b l e m o f the b l a c k m a i l o f h o m o s e x u a l s bizarrely o v e r s h a d o w s a n y real e n g a g e m e n t w i t h the w i d e r questions p o s e d b y the c o n t i n u i n g illegality o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y itself. H e invites us to l i v e w i t h h i m . 16 June: M o v e i n t o K e n ' s flat. Victim is a p e r i o d . 13 June: I say n o . It also r e m a i n s an 'issue' film and.] 1 June: M e t K e n a n d J o h n again. . as such. 17 June: W e l l ! 18 June: W e l l ! ! 19 June: W e l l ! ! ! 26 S e e n t o d a y . 13 June: W e a c c e p t b e c a u s e w e must.] 23 May: M e t K e n a n d J o h n at C h a r i n g C r o s s R o a d . M E M O A m b e g i n n i n g to u n d e r s t a n d K e n . stagier than m a n y o t h e r b l a c k . [.162 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E 21 May: M r C o n s t a b l e ' s special m o v e m e n t [class].a n d w h i t e films o f its p e r i o d a n d dated in b o t h d i a l o g u e a n d d i c t i o n . M E M O I am puzzled. i n d e e d . largely b e c a u s e o f the d e m a n d s o f the plot. M E M O I d o n ' t quite understand K e n . . W a s e y e d . 4 June: M r C o n s t a b l e ' s m o v e m e n t . l i m i t e d .] 8 June: M e t K e n . W e l l ! [.p i e c e . 9 June: W e n t to the pictures. . . . Instead.

it s e e m e d that w a y at the t i m e . all manifestations o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y h a d b e e n i n c l u d e d in a c r a c k d o w n o n l a w a n d o r d e r instituted b y S i r D a v i d M a x w e l l F y f e . sir. Partly in response to p u b l i c ' c o n c e r n ' w h e n scant b u t sufficient details o f the lifestyles o f G u y B u r g e s s a n d D o n a l d M a c l e a n b e c a m e k n o w n after their d e f e c t i o n in M a y 1 9 5 1 . — T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g w r o n g w i t h that. to that fact that it w a s M a x w e l l F y f e w h o s a n c t i o n e d the c o n t r o v e r s i a l hangings o f b o t h D e r e k B e n t l e y a n d T i m o t h y E v a n s . to the m a j o r i t y o f h o m o s e x u a l s .' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 163 sympathizers. that the p r o s e c u t i o n s of Rupert Croft-Cooke and the actor J o h n Gielgud on minor i n d e c e n c y charges at a r o u n d this t i m e w o u l d h a v e b e e n b r o u g h t w i t h ­ o u t his i m p r i m a t u r . in L o n d o n at least. h o w e v e r . — I f o n l y t h e y l e d n o r m a l lives they w o u l d n ' t n e e d to c o m e at all. a v u n c u l a r liberalism: — I f o n l y these unfortunate devils [the b l a c k m a i l e r s ' h o m o s e x u a l victims] w o u l d c o m e to us in the first p l a c e . a p r o s e c u t o r at the N u r e m b e r g trials w h o b e c a m e H o m e S e c r e t a r y that y e a r . for. B r i d i e . It is doubtful w h e t h e r . I f these cases m a d e the headlines. . — I f the l a w p u n i s h e d e v e r y a b n o r m a l i t y w e ' d b e k e p t pretty busy. o r at least as b e i n g possessed o f a restraining. t o o . perhaps. B u t less r e m a r k e d u p o n — a l t h o u g h hardly less splenetic — w a s his t r e a t m e n t o f h o m o ­ sexuals. the years i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d ­ i n g the film's release in 1 9 6 1 w e r e m a r k e d b y an officially s a n c t i o n e d intensification o f the p o l i c e harassment w h i c h h a d d e v e l o p e d since the e n d o f the w a r . It is difficult to b e l i e v e . I f it w e r e changed other weaknesses w o u l d follow. — O f c o u r s e not. — E v e n so. t h e i m p a c t o f M a x w e l l . T h e w r i t e r Francis W h e e n has aptly d e s c r i b e d as ' n e a n d e r t h a l ' the qualities w h i c h h e b r o u g h t to the H o m e O f f i c e — a r e f e r e n c e . . — I see y o u ' r e a true P u r i t a n . this l a w w a s m a d e for a v e r y g o o d reason. sir. Sergeant. H e w a s certainly b e h i n d the e n f o r c e d r e s i g n a t i o n f r o m the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s o f W i l l i a m F i e l d after the L a b o u r M P w a s f o u n d guilty o f ' s o l i c i t i n g o r i m p o r t u n i n g for i m m o r a l p u r p o s e s ' a n d f i n e d £ 1 5 in J a n u a r y 1 9 5 3 . B u t there w a s a t i m e w h e n that w a s against the l a w .

F T h e r a n g e a n d scale . i n 1 9 5 2 . 6 8 6 for gross i n d e c e n c y . 3 . A t that t i m e o b v i o u s l y b e i n g g a y w a s totally illegal. b u t it w a s a situation that clearly illustrated the gross unfairness o f the l a w t h e n . there w e r e 6 7 0 p r o s e c u t i o n s for s o d o m y a n d besti­ ality. T h e y w e r e sending p e o p l e d o w n . . b y contrast. 0 8 7 for the 'serious offences' o f a t t e m p t e d s o d o m y a n d i n d e c e n t assault. normal a n d in the gents I m e t the b r o t h e r o f a friend.o f this activity is further d e m o n s t r a t e d b y a m o r e detailed e x a m i n a t i o n o f the statistics.a n d i n d e e d the unfairness .o f tactics e m p l o y e d b y the p o l i c e : I l i v e d in the W e s t C o u n t r y . m o r e is r e v e a l e d b y a b r e a k d o w n o f the g l o b a l figures. respectively. recalls o n e . W e w e r e s i m p l y talking.to p r i s o n . 1 3 4 and a m e r e 822 and 3 2 0 . a n d o n e particular m e m b e r o f o u r g a y c o m m u n i t y w a s c a u g h t ' c o t t a g i n g ' b y the p o l i c e . This explosion. c a n l a r g e l y b e e x p l a i n e d b y the i n t i m i d a t o r y a n d h i t h e r t o u n h e a r d . ' g o t c h a . particularly in the n u m b e r o f p r o s e c u t i o n s for relatively m i n o r offences. w h e n t w o p l a i n . W e w e r e c h a r g e d w i t h a 'serious o f f e n c e ' . T h e y t h r e a t e n e d h i m w i t h ten years i n p r i s o n i f h e d i d n ' t tell t h e m the n a m e s o f all the g a y m e n w h o l i v e d i n the area.c l o t h e s p o l i c e m e n c h a r g e d in. I w a s c h a r g e d at the great a g e o f fifteen w i t h gross i n d e c e n c y a n d buggery. g o t c h a ' [. T h u s . I still find it distressing to talk a b o u t it b e c a u s e n o t o n l y d i d it w r e c k m y career.for f o u r to six years.] I h a d m a d e e n e m i e s a m o n g s o m e o f the m o r e c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e officials l i k e the t o w n c l e r k a n d the c h i e f constable. w a v i n g t o r c h e s a n d s h o u t i n g . . the first full y e a r after M a x w e l l F y f e ' s a p p o i n t m e n t .O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E F y f e ' s zeal w a s e q u a l l y p r o f o u n d o n h o m o s e x u a l s i n m o r e w a l k s o f life. W e h a v e already seen that the total n u m b e r o f p r o s e c u t i o n s for alleged h o m o s e x u a l offences h a d b e e n i n c r e a s i n g y e a r b y y e a r since 1 9 3 9 . . the figures for 1 9 3 9 had been. ' I w e n t for a w a l k i n a p a r k ' . a n d 1 . in a v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e seaside t o w n . Y e t e v e n this tells o n l y h a l f the story. W e w e r e j u s t s h a k i n g . W h e n it c a m e to the s e n t e n c i n g it w a s rather frightening for myself and another y o u n g chap o f nineteen. S o h e w e n t r o u n d i n a p o l i c e car to e v e r y w h e r e w e w o r k e d o r l i v e d a n d a d o z e n o f us e n d e d u p at the Q u a r t e r Sessions in E x e t e r Assizes.

o f f O x f o r d Street. i n c l u d i n g the B l a c k H o r s e . ' I h a v e o c c a s i o n a l l y d r a w n a c u p o f coffee i n the M o u s e h o l e myself. m o s t o f t h e m litde m o r e than a f t e r n o o n d r i n k i n g dens.' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 165 in o u r shoes w o n d e r i n g w h a t w a s g o i n g to h a p p e n . Forster a n d J . S i r J o h n N o t t . it w a s in L o n d o n - w h e r e M a x w e l l Fyfe's lead was enthusiastically e n d o r s e d b y a n e w l y a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n e r o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e . b u t g e n e r a l l y the e n d o f the m a t t e r — t h e y m e r e l y m o v e d o n to a n o t h e r p u b o r c l u b until the heat d i e d d o w n a n d o l d haunts r e .' h e w r o t e .o p e n e d . o r that a p o l i c e m a n might be observing m e and might demand m y name and b e c a u s e m y taste in clothes differed f r o m h i s . p o l i c e raids a n d p r o s e c u t i o n s for l i c e n s i n g irregularities h a d a l w a y s b e e n an o c c u p a t i o n a l hazard. F o r those l i k e B o b b i e ' s . O u t r a g e d b y the v i c i o u s r a n d o m n e s s o f this particular ' u n n e c e s s a r y interference in p e o p l e ' s private l i v e s ' . the letter w a s n e v e r sent. w a s instituted after a p l a i n . down Prudently.rather than the p r o v i n c e s that the n e w p o l i c e offensive against h o m o s e x u a l s w a s m o s t apparent.where T o m Driberg. F o r t u n a t e l y .i n t i m i d a t i n g e n o u g h . N o r w e r e p o l i c e activities c o n f i n e d to this superficial l e v e l of . at the M o u s e h o l e . ' b o h e m i a n ' p u b s . ' 30 address perhaps. the M a r q u i s o f G r a n b y a n d the n e a r b y B r i c k ­ layers' A r m s . d u r i n g this p e r i o d . M .B o w e r . O t h e r regulars h a d n o o p t i o n b u t to r e m a i n m o r e phlegmatic. 28 I n e v i t a b l y . w e r e selected for special attention. n o m i n a l l y ' p r i v a t e ' clubs. E . a m o n g traditionally tolerant. P r e v i o u s l y tolerated. 'litde k n o w i n g o f m y peril.c l o t h e s p o l i c e m a n o n an u n a n n o u n c e d visit r e p o r t e d that a n o t h e r m a n h a d c o m p l i m e n t e d h i m o n his hairstyle a n d t h e n p l a c e d a h a n d o n his k n e e . R . T h e r e w a s a regular t r a n s h u m a n c e u p a n d d o w n R a t h b o n e P l a c e . A c k e r l e y w e r e o c c a s i o n a l l y to b e o b s e r v e d a m o n g the r e g u l a r clientele. w e w e r e put o n probation. a 'rather d i n g y litde r o o m ' n e a r D e a n S t r e e t in S o h o w h i c h w a s l a r g e l y f r e q u e n t e d b y spivs a n d the demi-monde. O n e such raid. N o w t h e y also b e c a m e facts o f life for m o r e established v e n u e s s u c h as the M o u s e h o l e coffee bar a n d t h o u g h t they w e r e in the A t h e n a e u m ' 2 9 the v e n e r a b l e R o c k i n g h a m C l u b — 'piss-elegant a n d full o f q u e e n s w h o . A c k e r l e y a n d F o r s t e r p l a n n e d to w r i t e a letter o f protest to a national n e w s p a p e r . the Wheatsheaf. F o r s t e r e v e n drafted the letter. T h e i r names having b e e n solemnly written in a p o l i c e m a n ' s n o t e b o o k .

m e e t i n g S i r J o h n [ N o t t . I k n e w . Australia: F o r m a n y years past the [ L o n d o n ] p o l i c e h a d t u r n e d a b l i n d e y e to m a l e v i c e . ' W e l l . the p o l i c e did k n o w . I a s k e d h i m i f h e h a d the t i m e a n d h e b e g a n to m o v e u p to m e a n d ' g i v e m e the o l d e y e ' . D o w n at his isolated p r e p s c h o o l . a n d they were l o o k i n g : I w a s terrified o f i m p r i s o n m e n t . S h e said.s h e ' d h a d an u n c l e w h o w a s g a y — b e c a u s e she n o t i c e d I w a s v e r y sad after [a close friend] h a d b e e n to stay w i t h us. a n d frightened o f b e i n g h a d u p in c o u r t ' . b u t t h e r e w a s this little v o i c e inside m e saying. ' N o ! n o ! g e t o u t o f h e r e ! ' I c o u l d already see trials a n d p r i s o n a n d all the p u b l i c i t y .] T h e Special B r a n c h began compiling a 'Black B o o k ' o f k n o w n p e r v e r t s in influential G o v e r n m e n t j o b s [in 1 9 5 1 ] after the disappear­ a n c e o f the diplomats D o n a l d M a c l e a n a n d G u y B u r g e s s . . S y d n e y . I w a s so frightened! [. 31 N o t surprisingly.] A n d t h e n m y m o t h e r g u e s s e d . ' W o n ' t y o u c o m e w i t h m e ? ' A n d I w a s so tempted.t r a c k i n g these m e n i n t o less-important j o b s — o r o f p u t t i n g them behind bars. N o w .B o w e r ] 's d e m a n d s . p e o p l e there d i d n ' t k n o w w h a t t h e y w e r e l o o k i n g for. I w a s o n a T u b e train in a b o u t 1 9 5 8 a n d sitting n e x t to m e w a s a m o s t attractive m a n .m a n y o f h i g h social p o s i t i o n a n d s o m e w o r l d . in the face o f all this ' N i c h o l a s ' recalls that at the t i m e h e ' w a s terrified o f the l a w . tell m e . w h a t w a s g o i n g o n .f a m o u s . or w h e r e homosexuality had e n c o u r ­ aged other crimes. i f i n d e e d t h e y w e r e l o o k i n g at all.b u t they t o o k n o action. . t h e y are m a k i n g it a p r i o r i t y j o b to increase the n u m b e r o f arrests [. N o w c o m e s the difficult task o f s i d e . T h e y m a d e arrests o n l y w h e n definite complaints w e r e m a d e from innocent people. In L o n d o n things w e r e different. o f all places. A n a l t o g e t h e r m o r e sinister side o f their c a m p a i g n against h o m o s e x u a l s w a s r e p o r t e d b y a n e w s p a p e r in. ' R i c h a r d ' m i g h t h a v e b e e n able to g e t a w a y w i t h things. is it against the l a w . w h o w e r e k n o w n to h a v e p e r v e r t associates. a n d at the b a c k o f m y m i n d I k n e w it [ h o m o s e x u a l i t y ] w a s against the l a w . H e said. T h e y k n e w the n a m e s o f thousands o f perverts . I r e m e m b e r o n c e . this t h i n g that y o u ' r e w o r r i e d a b o u t ? ' T h a t w a s the o n l y t h i n g that she . .O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E harassment a n d i n t i m i d a t i o n . . this t i m e .

. that w i l l n e v e r h a p p e n to m e . his friend the w r i t e r a n d j o u r n a l i s t P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d a n d t w o o t h e r m e n w e r e arrested in J a n u a r y 1 9 5 3 : O n e w a s a w a r e o f the l a w . [. ' ) H e ' n e v e r s a w m y s e l f as a n y t h i n g l i k e the street boys'. It w a s endlessly t a l k e d a b o u t at the c a m p . e v e n h e w a s s h o c k e d w h e n the y o u n g L o r d M o n t a g u o f B e a u l i e u ( w h o h a d s u c c e e d e d to the b a r o n e t c y in 1 9 2 9 .b o y o n the W e s t E n d s c e n e since 1 9 3 8 . that r e i n f o r c e d the fear that I h a d o f b e i n g c a u g h t . w o u l d b e q u i t e the s a m e as it h a d been before. I used to t h i n k o f it as it is n o w — perfectly l e g a l p r o v i d e d y o u m i n d y o u r o w n business. ' N e v e r t h e l e s s . B u t . ' T o n y ' m i g h t w e l l h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t o o fly to h a v e b e e n o v e r l y w o r r i e d b y it. w h e n the M o n t a g u case c a m e u p . A n d o f c o u r s e . B o r n in 1 9 2 1 . It w a s all the soldiers c o u l d talk a b o u t . I d o n ' t t h i n k I w a s m a d e fully a w a r e o f the l a w until years later. his s e c o n d c o u s i n M i c h a e l P i t t . s o m e t i m e s g e t t i n g arrested a n d b e i n g t a k e n a w a y in b l a c k marias. ' W e l l . as w e used to call t h e m . as the j u d g e h a d p r o p h e s i e d in 1 8 9 5 . and anyway harboured secret ambitions to g i v e u p prostitution a l t o g e t h e r a n d g o o n the stage. . ( ' O n l y o n c e [was I] e v e r in a c l u b w h e n the p o l i c e raided. w i t h its tantalizing m i x t u r e o f aristocracy a n d ' m a l e v i c e ' . I u s e d to see t h o s e ' P i c c a d i l l y B o y s ' . N o t h i n g . b e c a u s e I d o n ' t d o that sort o f t h i n g . It w e n t in for an a w f u l lot o f c h o r u s b o y s . a n d that's really w h y I w e n t . 32 It h a d b e e n m o r e than h a l f a c e n t u r y since the W i l d e trials w h e n w h a t ' N i c h o l a s ' refers to as 'the M o n t a g u trial' w a s m o u n t e d in W i n c h e s t e r . T h i s w a s at the t i m e o f the M o n t a g u trial. I u s e d to t h i n k in terms [ o f ] . b e c a u s e I t h o u g h t I m i g h t l a n d a j o b . b u t t h e y o n l y t o o k n a m e s . h e r o n l y c o n c e r n w a s that I w o u l d get i n t o t r o u b l e . S h e w a s n ' t s h o c k e d at all.' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 167 w a s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t . in 1 9 5 4 a n d 1 9 5 5 for a m o n t h o r six w e e k s e a c h t i m e . it t o o s e e m e d p r i m e d i r r e v o c a b l y to c h a n g e the m o r a l c l i m a t e . but I did do Basic T r a i n i n g — twice. T h e r e w e r e o n l y t w o bars h e used: ' o n e in P i c c a d i l l y y o u w e n t straight i n t o .] I didn't do National Service.R i v e r s . ' It n e v e r o c c u r r e d to m e that t h e r e m i g h t b e detectives u n d e r c o v e r in a c l u b . a n d a 'professional' r e n t . T h e n . a n d o n e in L e i c e s t e r S q u a r e called the C a v o u r . at the a g e o f three).

trial. 33 S h o c k e d . it w a s C o r o n a t i o n y e a r a n d t h e y h a d b e e n asked to g o o n b o a r d H M S Adamant to w a t c h the c o m m e m o r a t i v e n a v a l r e v i e w .] T h a t e v e n i n g w e m e t E d w a r d in a P o r t s m o u t h bar. so M o n t a g u . T h e w e a t h e r w a s g l o r i o u s . a city o f dreadful n i g h t w h e r e the knowledge g n a w s at o n e ' s m i n d l i k e a rat. lies ahead. b o a r d e d h e r [. T h e call c a m e f r o m B e a u l i e u . I n the s u m m e r o f 1 9 5 3 the n o v e l i s t R o b i n M a u g h a m ( n e p h e w o f S o m e r s e t ) h a d i n v i t e d h i m to share a h o u s e in D o r s e t for a m o n t h ' s h o l i d a y . . O n e ' s transported in a flash f r o m a real w o r l d o f o r d i n a r y things l i k e bus-stops. R o b i n p r o p o s e d that w e s h o u l d g o to . a n d g a v e h i m the c o n f o u n d i n g n e w s . n o b o d y c o u l d k n o w better than I h o w h e t h e n felt: I s u p p o s e there is n o k n o w l e d g e so shocking. w a s the j o u r n a l i s t M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n . a n d t h e n . b a n g e d the p o o r f e l l o w u p . i n the s a m e p h y s i c a l w a y . N o w h e f o u n d h i m s e l f p i t c h e d practically a n d e m o ­ tionally i n t o the centre o f an e v e n greater d r a m a . s e e i n g E d w a r d a n d the others w h i l e t h e y w e r e o n bail a n d so o n . . as the k n o w l e d g e ( w h e t h e r o n e ' s i n n o c e n t o r guilty) that the w h o l e ghastly trail o f p o l i c e . w o u l d I instantly g o r o u n d to that o t h e r m a n ' s flat a n d tell h i m w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g ? I w e n t r o u n d to his m e w s flat.i68 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E y o u realised that y o u c o u l d b e h a d u p for s o m e t h i n g that h a d h a p p e n e d three years b e f o r e . F o r a little t i m e after this I w a s r u n n i n g errands in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the d e f e n c e . w a s b e i n g c h a r g e d w i t h 'a certain o f f e n c e ' a n d so w a s a n o t h e r m a n . Adamant w a s l y i n g n e x t to the aircraft carrier allotted to m e m b e r s o f b o t h h o u s e s o f parliament. It w a s n ' t l o n g after r e t u r n i n g f r o m D o r s e t to m y B a y s w a t e r h o m e that the t e l e p h o n e w o k e m e u p o n e m i d n i g h t .c o u r t . in A u g u s t . b e i n g a p e e r . N o t o n l y w a s h e a friend o f E d w a r d M o n t a g u ' s . a n d i f a n y t h i n g m o r e c o n v u l s i v e l y . f r o m a friend staying there: E d w a r d M o n t a g u . P u n i s h ­ m e n t b e g i n s l o n g b e f o r e j u d i c i a l p u n i s h m e n t can b e i m p o s e d . t o o . a n d perhaps prison. it affects o n e ' s bodily health as w e l l as o n e ' s m i n d ' s . T h e n i g h t b e f o r e the R e v i e w w e w e n t o v e r to B e a u l i e u to dine w i t h E d w a r d M o n t a g u . b e f o r e the w a r h e h a d h i m s e l f s e r v e d a short t e r m in p r i s o n for h o m o ­ s e x u a l offences. h e said. tobacconists' shops a n d sitting in c i n e m a s b e s i d e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e to w h o m p o l i c e m e n are m e n w h o w i l l tell t h e m the t i m e — to a n i g h t m a r e w o r l d . l u c k i l y w e h a d a d r i v e r to take us b a c k . a n d the n e x t d a y d r o v e into Portsmouth.

' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 169 Ischia for a h o l i d a y . 35 E d w a r d w i t h s o m e o f his h o u s e . a r r i v e d later that e v e n i n g a n d w a s b r o u g h t d o w n to the h u t bottles o f b e e r w e r e also b r o u g h t d o w n . offering in his g e n e r o u s w a y to stand m e the fare. M c N a l l y . S o m e s a n d w i c h e s a n d a f e w ' T h e r e w a s ' . a n d that this t i m e M i c h a e l P i t t R i v e r s w a s i m p l i c a t e d . T h e h o l i d a y b e g a n m o r e o r less a c c o r d i n g to plan. h o w e v e r . ' n o d a n c i n g b e t w e e n males a n d n o activities [sic] w h i c h c o u l d b e d e s c r i b e d as i m p r o p e r . w a s a t w e n t y . b y w a y o f supper. h e m e t M i c h a e l P i t t . 'the M o n t a g u C a s e ' w a s seen to h a v e h a d its origins in events w h i c h t o o k p l a c e w e l l b e f o r e the C o r o n a t i o n . W i l d e b l o o d insists.t h r e e . T h e p o l i c e h a d b e e n o u t to ' g e t ' p o o r h u n t e d E d w a r d . In the s u m m e r o f 1 9 5 2 L o r d M o n t a g u h a d offered P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d the use o f a ' S p a r t a n ' b e a c h h u t near B e a u l i e u . ' D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f the e v e n i n g .o l d R A F c o r p o r a l . t o o k us i n t o L y m i n g t o n to b u y p r o v i s i o n s . u n a w a r e at this t i m e that b o t h m e n w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d operators o n 'the g a m e ' . w h o m h e h a d m e t in P i c c a d i l l y C i r c u s s o m e m o n t h s p r e ­ v i o u s l y .y e a r . T h e party w h i c h f o l l o w e d has a c h i e v e d m o r e n o t o r i e t y t h a n a n y o t h e r since the days o f N e r o .g u e s t s . as his o w n a c c o u n t suggests.R i v e r s a n d it w a s a g r e e d . W i l d e b l o o d w a n t e d to get o n w i t h s o m e w r i t i n g . R e y n o l d s h a d b e e n d e l a y e d . 3 4 D a v i d s o n .p a r t y . that I r e a d o n e morning in a N a p l e s p a p e r the d u m b f o u n d i n g n e w s that a b r a n d n e w c h a r g e h a d b e e n b r o u g h t against E d w a r d . L o r d M o n t a g u w a s s p e n d i n g that w e e k e n d at B e a u l i e u w i t h a large h o u s e . h a d o n l y b e c o m e i n v o l v e d in the affair in médias res. a n d in d o i n g so h a d t r i u m p h a n d y s c o o p e d u p t w o o t h e r m e n as w e l l . a n o t h e r R A F s e r v i c e m a n called J o h n R e y ­ nolds. A s the full story u n f o l d e d in c o u r t . a n d w h e n M c N a l l y a n d I a r r i v e d b y train f r o m L o n d o n h e m e t us at the station. a n d it s e e m e d quite a g o o d idea to take E d d i e M c N a l l y a l o n g ' . and but by d e p o s i t e d us at the b e a c h hut. S o it w a s o n that island w e e k s later. W i l d e b l o o d a g r e e d . in fact. b u t ' d i d n o t w a n t to b e a l o n e all the t i m e . b u t I feel b o u n d to confess that it w a s . e x t r e m e l y d u l l . H e asked w h e t h e r h e c o u l d b r i n g his friend. a n d the t h r e e m a d e their w a y d o w n to the H a m p s h i r e b e a c h hut.

T h r e e m e n were standing o u t s i d e . p o l i c e m e n a n d m e m b e r s o f the G o v e r n m e n t ' . n o reason to d i s b e l i e v e his later d e c i s i o n that ' F a r f r o m i n c r i m i n a t i n g E d w a r d M o n t a g u a n d M i c h a e l P i t t .in an i r o n i c p a r o d y o f the W i l d e trials — M o n t a g u w a s subjected to a re-trial o n a lesser. so i n c o n g r u o u s in their stilted l a n g u a g e .R i v e r s family estate. E v e r y o n e e n j o y e d himself. O n e o f t h e m said: ' A r e y o u M r W i l d e b l o o d ? ' I told h i m that I w a s .s e r v i n g — b r a g g a d o c i o in his suggestion that i f the arresting officers h a d 'really w a n t e d a list o f h o m o s e x u a l s f r o m m e I w o u l d [have b e e n ] h a p p y to o b l i g e . T h a t c h a r g e w a s t h r o w n out.O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E that h e a n d the t w o a i r m e n s h o u l d c o n t i n u e their h o l i d a y at L a r m e r T r e e . I ran downstairs i n pyjamas a n d d r e s s i n g . ' It w a s a bitterly c o l d m o r n i n g . H e said: ' W e are p o l i c e officers f r o m the H a m p s h i r e C o n s t a b u l a r y a n d from N e w Scotland Y a r d . I w o u l d b e the first h o m o s e x u a l to tell w h a t it felt l i k e to b e an e x i l e in o n e ' s o w n c o u n t r y . I h a d n o illusions a b o u t the a m o u n t o f p u b l i c i t y w h i c h w o u l d b e i n v o l v e d . a n d W i l d e b l o o d . t h e n the d i p l o m a t i c c o r r e s p o n ­ d e n t o f the Daily Mail. W i l d e b l o o d h a d c o m p o s e d himself. but . t h o u g h still intermittently s e e i n g a n d w r i t i n g to M c N a l l y . W i l d e b l o o d . s o m e o f W i l d e b l o o d ' s letters to M c N a l l y h a d b e e n passed to the p o l i c e . for offences arising o u t o f y o u r association w i t h E d w a r d M c N a l l y and J o h n R e y n o l d s in the s u m m e r o f 1 9 5 2 . as [the p o l i c e ] h o p e d . . c o u n t . a n d w h e n I h e a r d these w o r d s .g o w n a n d o p e n e d it. T h e r e is a certain - a n d unattractively s e l f . a n d W i l d e b l o o d . w a s r o u s e d early in the m o r n i n g o f 8 J a n u a r y 1953: . a h o u s e o n the P i t t . E d w a r d M o n t a g u a n d a n o t h e r also b e e n s t a y i n g at the b e a c h hut. h a d to all intents a n d purposes forgotten a b o u t the h o l i d a y w h e n . A little later. g i v e n his s u b s e q u e n t actions. I felt as t h o u g h 36 friend w e r e c h a r g e d w i t h i n d e c e n t assault o n a party o f B o y S c o u t s w h o h a d I was d r o w n i n g in an i c y s e a . in the a u t u m n o f 1 9 5 3 . I w o u l d s i m p l y tell the truth a b o u t myself. M e a n w h i l e .' 37 . b u t related. w e a r i n g m a c k i n t o s h e s a n d trilby hats. . t h e r e w a s a t h u n d e r o u s k n o c k i n g at the d o o r . b u t perhaps I c o u l d h e l p others. I m i g h t d e s t r o y myself. W e h a v e c o m e to arrest y o u . but. b e g i n n i n g w i t h j u d g e s .R i v e n .

t h e r e w a s perhaps There w a s also the s u g g e s t i o n that. as w e l l as a ' s e c u r i t y ' . W e l l .R i v e r s ' s c o u n s e l great play o f this in his c l o s i n g s p e e c h . in the e y e s o f s o m e " S o c i e t y " p e o p l e . b e c a u s e o n a s u n s h i n y h o l i d a y . I think w e are. socio-political m o t i v e behind Sir D a v i d M a x w e l l Fyfe's h o m o p h o b i a . w a s that h e b e c a m e a c q u a i n t e d — o n n o m a t t e r w h a t basis . P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d w a s later to w r i t e : ' T h e real c r i m e o f L o r d M o n t a g u . ' 38 made names.in those c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e n they are all calling o n e a n o t h e r b y their C h r i s t i a n badge o f some indecent p r o s e c u t i o n in this case? C o m m e n t i n g o n this side o f things.a n d shameful . for e x a m p l e . r o o t i n g o u t h o m o s e x u a l s in h i g h places. R e a l l y ! D i d e v e r snobbery p u t f o r w a r d a m o r e greasy e x t e r i o r than that [put f o r w a r d ] b y the B y all accounts. W i l d e b l o o d a n d P i t t . F o r e i g n e r s t h i n k w e are a nation o f snobs. w i t h chaps in b e a c h clothes d o w n in a b e a c h h u t . [he told the j u r y ] .i n s p i r e d passion for another. [ w h e n ] y o u let t h e m call y o u b y y o u r C h r i s t i a n n a m e — that is a association.' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 171 M a n y fascinating . N o t the least o f these is the w a y in w h i c h class c a m e to play as i m p l i c i t a r o l e in the p r o c e e d i n g s o f the M o n t a g u trial at W i n c h e s t e r as it h a d d o n e w h e n W i l d e s t o o d in the d o c k at the O l d B a i l e y . B e h i n d the p r o s e c u t i o n there w e r e e c h o e s o f W i l d e ' s 'feasting w i t h p a n t h e r s ' a n d ' T o n y ' 's precise p i g e o n . In his 1 9 5 5 b o o k Against the L a w W i l d e b l o o d r e p o r t e d that in a ' r e c e n t ' s u r v e y o f 3 2 1 c r i m i n a l cases i n v o l v i n g h o m o s e x u a l i t y the a c c u s e d m e n fell into the f o l l o w i n g social categories: S h o p a n d clerical w o r k e r s Artisans (factory w o r k e r s ) Transport and Post Office w o r k e r s U n s k i l l e d labourers H o t e l w o r k e r s a n d d o m e s t i c servants Students.h o l i n g o f the different types o f m a l e prostitute.R i v e n in 1 9 5 3 a n d those o f O s c a r W i l d e a n d A l f r e d T a y l o r in 1 8 9 5 . B u t y o u m u s t h a v e g o t s o m e pretty basic s n o b b e r y in this case.parallels can b e f o u n d b e t w e e n the trials o f M o n t a g u . there w a s s o m e truth in that. trainees a n d s c h o o l b o y s 16% 15% 11% 10% 7% 6% .w i t h a m a n w h o (to q u o t e the p r o s e c u t i n g c o u n s e l ) w a s "infinitely his social i n f e r i o r " . It is n o w said that. M i c h a e l P i t t .

that total still reaches n o m o r e than 4 2 ( 1 3 p e r cent).c l a s s m e n . h a d t u r n e d Q u e e n ' s e v i d e n c e a n d t o l d the c o u r t that w h a t W i l d e b l o o d w a s to d e s c r i b e as a ' S p a r t a n ' b e a c h h u t w a s in fact 'a g i l d e d d e n o f v i c e in w h i c h a l l .b u t n o w t h e y h a d h i m a n d t h e y w e r e n o t lightly g o i n g to let h i m g o . M c N a l l y a n d R e y n o l d s . quite a c o u p . W e s h o u l d . w h o m e v e n the p r o s e c u t i o n d e s c r i b e d as ' m e n o f the l o w e s t possible m o r a l character'. 4 0 .a n d w o r k i n g .m a l e orgies w e n t o n till d a w n ' . s o m e 1 8 9 (59 p e r cent) w e r e against l o w e r m i d d l e . a l o n g w i t h W i l d e b l o o d a n d P i t t .172 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E Schoolmasters Agricultural workers Clergymen T h e m e n t a l l y deficient O f independent means Unclassified 4% 4% 2% 2% 2% 11 % T h e t a x o n o m y is archaic. S i m p l e m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c s h o w s that.R i v e r s — w a s . g i v e at least s o m e c r e d e n c e to M i c h a e l D a v i d s o n ' s s u g g e s t i o n that L o r d M o n t a g u ' s arrest — t o g e t h e r w i t h the u n e x p e c t e d s c o o p i n g s . T h u s . A s the V i c t o r i a n m u s i c . b u t the table is a v i v i d illustration o f the legal a n d social reality facing h o m o s e x u a l s in the B r i t a i n o f the 1 9 5 0 s . even c a t e g o r y ) d o m e s t i c servants. his n a m e m i g h t o r m i g h t n o t h a v e b e e n in the S p e c i a l B r a n c h ' s ' B l a c k B o o k ' (it has n e v e r b e e n p r o d u c e d .R i v e n . despite the dreadful lessons learnt in the aftermath o f the B u r g e s s a n d M a c l e a n defection. it w a s still 'the rich w h a t gets the pleasure. let a l o n e o p e n e d ) . then.h a l l s o n g h a d it. B y contrast.s e v e n .u p o f W d d e b l o o d a n d P i t t . c h a r g e d w i t h m o r e than t w e n t y separate offences against the infamous Labouchère amendment to the 1886 Criminal L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t . j u s t s e v e n w e r e against ' g e n t l e m e n ' a d d i n g in the m y s t e r i o u s 'unclassified' c a t e g o r y . unskilled labourers a n d (a fast-disappearing launched (or at least those ' o f i n d e p e n d e n t means'). o f the 3 2 1 cases b r o u g h t . the p o o r w h a t gets the b l a m e ' . as W i l d e b l o o d suggests. predominantly 'artisans'. n e a r B e a u l i e u . T h e y m i g h t o r m i g h t n o t h a v e b e e n expressly o u t to ' g e t ' h i m .y e a r o l d p e e r faced a c o m m i t t a l h e a r i n g in front o f magistrates at L y m i n g t o n . to p o l i c e m e n m o r e a c c u s t o m e d to d e t a i n i n g w r e t c h e d m e m b e r s o f the l o w e r orders. the t w e n t y .

T h e e n s u i n g trial ran for o v e r a w e e k . ' G u i l t y . w i t h a 'dull c u r i o s i t y ' — 'Guilty . . ' W i l d e b l o o d listened. B u t . sir. T h r o u g h o u t the trial the journalists c o v e r i n g it h a d r u n a b o o k — as journalists e v e r y w h e r e t e n d to d o — o n the l i k e l y o u t c o m e . Guilty m e in prison for fifteen years i f h e felt so d i s p o s e d . . A g a i n a n d again.'Is that an ordinary letter?' .m a l e parties a n d c h a m p a g n e o r g i e s . the defendants e a c h p l e a d e d ' N o t G u i l t y ' to all o f the n i n e t e e n charges o n w h i c h t h e y w e r e finally indicted. ' A s for m e . W i l d e b l o o d ' s c o u n s e l . It d i d n o g o o d .t w o o n an acquittal. . I n e v e r c h a n g e . . the d a m a g e h a d already b e e n d o n e : ' F r o m n o w o n . it s o u n d e d as i f all c o n c e r n e d w e r e m e r e l y r e . Guilty . ' D i d y o u m e a n that? .Y e s . .b l e a k l y a w a r e o f the p o w e r o f the j u d g e : ' H e c o u l d p u t . . sir. W h e n y o u w r o t e . did y o u m e a n the expressions o f s e n t i m e n t w h i c h y o u e x p r e s s e d ? . A n d w h e n y o u w r o t e h i m those letters o f w h i c h w e h a v e h e a r d . G u i l t y . L e t us r e m i n d ourselves o f t h e m . as far as P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d w a s c o n c e r n e d . a n d their fears w e r e c o n f i r m e d w h e n the j u r y f o r e m a n rose to g i v e their decisions as c o u n t after c o u n t w a s read out.' T H E H O R R O R S OF P E A C E WERE MANY' 173 A m i d s t m u c h p u b l i c i t y . in the lofty surroundings o f the G r e a t H a l l o f W i n c h e s t e r C a s d e . A n d the letters y o u w r o t e w e r e quite sincere letters? — Y e s . sir. ' .e n a c t i n g the W i l d e trials. G u i l t y .e x a m i n e M c N a l l y : D u r i n g 1 9 5 2 a n d 1 9 5 3 w e r e y o u w h a t y o u w o u l d d e s c r i b e as 'in l o v e ' w i t h P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d ? . the j u r y r e t u r n e d w i t h their v e r d i c t . ' T h e h e a r i n g finally b e g a n o n 1 5 M a r c h 1 9 5 4 w h e n . b u t w i t h a l l . h a d s o m e t h i n g o f Sir E d w a r d C a r s o n ' s forensic i r o n y . the three defendants w e r e c o m m i t t e d for trial. .Y e s . H a v i n g h e a r d the c o u n s e l s ' c l o s i n g s p e e c h e s they w e r e offering odds o f e l e v e n . h o w e v e r . sir. accounts o f it n o t infrequently j o s t l i n g reports o f the latest M a u M a u atrocities in K e n y a f r o m the front pages o f tabloid n e w s p a p e r s . sir.w h e n h e c a m e to c r o s s . h e w a s to recall. P e t e r (later L o r d ) R a w l i n s o n .t o . N o t G u i l t y . in particular. . . w e l l . d i d y o u m e a n that? .Y e s .Y e s . E d w a r d M o n t a g u ' s n a m e w o u l d b e indelibly c o n n e c t e d in the p u b l i c m i n d — a n d therefore in the m i n d s o f the t w e l v e m e n w h o w o u l d later try h i m — n o t o n l y w i t h B o y S c o u t s . . A f t e r retiring for little m o r e t h a n f o u r h o u r s . In D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 3 y o u said. T h e d e f e n d ­ ants w e r e n o t so s a n g u i n e . ' I ' m still v e r y m u c h in l o v e ' .

for t w e l v e m o n t h s . B u t . S h e w a s standing o n the p a v e m e n t as the car w e n t b y . t o . M o n t a g u . e n c o u n t e r e d . b u t n e i t h e r c o u l d h e o v e r l o o k the j u r y ' s v e r d i c t .W i l d e b l o o d w a s a m o n g the first to n o t i c e it .a M o r e often. t h r o u g h n o fault o f their o w n . for e i g h t e e n months. in loneliness a n d f e a r . Y o u . P i t t R i v e r s a n d W i l d e b l o o d the j u d g e w a s c o n s i d e r e d a n d almost h u m a n e in his r e m a r k s : Y o u h a v e all three b e e n f o u n d guilty o f serious offences. I saw h e r s u c k in h e r c h e e k s . P e t e r D r a k e o f the Daily Express. o f less serious offences than the o t h e r t w o . it is quite impossible for these offences to b e passed o v e r . In the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n part.a g e d . O b s c u r e l y . T h e w h o l e issue o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y h a d o n c e again b e e n b r o u g h t to the forefront o f p u b l i c attention and. o f c o u r s e . t w e e d y p e r s o n w e a r i n g a sensible felt hat. a n d particular attention. I h a v e p a i d the greatest attention to e v e r y t h i n g that has b e e n said o n y o u r behalf.R i v e r s . n o d o u b t . M o n t a g u . O n o n e o c c a s i o n a w o m a n spat at h i m : ' S h e w a s a r e s p e c t a b l e .i n g b e t w e e n the h o t e l in w h i c h h e w a s staying a n d the c o u r t r o o m . W i l d e b l o o d w a s r e p e a t e d l y e x p o s e d to the reactions to it o f the m e n a n d women o f W i n c h e s t e r .a n d in m a r k e d contrast to M r J u s t i c e Wills's p e r o r a t i o n against W i l d e .174 ORDINARY PEOPLE H e d i d n ' t . a n d y o u . a message the to pass o n to his m o t h e r . P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d h a d g i v e n a friendly j o u r n a l i s t . rather.i n g a n d f r o . m a n y thousands o f o t h e r m e n are c o n d e m n e d to l i v e . ' little light had b e e n cast b y the trial. that at last a litde light has b e e n cast o n this dark territory in w h i c h . y o u . t h o u g h . I a m dealing w i t h y o u in the m o s t l e n i e n t w a y that I possibly can. ' 43 42 It w a s a prescient r e m a r k . P i t t . t h e r e w e r e which and b y e x p l o d i n g flashbulbs s p o n t a n e o u s expressions o f s u p p o r t a n d a n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g g e n u i n e l y surprised h i m : ' U n d a u n t e d . m i d d l e . w h o h a d s u p p o r t e d h i m t h r o u g h o u t p r o t r a c t e d legal p r o c e e d i n g s . to the difficulties w h i c h y o u h a v e . W i l d e b l o o d . Y o u . it read: ' W h a t e v e r t h e y d e c i d e . w i l l g o to p r i s o n f o r e i g h t e e n m o n t h s . 41 W a i t i n g f o r the j u r y to reach their v e r d i c t . h o w e v e r .l o o k i n g . I d o n o t w a n t y o u to b e a s h a m e d o f a n y t h i n g I h a v e d o n e . a n d the n e x t m o m e n t a b i g b l o b o f spit w a s r u n n i n g d o w n the w i n d s c r e e n . B e glad. W i l d e b l o o d .w h e n h e c a m e to s e n t e n c e M o n t a g u .

. T h e y tried to pat us o n the b a c k a n d told us t o ' K e e p s m i l i n g ' . in a l o u d . for B o y S c o u t s . attitudes w e r e subtly altering. T h u s w e find the n o v e l i s t P a t r i c k H a m i l t o n w r i t i n g to his b r o t h e r B r u c e at a r o u n d this t i m e : T h e p o l i c e l o v e to v i c t i m i s e a n y o n e w e l l k n o w n . w h o is often h e a r d s a y i n g that it is all right p r o v i d e d ' t h e y d o n ' t c o r r u p t the young'. It m i g h t h a v e b e e n the car itself w h i c h h a d e x c i t e d their interest.u p sign a n d c l a p p e d their h a n d s . w h a t business is it o f a n y b o d y e l s e ' s ? " ' 4 4 T h i s c o n t i n u e d after the sentences w e r e a n n o u n c e d a n d c h i m e d w e l l w i t h the j o u r n a l i s t s ' p r e d i c t i o n s a n d the u n d e r l y i n g t e n o r o f the j u d g e ' s w o r d s . s h o u t i n g . I f the o n l o o k e r s outside W i n c h e s t e r C a s t l e w e r e u n w i t t i n g b e l l . 45 Farther a w a y . Press a n d p u b l i c t o o . a n d o t h e r m a l e w h o r e s ) b e i n g fantastically p i l l o r i e d — a n d c o n v i c t e d on the word of the male whores. toneless v o i c e : ' W h i c h is L o r d M o n t a g u ? A h . ten years after the e n d o f the w a r others w e r e b e g i n n i n g to f o l l o w their lead. and w h e n the d o o r s w e r e shut t h e y w e n t o n t a l k i n g t h r o u g h the w i n d o w s a n d g a v e the t h u m b s . A n d t h e n the c r o w d b e g a n to press r o u n d us. T h e y ' v e h a d their p o u n d o f flesh. I d o n ' t think the y o u n g are c o r r u p t i b l e . n o d o u b t . I t h i n k that h o m o s e x u a l i t y is s o m e t h i n g constitutional . [a taxi d r i v e r ] r e m a r k e d : " P e r s o n a l l y . A i r m e n . albeit o n l y in certain quarters. H e r e y o u h a v e a perfectly o r d i n a r y y o u n g m a n ( w i t h a l i k i n g . I f t w o chaps carry o n l i k e that a n d d o n ' t d o n o h a r m to n o o n e . I d o n ' t see this.m a n . a n d s p e a k i n g m a n . In m y t o l e r a n c e for h o m o s e x u a l i t y I p e r s o n a l l y g o further than the a v e r a g e c i v i l i s e d p e r s o n . A l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l y . I t h i n k it's a lot o f b l e e d i n g n o n s e n s e . there h e is!' I t h o u g h t : Please d o n ' t let t h e m d o any m o r e to h i m .y o u either h a v e it o r n o t . b u t w o r d s o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t . It w a s s o m e m o m e n t s b e f o r e I realised that t h e y w e r e n o t s h o u t i n g insults. t o o . A s the defendants m a d e their w a y o u t o f the castle — a n d p r e p a r e d to c l i m b into the v e t e r a n R o l l s .I m y s e l f h a v e h a d passes m a d e at m e as a b o y .R o y c e w h i c h w a s t o take t h e m o f f to prison .'THE H O R R O R S OF P E A C E WERE MANY' 175 c u r i o u s faces p e e r i n g t h r o u g h the w i n d o w .w e t h e r s .t o .W i l d e b l o o d n o t i c e d a g r o u p o f m e n a n d w o m e n s u r r o u n d i n g the car. b u t t h e y j u s t d i d n ' t ' t a k e ' . b u t t h e n o n e o f the w o m e n said. a sense o f reason w a s b e g i n n i n g to supplant n e a n d e r t h a l p r e j u d i c e .

I ' m sure I ' d n e v e r h a v e a c q u i r e d the h a b i t .176 ORDINARY PEOPLE A n d a l t h o u g h . at W e s t m i n s t e r [ S c h o o l ] I c o u l d (I n o w k n o w ) h a v e satisfied these leanings in the case o f o n e b o y in particular .still. 46 .

after its c h a i r m a n J o h n W o l f e n d e n . A n d h e w e n t o n : ' S o l o n g as I h o l d the office o f H o m e S e c r e t a r y I shall g i v e n o c o u n t e n ­ a n c e to the v i e w that they s h o u l d n o t b e p r e v e n t e d f r o m b e i n g s u c h a danger. o f all p e o p l e it w a s that s a m e D a v i d M a x w e l l F y f e w h o w e n t b a c k to the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a m e r e n i n e m o n t h s later to a n n o u n c e that the g o v e r n m e n t h a d d e c i d e d to set u p a d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e to e n q u i r e i n t o all aspects o f the l a w as it related to h o m o s e x u a l i t y a n d prostitution. ' 1 It w a s . In short. m y guess is that it w i l l b e u n w e l c o m e to a p p r o x i m a t e l y fifty p e r cent o f H e r M a j e s t y ' s subjects. A t its first m e e t i n g W o l f e n d e n t o l d the c o m m i t ­ tee: ' I h a v e n o t the faintest idea at this m o m e n t w h a t w e shall u l t i m a t e l y r e c o m m e n d . w h a t e v e r it turns o u t to b e . t h e n v i c e .' E v e n the legalistic d o u b l e n e g a t i v e failed to c l o a k the minister's o w n d e e p antipathy t o w a r d s a n y possible c h a n g e in the l a w . N e v e r t h e l e s s .) The committee the W o l f e n d e n C o m m i t t e e . 5 3 . T h e task it faced w a s i m m e n s e — ultimately the p r o d u c t i o n o f w h a t the press i m m e d i a t e l y d u b b e d the ' V i c e R e p o r t ' w a s to take a full t h r e e years and o f considerable d e l i c a c y . M a x w e l l F y f e ' s v o l t e face and the a p p o i n t m e n t o f the c o m m i t t e e h a d o n l y c o m e about 177 . t h o u g h . b e g u n its life as a bill d e s i g n e d to p r o t e c t the rights o f v u l n e r a b l e y o u n g girls.c h a n c e l l o r o f R e a d i n g U n i v e r s i t y — b e g a n w o r k in A u g u s t 1 9 5 4 . o f c o u r s e .'The Ray of Hope' ' H O M O S E X U A L S I N G E N E R A L are exhibitionists a n d proselyrisers a n d are a d a n g e r to others. especially the y o u n g . as it w a s k n o w n . ' S i r D a v i d M a x w e l l F y f e t o l d the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s o n 3 D e c e m b e r 1 9 . necessary to fight the battle. w e can't w i n . but. ( O n c e again there w e r e parallels w i t h the W i l d e case. the C r i m i n a l L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t had.

h a v e for o n e reason o r a n o t h e r — idealism. it p u b l i s h e d a l e a d i n g article anticipating W o l f e n d e n ' s terms o f reference a n d calling for a c o m p l e t e r e v i e w o f the l a w as it then s t o o d . in M a r c h 1 9 5 4 . i n h i b i t i o n s o r timidity — d e n i e d t h e m s e l v e s a n y physical relationships. h a v e k n o w n t h e m s e l v e s to b e i r r e v o c a b l y ' q u e e r ' f r o m early a d o l e s c e n c e . this t i m e s o m e f o r m o f l i m i t e d d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n e v e n s e e m e d a cause w o r t h f i g h t i n g for. g i v e n the slightest o p p o r t u n i t y . [ h o m o s e x u a l i t y ] is a S o c i a l P r o b l e m . 0 0 0 w o r d s — tried to identify the m o s t intractable o f those ' p r o b l e m s ' : 2 A s y o u rightly say. H O M O ­ S E X U A L ' w h i c h b e g a n b y offering its author's ' d e e p l y felt thanks for the ray o f h o p e w h i c h y o u r sane a p p r o a c h to the p r o b l e m s o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y offers to t h e a b n o r m a l ' a n d t h e n — in the c o u r s e o f s o m e 2 . heightened every year. I n 1 9 5 3 J o h n G i e l g u d h a d b e e n c o n v i c t e d for c o t t a g i n g (he t o l d the c o u r t h e w a s 'a c l e r k ' e a r n i n g j u s t £ 1 . 3 . M e m o r i e s o f the trials o f R u p e r t C r o f t . H o m o s e x u a l i t y h a d o n c e again b e c o m e 'an issue' and. It w a s to p r o v e a rallying call in the fight for w h a t w o u l d later b e k n o w n as ' g a y liberation'. T h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k the paper's c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o l u m n carried a l o n g letter s i g n e d m e r e l y (but inevitably) ' Y o u r s faithfully. A d e c a d e b e f o r e its successful c a m p a i g n for the w i t h d r a w a l o f the d r u g t h a l i d o m i d e in the 1 9 6 0 s . w i t h o u t e v e r h a v i n g b e e n a p p r o a c h e d b y a n o t h e r . a n d there is perhaps n o such p e r s o n as 'the t y p i c a l h o m o s e x u a l ' . N e w s p a p e r accounts a n d the p r o c e e d i n g s o f the c r i m i n a l courts m u s t t o g e t h e r g i v e m a n y o r d i n a r y p e o p l e the idea that all m a l e h o m o s e x u a l s are b y definition habitually p r o m i s c u ­ o u s .178 ORDINARY PEOPLE b e c a u s e o f a n o t h e r p e r c e p t i b l e increase in the p u b l i c awareness o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y . n o t least in the m i n d s o f M P s a n d n e w s p a p e r editors. a d d i c t e d to constant v i c e a n d liable to assault a n y o t h e r m a l e . the Sunday Times h a d effectively started that particular ball rolling w h e n . in liberal circles at least.c o n s u m i n g stresses. it is also an i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m .C o o k e a n d L o r d M o n t a g u w e r e still fresh. Y e t there m u s t b e v e r y m a n y l i k e m y s e l f — perhaps e v e n a m a j o r i t y — w h o . 0 0 0 a y e a r and m i g h t h a v e e s c a p e d p u b l i c i t y h a d h e n o t b e e n r e c o g n i z e d b y an Standard Evening r e p o r t e r w h o h a p p e n e d to b e in the press b o x ) . a n d w h o reach their later t w e n t i e s o r thirties w i t h the e n e r g y . i m p o s e d b y their unsatisfied e m o t i o n a l needs a n d the constant m e n t a l d i l e m m a o f their g e n e r a l situation.

A t the t i m e o f w r i t i n g h e h a d b e e n a t w e n t y . It is o n l y n o w . 'standing u n d e r a tree m i s b e h a v i n g ' w i t h a n i n e t e e n . t o o . m o s t n o t a b l y after the ' d i s g r a c e ' o f Ian H a r v e y in the a u t u m n o f 1958. T h e press. T h e t w o m e n w e r e charged w i t h and c o n v i c t e d o f o n l y a m i n o r b r e a c h o f R o y a l P a r k s regulations after a gross i n d e c e n c y c h a r g e w a s d r o p p e d (the c o u r t h e a r d that the g u a r d s ­ m a n ' w a s n o t addicted in this w a y ' a n d h a d o n l y g o n e w i t h H a r v e y ' o u t o f c u r i o s i t y ' ) . l o o k i n g b a c k . b u t t o o k e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y to d o so. o n l y the b e g i n n i n g o f w h a t H a r v e y h i m s e l f w a s to call a p e r i o d o f ' P u r g a t o r y ' . s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w a s ' e s s e n ­ tially evil a n d w i c k e d ' . T h e press eagerly r e p o r t e d h o w h e w a s f o r c e d to resign f r o m his L o n d o n clubs. T h e n o m i n a l fine w a s .w o o d s peers regretted h a v i n g to talk o n c e a b o u t an 'intensely r e p u g n a n t ' subject.y e a r . In P a r l i a m e n t back-bench again a n d b a c k . H o w e v e r slight.o l d Household Cavalry guardsman. F o r i f it h a d a m o l l i f y i n g Times readers w h o h a d b e e n s h o c k e d b y the effect o n those Sunday p r e v i o u s w e e k ' s leader. h o m o p h o b i c a l l y p r e j u d i c e d o r d o w n r i g h t i g n o r a n t attitudes d i s p l a y e d in m u c h that w a s b e i n g w r i t t e n a n d said d u r i n g this latest b o u t o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n a b o u t h o m o s e x u a l s a n d h o m o s e x u a l i t y in general. Specifically. h o w e v e r transient.o l d M P and Foreign O f f i c e minister h a d b e e n d i s c o v e r e d late o n e e v e n i n g in St J a m e s ' s P a r k . for m o s t o f the n e x t t w o d e c a d e s ' . in itself it offered t h e m a n o t h e r 'ray o f h o p e ' in an o t h e r w i s e particularly b e n i g h t e d d e c a d e . c o u c h e d as it w a s in a t o n e o f h u m a n e reasonableness.f i v e . c o n t i n u e d to m o r a l i z e o v e r the further falls o f the m i g h t y .y e a r o l d C a m b r i d g e graduate a n d c o u l d n o t h a v e f o r e s e e n that p u b l i c a t i o n o f his letter w o u l d l e a d to s o m e t h i n g w h i c h (he later w r o t e ) ' w a s to b e c o m e m y m a j o r personal p r e o c c u p a t i o n .' T H E R A Y OF H O P E ' 179 Y e a r s later the p s e u d o n y m o u s ' H O M O S E X U A L ' i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f as A n t o n y G r e y . that w e can see w h y this s h o u l d h a v e b e e n the case. Some MPs o f it is n o w barely credible.y e a r . ran The Times's h e a d l i n e after the f o r t y . h o w e v e r . it c a m e as a w e l c o m e c o r r e c t i v e to the o v e r w h e l m i n g l y n e g a t i v e . a p p e a r e d at a crucial t i m e . HE W I L L P A Y TO E N D OF L I F E .f o u r . G r e y ' s letter. a n d also m y professional o c c u p a t i o n . . £ $ F I N E ON I A N H A R V E Y . it also — a n d rather m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y — s e r v e d to m a k e m a n y h o m o s e x u a l m e n feel better a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s .

] I h a d a friend. e v e n i f the o u t e r w o r l d left t h e m in p e a c e . w r o t e : I f it w e r e n o t for m y m o t h e r . a cause célèbre. . . n o t that I a m a s h a m e d o f b e i n g w h a t I a m . . b u t n o w h e is afraid e v e n to w r i t e to m e . (Ironically o r not. a n d there w o u l d n o t b e . U n c o n s c i o u s l y t h e y w a n t to b e d i s a p p o i n t e d . b u t such p u b l i c o b l o q u y as h e attracted w a s o n l y an o u t w a r d manifestation o f the p r i v a t e fear a n d self-loathing felt b y m a n y m o r e o r d i n a r y h o m o sexuals at the t i m e . I n 1 9 5 5 . to l e a d w h a t seems a p o i n d e s s life. Even ostensibly 'scientific' studies o f the subject still described 4 h o m o s e x u a l i t y as a ' s e v e r e m e n t a l sickness' a n d h o m o s e x u a l s t h e m selves as suffering f r o m 'personality d e f i c i e n c y ' . ' E d m u n d B e r g l e r told readers o f his u n a m b i g u o u s l y titled b o o k The Counterfeit Sex ( 1 9 5 8 ) . w i t h v a r i o u s a c t i v e interests a n d m a n y h o p e s . ) T h u s in 1 9 5 8 the luckless Ian H a r v e y felt c o m p e l l e d to resign his seat in the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d accept the ostracism o f his friends a n d the i r r e v o c a b l e e n d o f his political career. e v e n w h i l e the W o l f e n d e n C o m m i t t e e w e n t a b o u t its w o r k . for instance. T h a t . w a s a special case. N o t i n h u m a n — j u s t n o t . w i t h o u t h o p e for the future. in his Sunday Times letter e v e n G r e y d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f as ' q u e e r ' a n d talked a b o u t a ' p r o b l e m ' a n d the ' a b n o r m a l ' . H i s . h o m o s e x u a l m e n v e r y often f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s in a n o m i c isolation.' 'It w a s n o t easy for e v e n sensible a n d socially c o n c e r n e d h o m o s e x u a l p e o p l e w h o r e a d [those] w o r d s to sustain a h i g h m o r a l e . ' T h e r e are n o h a p p y h o m o s e x u a l s . a n d w i t h o u t a c o m p a n i o n .i8o ORDINARY PEOPLE relinquish g o v e r n m e n t office (ironically. ' T h e reason is an internal o n e . 5 'I b e g a n to suspect that I w a s n o t h u m a n . it is so h a r d to b e k n o c k e d d o w n again [. W i t h o u t the s u p p o r t o f a g a y c o m m u n i t y . all t o o ready to b e l i e v e e v e r y t h i n g t h e y read a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s . o n e s u c h m a n w h o h a d also b e e n arrested. a n d I a m left w i t h o u t a n y profession. b r o u g h t b e f o r e the courts o n gross i n d e c e n c y charges. I m i g h t w e l l take the quickest w a y o u t . . c o n d i t i o n a l l y d i s c h a r g e d b u t still s a c k e d f r o m his j o b . ' A n t o n y G r e y w a s later to c o m m e n t . b u t w h e n o n e has w o r k e d hard from small foundations a n d built a h a p p y life and e n v i r o n m e n t a b o u t o n e . w a s a w r y understatem e n t . i f a n y t h i n g . his ministerial post w a s filled b y J o h n P r o f u m o ) a n d g i v e u p his seat in P a r l i a m e n t . it m i g h t b e a r g u e d .

o r s i m p l y n o t natural? [. the ' m e d i a psychiatrist' w h o w o u l d hit the headlines o n b o t h sides o f the A t l a n t i c d u r i n g the 1 9 6 0 s . . m o r e p r o f o u n d l y . a n d in C o r s h a m itself there w a s a plain-clothes officer l i v i n g in the m a i n street j u s t a f e w d o o r s a w a y f r o m w h e r e m y parents a n d I w e r e staying in W e a v e r s ' C o t t a g e s . D . I k n e w that i f I stayed any l o n g e r in E n g l a n d t h e y w o u l d get m e . also reveals h o w little m e d i c a l . . ' the p o e t J a m e s K i r k u p has w r i t t e n o f his p e r i o d in his life. F l e m i s h B u i l d i n g s .] T h e p o l i c e were after m e . so w i d e s p r e a d a m o n g gays in the fifties? I f so. ) ' N i c h o l a s ' 's t r e a t m e n t in particular. l i k e K i r k u p h e t o o felt stifled b y the climate o f ' K a f k a e s q u e c r u e l t y ' . in his fourth y e a r at C a m b r i d g e . as w e called it t h e n . o f a v e r s i o n therapy w h i c h featured the use o f the n a u s e a . I c o u l d n o t trust s o m e o f m y colleagues at the B a t h A c a d e m y o f A r t .t h o u g h I h a t e d the t e r m . T h e r e w e r e b o b b i e s o n the beat in C h i p p e n h a m a n d B a t h . If he was not u n d u l y frightened o f the p o l i c e . I w a s b e g i n n i n g to feel that the p o l i c e m u s t b e after m e . o r " q u e e r " . b e g i n n i n g w o r k o n a P h D . he h a d h a d e n o u g h : ' I w a n t e d to c h a n g e I w a n t e d to b e " n o r m a l " . p s y c h o l o g i c a l and. social t h i n k i n g h a d c h a n g e d in half a c e n t u r y . . W a s this sheer paranoia.i n d u c i n g d r u g a p o m o r p h i n e a n d o f c r u d e antagonistic c o u n s e l l i n g . I n d e e d . M . v i v i d l y recreate a w o r l d in w h i c h h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s officially r e g a r d e d as a m e n t a l disorder. 6 B y 1 9 5 7 e v e r y t h i n g h a d g o t t o o m u c h for ' N i c h o l a s ' . w a s it justified paranoia? W a s there s o m e t h i n g w r o n g w i t h m e ? W a s m y b e h a v i o u r b a d . L a i n g . I d i d n ' t w a n t to b e gay. c u l m i n a t i n g as it d i d in a series o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h R . the C a m b r i d g e undergraduate w h o m w e h a v e already e n c o u n t e r e d .'THE R A Y OF H O P E ' 181 like o t h e r h u m a n b e i n g s . h e w e n t to see his d o c t o r — a b r a v e m o v e in itself at the t i m e — a n d asked for treatment. . a n d r e m a i n e d o n official B r i t i s h lists o f psychiatric disorders until 1 9 9 3 . (It h a d b e e n formally classified as s u c h w h e n the World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n w a s established in 1 9 4 8 .f i v e y e a n p r e v i o u s l y : 7 . his a c c o u n t (and the separate e x p e r i e n c e s o f t w o o t h e r m e n ) precisely parallels the t r e a t m e n t u n d e r g o n e b y E . ' T h u s . H i s a n d o t h e r m e n ' s m e m o r i e s o f that ' t r e a t m e n t ' . A l t h o u g h h e w a s o n l y in his early twenties. Forster's M a u r i c e H a l l s o m e f o r t y .

but my life. . 'Now listen to me. b u t h e w a s g r i m a n d treated m e like a j u v e n i l e . It was rubbish!' He had expected many things. I w e n t in n o t t o o s o l e m n . never let that evil hallucination. I'll not advice. speaking? 'Who put that lie into your head? You whom I see and know to be a We'll never mention it again. but not this. occur to you again. ' came the voice authoritatively. tion from the devil. w h a t ' l l y o u d o ? ' a n d h e said. delinquent. a n d g a v e m e a full m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n .182 ORDINARY PEOPLE A t the t i m e I t h o u g h t it w a s a passing phase. .] I ' d also r e a d in o n e o f the S u n d a y papers a b o u t a d o c t o r at the M a u d s l e y H o s p i t a l w h o c o u l d c u r e h o m o s e x u a l i t y b y a v e r s i o n therapy. b u t h e c o u l d s e n d m e to the T a v i s t o c k C l i n i c in L o n d o n w h e r e t h e y ' d treat m e o n the N a t i o n a l H e a l t h . . for if his I can't have explained —' that tempta­ words were rubbish his life was a dream. 'Dr Barry. w h e n I told h i m I thought I might be homosexual. t r y i n g to b e fairly cheerful. ' W e l l . ' I can see h o w that even l a u g h i n g a little bit. T h e n . [. a n d so o n . struggling 8 discuss. S o I r a n g h i m u p a n d e v e n t u a l l y m a n a g e d to get to see h i m . The worst thing I could do for you is to discuss it. 'Rubbish'. . came. H e w a s absolutely horrified! At last judgement 'Rubbish. so I w e n t to see a specialist. r u n n i n g his h a n d u p a n d d o w n m y calves.this is the e x t e n t to w h i c h I still w a n t e d to b e c h a n g e d .' said Maurice. No . H e retreated b e h i n d a h u g e desk a n d said there w a s absolutely n o o n e at C a m b r i d g e w h o c o u l d 'deal' w i t h this ' c o n d i t i o n ' . I w a s b e g i n n i n g to g e t a bit n e r v o u s a b o u t it b e c a u s e it w a s taking such a l o n g t i m e to pass. ' The voice impressed him. b u t I'll s h o w y o u p h o t o g r a p h s o f n a k e d m e n a n d t h e n I'll g i v e y o u an injection o r a tablet w h i c h w i l l m a k e y o u feel absolutely nauseated. It's the P a v l o v i a n p r i n c i p l e . ' I c a n ' t really s h o w y o u n a k e d m e n . H e insisted o n e x a m i n i n g m e in the n u d e . Maurice. It w a s an e n o r m o u s disruption to m y w o r k . [Maurice] could scarcely believe his ears. I said.I'll not discuss. and was not Science decent fellow! 'I want manner. he suddenly backed away. b u t I w e n t . ' against the overwhelming 'It's not rubbish to me. y o u ' l l b e so n a u s e a t e d b y the idea o f m e n .' S o I said.

actually. T h e y w e r e j u s t m a l e b o d i e s . whom is it . .as t h e y called t h e m i n those days . ' I said. A n d e v e r y h o u r t h e y g a v e m e an i n j e c t i o n . a stack o f 'dirty b o o k s ' . I n e e d a basin. w o n d e r i n g w h a t the hell w a s g o i n g o n . H e p l a y e d the tape b a c k to m e a n d said. Y o u ' r e j o k i n g . W h a t d o y o u drink? In those days I u s e d to drink G u i n n e s s .' [said M a u r i c e . listening to a tape w h i c h lasts an h o u r a n d d r i n k i n g b e e r a n d l o o k i n g at the b o o k s . '. I'll d o it. I j u s t w a n t e d to t h r o w u p . H e t h e n gets u p a n d gives m e an i n j e c t i o n a n d the injection m a d e m e v i o l e n d y ill. b u t w i l l the o t h e r c o m e ? I d o n ' t w a n t to e n d u p f e e l i n g l i k e v o m i t i n g e v e r y t i m e I shake hands w i t h a m a n . b u t w i l l y o u b e s h o w i n g m e pictures o f n a k e d w o m e n a n d g i v i n g m e w o n d e r f u l drugs t o m a k e m e attracted to t h e m ? ' ' N o . a n d I d o n ' t w a n t to b e s e x u a l l y neutral either. T h a t lasted an h o u r . I said. t h e y w e r e n ' t particularly disgusting. I said. n o . N o . S o there I a m in this b e d . I sat in the d o c t o r ' s r o o m . j u s t b e sick in the b e d . I ' m g o i n g to b e sick. ' 'It's M r E d n a M a y .a n d pictures o f m a l e b o d i e s . Miss Edna M a y .' T H E R A Y OF H O P E ' 183 w o r k s . I w a s j u s t v o m i t i n g e v e r y w h e r e . now of-?' 'Whom is it of . N o . a n d h e said. A n d h e said. T h e n t h e y d i d it a n o t h e r h o u r a n d a n o t h e r h o u r . ' 'Isn't she beautiful?' 9 feel what do you suppose this picture is of. M r Hall. I said.' ' N o . ] 'Edna May. no w i n d o w s . ' h e said. feeling a bit u n e a s y .' 'Mr Edna May. j u s t b e sick. T h e d o c t o r w a s asking m e questions l i k e D i d I realise h o w offensive it w a s to b e h o m o s e x u a l ? D i d I realise that anal s e x w a s vile? D i d I realise that oral s e x w a s vile? H e w a s t r y i n g to m a k e m e disgusting.f a s h i o n e d tape recorder. T h e y w e r e n ' t dirty. so I h a d a c o u p l e o f cases o f G u i n n e s s stacked u p . . A n d h e p u t m e in a r o o m w i t h a m a l e n u r s e . G o o n then. this is w h a t w e ' r e g o i n g to d o . 'it'll j u s t c o m e . R i g h t . ' B u t h o w ? ' a n d h e c o u l d n o t p r o v i d e a satisfactory e x p l a n a t i o n . w i t h an o l d .

I said I w a n t e d o u t . H e referred h e r to s o m e o n e else. 12 I told m y m o t h e r I w a s h a v i n g psychiatric treatment and. I w e n t bananas! I ' v e g o t a t e m p e r .' ' I l i k e short hair best. It increased o r d e c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g to m y request. . was it not his duty to go. the d o c t o r l e a d i n g . H e w a s the o n l y p e r s o n I m e t [ w h i l e I w a s getting treatment] w h o w a s offensive. a n d there s e e m e d to b e at least a n o t h e r t w o o r three p e o p l e a r o u n d . H e really w a s m o n s t r o u s . w h a t an ungallant r e m a r k . but w e h a v e n ' t finished. N e v e r t h e l e s s h e . W h a t d o y o u m e a n — electrodes? T o m e electrodes w e r e Frankenstein! E l e c t r o d e s w e r e One Flew the F u n n y F a r m ! 11 Over the Cuckoo's Nestl E l e c t r o d e s w e r e I h a d electrodes attached to m y a r m a n d m y l e g a n d I w a s s h o w n slides o f m e n a n d w o m e n a n d asked to say in a scale o f perhaps o n e to ten h o w s e x u a l l y e x c i t i n g I f o u n d the slides o f the m a l e .' 3 though body and soul would be violated? With the world as it is. W e w a n t a n o t h e r t w o days. If this new doctor could alter his being. . B u t y o u ' v e g o t to try the electric treatment. or decay.' ' S h e d o e s n ' t attract m e . T h e n I w a s g i v e n electric shocks o f different v e l o c i t y [sic].184 ORDINARY PEOPLE 'I w a n t to g o h o m e to m y m o t h e r . T h e y say. S o h e p u t m e u p o n to a c o u c h a n d w a n k e d m e off. ' M i s s E d n a M a y is n o t o n l y beautiful. ' O h . I w e n t . w h i l e I w a s a w a y . M r H a l l . H i s w i f e w a s there. H e w a s e x t r e m e l y r u d e . ' said M a u r i c e pettishly. a n d h e said h e w a n t e d a s p e c i m e n o f m y s e m e n . I f this is s u p p o s e d to m a k e m e better t h e n I d o n ' t w a n t to b e better. ' B o t h l a u g h e d at this r e m a r k . she is attractive. T h e y said. T h e r e h e w a s in his c o n ­ sulting r o o m . one must marry It w a s a m o s t e x t r a o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e . r e a c t i o n a n d attraction to the slides. L o o k at h e r l o v e l y hair.' 'Why?"° H e g o t quite i m p a t i e n t a n d ratty. O h really. a n d w h e n I g o t b a c k I w e n t to see this o l d c h a p . she w e n t to see m y d o c t o r a n d asked his a d v i c e . b u t I w a s so embarrassed I c o u l d n ' t c o m e .

' ' M r — . 'Mr Hall.] H e used to say. n o . ' N o . L a i n g w a s a v e r y short m a n . ' 'I'm afraid you may possibly retain that prejudice after trying.a n d that w a s the p r o b l e m . That gentleman further relieved him hy coming up to his idea of what an he sat in a and advanced scientific man ought to be. O n my first visit h e said. ' [Maurice] asked 'What's the name of my trouble? Has it one?' ' be done?' 'Congenital 'Congenital 'Oh. ' M r — . I spoke to you of my other patients — seventy-five . ' he said. I d o n ' t w a n t to m a r r y y o u . o f c o u r s e I didn't. Sallow and expressionless. I h a v e n ' t . T h e n e v e n t u a l l y I w a s referred o n to R . y o u ' v e n e v e r talked a b o u t y o u r relationship w i t h me. etc. I w a n t t o l o o k u p to y o u — w h y s h o u l d I w a n t to h u m i l i a t e y o u ? Y o u ' r e g o i n g to h e l p m e .' T H E R A Y OF H O P E ' 185 still w r o t e a report a b o u t m e : M r — is y o u n g . large pictureless room before a roll-top desk. ' Hall. I suggest that y o u w a n t to h a v e a b a b y b y m e . homosexuality. how much? Well. m u c h shorter than m e . Y o u k n o w m y p o s i t i o n . slim. L a i n g . this w a s several years b e f o r e h e b e c a m e famous in the Sixties. ' N o . ' Y o u can either lie d o w n o n the c o u c h o r y o u can sit. H a v e y o u n e v e r w a n t e d to m a r r y we?' A n d I ' d say. a bloodless hand. I s u p p o s e . Mr per cent — but in only fifty per cent have I been successful. It w a s all v e r y formal. I w a s j u s t a w a r e that I h a d ' p r o b l e m s ' . . H e h a d a v e r y bare little office w h e r e I s a w h i m t w i c e a w e e k for a y e a r . N o . i f y o u see w h a t I m e a n . I ' d n e v e r h e a r d o f h i m . I k n e w I w a s n ' t ill. as those places w e r e in those days.' I sat. . I s u p p o s e b e c a u s e I t h o u g h t t h e r e w a s s o m e sort o f F r e u d i a n cliché that y o u o n l y lay o n the c o u c h i f y o u w e r e ill. can anything certainly. D o y o u w a n t to h u m i l i a t e m e ? ' A n d I said. [. D . " 5 I cannot promise a cure. 'The fact is I've an old-fashioned prejudice against hypnotism. what's the trouble?"* 'Well. in that v e r y b r o a d S c o t s a c c e n t h e h a d . H e u s e d to sit in a chair b y his desk puffing v e r y v i g o r o u s l y o n a p i p e . His accent was slightly American. mentally ill. [.] [After that] I w a s i n t r o d u c e d to several doctors a n d s a w t h e m o n a regular basis. . if you consent. . and offered Mr Hall. B u t I w a s t o o rational for L a i n g . H e w a n t e d m e to b e a far m o r e d e e p l y d i s t u r b e d p e r s o n than I w a s : I j u s t w a s n ' t m a d e n o u g h for h i m .

b u t I c o u l d n ' t e v e n g e t an e r e c t i o n . can I j u s t kiss y o u ? ' ' N o . I told h i m m y godfather h a d g i v e n m e five p o u n d s a n d I ' d d e c i d e d I t h o u g h t it w o u l d help m e i f I spent it o n g o i n g to see a prostitute. H e n e v e r f o c u s e d o n m y p r o b l e m s . S h e w a s pretty. T h a t I w a s n ' t really h o m o s e x u a l . dear. not being an expert in the jargon. for G o d ' s sake? I r e m e m b e r [the psychiatrist] o n c e s a y i n g to m e that she w i s h e d she c o u l d say: G o o u t a n d d o it. ' 'I don't know what that may mean. .] A n d h e said. ' she said. b u t a bit s k i n n y . a n d w h e t h e r h e . . I want to be like other men. h a v e sex w i t h a m a n ! It m u s t h a v e b e e n terribly frustrating for h e r . Jones].o c c u p i e d w i t h m y relationship w i t h him. ashtrays e v e r y w h e r e . that I w a s n ' t really attracted to m e n . an u n m a d e b e d . S h e started to m a s t u r b ­ ate m e . but I swear from the bottom of my heart I want to be healed. I ' m o n l y a student. It w a s u n b e l i e v a b l y squalid. I can see that so c l e a r l y ! ' 7 T h e n e x t t i m e I s a w [Laing] I told h i m h o w I ' d f o u n d a girl o f f P a r k L a n e s o m e w h e r e . B u t I w a s c o n n i n g myself." 8 I j u s t w a n t e d to k n o w w h a t w a s g o i n g to h a p p e n . W h a t d i d h e think a b o u t that? W h a t w a s his a d v i c e ? H e absolutely refused to c o m m i t h i m s e l f — w h y . I ' m v e r y p o o r . ' M r — . 16 T h e r e w e r e m a n y times w h e n I d e l u d e d m y s e l f that the treatment w a s w o r k i n g . ' L o o k . E v e r y t h i n g h a d to b e related to m y relationship w i t h h i m .' 'You are less suggestible than you were. D o I h a v e to p a y y o u the full five p o u n d s ? ' ' Y e s . O n c e . I don't. H e n e v e r t a l k e d a b o u t t h e m : h e w a s totally p r e . h o w I w e n t b a c k w i t h h e r to a r o o m s o m e w h e r e . [. ' I said I w a n t e d his a d v i c e . y o u s e e m to w a n t m y p e r m i s s i o n for e v e r y t h i n g that y o u d o . I called a halt a n d said. ' W e l l . not this outcast whom nobody wants . 'You should not resist me. R e t r o s p e c t i v e l y .' [said Dr hasker 'Damn it all. B u t he w o u l d n ' t say y e s a n d h e w o u l d n ' t say n o .' It w a s a h o r r i b l e e x p e r i e n c e . w e d o n ' t kiss. a n d that I was attracted to w o m e n .ORDINARY PEOPLE [Laing] w a s terribly passive. S o I said. h e hardly said a n y t h i n g . H e w a s c o m ­ p l e t e l y l a c k i n g in a sense o f h u m o u r . T h e w h o l e thing w a s so sordid! E v e n t u a l l y .

' A n d e v e n t u a l l y h e ' d say: ' Y o u ' r e a l w a y s talking a b o u t the result. G o o u t o f h e r e . ' H e h a d a slight outburst: ' W h o d o e s n ' t h a v e a g r e a t . h a v e a b a b y . ' S o m e t h i n g h a p p e n e d w h e n y o u w e r e three!' A w h o l e y e a r h a d g o n e b y b y t h e n t h o u g h .u n c l e w h o w a s h o m o s e x u a l ." walking dream. and shortly after that I s t o p p e d s e e i n g h i m . B y t h e n h e w a s a distinguished m a n . [. ' W h y b o t h e r to c h a n g e ? ' It w a s the first t i m e h e ' d e v e r said a n y t h i n g l i k e that. 'No. I said to h i m that I w a s still c o n c e r n e d . get m a r r i e d . . w h a t ' s g o i n g to b e the result o f all this? W h a t ' s g o i n g to b e the " e n d p r o d u c t " ? I ' m d o i n g a P h D thesis.' T H E R A Y OF H O P E ' c o u l d c h a n g e m e .' 'Did it get near now?' Jolly near. though it never gets up to me.] W h e n eventually I was psychoanalysed I had a dream I w a s three. this is all t a k i n g u p an e n o r m o u s amount o f m y t i m e .] getting T h e last t i m e I s a w L a i n g — j u s t the o n c e — w a s in 1 9 6 4 .u n c l e w h o ' s h o m o s e x u a l ? ' h e said. oh no — you're open to suggestion. w h e n I first w e n t to see h i m ? . your friend. Y o u ' r e t o o h a r d o n yourself. I thought I saw a face and heard someone say. H e ' d p u b l i s h e d those b o o k s . I had a dream when you woke me up [from a hypnotic trance].sort of towards me through sleep. I ' d say to h i m things l i k e . I'd better tell it you. ' D r L a i n g . W a s t h e r e a n y t h i n g else I c o u l d d o ? It w a s t h e n that h e suggested L S D . . Is that a bad sign?' 9 within a b o u t t w o o r three w e e k s a b o u t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h a p p e n e d w h e n "That's that Is that all right? I often feel it — I can't explain . I ' m far t o o easily i n f l u e n c e d b y p e o p l e .b u t w h y c o u l d n ' t h e h a v e said that six years b e f o r e . " H e i m m e d i a t e l y p i c k e d u p o n this a n d said. I also h a p p e n e d to say to h i m ' D ' y o u t h i n k it's h e r e d i t a r y ? I h a d a g r e a t . a n d this w a s the G r e a t M a n . as it w e r e . . you're open — I made you see a picture on the wall. ' [. 'I say. . It w a s j u s t ridiculous. that I still w a n t e d to b e h e t e r o s e x u a l .

i88

ORDINARY

PEOPLE

T h e W o l f e n d e n R e p o r t , officially the Report of the Committee Offences and Prostitution, finally appeared on

on

Sexual

5 September 1957.

( W o l f e n d e n later r e c o r d e d in his a u t o b i o g r a p h y that ' e v e r y sentence in the final d o c u m e n t has a history, o f discussion, r e w o r d i n g , e x p a n s i o n , d e l e t i o n , fresh a p p r o a c h , a n d e v e n t u a l a c c e p t a n c e ' ) .
20

It attracted massive found

p u b l i c i t y a n d , as W o l f e n d e n h i m s e l f h a d p r e d i c t e d , its authors

t h e m s e l v e s in an u n c o m f o r t a b l e n o - w i n situation. B u t that w a s as n o t h ­ i n g c o m p a r e d to the o b l o q u y their report attracted f r o m P a r l i a m e n t a n d s o m e e l e m e n t s o f the E s t a b l i s h m e n t . T h e cause o f all this ire a n d i n d i g ­ n a t i o n w a s , o f c o u r s e , the liberal t o n e o f its proposals ('there m u s t r e m a i n a r e a l m o f p r i v a t e m o r a l i t y a n d i m m o r a l i t y w h i c h is, in b r i e f a n d c r u d e terms, n o t the l a w ' s business') a n d specifically its principal r e c o m m e n d a ­ t i o n that ' h o m o s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r b e t w e e n c o n s e n t i n g adults in private b e n o l o n g e r a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e ' . T h e r e w e r e actually a n o t h e r s e v e n t e e n lesser r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s d i r e c d y relating to h o m o s e x u a l offences, but those w e r e all d e p e n d e n t u p o n a c c e p t a n c e o f the first. E v e r y t h i n g c a m e to a h e a d w h e n the r e p o r t w a s first formally d e b a t e d in P a r l i a m e n t , in the H o u s e o f L o r d s in D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 7 a n d in the C o m m o n s in N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 8 . A l l the h o m o p h o b i a w h i c h h a d b e e n s w i r l i n g a r o u n d for the p r e v i o u s fifteen years finally g u s h e d out — b i l e m i x e d w i t h a dash o f political ' c o n c e r n ' . 'Incest is a m u c h m o r e natural act than h o m o s e x u a l i t y , ' said o n e M P . O t h e r s c h i m e d in w i t h w h a t m i g h t h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d as ' w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d ' r e m a r k s - ' I feel sorry for these p e o p l e . T h e y d o n o t k n o w w h a t t h e y are missing' b u t the m a j o r i t y m a d e n o b o n e s a b o u t their c o n t i n u i n g abhorrence

o f the w h o l e subject: ' I a m r e p e l l e d b y the dirtiness o f s o m e o f those w h o s e c o n d u c t is e x p o s e d to the p u b l i c gaze. I w a n t to strip s o m e o f this false sentimentality, this false r o m a n t i c i s m f r o m h o m o s e x u a l i t y ' . . . ' W e s h o u l d k e e p t h e m o u t o f sight o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . ' ' A n d that w a s j u s t the start. T h e C o m m o n s r e t u r n e d implementation o f the o f all W o l f e n d e n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s to talking
2

a b o u t matters h o m o s e x u a l in i 9 6 0 — w h e n a m o t i o n calling for the w a s lost b y a m a j o r i t y o f m o r e than t w o to o n e - a n d again in 1 9 6 2 . O n the strength i 9 6 0 v o t e , the g o v e r n m e n t (by t h e n C o n s e r v a t i v e ) stalled, implementation c l a i m i n g that 'the c o u n t r y ' w a s n o t ready for the full

o f the W o l f e n d e n proposals. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a r g u m e n t o r 'process o f public consultation' w e n t o n and o n — b y J u l y i 9 6 0 one Lady L l o y d h a d already b e e n m o v e d t o w r i t e to the Daily Telegraph a v e r r i n g that

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'All d e c e n t p e o p l e l o n g to see a cessation o f [this] discussion. B e h i n d a d r a w n b l i n d a corpse m a y b e rotting; the b l i n d w i l l n o t stop the smell, but at least it w i l l h i d e f r o m the passer-by the horrors o f p u t r e f a c t i o n . ' R u n n i n g parallel to all this, the perhaps surprising Sunday galère o f the great a n d the g o o d , a cross-section o f the
22

Times tide

o f liberalism w a s getting e v e r stronger. A s early as M a r c h 1 9 5 8 a (predominandy heterosexual) intellectual m o v e r s a n d s h a k e n o f the day, h a d w r i t t e n a letter to The Times w h i c h b e g a n : ' S i r , W e , the u n d e r s i g n e d , w o u l d like to express o u r general a g r e e m e n t w i t h the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n the W o l f e n d e n R e p o r t that h o m o s e x u a l acts c o m m i t t e d of in p r i v a t e

b e t w e e n c o n s e n t i n g adults s h o u l d n o l o n g e r b e a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . ' B i s h o p s a n d peers o f the realm, writers a n d p h i l o s o p h e r s ( i n c l u d i n g a not inconsiderable n u m b e r o f w o m e n ) w e r e a m o n g the signatories. It w o u l d b e i n v i d i o u s n o w to try to discern p r i v a t e m o t i v e s for their decision to g o p u b l i c , b u t the list is w o r t h reprinting i f o n l y to s h o w the d e g r e e o f backstage E s t a b l i s h m e n t s u p p o r t w h i c h still familiar today. In t i m e - h o n o u r e d presented in alphabetical order: Y o u r s , etc., N. G. A N N A N ; A T T L E E ; A . J . A Y E R ; I S A I A H B E R L I N ; f L E O N A R D B I R M I N G H A M ; ROBERT B O O T H B Y ; C . M . B O W R A ; C . D. BROAD; DAVID CECIL; L. JOHN COLLINS; ALEX COMFORT; A . E . D Y S O N ; f R O B E R T E X O N ; GEOFFREY F A B E R ; J A C Q U E T T A H A W K E S ; TREVOR H U D D L E S T O N CR; J U L I A N H U X L E Y ; C . D A Y L E W I S ; w . R. N I B L E T T ; J . B . P R I E S T L E Y ; R U S S E L L ; D O N A L D O. SOPER; S T E P H E N S P E N D E R ; M A R Y S T O C K S ; A . J . P. T A Y L O R ; E. M . w . T I L L Y A R D ; A L E C R. V I D L E R ; K E N N E T H W A L K E R ; LESLIE D. W E A T H E R H E A D ; C . V. W E D G W O O D ; WILSON; JOHN WILSON; BARBARA W O O T O N .
2 3

Wolfenden's

proposals e n j o y e d . M a n y o f the names at the b o t t o m o f the letter are Times style, in 1 9 5 8 t h e y w e r e

ANGUS

T h e h o m o s e x u a l m a n w a s headline n e w s ; a n d w h i l e the g o v e r n m e n t d i c k e r e d o v e r quite h o w they w e r e g o i n g to react to W o l f e n d e n , h e — o r at least the general idea o f ' h o m o s e x u a l i t y ' — l o o k e d l i k e r e m a i n i n g so. Predictably, the Times letter (actually drafted b y the literary critic a n d a c a d e m i c A . E . D y s o n ) elicited a response c l a i m i n g that i m p l e m e n tation o f W o l f e n d e n ' s proposals w o u l d b r i n g 'a m o s t u n s a v o u r y subject into undesirable p r o m i n e n c e ' a n d e v e n ' d i v i d e the n a t i o n ' . A s A n t o n y

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G r e y i m p l i e s , h o w e v e r , in contrast w i t h D y s o n ' s letter, that o n e w a s s i g n e d b y a g r o u p o f distincdy B - l i s t celebrities. T h e B i s h o p s o f Carlisle and Rochester and Lords L a w s o n and Winterton hardly h a d the m e d i a c l o u t o f the likes o f f o r m e r p r i m e minister C l e m e n t A t t l e e , J u l i a n H u x l e y , B e r t r a n d Russell, A . J . P . T a y l o r a n d D a m e V e r o n i c a Wedgwood. T h u s , a g o o d case can e v e n b e m a d e that, right f r o m the start, there w a s serious liberal s u p p o r t for w h a t W o l f e n d e n w a s r e c o m m e n d i n g . In his s e c o n d b o o k , the less-satisfactory A Way of Life, p u b l i s h e d o n e y e a r a h e a d o f the report, in 1 9 5 6 , P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d h a d w r i t t e n : T h e p u b l i c a t i o n of Against the Law resulted in a flood o f letters, all ringing me

o f w h i c h h a d to b e a n s w e r e d . F o r the first f e w m o n t h s an a v e r a g e o f o n e r e a d e r in e v e r y ten w a s either w r i t i n g to m e o r u p , a n d I b e g a n t o w o n d e r w h e t h e r I s h o u l d e v e r h a v e t i m e to w r i t e a n o t h e r b o o k T h e letters w e r e nearly all from ' n o r m a l ' m e n a n d w o m e n w h o d i d n o t share, b u t s y m p a t h i s e d w i t h , the p r o b l e m s w h i c h I h a d o u t l i n e d in the b o o k . T h e r e w e r e letters from J u d g e s , magistrates, doctors, barristers
2 4

and

clergymen, housewives

and

mothers and businessmen . . .

U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r L a d y L l o y d a n d 'all d e c e n t p e o p l e ' , the discussion w a s o n l y j u s t b e g i n n i n g . I n d e e d , it is still g o i n g o n .

A m o n g s t h o m o s e x u a l m e n , reactions to W o l f e n d e n w e r e m o r e c o m ­ p l e x . F o r y e a r after y e a r the central p r o b l e m r e m a i n e d : Wolfenden could the w a s j u s t a report; its r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e j u s t , w e l l , r e c o m m e n d a ­ tions. T h e y d i d n o t h a v e the f o r c e o f l a w . O n l y P a r l i a m e n t c h a n g e that. B u t t h e r e w a s a ray o f h o p e . C o m i n g as it d i d in the w a k e o f a c l u t c h o f u n e x p e c t e d events w h i c h h a d b e g u n w i t h d e f e c t i o n o f G u y B u r g e s s a n d the b i s e x u a l D o n a l d M a c l e a n in M a y 1 9 5 1 a n d i n c l u d e d the u n u s u a l a m o u n t o f attention the press g a v e P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d ' s a c c o u n t o f the M o n t a g u case, Against s o m e t h i n g w o u l d h a v e to b e d o n e . . . S e n s i n g this, a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l y , the ' g a y c o m m u n i t y ' b e g a n to e m e r g e in s o m e t h i n g l i k e its present f o r m . U r - a c t i v i s t s s u c h as A n t o n y G r e y seized o n W o l f e n d e n a n d the s u b s e q u e n t debate a n d u s e d it to the Law, in 1 9 5 5 , the r e p o r t c o u l d n o t b e i g n o r e d for e v e r . W h a t e v e r it w a s ,

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b r i n g their plight further into the p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n d e e d , it is possible to trace the origins o f the B r i t i s h ' g a y l i b e r a t i o n ' m o v e m e n t f r o m their actions at this t i m e . W e h a v e already seen that the m e r e a p p o i n t m e n t o f the W o l f e n d e n C o m m i t t e e h a d c h a n g e d the c o u r s e o f G r e y ' s life, a n d g i v e n h i m a 'professional o c c u p a t i o n ' for the n e x t t w e n t y y e a r s . T h i s b e g a n m o d ­ estly e n o u g h w h e n h e b e c a m e i n v o l v e d in B r i t a i n ' s first ' g a y rights' g r o u p , the H o m o s e x u a l L a w R e f o r m S o c i e t y ( H L R S ) , an a d h o c b o d y w h i c h w a s partly the b r a i n - c h i l d o f s o m e o f the signatories to the Times letter — D y s o n (eventually its v i c e - c h a i r m a n ) , S t e p h e n S p e n d e r , J a c q u e t t a H a w k e s a n d C a n o n J o h n C o l l i n s w e r e a m o n g the o r i g i n a l m e m b e r s — a n d partly a m u t u a l s u p p o r t g r o u p for o p e n l y h o m o s e x u a l m e n b r a v e e n o u g h to m a k e their proclivities k n o w n . C h i e f a m o n g s t these w e r e L e n S m i t h a n d Reiss H o w a r d , at w h o s e h o m e in L i v e r p o o l R o a d , Islington, the H L R S u s e d to m e e t . I n retrospect, S m i t h a n d H o w a r d s e e m to represent, a l m o s t to the l e v e l o f p a r o d y , the 'Julian a n d S a n d y ' s t e r e o t y p e o f the fifties h o m o ­ sexual c o u p l e . B o t h w e r e pacifists; b o t h , t o o , h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n m a r r i e d . S m i t h w a s a m e m b e r o f the I n d e p e n d e n t L a b o u r P a r t y a n d h a d b e e n i n t e r n e d as a c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r d u r i n g the w a r ; R e i s s , a C a n a d i a n , w a s an artist. N o w , together, t h e y ran an a n t i q u e s h o p f r o m the L i v e r p o o l R o a d address. N e v e r t h e l e s s , as G r e y points their d e c i s i o n to s u p p o r t the H L R S out, a n d g i v e it a h o m e a n d postal

address ' w a s o n e o f signal b r a v e r y [because] p o l i c e s u r v e i l l a n c e o f a n y o n e k n o w n o r suspected as a practising h o m o s e x u a l w a s v e r y m u c h a reality in those days, a n d L e n a n d Reiss k n e w v e r y w e l l that i f t h e y w e r e to b e arrested a n d c o n v i c t e d t h e y w o u l d g e t h e a v y p r i s o n sentences'.
25

C h i e f a m o n g s t the H L R S ' s aims a n d o b j e c t i v e s w a s t o

change

p u b l i c a n d political o p i n i o n in f a v o u r o f a r e f o r m o f the l a w , b r o a d l y a l o n g the lines w h i c h W o l f e n d e n h a d r e c o m m e n d e d . E v e n that, h o w ­ e v e r , w a s fraught w i t h difficulties; a n d the great a n d the g o o d w h o h a d offered their services to the s o c i e t y w e r e n o t u n a w a r e o f t h e i r o n y o f their position: T h e e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e for their part w e r e m o s t l y n o t h o m o s e x u a l themselves; t h e y w e r e v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f the delicate, a n d in s o m e respects potentially d a n g e r o u s , nature o f the task w h i c h t h e y h a d

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t a k e n o n , a n d t h e y w e r e understandably roaded' by a group who, however

n e r v o u s o f b e i n g 'rail­ and well-

well-informed

i n t e n t i o n e d , w e r e all personally v u l n e r a b l e in the e x i s t i n g state o f the l a w a n d m i g h t d o irreparable d a m a g e to the S o c i e t y ' s cause i f they put a foot w r o n g , individually or collectively.
26

T h e y n e e d n o t h a v e w o r r i e d . T h o u g h o v e r the years the

HLRS

i n c r e a s i n g l y b e c a m e a c o n t a c t p o i n t for h o m o s e x u a l m e n , c o m p a r a ­ t i v e l y f e w actually j o i n e d a n d f e w e r still p l a y e d any active part in its c a m p a i g n i n g . In his b o o k G r e y singled o u t A . E . D y s o n (later to b e c o m e f a m o u s / n o t o r i o u s as c o - e d i t o r o f the right-wing ' B l a c k Papers' o n e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y ) a n d specially praised his w o r k . ' D y s o n ' s b r a v e initiative in l a u n c h i n g the H L R S ' , h e w r o t e , ' s h o u l d earn h i m an honourable footnote in the social history o f this c o u n t r y . ' In the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l spirit in w h i c h b o t h h e a n d D y s o n w e r e w o r k i n g this w a s u n d o u b t a b l y true. B u t it w a s also true that, as early as the late 1 9 5 0 s , the m a j o r battles for h o m o s e x u a l l a w r e f o r m w e r e b e i n g fought b y m e m b e r s o f w h a t w e w o u l d n o w call the liberal, 'chattering classes'. It h a d b e c o m e a G o o d C a u s e , an Issue — albeit o n e w h i c h h a d little o r n o t h i n g to d o w i t h o r d i n a r y h o m o s e x u a l s . I n d e e d , d u r i n g the i 9 6 0 C o m m o n s debate R o y ( n o w L o r d ) J e n k i n s w a s to say: ' I a m not c o n c e r n e d only w i t h w h a t homosexuals want, or e v e n primarily with w h a t t h e y w a n t . I a m c o n c e r n e d w i t h w h a t I think is a reasonable l a w for a civilised s o c i e t y . ' T h u s the w h o l e d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n c a m p a i g n c a m e to b e seen b y m e n s u c h as ' R i c h a r d ' as litde m o r e than h e t e r o s e x u a l d o - g o o d i n g — a feeling w h i c h intensified w h e n , w i t h i n days o f the f o u n d a t i o n o f the HLRS, a n o t h e r w o r t h y b o d y c a m e into b e i n g . T h e A l b a n y T r u s t ( w h i c h a c h i e v e d charitable status in 1 9 6 5 ) w a s n a m e d after its m e e t i n g p l a c e , the set o f r o o m s in A l b a n y , P i c c a d i l l y , t h e n o c c u p i e d b y the b l u f f n o v e l i s t a n d w a r t i m e Postscript-writer J . B . Priestley a n d his w i f e and J a c q u e t t a H a w k e s , b o t h signatories o f the original Times letter o r i g i n a l trustees. T h i n g s w e r e spiralling a w a y f r o m the m a n in the street. T h e A l b a n y T r u s t actually c a m e close to m a k i n g a v i r t u e o u t o f the a s e x u a l h i g h - m i n d e d n e s s w h i c h m o t i v a t e d b o t h it a n d the strangely HLRS.

h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the H L R S . T h e y a n d D y s o n w e r e a m o n g its

A c c o r d i n g to its deeds, its initial objects w e r e ' T o p r o m o t e p s y c h o -

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logical health in m e n b y c o l l e c t i n g data a n d c o n d u c t i n g research: T o publish the results t h e r e o f b y w r i t i n g , films, lectures a n d o t h e r m e d i a : T o take suitable steps based t h e r e o n for the p u b l i c benefit to i m p r o v e the social a n d g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s necessary for s u c h h e a l t h y p s y c h o ­ logical d e v e l o p m e n t . ' It is easy n o w to m o c k these ideas o f ' r e s e a r c h ' a n d the g r a n d i l o q u e n t use o f w o r d s such as ' t h e r e o f a n d ' t h e r e o n ' in this d o c u m e n t . B u t it is notable, t o o , that n o w h e r e does the w o r d ' h o m o s e x u a l ' appear. T h e H L R S a n d the A l b a n y T r u s t lobbyists w e r e d o i n g their best, a n d f r o m the best o f m o t i v e s ; b u t (as is s o m e t i m e s the case w i t h S t o n e w a l l a n d O u t r a g e ! today) there w a s increasingly a sense in w h i c h the abstract cause threatened to o b s c u r e a n d e v e n o v e r w h e l m an essentially h u m a n p r e d i c a m e n t . F o r m e n l i k e ' N i c h o l a s ' , in particular, t h e r e w a s a certain irrelevancy about committee meetings and notions o f 'the public benefit'. T h e pattern o f his life, h e b e l i e v e d , h a d b e e n set at an early a g e . N o w , effectively dysfunctional, alone after the failure o f the v a r i o u s l y w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d m e d i c a l a n d psychiatric ' c u r e s ' w h i c h m i g h t j u s t h a v e aided his 'healthy p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t ' , h e t o o k the o n l y c o u r s e w h i c h s e e m e d o p e n to h i m . It w a s y e t a n o t h e r ray o f h o p e : S o p h i e w a s the sister o f o n e o f m y friends. I m e t h e r at o n e o f his parties in 1 9 5 6 . S h e w a s v e r y y o u n g then, a b o u t fifteen, b u t she sat n e x t to m e a n d c u d d l e d m e . A n d t h e n she w r o t e m e a letter s a y i n g that she l o v e d m e . A n d she w e n t o n w r i t i n g . E v e n t u a l l y I m e t h e r again - this w o u l d h a v e b e e n in 1 9 5 8 - a n d w e started t o see e a c h o t h e r quite a bit. S h e ' d h o l d o n to m e as i f she w a s n e v e r g o i n g to let g o . S h e ' d w a n t a fumble w h i l e w e w e r e at the theatre; she w a s v e r y passionate. I ' d n e v e r c o m e across a n y t h i n g l i k e that, a n d f o u n d it v e r y flattering. S o I t h o u g h t i f she feels as s t r o n g l y a b o u t m e as this, w e l l , m a y b e it'll all c o m e right for m e . T h i s o f c o u r s e w a s e x a c t l y the a d v i c e I ' d b e e n getting at that t i m e from the p s y ­ chiatrists a n d f r o m the b o o k s I ' d b e e n reading: y o u ' v e j u s t g o t to take the p l u n g e a n d e v e r y t h i n g w i l l b e all right in the e n d . T h e n I w e n t o f f to w o r k for an oil c o m p a n y in Pakistan. I tried to ' k e e p m y s e l f for S o p h i e , as it w e r e . T h e n , after a b o u t a y e a r , she c a m e o u t w i t h m y m o t h e r . S h e w a s still o n l y e i g h t e e n , b u t she b r o u g h t a letter f r o m her m o t h e r g i v i n g h e r p e r m i s s i o n to m a r r y m e . I w e n t into it h o p i n g , hoping it w o u l d w o r k . I told h e r that I

L o o k i n g b a c k . It w a s n ' t w i l d l y successful. b u t afterwards . I ' m afraid that did add to the a c r i m o n y at the t i m e . I respected that — e x c e p t that I ' d w a r n e d h e r a b o u t m y p r o b l e m s b e f o r e w e w e r e m a r r i e d . S o I asked h e r to m a r r y m e . a n d e n j o y i n g the i m a g e o f a y o u n g . I ' d j u s t h a d those f u m b l i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h b l o k e s . as I t h o u g h t it w o u l d b e . after a b o u t f o u r m o n t h s a v e r y b u t c h . ' T h a t ' s the w a y she p u t it. b u t I t h o u g h t it w o u l d c o m e . b e g g i n g m e n o t to send h e r a w a y . I ' d b e e n true to h e r w h i l e w e w e r e m a r r i e d . T h e n . I really w a n t e d the m a r r i a g e to work. I m u s t h a v e s e x . I d o n ' t k n o w w h a t h a d h a p p e n e d . S h e w a s in great floods o f tears o v e r this. it w a s n ' t v e r y e x c i t i n g a n d I didn't w a n t to d o it v e r y m u c h . I g o t m a r r i e d w i t h that h o p e . ' W h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g ? C a n ' t y o u tell m e ? ' A n d I told h e r h o w I w a s m u c h m o r e attracted to m y o w n s e x a n d h o w d i s a p p o i n t e d in m y s e l f I w a s . S e v e r a l gay friends w h o g o t m a r r i e d h a v e also m e n t i o n e d this. I w a s still pretty w e l l a v i r g i n . A n d then she told m e that s h e ' d slept w i t h n i n e m e n b e f o r e m e . I didn't o r c o u l d n ' t j u s t c o m e o u t a n d tell h e r ' I ' m g a y ' . I still t h o u g h t that it w o u l d all j u s t b l o w o v e r . that effectively I w a s g a y . b u t she w a s in tears a n d e v e n t u a l l y she said. a y o u n g m a n a b o u t to get m a r r i e d ' . a n d I f o u n d I c o u l d get an e r e c t i o n a n d penetrate her. It upset m e quite a lot a n d after she left I started d r i n k i n g quite h e a v i l y . b u t I r e c k o n e d that w h a t I ' d said w a s e n o u g h . t h o u g h . ' I w a n t a d i v o r c e .for a start I d i d n ' t k n o w for sure that I w a s . I s u p p o s e a lot o f it w a s m e t h i n k i n g ' H e r e I a m .h a i r e d a d v e n t u r ­ ous sort o f b o y o f a b o u t m y age c a m e o u t [to w h e r e w e w e r e in P a k i s t a n ] . A f t e r a b o u t a y e a r I g o t b a c k from a trip o n e day a n d f o u n d h e r i n q u i t e a state. certainly in terms o f penetration. h a n d s o m e m a s c u l i n e b o d y — my own young.194 ORDINARY PEOPLE h a d great p r o b l e m s s e x u a l l y a n d I d i d n ' t k n o w w h e t h e r I ' d b e able t o c o n s u m m a t e the m a r r i a g e . A n d she said. I c o n s c i o u s l y a l l o w e d m y s e l f to w e e p . handsome masculine body 27 — m a k i n g l o v e . B e f o r e w e g o t m a r r i e d I d i d h a v e s e x w i t h her. S h e w a s v e r y m u c h in l o v e . I didn't actually say that I h a d this attraction to m y o w n s e x . I hoped it w o u l d . S h e c o u l d r e m e m b e r t h e m all. B u t o f c o u r s e . B u t it w a s n ' t disgusting. I w a s intensely attracted to h i m : o n e e v e n i n g I w a s d a n c ­ i n g w i t h S o p h i e a n d I j u s t w e p t . I d i d it w i t h h e r b e c a u s e I w a n t e d to h a v e a child b y her. r e d .

In a w o r l d in w h i c h the majority o f M e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t h a d still b e e n e d u c a t e d in a l l .in an a g e in w h i c h P R h a d h a r d l y b e e n h e a r d o f — it w a s surprisingly successful. ' o l d s c h o o l t i e ' l e v e l . : 1 9 B u t e v e n at this stage. M e n l i k e L o r d B r a b a z o n o f Tara. M P (who promoted the bill d u r i n g the i 9 6 0 debate). it w a s p r o b a b l y the o n l y stratagem w h i c h c o u l d h a v e w o r k e d . s o m e o f us actually do". is it really true that these h o m o s e x u a l s find the idea o f g o i n g to b e d w i t h a w o m a n distasteful?" W e a r i l y . in the m a n n e r o f m a n y g i n g e r . o f the middle-aged h o m o s e x u a l c o u p l e w h o gassed t h e m s e l v e s w h e n the p o l i c e b e g a n investigating w h a t w e r e alleged to b e ' u n n a t u r a l s e x u a l offences' . o n l y to find h i m s e l f arrested. tensions w e r e b u i l d i n g u p a m o n g the p r o s e l y tizers. b o m b a r d i n g M e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t a n d o p i n i o n formers - w i t h press releases a n d digests o f the m o s t m e m o r a b l e cases w h i c h w e r e still c o m i n g b e f o r e c r o w n . 2 8 A f t e r h e s a w L o r d B r a b a z o n . in a g e n u i n e l y p u z z l e d v o i c e : " T e l l m e .n o t i n f r e q u e n d y c o r o n e r s ' courts. B r a b a z o n w a s as g o o d as his w o r d . h e r e c e i v e d a n o t e f r o m the p e e r telling h i m that h e ' w i l l a l w a y s b e w e l c o m e h e r e a n d that I w i l l d o all I can to h e l p o v e r this difficult q u e s t i o n ' . O d d . w e r e b r o u g h t o n .b e n c h e r s . the l e v e l o f p r e j u d i c e b e y o n d that w h i c h e v e n the c a m ­ paigners h a d i m a g i n e d .s i d e . and. A n d I b e g a n to m a s t u r b a t e for the first t i m e in m y life. o f the m a n w h o told the p o l i c e that h e w a s b e i n g b l a c k m a i l e d . " Y e s . magistrates' a n d . S o t o o w e r e o t h e r influential figures after the H L R S a n d the A l b a n y T r u s t b e g a n a relentless p r o g r a m m e of attrition. T h e story o f the m a n w h o k i l l e d h i m s e l f w h i l e a w a i t ­ i n g trial ( J a n u a r y 1 9 5 9 ) .g r o u p s b e f o r e a n d s i n c e . A n t o n y G r e y recalled.m a l e p u b l i c schools a n d y e t c o n t i n u e d to insist that they h a d n e v e r m e t a h o m o s e x u a l . o f the soldier w h o h a n g e d h i m s e l f rather than face a c o u r t martial. It is difficult to see h o w this c o u l d h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d o t h e r than at an ' o l d b o y ' . T h e d e g r e e o f i g n o r a n c e w a s staggering. I replied. . the H L R S a n d the A l b a n y T r u s t s o o n f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s riven by . . O n a train j o u r n e y G r e y f o u n d h i m s e l f seated w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e M P G o d f r e y L a g d e n : ' L a g d e n [leaned] across to m e a n d said. R o y Jenkins and K e n n e t h R o b i n s o n .' T H E R A Y OF H O P E ' 195 I started to h a v e s o m e s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . A s a p u b l i c relations e x e r c i s e . as w e l l as a n u m b e r o f o t h e r influential b a c k ..

w h i l e the l a w u n d e r w h i c h h e w a s c o n d e m n e d w a s b e i n g d e b a t e d in the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s . a n y w a y . p r o v i d e d that in Quest for Justice — b u t e v e n the a c c o u n t o f this v e r y early skirmish serves to g i v e s o m e indication o f w h a t w a s to c o m e . the question w a s n o l o n g e r whether the l a w w o u l d b e r e f o r m e d .o n e ( 2 1 3 — 9 9 ) defeat — b u t in the climate o f the t i m e it w a s j u s t possible to c l a i m e v e n that as a m o r a l v i c t o r y . the b r a v e h o m o s e x u a l L e n S m i t h w a s the first casualty. F o r all its i n f l u e n c e .t o . H e felt u n a b l e to c o n t i n u e a n d w i t h d r e w .e n g a g e c o n v i c t e d h o m o s e x u a l s .t i m e p o l i c e inspector) C . R o l p h . T h i s is n o t the place for a detailed history o f g a y politics — A n t o n y G r e y has. In i 9 6 0 . n o t e v e n the H L R S c o u l d eradicate innate p r e j u d i c e o v e r n i g h t . In 1 8 9 5 . T h e days w h e n v i c t i m s o f p r o s e c u t i o n s w e r e d i s o w n e d b y their parents o r friends are almost o v e r .f i g h t i n g . H . In t h r e e y e a n the w o r d ' h o m o s e x u a l i t y ' h a d ceased to b e a dirty j o k e a n d h a d b e c o m e a t o p i c for serious discussion. a n d an increasing n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e r s are w i l l i n g to r e . the i960 House of C o m m o n s v o t e after a debate o n the W o l f e n d e n R e p o r t resulted in an i g n o m i n i o u s t w o . the r e d o u b t a b l e New o n e . the R e v d A n d r e w H a l l i d i e S m i t h . his w i f e a n d the c h a i r m a n o f b o t h the H L R S a n d the A l b a n y T r u s t . b u t when. for w a n t o f a better term. It has b e e n important. in d e m o n s t r a t i n g j u s t h o w influential w h a t w e must.196 ORDINARY PEOPLE internal i n . t o o . Statesman j o u r n a l i s t (and . t w o o f the m o s t p o p u l a r films in L o n d o n w e r e s y m p a t h e t i c d o c u m e n t a r i e s o f his trials.d a y r u n n i n g (from n e w offices in Shaftesbury A v e n u e ) in the hands o f the n e w l y a p p o i n t e d secretary o f the H L R S . In an u n p u b l i s h e d a c c o u n t o f his w o r k at this p e r i o d H a l l i d i e S m i t h wrote: A f t e r the debate. call the h e t e r o s e x u a l E s t a b l i s h m e n t v o i c e b e c a m e at a t i m e w h e n the v o i c e f r o m the streets h a d neither w o r l d e n o u g h n o r time to m a k e itself heard. A s w e h a v e seen. l e a v i n g its d a y . the n a m e o f O s c a r W i l d e w a s u n m e n t i o n a b l e .t o . Ironically. h o w e v e r .

in its small w a y the Vassall affair indirectly p l a y e d a part in further familiarizing the p u b l i c w i t h the subject (or.a l i g n m e n t w h i c h m a r k e d the early 1 9 6 0 s . T h e comparatively cool. We're Bachelors' I N R E T R O S P E C T W H A T b e c a m e k n o w n as 'the Vassal] affair' w a s o n l y a small w a v e in the rising tide o f social r e . W i t h i n a matter o f w e e k s it w a s r e m e m b e r e d o n l y in o c c a s i o n a l reports o f the protracted p r o c e e d i n g s o f a tribunal set u p to l o o k i n t o was equally q u i c k l y forgotten. h o w e v e r . Really. T h e r e w a s a sort o f w e a r y inevitability in the m e d i a c o v e r a g e . T h e hapless Vassall h i m s e l f . the 'problem') o f homosexuality. matter-of-fact w a y in w h i c h the press a n d p u b l i c n o w dealt w i t h a n o t h e r h o m o s e x u a l scandal s e e m e d to b o d e w e l l for the future. U n l i k e the B u r g e s s a n d M a c l e a n story a d e c a d e p r e v i o u s l y . e v e n w h e n it b e c a m e k n o w n that Vassall w a s h o m o s e x u a l .'You'll Pardon the Mess. b u t the w h o l e case s o o n d r o p p e d f r o m the headlines. In A p r i l 1 9 6 3 the Sunday Mirror h a d still felt it necessary to g i v e its 197 the 'security i m p l i c a t i o n s ' o f the w h o l e affair. We Can't Help It. it w a s an u n d e n i a b l e fact that G a l b r a i t h h a d r e s i g n e d (although he w a s s u b s e q u e n d y cleared o f a n y personal o r professional i m p r o p r i e t y ) . the 'affair' signally failed to m e t a m o r p h o s e into a f u l l . A n o t h e r c o r n e r h a d b e e n turned. T h o m a s G a l b r a i t h . P u b l i c interest b e g a n in the a u t u m n o f 1 9 6 2 w h e n an A d m i r a l t y civil servant b y the n a m e o f J o h n Vassall w a s c o n v i c t e d o f s p y i n g for the S o v i e t U n i o n a n d j a i l e d for e i g h t e e n years. b u t less often n o w . A l t h o u g h a n y m e n t i o n o f h o m o ­ sexuality could still trigger e x p l o s i o n s o f i n d i g n a t i o n a n d r e v u l s i o n . a n d thus (in the public m i n d at least) peculiarly v u l n e r a b l e to b l a c k m a i l .b l o w n scandal. It w a s a l l e g e d that Vassall h a d b e e n ' t o o familiar' w i t h the t h e n A d m i r a l t y minister.

the W a r Q u e e r . the ' C o t ­ t a g e ' T y p e . O n e o f S p i k e M i l l i g a n ' s scripts. a n d interesting to listen to.p a g e g u i d e o n ' H o w to S p o t a Possible H o m o ' - he'd g i v e t h e m 'shifty g l a n c e s ' a n d h a v e ' d r o p p e d e y e s ' a n d 'a fondness for the theatre' — b u t at a r o u n d the same time h o m o s e x u a l i t y h a d b e e n m o r e reasonably discussed o n Any Questions? o n the B B C Home political shrill S e r v i c e .B u i l d e r . the h a d a p p e a r e d in i 9 6 0 . the S h i p ' s Q u e e r . to h a v e identified m o r e than forty different types o f h o m o s e x u a l .198 ORDINARY PEOPLE readers a t w o . T h e r e was Rupert Hart-Davis's expurgated but none p s e u d o n y m o u s ' a u t o b i o g r a p h y ' .a w a i t e d e d i t i o n o f O s c a r W i l d e ' s De Profundis. " ' W h a t J . M o s t w e r e n o m o r e than b r o a d sketches o f the social stereotypes w h i c h b y t h e n e v e n The had parachuted Goon Show h a d h a d in its sights. perhaps oddest o f all. R . s o m e o f the y o u n g e r ones aren't b a d l o o k i n g . a n d so o n a n d so o n . studies a n d articles w e r e also b e i n g published. s o m e o f t h e m . m a g a z i n e Encounter T h e literary a n d ran o n e o f the first a n d m o s t n o t a b l e o f these in Mirrors N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 2 .s e r i o u s b o o k s . a n a i v e N e d d y S e a g o o n into the arcane w o r l d o f G r y t p y p e . there w a s a k i n d o f straight m a n ' s n o real scientific research. the C l u b T y p e . for instance. the R e l i g i o u s H o m o s e x u a l . In The Homosexual Society' R i c h a r d H a u s e r c l a i m e d . the P u b T y p e . E v e n the g u a r d s m a n to w h o m R a v e n s p o k e s e e m e d to belong to quite a different generation to the libidinous twod i m e n s i o n a l chancers w h o m J o h n L e h m a n n h a d e n c o u n t e r e d : ' " S o m e o f us get quite f o n d o f the blokes w e see r e g u l a r l y . the t o n e o f S i m o n R a v e n ' s l o n g article ' B o y s W i l l B e B o y s — T h e M a l e Prostitute in L o n d o n ' w a s d e t e r m i n e d l y responsible a n d m e a s u r e d . the S u g a r .r e a d y M o r i a r t y : . M o r e a n d m o r e serious o r at least s e m i . We Think World of You. S h a r p l y contrasting w i t h the Sunday a l a r m i s m . a n d I ' v e h a d s o m e real thrills o f f t h e m in m y t i m e . A n d as for the sex bit. o n the basis o f Kind of Loving the less l o n g . there w a s a by 'Anthony R o w l e y ' — and.T h y n n e a n d the r o u g h a n d e v e r . " Y o u g o to their flats a n d h a v e s o m e drinks a n d talk a bit — t h e y ' r e n i c e f e l l o w s . the B o d y . b u t e v e n that w a s w h i m s i c a l a n d o b l i q u e in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h three m o r e n e w b o o k s o n e x p l i c i d y h o m o s e x u a l t h e m e s w i t h w h i c h it w a s sharing shelf-space b y the e n d o f 1 9 6 2 .B o y .Another g u i d e to h o m o s e x u a l i t y .D a d d y . A c k e r l e y called his 'fairy story for adults'. the D e m o r a l i z e d M a r r i e d M a n . " h e said. M a n y o f these w i l l b e familiar to a n y o n e w h o has read this far: t h e r e w a s the C a l l .

w e c a n ' t h e l p it really.o r e v e n journalists: J U L I A N : G o o d m o r n i n g ! I ' m J u l i a n . U n l i k e the Sunday Mirror g u i d e . o r perhaps s o m e o n e l i k e t h e m . b u t H a u s e r ' s b o o k u n w i t t i n g l y s e r v e d to m a r k the c o n f l u e n c e o f the t w o streams o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y w h i c h w e h a v e so far b e e n f o l l o w i n g . o u r e d i t o r says w h y d o n ' t y o u troll o f f to Mr H o m e ' s latty . . t h e y w e r e hardly the t y p e to frighten the horses. a n d h a v e a palari w i t h h i m . say) a n d ' W a r Q u e e r ' to little m o r e than h o u s e h o l d familiars. the itinerant q u e e n s w h o m K e n n e t h W i l l i a m s a n d H u g h P a d d i c k first b e g a n to p a y at a r o u n d this t i m e .b o i l e r . S u n d a y b y S u n d a y o n the B B C L i g h t P r o g r a m m e ' s Beyond Our Ken a n d Round the Home t h e y c o u l d b e h e a r d as travel o r theatrical agents. palari itself. J U L I A N : O o o o h ! W e l l . GRYTPYPE-THYNNE: It w a s h a r d l y m o r e than a p o t . l i k e J o h n Vassall. H O R N E : W e l l . H e l l o ! H e l l o ! W e ' r e f r o m the Daily minutes o f y o u r time? KENNETH them. t h e y s e e m e d to e m p h a s i z e j u s t h o w o r d i n a r y a n d u b i q u i t o u s the h o m o s e x u a l was. NEDDY SEAGOON: W h y don't y o u get married? / w o u l d .s h o c k i n g ' S u g a r . y e s ! C a n w e h a v e f i v e KENNETH J U L I A N : . . H O R N E : T h a t ' s a flat o r h o u s e . E v e n the m o r e o r less accurate 'palari' i n w h i c h their s k e t c h e s w e r e c o u c h e d s e e m e d to signal h o w safe a n d almost o r d i n a r y J u l i a n . restaurateurs — ' C o u l d I h a v e a v a d a at y o u r e n t r é e s ? ' ' O o o o h ! ' E ' s b o l d . b y t h e n a l m o s t e x t i n c t o n the g a y s c e n e .'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 199 GRYTPYPE-THYNNE: Y o u ' l l p a r d o n the mess. W i t h o r w i t h o u t his s u e d e shoes. a n t i q u e dealers. i n n e e ? ' . S A N D Y : W e l i k e to h a v e s o m e t h i n g h o t a n d p e r s o n a l . L i k e J u l i a n a n d his friend S a n d y . this is m y friend S a n d y . . I n d e e d . but Moriarty doesn't l o v e m e . Its patient i f h a r d l y o r i g i n a l t a x o n ­ omy r e d u c e d the o n c e . Listeners felt t h e y k n e w t h e m .T r a n s l a t o r ' s n o t e . . e n j o y e d a b r i e f g e n e r a l v o g u e at this t i m e . . . d r o p p e d e y e s a n d shifty g l a n c e s . w e ' r e b a c h e l o r s . h e c o u l d b e a c l e r k — Vassall h a d b e e n a c l e r k — o r a m e m b e r o f o n e o f the m o r e effete professions to w h i c h J u l i a n a n d S a n d y aspired. S a n d y a n d t h e i r real-life e q u i v a l e n t s h a d b e c o m e . it d e p e n d s w h a t y o u w a n t to d o w i t h Palari. R a t h e r . it w a s f u n d a m e n t a l l y g o o d .D a d d y ' ( N e d L a t h o m .n a t u r e d . .

in his diary: T h e papers are full o f this Vassall e n q u i r y . Y o u c o u l d say s o m e t h i n g l i k e I h e a r d s o m e o n e say o n the radio j u s t the o t h e r day: ' O o o o h . that's j u s t 'face' backwards.200 ORDINARY PEOPLE l e a v i n g m e n l i k e ' R i c h a r d ' and ' J o h n ' . ' f a c e ' is ' e c a f . For back ' R i c h a r d ' . girl?' o r ' F a n c y a drink. eyes are ' o c a l s ' o r ' o p a l s ' . he expressed rather m o r e a m b i v a l e n t sentiments. w h o at least k n e w the m e a n i n g and derivation o f the words. legs are 'lallipegs'.u p ' ! 2 c r a z e ' at least b r o u g h t W h e n Porter and W e e k s interviewed 'John'. S o there's n o m o r e O n M o n d a y 1 4 J a n u a r y 1 9 6 3 K e n n e t h W i l l i a m s w r o t e w a n l y . B u t y o u h a v e other things. T h e r e are bits o f p i g L a t i n as w e l l . I think it w a s B r u c e F o r s y t h w h o d i d a w h o l e s o n g in palari. w h a t h e called 'this sudden memories: W e a l w a y s said ' G i r l ' at the e n d o f a s e n t e n c e . ' Y o u all right. though. F o r instance. M e n talking ' Z h o o s h i n g . It w a s as i f h e felt that. a l a w w h i c h m a k e s it o n e is evil. A n o t h e r o n e . the h o m o s e x u a l w a s b e i n g f o r c e d to s u r r e n d e r a bit o f his individuality: It w a s originally the l a n g u a g e o f circus p e o p l e . h e s a w the p u b l i c a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f this j o k e y private l a n g u a g e almost as an i n v a s i o n o f his p r i v a c y . H o m o s e x u a l i t y in itself is n o v i c e . a n d t h e n o f c o u r s e K e n n e t h W i l ­ liams a n d H u g h P a d d i c k [used it] in Beyond m y s t e r y left. It's d i e d o u t n o w . e v e n then. T h e reporters g i v i n g e v i d e n c e all talk a b o u t h o m o s e x u a l intrigue & hint at dark secrets in h i g h places. ' It w a s all c a m p a n d rather silly. hands are 'lappers'. j u s t l o o k at the y o u n g . . 3 Our Ken. 'Riah' that's 'hair' b a c k w a r d s . t o o .w e l l . ' O h . girl?' B u t y o u c o u l d get quite technical. slightly effeminate m a n standing n e x t to y o u . looking on in b e w i l d e r m e n t . Y o u ' d say s o m e t h i n g l i k e . It w a s a sort o f full stop. i f rather tetchily. S o really it b e c o m e s l i k e e v e r y t h i n g else. breasts are ' j u b e s ' . e v e r y b o d y does it. A l l the m u c k r a k i n g is g o i n g o n . w h o b e g a n his life in the w o r l d o f 1 9 3 0 s r e v u e a n d musical c o m e d y . t h o u g h . w i l l y o u j u s t v a d a the b o n a f i l i o m i ajax!' w h i c h m e a n t .t i m e chorus b o y . T o n o a d v a n t a g e . as a c o n c o m i t a n t to i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c acceptability.

m i n u t e k n o c k o n the d r e s s i n g . A t the H o m o s e x u a l L a w R e f o r m S o c i e t y ' s offices in Shaftes­ b u r y A v e n u e . E v e n the p o e t P h i l i p L a r k i n f o u n d it an ' A n n u s M i r a b i l i s ' — the title o f o n e o f his m o s t famous p o e m s : S e x u a l intercourse b e g a n In N i n e t e e n S i x t y . in the frustrating s t a n d . m o r e lectures g i v e n . 0 0 0 m e m b e r s o f the C a m p a i g n for N u c l e a r D i s a r m a m e n t ( C N D ) m a r c h e d f r o m B r i t a i n ' s A t o m i c W e a p o n s R e s e a r c h E s t a b l i s h m e n t at A l d e r m a s t o n in B e r k s h i r e to h o l d their b i g g e s t e v e r rally in L o n d o n . L o o k i n g b a c k . the s o c i e t y c o u l d o n l y sit a n d w a i t for the i m p e n d i n g G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n . A n d so things d r a g g e d o n . letters o r taped r e c o l l e c t i o n s d o m a n y g a y m e n ) . It w a s the y e a r o f the G r e a t T r a i n R o b b e r y .o f f . l i k e the rest o f B r i t a i n . the y e a r 7 0 . almost a l o n e h e w a s responsible for its r e c r u d e s c e n c e a m o n g the B r i t i s h p e o p l e . M o r e letters w e r e w r i t t e n . h o w e v e r ( w h e r e . 4 as w e h a v e seen. m o r e m o n e y raised. f o l l o w i n g a n o t h e r r o u n d o f internal disagreements. L a r k i n does not m e n t i o n it (nor. this w h o l e nasty e p i s o d e w o u l d n e v e r h a v e o c c u r r e d . Unfortunately. M a c ­ millan's m a r r i e d S e c r e t a r y o f State for W a r . a n d the y e a r in w h i c h the Beatles first e n t e r e d the B r i t i s h p o p charts ( ' F r o m M e T o Y o u ' . this p e r i o d o f q u i e t u d e seems e x t r a o r d i n a r y . B u t . in their a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s .r o o m d o o r o f the n e w . it r e m a i n e d business as usual — a n d t h e n s o m e . Basically.W o l f e n d e n per se w a s n o t d e b a t e d at all in the parliamentary sessions o f 1 9 6 3 a n d 1 9 6 4 — that w a s a b o u t all.T h r e e ( w h i c h w a s rather late for m e ) A n d the B e a t l e s ' first L P .'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 201 H a d the g o v e r n m e n t acted o n the findings o f the W o l f e n d e n report. least o f all w h i l e the n a m e Vassall a n d the red rags o f ' b l a c k m a i l ' a n d 'national s e c u r i t y ' w e r e still p e r i o d i c a l l y resurfacing in the headlines. A n d o n . It spans the e x a c t p e r i o d in w h i c h E n g l a n d started to ' s w i n g ' . A n t o n y G r e y h a d taken o v e r as a c t i n g secretary). m o r e contacts m a d e . ' S h e L o v e s Y o u ' ) . in 1 9 6 3 . m e m o i r s . I f s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e d i d n o t e x a c t l y b e g i n for J o h n P r o f u m o . m o r e m e e t i n g s h e l d . c u r i o u s l y . b u t w h a t i n e v i t a b l y B e t w e e n the e n d o f the C h a t t e r l e y B a n . 1 9 6 3 in particular w a s the y e a r w h i c h effectively k i l l e d o f f the o l d o r d e r a n d g a v e a f i v e . H a r o l d M a c m i l l a n ' s C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t h a d little i n t e n t i o n o f acting.

It b l e w apart the n o t i o n o f E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r o b i t y . that the P r i m e M i n i s t e r . w h o m h e h a d first seen s w i m m i n g n a k e d in a p o o l at C l i v e d e n . e m b e l l i s h i n g a n d repeating. a B r i t i s h w a r m i n i s t e r had b e e n i n v o l v e d w i t h a ' m o d e l ' . that a m e m b e r o f the C a b i n e t h a d s e r v e d d i n n e r at a private party w h i l e n a k e d e x c e p t for a m a s k . i f n o t t w o .202 ORDINARY PEOPLE b e c a m e k n o w n as 'the P r o f u m o affair' w a s the cause célèbre o f the y e a r . It m a r k e d the e n d o f an especially f e v e r e d spring: I n the late spring o f 1 9 6 3 m e n a n d w o m e n all o v e r B r i t a i n w e r e telling. ' T h a t w a s j u s t the start. o f these matters b u t h a d taken in n o a c t i o n . that a n o t h e r m e m b e r o f the C a b i n e t h a d b e e n d i s c o v e r e d b y p o l i c e b e n e a t h a b u s h in R i c h m o n d P a r k w h e r e h e a n d a prostitute h a d b e e n e n g a g i n g in oral-genital activities a n d that the p o l i c e h a d h u s h e d the m a t t e r u p . w h i p m e ' . o r all. L o r d A s t o r ' s c o u n t r y estate. prostitutes circumstances inevitable. w h e n P r o f u m o assured the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s that ' T h e r e w a s n o i m p r o p r i e t y w h a t s o e v e r in m y acquaintanceship w i t h M i s s [Christine] K e e l e r .r u m o u r s h a d b e e n e c h o i n g t h r o u g h the corridors o f p o w e r for w e e k s . i f n o t m o n t h s — in M a r c h . a n d that a principal m e m b e r o f the r o y a l family h a d b e e n h a v i n g s e x u a l relations w i t h o n e .that. a n d u n w i t t i n g l y p r e p a r e d the g r o u n d for future revelations d i r e c d y relevant to this story. T h e p u b l i c first g o t to h e a r a b o u t things . 5 ministers that w o u l d h a v e m a d e exposure sooner or later B e r n a r d L e v i n p u b l i s h e d those w o r d s in 1 9 7 0 (and it is interesting to n o t e that. nearly b r o u g h t d o w n (and certainly fatally w e a k e n e d ) the g o v e r n m e n t . w h a t P r o f e s s o r B e n P i m l o t t has called 'the biggest inquisition into the m o r e s o f the g o v e r n i n g class since the trial o f O s c a r W i l d e ' . a l t h o u g h h o m o s e x u a l i t y d i d n o t feature in the Profumo . such stories as that n i n e H i g h C o u r t j u d g e s h a d b e e n e n g a g i n g in s e x u a l o r g i e s . a small lace a p r o n a n d a card r o u n d his n e c k r e a d i n g ' I f m y services d o n ' t please y o u . h a d k n o w n a b o u t s o m e . h o w e v e r . the S o v i e t M i l i t a r y A t t a c h é in L o n d o n . a n d others w e r e b e l i e v i n g . familiar a r g u m e n t s a b o u t the dangers o f b l a c k m a i l w e r e again rehearsed a n d P r o f u m o w a s f o r c e d to f o l l o w the c o u r s e taken b y so m a n y b e f o r e h i m . at the h e i g h t o f the C o l d W a r . for it s u b s e q u e n d y b e c a m e k n o w n that h e w a s l y i n g . H a r o l d M a c m i l l a n . H i s resignation w a s a c c e p t e d o n 5 J u n e . O n c e it w a s d i s c o v e r e d that K e e l e r w a s also i n v o l v e d w i t h Y e v g e n y I v a n o v .

s a d o . o r professed t o b e l i e v e . H a r o l d M a c m i l l a n w a s appalled b y the w h o l e P r o f u m o debacle a n d its s e e d y aftermath. h o w e v e r . h o w e v e r . Ill a n d tired. n o . that L e v i n felt b o u n d to verify t h e m w i t h a f o o t n o t e : ' T h e a u t h o r h e a r d all o f these stories at the t i m e . the usual w a y o f i n d e f i n i t e l y k i c k i n g a c o n t e n t i o u s issue firmly into t o u c h . h a d q u i c k l y b e g u n a n o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t e n q u i r y i n t o the 'security considerations' o f the P r o f u m o affair. It c o u l d n o t stay t h e r e for l o n g .w a s P r i m e M i n i s t e r . as h e put it. ' T h e M a n Without a Head'. ( ' T w o .e r o t i c . e v e n in 1 9 7 0 . In S e p t e m b e r p e o p l e q u e u e d all night to b u y c o p i e s o f w h a t w a s then trendily entitled Lord Denning's such as Report of the Nyasaland Report (in sharp contrast. the M a s t e r o f the R o l l s . to the g e n e r a l r u n o f g o v e r n m e n t reports w h i c h b o a s t e d titles Commission r u n a w a y best-seller for H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . then coincidentally in to the annual Within session. the film v e r s i o n o f D r No h a d b e e n released to great success in 1 9 6 2 .fourteen o f Ian F l e m i n g ' s n o v e l s w e r e in p r i n t in 1 9 6 3 . ' ' W o u n d e d ' . e v e n i f its s e c t i o n headings w e r e m o r e M i c k e y Spillane than Ian F l e m i n g : ' T h e S l a s h i n g a n d S h o o t i n g ' . m o s t o f t h e m m o r e than o n c e . h e h a d g i v e n a n a t i o n t h e n a d d i c t e d to the w o r l d o f J a m e s B o n d . h e staggered o n until. ' h e is r e p o r t e d to h a v e said. L o r d H o m e read the a n n o u n c e m e n t Conservative Conference. h o m o .b y t h e n plain Sir A l e c D o u g l a s . It b e c a m e a n o t e d . that same H o m e . n o . ' M r P r o f u m o Is W a r n e d ' . the ' c u s t o m a r y processes o f c o n s u l t a t i o n ' h a v i n g b e e n o b s e r v e d . h o s p i t a l i z e d b y an acute prostate p r o b l e m .'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 203 affair.an official report w h i c h read l i k e a c r i m e thriller. S o e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i d the stories s e e m . possibly t h r e e H i g h Court j u d g e s I c o u l d b e l i e v e .m a s o c h i s t i c elements are p r o m i n e n t in these p r o t o t y p i c a l u r b a n m y t h s ) . for it seems to h a v e u n d e r m i n e d o n e o f the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s u p o n w h i c h political life m u s t b e c o n d u c t e d .' In this h e a t e d a t m o s p h e r e L o r d D e n n i n g . a n d all o f t h e m f r o m p e o p l e w h o b e l i e v e d . hours. L e v i n of Inquiry). ' T h e S p a n i a r d ' s P h o t o g r a ­ phy'. M a c m i l l a n r e t u r n e d to the b a c k . he a n n o u n c e d his resignation as P r i m e M i n i s t e r o n 1 0 O c t o b e r .H o m e . that t h e y w e r e true.) A t nearly s e v e n t y years o f a g e the O l d E t o n i a n G r e a t W a r officer h a d addressed the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s o n 1 7 J u n e a b o u t Profumo's b e h a v i o u r : ' I find it difficult to tell the H o u s e w h a t a b l o w it has b e e n for m e . but n i n e . A f t e r a l o n g c o n v a l e s c e n c e . D e n n i n g w a s to b l a m e .

to leak o u t . the w o n t w a s y e t to c o m e . A n d w h e n it did. Classified g o v e r n ­ m e n t papers released o n l y in J a n u a r y 1 9 9 5 r e v e a l h o w w o r r i e d D o w n - . w a s p r e p a r e d for the b o m b s h e l l w h i c h the Sunday Mirror d r o p p e d o n 1 2 J u l y 1 9 6 4 . In the light o f his c o m m e n t s o n P r o f u m o ' s p e r f i d y in the C o m m o n s . T h e German n e w s m a g a z i n e Stem h a d it t o o . n o r e v e n that o f the gangster. It did not take l o n g for the identity o f the p e e r . it is possible to i m a g i n e H a r o l d M a c m i l l a n ' s reactions to this. W e n o w k n o w that for years M a c m i l l a n h a d b e e n a w a r e of. T h e dread w o r d ' b l a c k m a i l ' surfaced. L a d y D o r o t h y (née C a v e n ­ dish) h a d e n j o y e d a l o n g . YARD It s o u n d e d l i k e a n o t h e r o f L e v i n ' s obiter dicta. for h i m at least. t o o . B o o t h b y was an o l d friend. N o o n e .204 ORDINARY PEOPLE b e n c h e s little k n o w i n g that. least o f all the f o r m e r p r i m e minister. too. H o m e s a w h i m s e l f as the v e r y likely p r e m i e r o f a shattered innuendo-laden N e w s p a p e r after n e w s p a p e r w a s p r o d u c i n g further legally v e t t e d b u t stories a b o u t B o o t h b y a n d K r a y . the fact that his w i f e . T h e r e w e r e teasing references to ' M a y fair parties i n v o l v i n g c l e r g y m e n ' a n d 'the private w e e k e n d activities o f the p e e r a n d a n u m b e r o f p r o m i n e n t p u b l i c m e n d u r i n g visits to Brighton'. W i t h i n a w e e k the Daily Mirror a n n o u n c e d that it h a d a the ' p i c t u r e w e dare n o t print' s h o w i n g 'a w e l l . the luckless A l e c D o u g l a s nation.t e r m affair w i t h B o o t h b y . But i f h e w a s a shattered E n g l i s h m a n . a n d h a d a c c e p t e d w i t h a p a i n e d c o m p l a i s a n c e . b u t there w e r e d e e p e r issues. b u t the f o l l o w i n g article explicitly stated that the p o l i c e the ' Y a r d ' . it c a u g h t h i m c o m p l e t e l y u n a w a r e s .k n o w n m e m b e r o f the H o u s e o f L o r d s seated o n a sofa w i t h a gangster w h o leads biggest protection racket L o n d o n has e v e r k n o w n ' .w e r e investigating an alleged ' h o m o s e x u a l relationship b e t w e e n a p r o m i n e n t p e e r a n d a leading t h u g in the L o n d o n u n d e r w o r l d ' . R i g h t u p until the day o f his death M a c m i l l a n c o u l d n e v e r b r i n g h i m s e l f to talk a b o u t a n y o f this. In thick i n k y b l a c k the front p a g e h o w l e d : P E E R A N D A G A N G S T E R : PROBE. a n d gleefully told its readers that the p e e r w a s L o r d B o o t h b y (the O l d E t o n i a n f o r m e r C o n s e r v a t i v e M P R o b e r t B o o t h b y . N e i t h e r the p e e r n o r the gangster w a s identified b y n a m e . w h o h a d b e e n m a d e a Life P e e r in 1 9 5 8 ) a n d the gangster R o n n i e K r a y .

it s h o u l d p r o c e e d . T o s o m e p e o p l e the a l w a y s i m p e ­ c u n i o u s p e e r said h e h a d g i v e n this sudden w i n d f a l l a w a y to charity.a g e d a n d e v e n elderly m e n l i k e D r i b e r g . T h o u g h o t h e r w i s e e x h a u s t i v e . t o o . f o r e v e r o p e n to blandishment. it d i d n ' t c o m e to that. I h a v e m e t the m a n alleged to b e the ' K i n g o f the U n d e r w o r l d ' o n l y t h r e e times. N e i t h e r h a d w h a t w a s then called ' o l d m o n e y ' — b o t h . B o b B o o t h b y w a s in his early sixties in 1 9 6 3 . T o m D r i b e r g w a s fiftyeight. o n business matters. fought p e r i o d i c battles w i t h the Inland R e v e n u e undoubtedly but they were they figures o f the E s t a b l i s h m e n t . i n d e e d . s e e m i n g l y fearful o f e v e n m o r e c a v e d in. ' In the e v e n t . a n d used it. a n d t h e n b y a p p o i n t m e n t in m y flat at his request. the Daily Mirror 6 N o o n e really b e l i e v e d h i m but. S e x u a l intercourse d i d n o t b e g i n for t h e m in 1 9 6 3 . B o o t h b y ' s a u t o b i o ­ ( 1 9 4 7 ) . D o u g l a s . H o w e v e r . 0 0 0 in c o m p e n s a t i o n . T h e y h a d a certain clout. c o p i o u s s e c o n d a r y descriptions exist o f the m a n n e r in w h i c h m i d d l e . are u n r e v e a l i n g a b o u t all that really m a t t e r e d in his personal life. a n d in the c o m p a n y o f o t h e r p e o p l e . b u t it w a s a r o u n d t h e n that. I h a v e n o t b e e n to a M a y f a i r party o f a n y k i n d for m o r e than t w e n t y years. a p o l o g i z e d a n d p a i d B o o t h b y £ 4 0 . A s M a c m i l l a n h a d cause to k n o w . a n y m o r e than it h a d for J o h n P r o f u m o . p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d as Ruling graphical w r i t i n g s (/ Fight Tomorrow to Live Passions. B o o t h b y w a s m o r e than d o u b l e .' H i s C h i e f W h i p let it b e k n o w n (confidentially) that ' i f a p r o s e c u t i o n w a s i m p e n d i n g a n d w a s b e i n g h e l d u p .'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 205 i n g Street w a s that the e p i s o d e c o u l d b e e v e n m o r e d a m a g i n g to t h e m than P r o f u m o ' s h a d b e e n to M a c m i l l a n .c r i e d rather than m e r e l y p r o c l a i m e d his i n n o c e n c e : ' I a m n o t a h o m o s e x u a l . does n o t c o v e r this Yesterday. T h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s let o f f the h o o k w h e n B o o t h b y w e n t p u b l i c in a letter to The Times w h i c h t o w n . D r i b e r g ' s u n i q u e l y frank b u t u n f i n i s h e d a u t o b i o g r a ­ p h y . ' costly legal action. to others ( D r i b e r g included) h e c o n f i d e d that h e h a d u s e d it to b u y a c o u n t r y h o u s e . a n d My ( 1 9 6 2 ) ) .f a c e d . their elderly lizard eyes b e g a n to focus o n w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g in ' s w i n g i n g L o n d o n ' .H o m e w a s told that t w o T o r y M P s knew that ' L o r d B o o t h b y a n d [ T o m ] D r i b e r g h a d b e e n i m p o r t u n i n g males at a d o g track a n d w e r e i n v o l v e d w i t h gangs o f thugs w h o dispose o f their m o n e y at the tracks. Your p e r i o d o f his life. U n f o r t u n a t e l y .

torture a n d finally m u r d e r w e r e to g i v e t h e m .206 and B o o t h b y battened ORDINARY PEOPLE the remnants o f an o l d . Fittingly. preferably w i t h l o n g lashes a n d a certain m e l t i n g l o o k r o u n d the e y e s . [he] w a s free from c o l o u r with which he . . k n o w l e d g e o f the h o m o s e x u a l i t y o f b o t h m e n — a n d n o t least their p r e d i l e c t i o n for r o u g h trade — w a s an almost b a n k a b l e asset. h e u s e d t o say. a p o w e r f u l l e v e r w h i c h c o u l d b e p u l l e d i f e v e r the g o i n g g o t t o u g h . B e i n g seen in the c o m p a n y o f a M e m b e r o f P a r l i a m e n t a n d a P e e r o f the R e a l m w a s n o t o n l y gratifying in itself. inappropriately A l t h o u g h in early 1 9 6 3 the K r a y s .e i g h t . D i g n i t y in particular is signally l a c k i n g in the details o f the t w o parliamentarians' i n v o l v e ­ m e n t w i t h R o n n i e K r a y . H e l i k e d b o y s . B o o t h b y h a d apparently first c o m e across h i m w h e n the gangster called at his flat in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h an u n s p e c i ­ fied business deal. T h e y d o n o t tell an especially edifying story.] a n d . patrician h o m o s e x u a l i t y o n to the n e w y o u t h culture. the twins k n e w w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g . H e l i k e d t e a c h i n g t h e m a n d often g a v e t h e m a f i v e r to take their girl-friends o u t o n c o n d i t i o n t h e y slept w i t h h i m the f o l l o w i n g night. as h e p r o u d l y insisted. It w a s a n o t h e r m a r k o f the K r a y s ' s e l f .f a s h i o n e d . T h e i r b i o g r a p h e r J o h n P e a r s o n has w r i t t e n : ' I ' m n o t a poof. I ' m h o m o s e x u a l .c o n f i d e n c e that R o n n i e n e v e r felt it necessary to h i d e his o w n h o m o s e x u a l i t y . H e a l w a y s asked t h e m w h i c h they p r e f e r r e d . d i r e c t o r o f the n o t titled m u s i c a l Fings Ain't Wot They Used t'Be (1959)..w e r e n o t quite the lords o f the m a n o r w h i c h shotguns.t h e n a g e d t w e n t y . H e particularly e n j o y e d t h e m i f t h e y h a d n o e x p e r i e n c e o f m e n b e f o r e . h o w e v e r . H e w a s s o m e t h i n g o f a sadist. a n d [he] w a s g e n u i n e l y p u t o u t b y the antics o f effeminate males. w i t h the same C o c k n e y c o n t e m p t p r o n o u n c e d the w o r d ' w o m e n ' . ' h e w o u l d say. neither e n c o u n t e r w a s w i t h o u t a certain seediness. the introductions o n that o c c a s i o n w e r e m a d e b y J o a n L i t t l e w o o d . b u t w a s g e n e r o u s w i t h his l o v e r s [. A s i f to demonstrate his o w n special credentials as a ' s w i n g e r ' — in O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 h e h a d w a r n e d the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s that the p u b l i c r e g a r d e d M P s as 'practically senile a n d hopelessly " s q u a r e " ' — D r i b e r g h a d m e t b o t h R o n n i e a n d his t w i n b r o t h e r R e g g i e at an East E n d n i g h t c l u b . T a n s i e s ' . . as their c o n f i d e n c e in their o w n i n v i n c i b i l i t y g r e w . U n l i k e B o o t h b y a n d D r i b e r g .

the suburban bacchanalia at w h i c h ' r o u g h b u t c o m p l i a n t E a s t E n d lads w e r e s e r v e d ' . R o n n i e ' s C e d r a C o u r t parties e v e n a c h i e v e d a fame o f their o w n . T h e y c o u l d p l a y w i t h his c o l l e c t i o n o f n o r t h A f r i c a n g e w g a w s . A r a b s . an assortment o f m e n f r o m the C i t y . that w a s precisely the attraction. It d i d n o t matter that R o n n i e h a d g o t their n u m b e r a n d w a s using t h e m to facditate entry i n t o what P e a r s o n called 'the useful f r e e m a s o n r y o f the simdarly i n c l i n e d ' . A t o n e a television p u n d i t m o r e than m a d e the a c q u a i n t a n c e o f a famous d i s c . to entertain new parliamentary. T h e risk w a s part o f the thrill.but. Negroes. as the K r a y s seems m e l o ­ extreme function T o d a y the i n v o l v e m e n t o f the likes o f B o o t h b y a n d D r i b e r g w i t h such c o n s p i c u o u s m e m b e r s o f the demi-monde dramatic a n d little short o f pathetic. a d m i r e the large painting o f a n a k e d b o y w h i c h d o m i n a t e d o n e wall. t o o . actors w o u l d find t h e m s e l v e s r u b b i n g shoulders w i t h 'a w o r l d . 7 A b o v e all. several b o x e r s . a g e a n d social b o u n d a r i e s in the n e w . in Francis W h e e n ' s w o r d s . titled a n d s h o w . H e e n j o y e d k i t t i n g o u t his latest finds at C e c i l G e e o r a n y o t h e r fashionable tailor b e f o r e p a r a d i n g t h e m a r o u n d the W e s t E n d a n d p l y i n g t h e m w i t h drinks at the S o c i e t y C l u b in J e r m y n Street. a n d t w o y o u n g m e n in dark suits w h o t u r n e d o u t to b e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d c l e r g y m e n ' . It is o n l y an manifestation o f the w a y in w h i c h h o m o s e x u a l i t y c a m e to as o n e o f the levellers o f class.'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 207 p r e j u d i c e . ( D r i ­ b e r g w a s later to s h o w h o w useful h e c o u l d b e in that respect b y p e t i t i o n i n g the H o m e S e c r e t a r y o n R o n n i e ' s b e h a l f to get a 'friend' transferred to a prison m o r e a m e n a b l e than D a r t m o o r .S a x o n s . ) It d i d n ' t e v e n matter that they w e r e risking their careers — as w e h a v e seen. W a l t h a m s t o w . e v e n the Sunday Mirror c o u l d b e silenced.f a m o u s painter.b u s i n e s s friends at the flat h e k e p t in C e d r a C o u r t . T h i s w a s feasting w i t h panthers o n a l e v e l w h i c h e v e n O s c a r W i l d e c o u l d n o t h a v e e n v i s a g e d . a n d l o u n g e o n their host's elaborate f o u r .p o s t e r b e d w h i l e t h e y p o p p e d w h a t e v e r pills h a p p e n e d to b e o n offer. R o n n i e w a s a s n o b . b e c o m i n g a small b u t r e c o g n i z e d part o f L o n d o n ' s h o m o s e x u a l s c e n e . It w a s fun. b u t w h e n seen in c o n t e x t it is illustrative o f m o r e than senescent v e n i a l i t y . h a v i n g tried S c a n d i n a v i a n s .j o c k e y . Latins. for the likes o f D r i b e r g a n d B o o t h b y . C h i n e s e and a Tahitan. ' l i k e so m a n y c a n a p é s ' . the c h a i r m a n o f an e n g i n ­ e e r i n g firm. as P e a r s o n has d e s c r i b e d ( w i t h a perhaps understandable tact). A t others. A n g l o .

t h r e e years o f a g e .c l a s s pubs b e h i n d the city's R o y a l C o u r t T h e a t r e in search o f c o m p l i a n t d o c k e r s o r s e a m e n . A n e w eclectic aristocracy w a s e v o l v i n g . the friend a n d p h o t o g r a p h e r o f r o y a l t y first e n c o u n t e r e d J a g g e r in M a r c h 1 9 6 7 . n o t h a r d to find. b y all accounts. F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s o f this process in action are. D r i b e r g w a s i n t r o d u c e d to the n o t o r i o u s face o f the R o l l i n g S t o n e s in 1 9 6 7 . A n d artfully at the centre o f it. largely spent staring at his c r o t c h . his dark suits a n d his crisp w h i t e shirts. as adept at a v o i d i n g E p s t e i n ' s advances w h i l e still a c c e p t i n g all that h e h a d to offer as R o n n i e K r a y w a s w i t h B o o t h b y . as D r i b e r g was my guest. things w e r e naturally m o r e fluid. t o u r i n g w o r k i n g . t o o k things m u c h further. . N o w . n o t b y the p r e t t y . for E p s t e i n that w a s all part o f his appeal. E p s t e i n w a s then t w e n t y . what a b i g basket y o u h a v e ! ' ' I w a s slightly embarrassed. C h r o n i c a l l y repressed. H e w a s o v e r w h e l m e d . a n o t h e r m e m b e r o f the sixties' c h a r m e d circle. W e can see it in B r i a n E p s t e i n ' s instant infatu­ ation w i t h J o h n L e n n o n the first time h e h e a r d the B e a d e s play at the C a v e r n C l u b in L i v e r p o o l . H e w a s besotted.' G i n s b e r g has recalled.e i g h t a n d w o r k i n g in the family d e p a r t m e n t store.208 ORDINARY PEOPLE w o r l d o f the 1 9 6 0 s . B a c k in L o n d o n . fastidious a b o u t his a p p e a r a n c e . b y the gay A m e r i c a n B e a t p o e t A l l e n G i n s b e r g .f a c e d P a u l [ M c C a r t n e y ] o r P e t e [Best] b u t b y the b o y w h o s e façade o f crudeness a n d toughness t o u c h e d the n e r v e o f his m o s t secret " R o u g h T r a d e " fantasies. Y e t h e r e w a s D r i b e r g c o m i n g o n c r u d e . h e a n n o u n c e d : ' O h m y . I h a d eyes for J a g g e r myself.e d u c a t e d . J e w i s h . ' I w a s also a s t o u n d e d at his b o l d n e s s . It w a s at l u n c h t i m e o n T h u r s d a y 9 N o v e m ­ b e r 1 9 6 1 — the v e r y p r e c i s i o n o f t i m e a n d date is perhaps i n d i c a t i v e o f h o w p o w e r f u l an e p i p h a n y it w a s . T r a g i c a l l y . C e c i l B e a t o n . literate. sexually a m b i v a l e n t a n d a p p a r e n d y available.' 8 L e n n o n w a s .' 9 O r at least y o u c o u l d try. h i t h e r t o his taste for ' r o u g h trade' h a d l e d h i m to adopt a secret n o c t u r n a l e x i s t e n c e . M i c k . the w h o l e o f his life h a d c h a n g e d : ' H e h a d fallen in l o v e w i t h J o h n L e n n o n . T h e n s i x t y .w e n t . T h e r e w a s a k i n d o f Z e n directness a b o u t it that w a s interesting: I s u d d e n l y realised that w i t h directness l i k e that y o u c o u l d score m a n y times. D r i b e r g w a s far f r o m alone in his pursuit o f J a g g e r . w a s M i c k J a g g e r . in o n e l u n c h t i m e . A f t e r an afternoon in J a g g e r ' s c o m ­ p a n y . sadly. a m o n g w h o m a n y t h i n g — o r nearly a n y t h i n g . L S E . b u t I w a s v e r y c i r c u m ­ spect a b o u t J a g g e r ' s b o d y . in so m a n y w a y s the antithesis o f L e n n o n .

chauffeurs. . it is n o t perhaps entirely surprising that m a n y o f the h o m o s e x u a l m e n w h o m {pace R o y J e n k i n s ) the predominandy the and straight m e m b e r s o f the H o m o s e x u a l L a w R e f o r m S o c i e t y a n d w o u l d j u s t l e a v e t h e m a l o n e . b u t it h a p p e n e d that w e sat n e x t to o n e a n o t h e r as h e d r a n k a V o d k a Collins and s m o k e d w i t h pointed finger held high. w i t h his girlfriend. A s a m o d e l h e is a natural. y e t c o m ­ pletely sexless. T h e y read a b o u t Vassall. I m a d e h i m l o o k l i k e a T a r z a n b y P i e r o di C o s i m o . a n d A m e r i c a n s ' a r r i v e d . barbaric j e w e l l e r y ' . a n d j u s t s h r u g g e d . I g a v e his face the s h a d o w s it n e e d e d .] H i s figure. the b o d y almost hairless a n d y e t . H e has an i n b o r n e l e g a n c e . a n d w i t h perfect m a n n e r s . b e a t n i k . [. S u d d e n l y . In the days that f o l l o w e d B e a t o n w r o t e p a g e after p a g e in his diary a b o u t the effect J a g g e r h a d o n h i m : I d i d n ' t w a n t to g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n that I w a s o n l y interested in M i c k .'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 209 w h i l e h e w a s staying at a h o t e l in M a r r a k e s h .p l a c e a n d a d v i c e . there w a s K e i t h R i c h a r d 'and.o n . R i g h t f r o m the start. H e is s e x y . surprisingly. 10 In the light o f all this. dirty canary drops o f hair. for t h e m the H L R S ' s H a l l i d i e S m i t h h a d b e e n asking the w r o n g question: f o r t h e m it w a s n o t so m u c h when the l a w w o u l d b e r e f o r m e d . P r o f u m o A l b a n y T r u s t w e r e so d e t e r m i n e d to help rather w i s h e d that e v e r y o n e all the o t h e r scandals. Mick Jagger'. . [. His skin is c h i c k e n . It w a s tender a n d g o o d . the R o l l i n g Stones ' t o g e t h e r w i t h h a n g e r s . a n d his small. T h e r e w a s ' B r i a n J o n e s . f r o m its early h a d b e e n s o m e t h i n g o f a lifeline. the H L R S be? u Ostensibly. w i t h its premises acting as an unofficial m e e t i n g .]! t o o k M i c k t h r o u g h the trees to p h o t o g r a p h h i m in the m i d d a y sun. dirty b l a c k e n e d e y e s . a l b i n o . H e c o u l d nearly b e a e u n u c h . T h e lips w e r e o f a fantastic roundness. H e has m u c h a p p r e c i a t i o n .f r i n g e d eyes n o t i c e e v e r y t h i n g . b u t should it L i v e r p o o l Street days.. .] H e is v e r y g e n d e .b r e a s t w h i t e a n d o f a fine quality.d r e s s e d Anita P a l l e n b e r g — dirty w h i t e face. . his hands a n d arms w e r e i n c r e d i b l y f e m i n i n e [». H e i n d i c a t e d that I s h o u l d f o l l o w his e x a m p l e a n d eat the c h i c k e n w i t h m y fingers. this sounds absurd. o f c o u r s e .

B u r g e s s e s a n d their l i k e . I n subsequent g a y m y t h o l o g y .w a r a n d w a r t i m e c o t e r i e — the B e a t o n s . C o w a r d s . ' T h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t c o l u m n s o f the New Statesman w e r e places that o n e l o o k e d at [for] rather carefully c o d e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s — " B a c h e l o r seeks a n o t h e r to share h o u s e " . part o f a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the c o s y . h e w a s f o r t y . P e r s e c u t i o n . e v e n a m o n g those g a y m e n w h o m i g h t h a v e b e e n its casual 'clients'. ' R i c h a r d ' t o o k the i m p r i s o n m e n t o f L o r d M o n t a g u . h e w a s c o o l l y realistic: ' I w a s . P e t e r W i l d e b l o o d a n d M i c h a e l P i t t . I w a s a p p a l l e d ' — b u t h e w a s virtually u n m o v e d b y the g a y rights a c t i v i s m o f the 1 9 6 0 s : ' I w a s in f a v o u r o f decriminalization. B u t . Y e t t h e r e w a s a feeling that the ' d o . ' S t e p h e n ' felt m u c h the s a m e . B u t the W o l f e n d e n debate d i d n ' t affect m y life v e r y m u c h . L e h m a n n s . M e n l i k e ' R i c h a r d ' a n d ' S t e p h e n ' .210 ORDINARY PEOPLE c e n t r e f o r h u n d r e d s o f o r d i n a r y h o m o s e x u a l m e n .g o o d e r s ' w e r e principally inter­ ested in political c h a n g e . I think. t o o .' 12 M o v i n g in c o m p l e t e l y different social circles.for w h o m h o m o s e x u a l ­ ity h a d n e v e r b e e n a p r o b l e m . for instance. I s h o u l d n ' t h a v e t h o u g h t the c h a n g e in the l a w affected p e o p l e ' s lives much. I called it.s e v e n years o f a g e w h e n the W o l f e n d e n R e p o r t w a s p u b l i s h e d a n d in a l o n g . I ' d b e e n h a v i n g r a m p a n t s e x for years. o f c o u r s e . a w a r e o f c h a n g i n g o p i n i o n s — in the w a k e o f the K i n s e y R e p o r t . s o m e t h i n g o f a special case. it d i d n ' t e x a c d y m a k e a lot o f difference! I n m y o p i n i o n the m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g it d i d w a s to liberalize the general atmosphere. o r the W o l f e n d e n proposals. h o w e v e r .r a n k i n g c i v d servant.' 1 3 ' S t e p h e n ' w a s . it a n d the A l b a n y T r u s t h a v e b e e n p o r t r a y e d as such u n a l l o y e d G o o d T h i n g s that it is almost heretical to recall the l e v e l o f i n d i f f e r e n c e to the w o r k t h e y w e r e d o i n g w h i c h existed. there again. L o o k i n g b a c k a d e c a d e after the m a j o r i t y o f the W o l f e n d e n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a d finally passed into l a w . for instance.R i v e r s almost as a personal affront ' I w a s s h o c k e d at the p o l i c e action. in d o i n g s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w o u l d h e l p that a n o n y m o u s a r c h e t y p e 'the h o m o s e x u a l ' rather than b e t t e r the lot o f particular i n d i v i d u a l s . in effect. l o o k e d o n W o l f e n d e n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s in m u c h the say w a y as t h e y d i d the parallel proposals for a r e f o r m o f d i v o r c e legislation: as s o m e ­ t h i n g to b e w e l c o m e d b u t s o m e t h i n g w h i c h w a s still n o t especially r e l e v a n t to t h e m . T h u s h e w a s . p r e . I w o n d e r i f things h a v e c h a n g e d as m u c h as p e o p l e m a k e out. that . I still d o . A h i g h .s t a n d i n g ' m a r r i e d ' relationship w h i c h h a d started j u s t after the w a r .

I w e n t in an A r a b c o s t u m e w h i c h I ' d b e e n g i v e n d u r i n g the w a r . T h e o t h e r e v e n t . the diaries p r e s e r v e a n d h i g h l i g h t i m a g e s o f the q u o t i d i a n . I n his w o r l d o n e c o u l d easily h a v e b e e n f o r g i v e n for t h i n k i n g that the w a r h a d n e v e r h a p p e n e d : T h e r e u s e d to b e drag parties w h i c h w e r e often v e r y g r a n d .b u t hardly m u n d a n e . she o r g a n i s e d this e n o r m o u s servants' ball w h i c h I s u p p o s e several t h o u s a n d p e o p l e u s e d to g o to.1 9 6 0 s . a l t h o u g h their c e n t r e p i e c e is a t e d i o u s l y detailed a c c o u n t o f the p r i a p i c excesses w h i c h O r t o n a n d his l o v e r K e n n e t h H a l l i w e l l e n j o y e d d u r i n g a s p r i n g h o l i d a y in M o r o c c o . w a s the C h e l s e a A r t s B a l l w h i c h w a s a m i x e d affair. A n d that b e c a m e a m e c c a for h o m o s e x u a l s w h o u s e d to g o in all sorts o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y garbs. w i t h flowing things a n d a c o r d r o u n d o n e ' s h e a d . o f c o u r s e . I t h i n k . o f c o u r s e — a great m e c c a for the g a y w o r l d — w a s L a d y M a l c o l m ' s servants' ball at the A l b e r t H a l l e v e r y y e a r . b e c a u s e these p e o p l e usually h a d e n o r m o u s flats a n d lots o f m o n e y .reality o f h o m o s e x u a l life as it w a s d e v e l o p i n g in the m i d . a n d e v e n t u a l l y the t h i n g w a s b r o u g h t to an e n d . L a d y M a l c o l m w a s h o r r i f i e d b y it. T h e r e is n o t a single r e f e r e n c e t o W o l f e n d e n in his p u b l i s h e d diaries ( w h i c h c o v e r the p e r i o d b e t w e e n D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 6 and A u g u s t 1 9 6 7 ) .' h e recalled. R a t h e r . I w a s dressed rather respectably. A n o t h e r great m e e t i n g place w a s the gallery at S a d l e r ' s W e l l s . a n d it w a s c h a m p a g n e a n d that sort o f thing. dressed u p . T h e r e w a s the ballet. T h a t w a s really quite s o m e p i c k . T h e o t h e r thing.u p p o i n t . a n d so e v e r y year. e q u a l l y at h o m e w i t h the status q u o . T h e y g i v e a g r a p h i c a c c o u n t o f the deterioration o f O r t o n ' s relationship w i t h H a l l i w e l l as w e l l as v i v i d snapshots o f m o r e successful d o m e s t i c set-ups: . S h e w a s s o m e v e r y b e n e v o l e n t lady w h o b e l i e v e d in d o i n g s o m e t h i n g for the servants. o f c o u r s e . b u t o n e u s e d to g o u p t h e r e a n d o n e g o t in for a shilling a n d [stood] at the b a c k . at the A l b e r t H a l l . I w e n t o n c e o r t w i c e . N o r . b u t again sort o f l a r g e l y p a t r o n i s e d b y the g a y fraternity. d i d politics o r t h e struggle for h o m o s e x u a l rights o v e r l y c o n c e r n h i m . a n d I saw y o u n g m e n dressed in a tiger skin o r all sorts. o n the strength o f t h e m . 14 J o e O r t o n seems to h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y s a n g u i n e . as a m a t t e r o f fact.'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 211 sort o f thing.

" " F o r g o t ! " this q u e e n w i l l say. " W e l l . w e h a d s e x . D . easy t r e a t m e n t .b e legislators. " " 5 E l s e w h e r e . 16 . t o o . so I h a d q u i c k . ' W e l l . " H a d the trade in a n d forgot? Y o u ' v e n o right to h a v e the trade until y o u ' v e fed the f i s h . " N o w then. I m e t o n e q u i t e n i c e y o u n g b o y . y o u ' v e n e g l e c t e d to feed the goldfish. Y o u d o it i f it'll m a k e y o u feel a n y better. a n d o n e d a y I m a n a g e d t o get m y h a n d o n his thigh. a n o t h e r for the e l e c ­ tricity. and they took m e outside.' S o h e hit m e . ' t h i s g u y says. W e w e n t to b e d t o g e t h e r . b u t h e l o o k e d a b o u t e i g h t e e n . 'I s h o u l d p u n c h y o u r f u c k i n g h e a d i n . l o o k . a n d a f e w days later — cor! It w a s fortunate for m e that I h a d a friend w h o w o r k e d in the V . b u t g o o d .n a t u r e d — a n d she's b o u g h t this h o u s e a n d s t o c k e d it w i t h b o y s . A n d she's allotted t h e m their v a r i o u s tasks. A n d so it g o e s o n [. W h a t is y o u r e x c u s e ? " A n d the lad m i g h t say. ' F e e l better n o w ? ' b u t h e c o u l d n ' t say ' Y e s ' . D e n n i s . ' G e t C l i v e a n d T o m to i n t r o d u c e y o u to the H o l l o w a y set. T h e r e ' s this d o c t o r — q u e e r . if y o u w a n t to. b u t h e n e v e r said a n y t h i n g . I t h o u g h t perhaps h e w a s interested. b e c a u s e it d i d n ' t hurt m e at all. ' K e n n e t h said. . I s h o u l d think h e ' d [have b e e n ] i n his early t w e n t i e s . W e w e n t b a c k to the billet a n d the n e x t t h i n g I k n e w h e a n d a m a t e o f his c a m e i n t o m y r o o m .c o n t a i n e d w o r l d w a s e v o l v i n g — a w o r l d w h i c h s e e m e d to h a v e litde n e e d o f legislation o r w o u l d . O n e is responsible for the p l u m b i n g .212 ORDINARY PEOPLE K e n n e t h W i l l i a m s said. m o r e as an afterthought. H e k n o c k e d it off. . S o l s a i d . ' S a m ' r e m e m b e r e d it o n l y t h r o u g h incidents that are as m u c h a part o f a y o u n g h o m o s e x u a l ' s life t o d a y as t h e y w e r e in the years i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n : T h e r e w a s o n e b o y w h o s e e m e d quite h a p p y to a c c o m p a n y m e e v e r y w h e r e I w e n t . clinic.] T h e r e ' s e v e n a b o y responsible for the g o l d f i s h . w a g s h e r finger a n d says. an i n w a r d l o o k i n g . R a t h e r y o u n g e r than O r t o n . y o u see. far a w a y f r o m the H o l l o w a y R o a d . I said. d o m e s t i c a t e d a n d virtually s e l f . T h e y ' r e all w o r k i n g lads. T h i s b o y w a s a b o x e r a n d his m a t e kept e g g i n g h i m on. A l l f r o m borstal. I h a d the trade in a n d I f o r g o t . ' A n d i f any o f t h e m n e g l e c t their tasks she calls h i m into h e r surgery. b u t h e m u s t h a v e ' p u l l e d ' it.

the w i d o w o f the f o r m e r L a b o u r leader. c o n t i n u i n g indifference in large parts o f the h o m o s e x u a l c o m ­ m u n i t y . N o t entirely u n e x p e c t e d l y . ' Stardingly. t h e r e c a m e a n e w d e m a n d for the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the W o l f e n d e n proposals. the E a r l o f L o n g f o r d a n d B a r o n e s s Gaitskell. W i t h o u t w a r n i n g . H e k e p t a p e t b a d g e r w h i c h h a d the free r u n o f his c o u n t r y h o u s e . b u t h e h a d d o n e his h o m e w o r k (under the surprised b u t d e l i g h t e d tutelage o f the H L R S ) a n d n o w felt 'that. T h e A r r a n B i l l (the Jons et .'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 213 E v e n t u a l l y a G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n w a s called. ' B o o t y ' A r r a n w a s a m a v e r i c k o n the r e d b e n c h e s . ' S t e p h e n ' o r J o e O r t o n . h o w e v e r . N o t o n l y w a s there. h e t o l d his n o b l e friends o n 1 2 M a y 1 9 6 5 . l y i n g full-length o n the floor o f his office. s u d d e n l y d e c l a r e d his s u p p o r t for the c a u s e . a n d h e c o n t r i b u t e d a regular gossip c o l u m n to the L o n d o n Evening News w h i c h . t o g e t h e r w i t h a g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s o f the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s . A n d these things. T h e i r o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y w a s o n l y f i v e . b u t they h a d p u t an e n d to 'thirteen y e a n o f T o r y m i s r u l e ' largely t h r o u g h the endlessly repeated p r o m i s e o f the n e w P r i m e M i n i s t e r H a r o l d W i l s o n to forge a n e w B r i t a i n in the w h i t e heat o f t e c h n o l o g y . U p in the H o u s e o f L o r d s the eighth E a r l o f A r r a n . a c c o r d i n g to A n t o n y G r e y . B e t w e e n t h e m . It is doubtful. B u t s l o w l y a m o m e n t u m built u p . w o r k e d relentlessly to h a v e A r r a n ' s technical ' M o v i n g for P a p e r s ' m o t i o n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a B i l l a n d t h e n to get that B i l l formally tabled. I think. C i r c u m s t a n c e s w e r e against t h e m . h e w o u l d c o m p o s e in l o n g h a n d . h o w e v e r . are u n b e c o m i n g to o u r c o u n t r y . a h e r e d i t a r y p e e r w h o t o o k the C o n s e r v a t i v e W h i p (but w a s later to cross the floor a n d j o i n the then L i b e r a l P a r t y ) . a m o n g t h e m the A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y M i c h a e l R a m s e y ) . w h e t h e r the fundamentally d e c e n t b u t o v e r ridingly p r a g m a t i c W i l s o n s a w the legalization o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y as any m o r e a part o f that n e w B r i t a i n than ' R i c h a r d ' . the A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k . the o v e r a l l t o n e o f parliamentary o p i n i o n r e m a i n e d s t u b b o r n l y anti. ' B o o t y ' a n d his f e l l o w peers. in a c c e p t i n g the l a w o n h o m o s e x u a l practices as it n o w stands. T h e r e w e r e far m o r e pressing — a n d less o b v i o u s l y c o n t e n t i o u s — issues to b e addressed. w e are persecuting a m i n o r i t y a n d w e are b e i n g unjust. a n u m b e r o f o t h e r lords b o t h t e m p o r a l a n d spiritual (then t h o u g h t so t o o .for the last f e w days o f the c a m p a i g n o p i n i o n polls h a d s h o w n a g r o w i n g s w i n g in their d i r e c t i o n — L a b o u r w o n . H e w a s n o t h i m s e l f h o m o s e x u a l . as w e h a v e seen. a n d p o l l i n g t o o k p l a c e o n T h u r s d a y 1 6 O c t o b e r 1 9 6 4 .

o p e n e d b y his secretary. w a s fulminating that to v o t e for the B i l l w a s to ' c o n d o n e the D e v i l a n d all his w o r k s ' . v e r y m u c h o f its t i m e . the N o e s h a v e it!' — w a s n a r r o w l y defeated. ' h e told the H o u s e o f L o r d s . ' I a d m i t that m a n y times I w o u l d gladly h a v e b e e n shot o f the w h o l e w r e t c h e d business. ' she g a m e l y a n n o u n c e d . The Ruffian on the Stair w a s quintessential ' k i t c h e n . J O Y C E : Y o u a l w a y s g o to such interesting places. I n 1 9 6 5 it actually p r o c e e d e d as far as a v o t e in the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s b u t — 'the N o e s h a v e it. L o r d A r r a n .214 ORDINARY PEOPLE origo. It's still u n d e r repair. h e said . T h e r e is n o fun in it.' A n d . I ' m to b e at K i n g ' s C r o s s Station at e l e v e n . M i k e . It w o u l d sap the m o r a l fibre o f the y o u t h o f the nation. I n a radio play first broadcast as early as 1 9 6 4 . E v e n the n o r m a l l y b u o y a n t ' B o o t y ' A r r a n w a s b e g i n n i n g to w o n d e r w h a t h e h a d g o t h i m s e l f i n t o . o f c o u r s e . I ' m m e e t i n g a m a n in the todet. o f w h a t w a s to b e c o m e the 1 9 6 7 S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t ) was p r e s e n t e d to b o t h houses o f P a r l i a m e n t n o less than three times. ' ( O n e such. materials. H e a v e n k n o w s ! it w a n t s i m p r o v i n g . O n the o n e h a n d F i e l d M a r s h a l V i s c o u n t M o n t g o m e r y o f A l a m e i n . He puts away his shaving the v a n ? M I K E puts on a made-up bow tie.s i n k ' d r a m a . a n d s o m e t i m e s o n e feels desperate at s o m e o f the letters o n e r e c e i v e s . O b s c e n i t i e s h a d b e e n d a u b e d o n the walls o f his L o n d o n c l u b . is s h a v i n g a n d his partner J o y c e w a s h i n g u p : J O Y C E : H a v e y o u g o t an a p p o i n t m e n t t o d a y ? M I K E : Y e s . M o s t o f m y post is a n o n y m o u s n o w a d a y s . ' F r a n k l y . a m a n w h o w a s to b e p o s t h u m o u s l y — a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l l y — ' o u t e d ' ) . the latter h a d matter-of-factly i n c o r p o r ­ ated ' h o m o s e x u a l ' r h y t h m s i n t o o t h e r w i s e h e t e r o s e x u a l situations. M I K E : N O . t w o years b e f o r e h e c a m e to p u b l i c n o t i c e w i t h his stage play Loot. a n d J o e O r t o n . w a s n o m o r e than a p a r c e l o f h u m a n faeces. A r e y o u taking . ' ) T h e r e w a s a certain surrealism a b o u t the p r o t r a c t e d p r o c e e d i n g s as the a r g u m e n t s d r a g g e d o n in a w o r l d s e e m i n g l y h e r m e t i c a l l y sealed f r o m reality. n o less (ironically. 'it w o u l d n ' t k e e p . it o p e n s at breakfast-time w h d e its p r o t a g o n i s t . w h o h a d b e e n h a v i n g r a m p a n t s e x for years. ' I t h r e w it a w a y . ' O n the o t h e r there w e r e m e n l i k e ' R i c h a r d ' . S e t in a L o n d o n bed-sit. a n d such letters d o n o t e x a c t l y e n c o u r a g e o n e t o c o n t i n u e .

a l t h o u g h perhaps n o n e is stranger than the l o n g a c c o u n t o f a n o r g y w h i c h h e e n c o u n t e r e d b y c h a n c e in a n o r t h L o n d o n p u b l i c l a v a t o r y : . It w a s the reason w e n e v e r g o t a n y w o r k done. b u t b y n o w n o b o d y cared. H e p u s h e d the sixth m a n r o u g h l y a w a y f r o m the fair-haired m a n a n d q u i c k l y s u c k e d o v e r m y b u t t o c k s a n d w a s t r y i n g to p u s h his p r i c k b e t w e e n the my fair-haired m a n o f f T h e m a n b e s i d e m e h a d p u l l e d m y j e a n s d o w n . H i s diaries are full o f strange e p i p h a n i e s . h e saw in the w o r l d a r o u n d h i m . as s o o n b e c a m e apparent w h e n the s e v e n t h m a n stuck his h e a d d o w n o n a l e v e l w i t h m y fly. I ' d a m e s s a g e to d e l i v e r . b u t that's as far as it w e n t . I h a d a chat w i t h a m a n w h o travels in electrically o p e r a t e d m a s s a g e m a c h i n e s . It turns o u t h e ' s o n the run. W e w e r e h a p p y .'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 215 J O Y C E takes the tray to the sink and puts the dishes into a bowl. c a n y o u ? (He shrugs) W e w e r e b o s o m friends. A s e v e n t h m a n c a m e in. I ' v e n e v e r told a n y o n e that b e f o r e . t h o u g h . c a m e in. [ M y b r o t h e r a n d I] w e r e y o u n g . .h e w a s a stickler f o r c o n v e n t i o n . Y o u can't do better for y o u r s e l f than that. I was twenty-three. b e a r d e d a n d s t o c k y . T h e n an eighth m a n . J O Y C E (putting on a pair of rubber gloves): W h e r e d i d y o u g o yesterday? M I K E : I w e n t to M i c k e y P i e r c e ' s . H e b o u g h t m e a h a m roll.' 18 T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the ostensibly bizarre w i t h the p r o s a i c ( ' H a v e y o u taken u p transvestism? I ' d n o idea o u r m a r r i a g e t e e t e r e d o n the e d g e o f fashion') w a s to b e o n e o f the trademarks o f O r t o n ' s w o r k b u t it o n l y reflected the reality w h i c h . A n d a n y w a y . M I K E : A S close as that? W I L S O N : W e h a d separate beds . H e was seventeen. W e spent e v e r y n i g h t in e a c h other's c o m p a n y . as a y o u n g h o m o s e x u a l m a n . I h o p e I haven't shocked you. She pours water on them. M I K E : T h e r e ' s n o w o r d in the Irish l a n g u a g e for w h a t y o u w e r e doing. 17 W I L S O N : . . F o r s o m e m o m e n t s n o t h i n g h a p p e n e d . T h e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e in the place w a s so large that d e t e c t i o n w a s q u i t e i m p o s s ­ ible. h e w a n t e d a c o c k in his m o u t h t o o . . .

y o u k n o w . T h e b e a r d e d m a n c a m e o v e r a n d n u d g e d a w a y the s e v e n t h m a n f r o m m e and. h e told a C a m p a i g n for H o m o ­ sexual E q u a l i t y g r o u p : ' T h e o n l y m o v e m e n t to w h i c h I e v e r attached m y s e l f w a s the A l b a n y T r u s t . s e e m e d to b e s a y i n g w h e n . O r t o n ' s diary entry encapsulates the g e n e r a l situation in w h i c h h o m o s e x u a l s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s as 1 9 6 6 b e c a m e 1 9 6 7 a n d the ' s w i n g i n g S i x t i e s ' c a m e o f a g e . T h e W o l f e n d e n proposals a n d successive versions o f the S e x u a l Offences B i l l . s u d d e n l y g l u e d his m o u t h to m i n e . A n d s o m e w r e t c h e d p o l i c e m a n m a n a g e d to j o i n a n d spent a d a y o b s e r v i n g . T h i s u n d e r c o v e r p o l i c e m a n o p e n e d the d o o r to t h e m a n d w e w e r e all arrested. homosexual saturnalia. ( T h u s far a n d n o farther. in 1 9 7 7 .c i r c u m s p e c t K e n n e t h hetero­ Williams s e x u a l lines.T h y n n e m i g h t h a v e said. and quickly pulled up m y j e a n s . T h e fair-haired m a n .2l6 ORDINARY PEOPLE legs. w i t h their i m p l i c i t l y c o n s e r v a t i v e a s s u m p t i o n that d e c r i m i n a l i z e d h o m o s e x u a l i t y w o u l d b e p r e d i c a t e d o n adult. 19 moved about their I c a m e . It w a s r u n b y s o m e stupid q u e e n w h o w a s pissed h a l f the t i m e . s e e m e d irrelevant at the d a w n i n g o f the A g e o f A q u a r i u s . man's No more than two feet away the citizens of Holloway m o u t h . b e c a u s e its espoused aim was to change the law concerning cohabitation between consenting male adults. squirting c o m e into the b e a r d e d E v e r y t h i n g w a s in a mess. I w a s c h a r g e d w i t h b u g g e r y a n d a r r a i g n e d to appear at the O l d B a d e y . b e g a n s u c k i n g m e l i k e a m a n i a c . the w o r l d g o t o n w i t h its o w n business protests e r u p t e d o n b o t h sides o f the the A d a n t i c at the i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f A m e r i c a n military i n v o l v e m e n t in V i e t n a m . In essence. The little pissoir under the bridge had become the scene of a frenzied ordinary business. the B e a t l e s released Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.' c a u g h t b e t w e e n t w o cultures at a r o u n d this t i m e : I g o t arrested in a g a y sauna. as G r y t p y p e . g e t t i n g v e r y e x c i t e d b y m y feeling his c o c k w i t h b o t h hands. o p e n i n g w i d e m y fly. h a v i n g b e e n s u c k e d o f f hastily left the p l a c e . the e v e r . R e a l life w a s upstaging the legislators. T h e l a b o u r e r . T h e n o n e F r i d a y e v e n i n g thirty o f t h e m c a m e in. m o n o g a m o u s . w o u l d y o u believe! ( m y italics)) ' F r a n c i s ' w a s o n e o f m a n y h o m o s e x u a l m e n w h o f o u n d themselves .a c l u b . J u s t l i k e the citizens o f H o l l o w a y . g o v e r n m e n t w a s f o r c e d to sanction a d e v a l u a t i o n o f the p o u n d — largely u n a w a r e o f the 'frenzied h o m o s e x u a l saturnalia' w h i c h w a s t a k i n g p l a c e in its midst.

P . T h a t ' s w h a t h e t h o u g h t o f it! T w o p e o p l e w e r e f o u n d n o t guilty. e v e n o n a m a j o r i t y v e r d i c t . the c h a m p i o n s o f l a w r e f o r m r e m a i n e d o b d u r a t e in their c a m p a i g n to get the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l o n to the statute b o o k . I t h i n k the w h o l e thing w a s j u s t a n o n s e n s e . I ' d h a v e t h o u g h t . . g o v e r n m e n t t i m e w a s d e n i e d t h e m . T h a t c h a n c e c a m e o n 1 1 February 1966 w h e n H u m p h r e y Berkeley.f i v e p o u n d s costs. c o s t i n g the c o u n t r y h u n d r e d s of thousands o f p o u n d s . an e n o r m o u s s u m o f m o n e y . P . a n d I s t e p p e d f r o m the court a free m a n ! It w a s n ' t really v e r y traumatic b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t feel guilty at all. . F i v e o f us w e r e there for s e v e n days. U p in the p u b l i c . struck l u c k y a n d o p t e d to major i n t r o d u c e the S e x u a l Offences B i l l . a n d the j u r y c o u l d n ' t a g r e e in m y case. S h i r l e y W i l l i a m s a n d D i c k T a v e r n e f r o m the L a b o u r P a r t y . A n o t h e r g u y w a s f o u n d guilty o f i n d e c e n t b e h a v i o u r o r w h a t e v e r . o r at least d e b a t e d o n the floor o f the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s . w o u l d p r o s e c u t i o n l i k e to . S u p p o r t e r s f r o m all the parties rallied r o u n d : L i b e r a l leader J o G r i m o n d . B a r b a r a C a s d e . I w a s o b v i o u s l y technically guilty — b u t so w h a t ? 2 0 D e s p i t e L o r d A r r a n ' s f o r e b o d i n g s a n d the i m p l a c a b l e corps o f o p p o n ­ ents b o t h inside a n d outside P a r l i a m e n t . [ D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c P r o s e c u t i o n s ] a n d c a m e b a c k a n d said t h e y w o u l d b e offering n o further e v i d e n c e . S o t h e y w e n t o f f a n d p h o n e d the D .the sods! T h e original case h a d taken e l e v e n m o n t h s to g e t adjournment funeral the because o n e o f the witnesses h a d to g o to his g r a n d m o t h e r ' s in G e r m a n y . T h i s t i m e I w e n t a l o n g a n d t h e y a s k e d for an up again . A n y further progress d e p e n d e d o n the c h a n c e that o n e o f their n u m b e r w o u l d b e successful in the p e r i o d i c ballot o f M P s w i s h i n g to i n t r o d u c e P r i v a t e M e m b e r ' s Bills. a left-wing Conservative MP ( w h o later j o i n e d the L a b o u r P a r t y ) . S o the j u d g e said that. After a w e e k o n e case w a s dismissed. C h r i s t o p h e r C h a t a w a y a n d N i c h o l a s R i d l e y f r o m the C o n s e r v a t i v e s . In that case I shall enter a v e r d i c t o f n o t guilty.'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 217 I d i d n ' t h a v e a n y m o n e y at the t i m e so I g o t L e g a l A i d .h e w a s s u p p o s e d to h a v e b e e n w a n k i n g s o m e b o d y o n the stairs — a n d the j u d g e g a v e h i m a c o n d i t i o n a l discharge a n d o r d e r e d h i m to p a y s e v e n t y . S o the j u d g e said. for session after session. S o t h e y b r o u g h t m e there. in v i e w o f the trivial n a t u r e o f the offence a n d the cost to the C r o w n a n d all that. B u t .

N o c o u l d quite b e l i e v e it. W e s t ­ m i n s t e r e m p t i e d as M P s h u r r i e d b a c k to their constituencies to prepare for the ' s n a p ' G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n w h i c h w a s to take place o n 3 1 M a r c h .w o r n a r g u m e n t s o n b o t h sides w e r e aired. ' I w o u l d n e v e r h a v e d r e a m e d it w o u l d get b y in a c o u n t r y l i k e this. u n b e l i e v a b l y . w a s a m a t t e r o f basic h u m a n rights. A l l the w e l l . the H o u s e d i v i d e d o n w h e t h e r to a l l o w B e r k e l e y ' s B i l l to p r o g r e s s to a S e c o n d R e a d i n g . w a s to call 'the terrible fate o f g r o w i n g up homosexual'. t h e y p l e a d e d . M P . 'It certainly surprised m e . s h o u l d h e so desire it. It w o u l d o b v i a t e the threat o f b l a c k m a i l w h i c h h u n g o v e r e v e r y h o m o s e x u a l m a n a n d m a k e it easier for h i m to ask for p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r social ' t r e a t m e n t ' . In parliamentary terms it w a s 'lost'. A c c e p t a n c e o f e v e n the bare b o n e s o f w h a t W o l f e n d e n h a d r e c o m ­ m e n d e d . o f the m o t i o n .218 ORDINARY PEOPLE gallery representatives o f the H o m o s e x u a l L a w R e f o r m S o c i e t y c o u l d o n l y h o l d their breath as the C o m m o n s b e g a n w h a t w a s . a l e a d i n g a d v o c a t e o f r e f o r m . ' 21 It w a s . ' K e n n e t h W i l l i a m s n o t e d in his diary.p l a y i n g (or c o n s c i o u s l y i g n o r i n g ) the m o r e sensational c o n s e ­ q u e n c e s . A l l s e e m e d set fair for c a m p a i g n e r s there a n d in the H L R S . a priori a r g u m e n t s o u g h t to present the utilitarian benefits o f r e f o r m w h i l e d o w n . A l m o s t u n e x p e c t e d l y — a n d m o r e than ten years after the m e n t o f the W o l f e n d e n C o m m i t t e e — the first a n d m o s t appoint­ one the A y e s h a d it. O t h e r s . It w o u l d e v e n o p e n the w a y for m e a s u r e s d e s i g n e d to save small b o y s f r o m w h a t L e o A b s e . B u t their c e l e b r a t i o n w e r e s h o r t . O n e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y . T h a t w a s 'a b l o w ' .f o u r M P s h a d v o t e d in f a v o u r forbidding h u r d l e o n the p a t h to d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n h a d b e e n cleared. T h i s t i m e . C e r t a i n l y it w i l l b e e n o r m o u s l y e n c o u r a g i n g to the p e o p l e w h o h a v e w o r k e d so hard o n the A l b a n y T r u s t . A n t o n y G r e y c o m m e n t e d laconically. albeit that this t i m e the r e f o r m e r s ' w e r e c l o a k e d in the subfusc o f social c o n c e r n . n o w a b a n d o n e d a n d forgotten. their first 'full-dress' debate o n the subject o f h o m o s e x u a l l a w r e f o r m since 1 9 6 2 . the S p e a k e r a n n o u n c e d . A f t e r five h o u r s d u r i n g w h i c h the authors o f this cautious. 1 0 7 (96 o f t h e m C o n s e r v a t i v e s ) h a d o p p o s e d it. N e a r the b o t t o m o f a pile o f unfinished business the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l l a n g u i s h e d . O n l y a m a t t e r o f days after the v o t e D o w n i n g Street a n n o u n c e d that the Q u e e n h a d a p p r o v e d P r i m e M i n i s t e r H a r o l d W i l s o n ' s request for a dissolution o f P a r l i a m e n t .l i v e d .

the flatness.' o n e b a c k .W i l s o n won.o u t rather harder.'YOU'LL PARDON THE MESS 219 t o o k the technical k n o c k . b u t it w a s still a tragedy. ' I d o n ' t particularly r e m e m b e r the e l e c t i o n . T h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g w a s : w o u l d w e ever get it?' . so that w a s g o o d — I j u s t r e m e m b e r the d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . It w a s as i f all the effort h a d b e e n in v a i n . 'It w a s an u n e x p e c t e d turn o f events.s t a g e c a m p a i g n e r recalled.

c l a s s p e o p l e in the n o r t h j e e r at their M e m b e r s at the w e e k e n d a n d ask t h e m w h y t h e y ' r e l o o k i n g after the b u g g e r s at W e s t m i n s t e r instead o f l o o k i n g after the u n e m p l o y e d at h o m e . n o t infrequently. ' T h i s is m a k e . t h e y w a t c h e d rather g l u m l y as. T h u s . b o t h h e a n d t h e y k n e w it w a s hardly g o i n g t o c o v e r t h e m w i t h g l o r y either. again a n d again. n o t e d : F r a n k l y .o r . a n d . leader o f the o p p o s i t i o n to it.b r e a k y e a r . a l t h o u g h the progress o f a swiftly resurrected S e x u a l Offences B i l l ( n o w b e i n g p d o t e d b y L e o A b s e ) w a s hardly g o i n g to m a k e o r b r e a k his g o v e r n m e n t . p u r e l y o n quid pro 220 .f a s h i o n e d F a b i a n c o n c e p t s o f D u t y a n d Fairness . the L e a d e r o f the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s .'Doing Our Bit for the Boys' L A B O U R W O N T H E G E N E R A L E L E C T I O N o f M a r c h 1 9 6 6 w i t h an o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y o f n i n e t y . it's an e x t r e m e l y unpleasant B i l l a n d I m y s e l f d o n ' t l i k e it. to sheer p r o v i d e n c e : ' I a s k e d D i c k [ C r o s s m a n ] h o w the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l h a d g o t t h r o u g h [its First R e a d i n g ] w i t h o u t a v o t e . h a d b e e n so s o z z l e d h e h a d failed to rise at the right m o m e n t ! ' 2 There was also a certain a m o u n t o f h o n e . 1 new S i m d a r l y . J a m e s ] D a n c e . in her diary B a r b a r a C a s d e has left a r e c o r d o f h o w .' I a p p e a l e d to R o y [ J e n k i n s ] : " B a c k m e u p . ' H a r o l d W i l s o n h a d told party colleagues shortly b e f o r e p o l l i n g day. It has g o n e d o w n v e r y b a d l y that the L a b o u r Party s h o u l d b e associated with such a Bill. certainly w o r k i n g . it r e c e i v e d a First R e a d i n g .or. " A n d . the ultimate passage o f the B i l l w a s d u e to o l d . In his diary R i c h a r d C r o s s m a n .s e v e n seats. in an a t m o s p h e r e o f public indifference o r w o r s e .t r a d i n g a r o u n d the C a b i n e t table . It m a y w e l l b e t w e n t y years a h e a d o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . o n c e again. H e said that [the C o n s e r v a t i v e M P .

E v e r y t h i n g h a d b e e n n e a d y tidied u p .'DOING OUR B I T FOR T H E B O Y S ' 221 quo g r o u n d s for m y s u p p o r t o f the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l . " A r e n ' t w e g o o d . Y o u m u s t h a v e rules! W e ' v e g o n e t o o d a m n e d far o n s e x already. Y o u w i l l h a v e a totally d i s o r g a n i z e d . D o n ' t t h i n k teenagers are able to evaluate y o u r liberal ideas. a l o n g w i t h such d e c o r o u s 'activists' as L o r d A r r a n . tired as I w a s . It's pretty and I ' v e a l w a y s t h o u g h t s o . A n t o n y G r e y a n d Humphrey B e r k e l e y h a d o v e r t u r n e d five centuries o r m o r e o f legal c e n s u r e . T h e B i l l h a d b e e n an ' i m p o r t a n t and civilising m e a s u r e ' . h e a n n o u n c e d .u p process w a s in n o w a y . ' 4 3 undignified E v e n in the face o f this. It finally r e c e i v e d R o y a l A s s e n t o n 2 7 J u l y 1 9 6 7 . h e d i d ! ' — b u t there w a s certainly n o general enthusiasm for it: A t 3 p m I said m i l d l y I h o p e d I s h o u l d n ' t b e p r e v e n t e d f r o m v o t i n g at 4 p m o n the S e c o n d R e a d i n g o f the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l . she k n e w she w a s D o i n g the R i g h t T h i n g . A s E r i c R o l l a n d officials a r g u e d w i t h h i m g o o d . Castle's support stayed c o m m e n d a b l y solid.e v e n i f that t i d y i n g . C a s t l e . A n d I care d e e p l y a b o u t it — in o p p o s i t i o n to m o s t o f m y C h u r c h .s i x M e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t w h o h a d v o t e d A y e in the T h i r d R e a d i n g d i v i s i o n (there w e r e j u s t f o u r t e e n v o t e s against).o n e years o f a g e o r o v e r w e r e legalized. w h a t e v e r the w i d e r w o r l d t h o u g h t : ' A l l . H o m o ­ sexual acts u n d e r t a k e n in p r i v a t e b y t w o c o n s e n t i n g m e n o f t w e n t y . I ran into [ L a b o u r M P ] L e n a J e g e r w h o p u t her arms a r o u n d m e a n d said in a p i e r c i n g v o i c e . 'a v o t e o f c o n f i d e n c e o r c o n g r a t u l a t i o n to h o m o s e x u a l i t y ' . m . h e t h o u g h t s o c i e t y o u g h t to h a v e h i g h e r standards. A b s e . i n d e c e n t a n d unpleasant society.C a t h o l i c a n d Socialist.n a t u r e d l y . 5 0 a . . o n the m o r n i n g o f 4 j u l y 1 9 6 7 . T h a t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n the e n d o f matter.n i g h t sitting o n the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l . H o m e S e c r e t a r y R o y J e n k i n s certainly t h o u g h t s o . It w a s a g o o d j o b I stayed. h e g o t v e r y passionate: ' T h i s is h o w R o m e c a m e d o w n . d o i n g o u r bit for the b o y s ! " ' 5 T h e y w e r e . In a similar fashion to m a n y o f her c o l l e a g u e s . I d o n ' t r e g a r d a n y sex as pleasant. A t o n e stage w e o n l y carried the closure b y t h r e e v o t e s . the B i l l w a s passed at a r o u n d 5 . as h e p u t it. T r a i l i n g t h r o u g h the l o b b y at 4 a m . J e n k i n s a n d the o t h e r n i n e t y . A s an A n g l o . T h i s set G e o r g e [ B r o w n ] o f f o n a r e m a r k a b l e diatribe against h o m o s e x u ­ ality.

T h u s in Quest for Justice. h a v i n g m i n u t e l y c h r o n i c l e d his a n d o t h e r p e o p l e ' s fight to g e t ( e v e n a l i m i t e d d e g r e e o f ) legalization o n to the statute b o o k . things b e g a n to g e t e v e n m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d . e v e n legislation passed a n d an A c t enacted w e r e still n o t h i n g m o r e than palliatives. . In large m e a s u r e this w a s d u e to the fact that.a n d the t e r m ' g a y ' c a m e into g e n e r a l B r i t i s h usage at a r o u n d this t i m e — w e r e c o n t e n t to r e m a i n 'in the closet'.'. A n t o n y G r e y c h o s e to e n t i d e the chapter w h i c h described the i m m e d i a t e aftermath o f the passing o f the B i l l ' M e a n w h i l e . w h e n w e w o r k e d t o g e t h e r o n the [pirate radio] ships it w a s b e i n g suppressed. N i g e l W a r n e r still f o u n d it necessary to h i g h l i g h t h o w little h a d actually been w o n : . w h i l e w h a t w a s p r o b a b l y a m a j o r i t y o f gay m e n . from 1 9 6 7 onwards.' S i m i l a r l y . T h e disc j o c k e y D a v e C a s h r e m e m b e r s his c o l l e a g u e K e n n y E v e r e t t at this t i m e : ' H e w a s in a d i c h o t o m y first a n d f o r e m o s t . T h a t w a s a l w a y s in e v i d e n c e . b e c a u s e o f his sexuality. w h i c h w a s not until w e l l into the S e v e n t i e s . T h e y certainly d i d n ' t c h a n g e attitudes o v e r n i g h t — s o c i e t y ' s o r e v e n the i n d i v i d u a l h o m o s e x u a l ' s . c o u l d t h e y . ' H e often used to rant a n d rave a b o u t w h y G o d h a d m a d e h i m l i k e this. I said to h i m . y o u c a n ' t q u e s t i o n w h a t G o d d i d o r his reasons for d o i n g it. H e said. . F o r the first c o u p l e o f years. h e also prefaced it w i t h a c o m m e n t from L e o A b s e : ' N o t h i n g fads l i k e success. N o w . m a k e m e l i k e this? W h y can't I b e n o r m a l ? ' 6 W e h a v e already seen the e x t e n t o f this self-loathing in the slighdy earlier case o f ' N i c h o l a s ' . W e h a v e seen. K e n n y . ' A n o t h e r friend (actually his b a n k m a n a g e r ) also r e m e m b e r s this perhaps u n e x p e c t e d side to E v e r e t t ' s character. w r i t i n g fifteen years after the passing o f the 1 9 6 7 S e x u a l Offences A c t . effec­ t i v e l y . it w a s a l w a y s there from D a y O n e . N o r . it h a d b e e n ' t h e m u p t h e r e ' d e c i d i n g w h a t w a s best for 'the b u g g e r s at W e s t m i n s t e r ' a n d L e n a J e g e r ' s ' b o y s ' . L e s t the i m p l i c a t i o n w a s lost there. t o o . a significant m i n o r i t y s a w w h a t t h e y h a d b e e n g i v e n as an i n c h . a n d so therefore h e l i v e d a dual life until he c a m e o u t o f the closet. a n d b e g a n d e m a n d i n g a mile. h o w t h e r e w a s a palpable i f discreet a n d possibly o n l y retrospectively v o i c e d h o m o s e x u a l antag­ o n i s m t o the c a m p a i g n for legalization. t h o u g h . N e i t h e r the W o l f e n d e n R e p o r t n o r the passing into l a w o f the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t per se actually c h a n g e d a n y t h i n g . B u t w h y d i d h e p u n i s h m e like this. Y o u k n o w that as w e l l as I d o .222 ORDINARY PEOPLE O n c e again. B a c k at the R a n c h . L o o k .

the [ W o l f e n d e n ] c o m m i t t e e o p t e d for 2 1 b e c a u s e to f i x the l o w e r age w o u l d lay y o u n g m e n ' o p e n to attentions a n d pressures o f an undesirable k i n d ' . W a r n e r w e n t o n .a c t : q u i c k c o s t u m e changes for M o n r o e . 'there c o m e s a t i m e w h e n a y o u n g m a n c a n p r o p ­ erly b e e x p e c t e d to "stand o n his o w n f e e t " a n d w e find it h a r d to b e l i e v e that h e needs to b e p r o t e c t e d f r o m w o u l d . 3 2 can b e a p p l i e d to b o t h h o m o s e x u a l a n d h e t e r o s e x u a l soliciting.o n e . O r . Far m o r e so than she e v e r w a s in B r i t a i n — at least u n t d she b e c a m e a staple part o f the act o f e v e r y m e t r o p o l i t a n d r a g . A n d y e t .32 o f the 1956 Sexual O f f e n c e s A c t ) .G a r l a n d w a s e v e n t h e n an i c o n . in practice it is a p p l i e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the f o r m e r . e v e n m o r e specifically. f o u r paragraphs earlier.'DOING OUR B I T FOR T H E BOYS' 223 T w o e x a m p l e s o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y in l o g i c stand o u t particularly: o n the m a l e age o f consent. m o r e specifically. It n e e d take the f o r m o f n o m o r e than s m i l i n g at a n o t h e r m a n a c o u p l e o f t i m e s . m o r e legalistically. h o w the p r o v i s i o n s o f the A c t did n o t apply to m e m b e r s o f the a r m e d forces. w h i l e that for heterosexuals a n d lesbians w a s sixteen. h a v i n g dismissed the ' s e d u c t i o n theory'. ' g a y l i b e r a t i o n ' h a d its roots in d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the v e r y legislation w h i c h h a d tried to b r i n g it a b o u t . clearly i m p l y i n g that 1 6 w a s the appropriate a g e . W h d e in t h e o r y s . h e r funeral o n F r i d a y 26 J u n e . 'the full i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the discriminatory p h i l o s o p h y i n h e r e n t in the 1 9 6 7 S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t b e c a m e apparent. an i m a g e a n d a r o l e .^ / / e L i z a M i n n e l l i in h e r Cabaret schtik . the aftermath o f that funeral. O r . O r m a y b e it didn't. the committee h a d c o m m e n t e d . ' D u r i n g the 7 1 9 7 0 s ' . H o m o s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r is d e e m e d an ' i m m o r a l p u r ­ p o s e ' b y the l a w . B a s s e y a n d G a r l a n d .b e seducers m o r e carefully than a girl d o e s ' . m a y b e it w a s in the death o f J u d y G a r l a n d in the last w e e k o f J u n e 1 9 6 9 . 8 Ironically.' H e cited specific instances o f this: h o w the A c t set the age o f c o n s e n t for h o m o s e x u a l m e n at t w e n t y . and. m e r c h a n t s e a m e n o r the residents o f the C h a n n e l Islands a n d the Isle o f M a n . h o w the A c t d o g m a t i c a l l y stated: It is an offence for a m a n 'persistendy to solicit o r i m p o r t u n e in a p u b l i c place for an i m m o r a l p u r p o s e ' (s.

. S h e r i d a n S q u a r e this w e e k e n d l o o k e d l i k e s o m e t h i n g f r o m a W i l l i a m B u r r o u g h s n o v e l as the s u d d e n spectre o f ' g a y p o w e r ' e r e c t e d its b r a z e n h e a d a n d spat o u t a fairy tale the likes o f w h i c h the area has n e v e r seen. H e n c e the headlines in the l o n g h o t s u m m e r o f 1 9 6 9 : T H O U S A N D S L I N E UP TO JUDY GARLAND'S VIEW BODY H e r fans said g o o d . T h e y a r r i v e d before dawn . a n g e r e d b y a p o l i c e raid o n an inn frequented b y h o m o s e x u a l s . T h e c r o w d retreated b e f o r e t h e m . e v e n b e f o r e she d i e d . almost in spite o f herself she h a d b e e n a d o p t e d as a sort o f materfamilias b y N e w Y o r k ' s b u r g e o n i n g g a y c o m m u n i t y . . . T h e i r arms l i n k e d . s w e p t t h r o u g h the area.b y [sic] to J u d y G a r l a n d y e s t e r d a y . . J o a n C r a w f o r d and Shirley M a c L a i n e (on g o o d nights t h e r e w e r e also shades o f J a y n e M a n s f i e l d a n d D o r i s D a y ) . . a r o w o f h e l m e t e d p o l i c e m e n stretching the w i d t h o f the street m a d e several s w e e p s u p a n d d o w n C h r i s t o p h e r S t r e e t b e t w e e n the A v e n u e o f the A m e r i c a s a n d S e v e n t h A v e n u e S o u t h . . Bette Davis. fled i n t o the n u m e r o u s small side streets a n d r e f o r m e d b e h i n d p o l i c e . H e a v y p o l i c e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s cleared the S h e r i d a n S q u a r e area o f G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e again yesterday m o r n i n g w h e n large c r o w d s o f y o u n g m e n . A w e i r d a m a l g a m o f Miss Haversham.224 ORDINARY PEOPLE m o d e l f o r the g a y s c e n e in m e t r o p o l i t a n N e w Y o r k . . East C o a s t n e w s ­ papers c o v e r e d it w i t h s o m e t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g bewdderment: RAID 4 P O L I C E M E N HURT IN V I L L A G E Melee Near Sheridan Square Follows Action at Bar H u n d r e d s o f y o u n g g a y m e n w e n t o n the r a m p a g e in G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e shortly after 3 a m yesterday after a force o f plain clothes m e n r a i d e d a bar that the p o l i c e said w a s w e l l k n o w n for its h o m o s e x u a l clientele. . b u t m a n y g r o u p s lines. 9 B u t that F r i d a y funeral w a s o n l y the start o f a w e e k e n d o f v i o l e n c e w h o s e repercussions w o u l d spread a r o u n d the w o r l d . T h i r t e e n persons w e r e arrested a n d f o u r p o l i c e m e n w e r e injured.

in retrospect it c a m e to b e seen as a n o t h e r d e f i n i n g m o m e n t . o r m o d e l l e d o n . S h e w a s angry. N o t h i n g quite l i k e this h a p p e n e d in B r i t a i n — the S t o n e w a l l w e r e t o o intensely American riots an e x p e r i e n c e . ' Y o u g o t this light g o i n g o n in p e o p l e ' s e y e s .l i v e d g a y b a n . rallied Saturday night in an u n p r e c e d e n t e d protest against the raid a n d c o n t i n u e d S u n d a y night to assert p r e s e n c e . A d a y o l d stubble w a s b e g i n n i n g to push t h r o u g h the p a n c a k e m a k e u p . n o t t h r o u g h S o h o . say. ' o n e o f the o r i g i n a l m a r c h e r s w a s to recall. S h e sat t h e r e w i t h h e r legs crossed. t o o closely tied to. S h e w a s so upset she h a d n ' t b o t h e r e d to s h a v e .r i o t i n g in the city: York during T h e forces o f faggotry.'DOING OUR B I T FOR T H E B O Y S ' 225 . m o s t p o p u l a r a n d l o n g e s t .u p a n g e r w h i c h h a d fuelled the S t o n e w a l l riots. p o s s i b d i t y a n d pride u n t d the early h o u r s o f M o n d a y m o r n i n g . the event had more effect on the marchers t h e m s e l v e s than o n the m e d i a o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . N o v e m b e r w a s h a r d l y the m a r c h i n g season. Indeed. was a he. the t i m e w h e n a fresh infusion o f steel e n t e r e d the soul. . . ' I ' m a f a g g o t a n d p r o u d o f it'. the civil rights protests w h i c h h a d e r u p t e d across the c o u n t r y d u r i n g the 1 9 6 0 s — b u t d e c o r o u s e c h o e s o f this latest m a n i f e s ­ tation o f A m e r i c a n p o p u l a r culture s o o n m a d e t h e m s e l v e s felt w i t h i n B r i t a i n ' s o w n ' g a y b r i g a d e ' . ' G a y P o w e r ! ' . It w a s litde m o r e than gesture politics — i f it w a s politics at all — a n d it w a s certainly not m o t i v a t e d b y the p e n t . b u t 1 5 0 m e n t u r n e d u p to w a l k . ' . spurred b y a F r i d a y n i g h t raid o n o n e o f the city's largest. the lashes o f h e r m a s c a r a c o a t e d eyes b e a t i n g l i k e the w i n g s o f a h u m m i n g b i r d .these a n d m a n y o t h e r slogans w e r e h e a r d all three nights as the s h o w o f f o r c e b y the city's finery m e t the force o f the city's finest. In N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 0 L o n d o n h o m o s e x u a l s b e c a m e 'street p e o p l e ' w h e n w h a t w a s in all l i k e l i h o o d B r i t a i n ' s first gay rights m a r c h t o o k place in the capital. b a c k r o o m s a n d b e d r o o m s o f the V i l l a g e a n d b e c a m e street p e o p l e . b u t across H i g h b u r y Fields in n o r t h L o n d o n . A l l the s a m e . T h e result w a s a k i n d o f liberation. as the g a y b r i g a d e e m e r g e d from the bars. 'It w a s almost as i f y o u ' d started a n e w r e l i g i o n . the S t o n e ­ w a l l Inn. o r W e s t m i n s t e r . perhaps.' 0 She R a t h e r t o o hastily. ' I l i k e b o y s ! ' . later in 1 9 6 9 the radical N e w magazine Village Voice tried to s u m u p w h a t h a d h a p p e n e d three nights o f n e a r .

d i s c o a n d A u s t r a l i a n s o a p . i n the w e e k s f o l l o w i n g the e v e n t .226 ORDINARY PEOPLE It w a s a h e a d y .W e s t e r n H o m o ­ s e x u a l L a w R e f o r m C o m m i t t e e ( N W H L R C ) a n d the first to attract p u b l i c n o t i c e . i m p a t i e n t . T h e C a m p a i g n for H o m o s e x u a l E q u a l i t y ( C H E . I n C h e G u e v a r a ' s r h e t o r i c . it w a s s o m e t h i n g o f a p a p e r tiger. a m o n g o t h e r things. h a r d . to 1 2 0 .i n 1 9 8 3 the e v e n t w a s officially r e n a m e d ' L e s b i a n and G a y P r i d e ' — a n d . this bifurcation o n l y m i r r o r e d w h a t h a d b e e n g o i n g o n aU the t i m e w i t h i n the central e c h e l o n s o f the ' g a y b r i g a d e ' .s h o o t o f the less felicitously n a m e d N o r t h . a d d i c t i v e feeling a n d s o o n m a r c h i n g rather than b a c k s t a g e l o b b y i n g b e c a m e the f a v o u r e d m e t h o d o f gay ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s raising'. e v e n the a l w a y s v a g u e intentions o f the o r i g i n a l m a r c h e r s w e r e s u b s u m e d i n t o w h a t b y the early nineties h a d b e c o m e a general. A l m o s t as s o o n as the 1 9 6 7 S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l passed i n t o l a w a c h i v v y i n g . w h o s e M a r x i s t . T h i s ostensibly u n n a t u r a l c o n j u n c t i o n o f a g i t p r o p m a r c h i n g and self-satisfied p a r t y i n g set the t o n e for the n e x t quarter o f a c e n t u r y o f h o m o s e x u a l l o b b y i n g . b e g a n w i t h a p u b l i c rally i n the W e s t E n d o f L o n d o n a n d e n d e d w i t h a b i g party a n d p i c n i c in H y d e P a r k .L e f t politics a n d ' h i .i n s p i r e d a g e n d a w a s as confrontationalist HLRS as those of the a n d the A l b a n y T r u s t h a d b e e n ' r e a s o n a b l e ' a n d e m o l l i e n t . a n d n o r e t i c e n c e a b o u t the allusion to the n a m e o f the r e c e n d y e x e c u t e d C h e G u e v a r a ) w a s an o f f .o p e r a celebrities w h o m a d e 'personal a p p e a r a n c e s ' side b y side w i t h others d e p l o r i n g the p r e s e n c e o n the m a r c h o f p r o s e l y t i z i n g m e m b e r s o f the Socialist W o r k e r s ' P a r t y . 0 0 0 in 1 9 9 3 a n d to m o r e than 1 5 0 . H e l d o n i J u l y 1 9 7 2 (the nearest S a t u r d a y to the third anniversary o f the already fabled S t o n e w a l l riots). it attracted 2 . W i t h i n t w o y e a n o f that almost-casual a m b l e across H i g h b u r y Fields the first 'official' G a y P r i d e m a r c h w a s a n n o u n c e d . It w a s m o r e than a d e c a d e a h e a d o f its t i m e w h e n it d e m a n d e d (rather than requested) that. far f r o m c o m p l a c e n t c l i q u e o f guerrillas e m e r g e d . as it b e c a m e m o r e o v e r t l y political. 0 0 0 m e n . 0 0 0 in 1 9 9 4 . the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o l u m n s o f the g a y press ran letters praising the drag.f o u r . h o w e v e r . albeit o n e at w h i c h the authorities t a c i d y c o n d o n e d m e n h o l d i n g hands and s a m e . I n essence. B a n n e r s a l w a y s w e n t w i t h bands as y e a r b y y e a r the n u m b e r s o f those t a k i n g part in the m a r c h i n e x o r a b l y rose. m a j o r b r e w e r i e s s h o u l d u n d e r w r i t e its plans for a n a t i o n w i d e n e t w o r k o f gay .s e x kissing. O l d scores w e r e f o r g o t t e n .h o u r carnival o f N e w A g e l i v i n g .N R G ' m u s i c . Y e a r after y e a r . t w e n t y .

etcetera. B o b a n d I. A u b r e y W a l t e r .] m y close e n c o u n t e r s w i t h the irrational h o m o p h o b i a careful preparation. at the t h e n ultra-radical L o n d o n S c h o o l o f E c o n o m i c s . a n o t h e r E n g l i s h g u y w h o ' d b e e n g o i n g a l o n g w i t h gay liberation in N e w Y o r k . . . B u t [ e v e r y o n e ] a g r e e d to g o o n a n d h a v e a m e e t i n g the f o l l o w i n g w e e k a n d the f o l l o w i n g w e e k .b a s e d religious. A n t o n y G r e y w a s appalled. d e c i d e d that w e o u g h t to d o s o m e t h i n g w h e n w e g o t b a c k to E n g l a n d . T h i s w a s far m o r e radical. after t h e y g o t h o m e . political a n d social w o r k s u p ­ port. a n d it all started f r o m there. realistic social o r g a n i s a t i o n ] c o u l d b e successfully established in this c o u n t r y .'DOING OUR B I T FOR T H E B O Y S ' 227 v e n u e s to b e r u n b y an e x c r u c i a t i n g l y pi enterprise called E s q u i r e C l u b s . l i k e o n e a l w a y s is w h e n o n e ' s d r u n k o n these things.f a c e gay protest w h i c h t w o l e f t . y a k k i n g together. . and b y the e n d o f 1 9 7 0 G r e y h i m s e l f h a d left the A l b a n y T r u s t a n d m a d e n e w friends in the r e c e n t l y f o u n d e d G a y L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t ( G L F ) . A n d it w a s there that I m e t B o b M e l l o r s . . eman­ [. B a c k at the A l b a n y T r u s t . the first B r i t i s h m e e t i n g o f the G L F w a s c o n v e n e d — fatefully. I t h i n k w e w e r e a litde bit dictatorial in the w a y w e s p o k e to p e o p l e . w h e r e M e l l o r s w a s c o n ­ t i n u i n g his studies: W e b o t h s p o k e a b o u t o u r activities in the States a n d w h a t w a s g o i n g o n .w i n g British students h a d d i s c o v e r e d in A m e r i c a . perhaps. it w a s n o t u n t d the early 1 9 8 0 s that b r e w e r i e s c a m e to r e c o g n i z e the p o w e r o f the ' p i n k p o u n d ' . fry to d o s o m e t h i n g similar. 13 T h e G L F m e e t i n g s certainly t o u c h e d a n e r v e . w a s essential b e f o r e [a v i a b l e . " W o r m s can turn. a direct c o p y o f the p o s t . W e d i d talk a b o u t g a y pride a n d the necessity o f j o i n i n g u p to fight b a c k [against] o u r o p p r e s s i o n .' 1 2 T h e i r resolution h e l d and. recalls: ' I g o t i n v o l v e d in the l o c a l politics in N e w Y o r k . set s o m e t h i n g up. O n e o f t h e m . T h e best part o f a d e c a d e ' s w o r k w a s .y o u r . h e t h o u g h t . ating f r o m the o p p o n e n t s o f l a w r e f o r m h a d c o n v i n c e d m e that a n d n o t least a possibly p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d o f l o b b y i n g for b r o a d l y . ' I ' d n e v e r b e f o r e . b e i n g insidiously undermined: . the p r o b l e m s b e t w e e n the A l b a n y T r u s t a n d C H E arose o u t o f differences o f p e r c e p t i o n c o n c e r n i n g strategy a n d t i m i n g that gradually b a l l o o n e d i n t o m u t u a l mistrust. h o w e v e r .S t o n e w a l l i n .

228

ORDINARY

PEOPLE

seen gatherings o f g a y p e o p l e w h e r e there w a s this i m m e n s e feeling o f c o m r a d e s h i p a n d interest a n d m u t u a l w a r m t h w h i c h w a s n o t solely, o r e v e n p r i m a r i l y , s e x u a l , ' G r e y later recalled. N i n e t e e n p e o p l e h a d t u r n e d u p for the first m e e t i n g , there w e r e a r o u n d sixty at the third; a n d right f r o m the start there w a s a n e w charge in the air, s o m e t h i n g a k i n to the ' p r e s e n c e , possibility a n d p r i d e ' w h i c h Village Voice h a d d i s c e r n e d o n the streets o f G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e a c o u p l e o f years p r e ­ v i o u s l y : ' [ T h e G L F ] created a n e w l a n g u a g e , a n e w style, a n e w v o c a b u l a r y for b e i n g g a y . It was about being contemporary, about being incredibly, outrageously, exquisitely radical a n d o f c o u r s e — a n d m o s t i m p o r ­ tant o f all — visible; c e l e b r a t i n g b e i n g g a y rather than l i v i n g an endless e x i s t e n c e c o d i f i e d as " s o m e t h i n g e l s e " . ' and Mellors, k n e w where
1 4

N o b o d y , least o f all W a l t e r radicalism w o u l d lead.

this n e w f o u n d

N o b o d y , it seems, actually set o u t to b e r e v o l u t i o n a r y ; b u t the n e w m o o d o f e x q u i s i t e radicalism i n e v i t a b l y t o o k t h e m in the o f confrontational street politics. W i t h i n six m o n t h s o f the f o r m a t i o n , the G L F ' s L o n d o n m a g a z i n e w a s reporting: L e g a l r e f o r m a n d e d u c a t i o n against p r e j u d i c e , t h o u g h possible a n d necessary, c a n n o t b e a p e r m a n e n t s o l u t i o n . W h i l e e x i s t i n g social structures r e m a i n , social p r e j u d i c e a n d o v e r t repression can a l w a y s r e - e m e r g e [. . .] W e s h o u l d n o t confuse legal changes w i t h real structural illegality. W e are starting to w o r k alongside w o m e n , b l a c k p e o p l e , a n d n o w those sections o f y o u t h a n d the w o r k i n g class w h o see the i m p o r ­ tance o f our d e m a n d s as w e l l as their o w n , to b r e a k the o l d society w h i c h puts us all d o w n a n d to b u i l d a n e w o n e o n the basis o f all our needs.
15

direction group's

c h a n g e . Legality

can always

at some point

be changed

to

N o g a y orgies at the L S E t h e n - n o t i m e , n o time! N o r in the r e g i o n a l m e e t i n g s o f C H E , w h i c h the G L F increasingly a n d i n e v i ­ tably c a m e to see as 'hilariously o v e r - r e s p e c t a b l e a n d prissy': . . . s o m e o n e w h o w a s g a y c a m e to see m e a n d t h e y said, ' D o y o u k n o w there's a C H E h e r e ? ' A n d I said, N o , I d i d n ' t . S o h e said, ' I k n o w the secretary, I'll get in t o u c h w i t h h i m a n d tell h i m to c o n t a c t y o u . ' H e said t h e y m e t t w i c e a w e e k . I said, ' W e l l , i f y o u ' r e

'DOING

OUR B I T FOR T H E B O Y S '

229

g o i n g , take m e w i t h y o u , b e c a u s e I d o n ' t w a n t t o g o o n m y o w n . ' H e said, ' R i g h t , I'll ring the secretary a n d tell h i m [and he'll] p i c k y o u u p in the car,' a n d told m e w h a t his n a m e w a s . H e t o o k m e into w h e r e t h e y h a d g o t a r o o m o v e r a p u b . W e all w e n t in the bar first, w h i c h breaks the ice a n d the secretary i n t r o d u c e s y o u all r o u n d , to the c o n v e n o r a n d e v e r y b o d y a n d t h e y ' r e all so n i c e . W h e n y o u get in the r o o m they say, 'first o f all let us w e l c o m e a n e w m e m b e r to the m e e t i n g . ' F r o m t h e n o n it's v e r y n i c e . O f c o u r s e , t h e y all c o m e here to m y h o u s e . I h a v e an o p e n night o n c e a m o n t h , a n d t h e y all c o m e h e r e . I ' v e g o t a b r i n g - a n d - b u y c o m i n g u p b e f o r e I g o to B e n i d o r m . T h e n w e h a v e a raffle and, o f c o u r s e , that's h o w w e g e t a lot o f o u r m o n e y . In the s u m m e r w e g e t a small m i n i b u s a n d g o o u t to places for picnics, to places l i k e K e w G a r d e n s , H a m p t o n C o u r t . A n d t h e n w e h a v e discos. W e h i r e the hall a n d d o all o u r o w n catering. A b o u t a h u n d r e d o r so c o m e f r o m all a r o u n d . W e get t h e m f r o m Hastings a n d B r i g h t o n a n d f r o m the M e d w a y t o w n s . W e get t h e m f r o m as far as T u n b r i d g e W e l l s .
1 6

It w a s the s a m e o l d story. W h i l e the activists g o t o n w i t h it, the vast majority o f g a y m e n j u s t g o t o n w i t h their lives: I n e v e r g o t short o f s e x . I d o n ' t b e l i e v e in regretting a n y t h i n g a n d o n the w h o l e I t h i n k I w e l c o m e d [the legislation o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y ] . I w a s n ' t v e r y s y m ­ pathetic to the G L F . T h e y w e r e t o o L e f t - w i n g a n d I ' m not. I hate S o c i a l i s m . I hate any k i n d o f state c o n t r o l . I ' m a libertarian. S o G L F a n d I d i d n ' t see e y e - t o - e y e . I did j o i n C H E , b u t it w a s j u s t t o o d a m n e d m i d d l e - c l a s s . Y o u c o u l d n ' t get a n y o n e interesting to j o i n the g r o u p ! I w a s a l o n e r . I h a d m y life to lead. A n d e n j o y : t h e r e w a s n o t i m e for that sort o f c r a p !
17

' W e l l , ' said ' R i c h a r d ' , ' I w a s o n l y a c h o r u s b o y , w a s n ' t I? P r e t t y m u c h the oldest in the business b y that t i m e , t o o ! Life - y o u k n o w w h a t I m e a n — h a d n e v e r b e e n v e r y difficult for us. W e ' d a l w a y s k n o w n w h e r e to g o , a n d w h o w a s w h o , w h o offered w h a t ; w h i c h bars, w h i c h c l u b s . . .' H e h a d a l w a y s b e e n , h e i m p l i e d , o n e o f the l u c k y o n e s a n d as such w e l l - p l a c e d to o b s e r v e w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g at a r o u n d this

230

ORDINARY

PEOPLE

t i m e : ' I s u p p o s e in the late sixties and early seventies things d i d get easier. N o t h i n g m u c h changed, b u t it w a s as i f all the pressure had b e e n t a k e n o f f A n d t h e n s u d d e n l y there w e r e papers and m a g a z i n e s — listings m a g a z i n e s I s u p p o s e y o u ' d call t h e m today. It all g o t easier . . , '
1 8

P e r h a p s it e v e n g o t t o o easy. C e r t a i n l y it w a s n o t difficult to find m e n f o r w h o m the m e r e fact o f their o w n h o m o s e x u a l i t y had ceased to h a v e any i m p o r t a n c e at this t i m e , so fully integrated had it already b e c o m e in their d a y - t o - d a y lives. ' S a m ' w a s o n e for w h o m gayness in others as m u c h as in h i m s e l f had virtually b e c o m e the n o r m : ' I a p p l i e d for this j o b , s u p p o s e d l y a sales rep for e n c y c l o p a e d i a s . I t h o u g h t , I'd try that. W e l l , the y o u n g m a n w h o w a s to s h o w m e h o w it w a s d o n e , he t u r n e d o u t to b e g a y . ' It is m i s l e a d i n g a n d t o o simplistic to say that it w a s s i m p l y 'fashionable' to b e g a y (or e v e n e x p e r i m e n t w i t h g a y sex) at a r o u n d this t i m e , b u t in L o n d o n at least it d i d s e e m to b e a part o f the g e n e r a l p s y c h e d e l i a : I g o t friendly w i t h t w o y o u n g lads in the R a i n b o w C o r n e r C a f é F o r t e p l a c e . It's s o m e t h i n g different n o w . I d i d n ' t k n o w that these t w o lads w e r e r e n t - b o y s . T h e n o n e o f t h e m s a w s o m e o n e a n d said, ' Y o u w e n t w i t h h i m last night, d i d n ' t y o u ? W h a t w a s h e l i k e ? ' I w a s talking a w a y to t h e m , b u t it d i d n ' t strike m e w h a t t h e y w e r e s a y i n g at first. I said, ' D o y o u sell yourselves then?' ' C o u r s e w e f u c k i n g d o ! D i d n ' t y o u k n o w that?' ' A r e y o u g a y , then?' ' O h n o ! W e ' r e n o t g a y . ' I w a s i n v o l v e d in all sorts o f radical things, like the
1 9

-

Shaftesbury A v e n u e it w a s , almost into P i c c a d i l l y C i r c u s . It w a s a

anti-Vietnam

struggle, w h i c h w a s the largest struggle g o i n g o n at that t i m e — in the Sixties. I w a s l i v i n g w i t h m y g a y l o v e r D a v i d for years, n e v e r h i d i n g a n y t h i n g , a n d d u r i n g that t i m e the 1 9 6 7 A c t d i d n ' t e v e n t o u c h m e . I w a s n ' t really a w a r e o f it. I m u s t h a v e b e e n l i v i n g in a dream-world, or something. " F u l l y to r e - c r e a t e the d r e a m - w o r l d o f the late sixties, early seventies w e n e e d to r e m e m b e r a t i m e in w h i c h , largely w i t h o u t o u r k n o w i n g it, the o l d w o r l d w a s g i v i n g w a y to the n e w ; the Zeitgeist changing. It w a s in 1 9 6 8 , for e x a m p l e , that theatre censorship w a s finally abolished a n d the L o r d C h a m b e r l a i n w a s r e l i e v e d o f a right — w h i c h h a d existed since T u d o r times - to b l u e - p e n c d the script o f e v e r y n e w play p r o 2

'DOING

OUR B I T FOR T H E B O Y S '

231

d u c e d in E n g l a n d . ( T h e 'tribal l o v e r o c k m u s i c a l ' Hair a n n o u n c e d the d a w n i n g o f this n e w A g e o f A q u a r i u s w i t h a b r i e f n u d e s c e n e w h e n it o p e n e d in L o n d o n the day after a b o l i t i o n c a m e i n t o effect.) A n d that w a s j u s t the start. Y e a r after y e a r , the c o n j u n c t i o n s b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e m a r k e d . T h u s , in the s a m e y e a r ( 1 9 6 9 ) that the B B C d r o p p e d its c o s y radio s o a p - o p e r a The Dales Dale's test (it h a d b e g u n its life, m o r e than t w e n t y years p r e v i o u s l y , o n the L i g h t P r o g r a m m e as Mrs Diary) - a bare fortnight later i n d e e d - C o n c o r d e m a d e its first flight. P r o p i t i o u s l y , T h u n d e r c l a p N e w m a n also h a d a N u m b e r closure Sketch s e e m e d to

O n e hit w i t h ' S o m e t h i n g in the A i r ' . T w o years later the o f the d e c e n t b u t desperately o l d - f a s h i o n e d Daily

s y m b o l i z e a final b r e a k w i t h the cloth caps, C l e m e n t A t t l e e , A u s t e r i t y a n d the a n x i e t y o f the fifties. It did: 1 9 7 1 w a s also the y e a r in w h i c h the s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d A n g r y B r i g a d e b l e w u p the h o m e o f R o b e r t C a r r , t h e n Secretary o f State for E m p l o y m e n t , a n d b r o u g h t t e r r o r i s m to m a i n l a n d B r i t a i n . It w a s the y e a r , t o o , in w h i c h S l a d e , T R e x ( f o r m e r l y T y r a n n o s a u r u s R e x ) , their l e a d singer M a r c B o l a n a n d an e p i c e n e , d r a g - i n f l u e n c e d ' g l a m r o c k ' b e g a n to d o m i n a t e the r e c o r d charts. Pace the a n g r y fulminations o f the G L F , the d e m a n d s for M O R E ! a n d M O R E N O W ! (or at least t o m o r r o w ) , the late 1 9 6 0 s a n d early 1 9 7 0 s were the b e g i n n i n g o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y ' s b r i e f g o l d e n a g e ; the start o f a fifteen-year Indian s u m m e r w h i c h b e g a n w i t h legalization in 1 9 6 7 a n d e n d e d so abruptly in a w e l t e r o f l u r i d antagonistic press reports a b o u t the first B r i t i s h A I D S death in the early 1 9 8 0 s . W i t h M a r c B o l a n o r S i m o n and Garfunkel ('Bridge O v e r T r o u b l e d Water', 1 9 7 0 ) playing in the b a c k g r o u n d , for the first t i m e it w a s possible for m e n t o m e e t u p a n d talk a b o u t 'the g a y c o m m u n i t y ' , since it ready d i d s e e m t o b e d e v e l o p i n g . A w a y f r o m the A g i t p r o p h o t h o u s e s o f the L o n d o n S c h o o l o f E c o n o m i c s a n d o t h e r far-left cells, ' o r d i n a r y ' g a y m e n w e r e g r o w i n g in c o n f i d e n c e a n d — quite as i m p o r t a n t l y a n d j u s t as the parliamentarians h o p e d it w o u l d - p u b l i c o p i n i o n w a s also b e g i n n i n g to c h a n g e , o r at least to m e l l o w . O n e G L F activist from this t i m e has r e c a l l e d the reactions w h e n the c a m p a i g n t o o k its increasingly r a u c o u s protests o n to the streets, o n l y to find t h e m s e l v e s p r e a c h i n g to the c o n v e r t e d : T h e a m a z i n g t h i n g w a s that the p u b l i c actually r e s p o n d e d with

h u m o u r . T h a t w a s the crazy t h i n g a b o u t it. O c c a s i o n a U y w e g o t attacked - s o m e p e o p l e g o t really o u t r a g e d a n d hit us w i t h r o l l e d - u p

232

ORDINARY

PEOPLE

n e w s p a p e r s a n d things l i k e that, b u t m o s t l y t h e y s t o p p e d a n d stared. A n d t h e n gradually the smiles c a m e o v e r their faces a n d they w e n t a w a y l a u g h i n g to e a c h o t h e r a n d s h a k i n g their heads. T h e w h o l e thing w a s defused; it w a s l i k e taking e x p l o s i v e s o u t o f a b o m b , o r s o m e t h i n g . P e r h a p s the m o s t g r a p h i c illustration o f this n e w p u b l i c broad-

m i n d e d n e s s w a s the m a n n e r in w h i c h W e s t E n d theatre audiences w e r e p r e p a r e d to a c c e p t the d e p i c t i o n o f e x p l i c i d y h o m o s e x u a l lifestyles (if n o t o f e x p l i c i d y h o m o s e x u a l acts) o n stage. Little has b e e n m a d e o f this b e f o r e , b u t it is w o r t h y o f n o t e that the first m a j o r p r o d u c t i o n w i t h an u n m i s t a k a b l e g a y t h e m e w a s p r e s e n t e d b y the R o y a l S h a k e s p e a r e C o m p a n y as early as 1 9 6 6 , i.e. b e f o r e either the 1 9 6 7 legislation o r the abolition o f censorship.
21

(Significantly, t o o , the script w a s p u b l i s h e d as Volume One to c o i n c i d e w i t h its o p e n i n g . )

Penguin Modern Playwrights:

C h a r l e s D y e r ' s Staircase w a s d e s c r i b e d b y the a u t h o r as 'the story o f t w o m i d d l e - a g e d m e n ' a n d is i n d e e d a t w o - h a n d e r . It takes place in a barber's s h o p a n d as the curtain rises C h a r l i e is s h a v i n g his partner H a r r y . T h e i r o p e n i n g e x c h a n g e sets the p r e d o m i n a n d y — a n d perhaps p r e d i c t a b l y — b i t c h , ' q u e e n l y ' tone: C H A R L I E : F u n n y day, S u n d a y . ( H A R R Y mumbles trouble. (HARRY flame mumbles) O h l o v e l y . L o v e l y . W h a t ! E a c h t i m e y o u o p e n the d o o r the g o e s puff. H A R R Y : A l l n i c e a n d h o m e l y , dear. C H A R L I E : O h witty! Witty. Let's hope y o u ' r e laughing w h e n t h e y find us stiff a n d c a r b o n i z e d o r w h a t e v e r h a p p e n s . H A R R Y : C a n y o u d o that b l a c k h e a d b y m y j a w b o n e ? C H A R L I E : O h y o u are an o b s c e n e bag. W h e r e ' s y o u r culture? Ssssh! H A R R Y : What? C H A R L I E : T h e r e she g o e s ! (He moves to the staircase) ( H A R R Y m e s and follows. They listen like two little gnomes)
22

through the hot towel)

O u g h t to g e t that gas m a n in. T h a t gas m a n . O n l y asking for

T h r e e y e a n later, in 1 9 6 9 (and therefore after b o t h legislation a n d the e n d o f stage c e n s o r s h i p ) , c a m e M a r t C r o w l e y ' s Tlie Boys in the

'DOING

OUR B I T FOR T H E B O Y S '

233

Band.

O r i g i n a l l y an O f f - B r o a d w a y s h o w , it is a lacerating r e a l - t i m e

a c c o u n t o f the tensions w h i c h exist in a g r o u p o f e i g h t y o u n g , p r o ­ fessional g a y N e w Y o r k e r s w h o gather t o g e t h e r to celebrate the t h i r t y s e c o n d birthday o f H a r o l d , o n e o f their n u m b e r . O n e has b r o u g h t a l o n g C o w b o y ( ' t w e n t y - t w o , light b l o n d , m u s c l e - b o u n d , t o o pretty') as a present for H a r o l d : E M O R Y (indicates C O W B O Y L A R E Y : S p e a k i n g o f beasts. E M O R Y : F r o m m e to y o u , darlin'. H o w d o y o u l i k e it? H A R O L D : O h , I s u p p o s e h e has an interesting face a n d b o d y — b u t it turns m e right o f f b e c a u s e h e can't talk intelligently a b o u t art. E M O R Y : Y e a h , ain't that a s h a m e . H A R O L D : I c o u l d n e v e r love a n y o n e l i k e that. E M O R Y : N e v e r . Who could? H A R O L D : / c o u l d a n d you c o u l d , that's w h o c o u l d ! O h , M a r y , she's gorgeous] E M O R Y : S h e m a y b e d u m b , b u t she's all y o u r s ! H A R O L D : In affairs o f the heart, there are n o rules! W h e r e ' d y o u e v e r find h i m ?
2 3

to H A R O L D ) : That's y o u r surprise.

C o i n c i d e n t a l l y , an e d i t i o n o f the script o f The Boys in the Band

too

was p u b l i s h e d w h i l e the s h o w w a s r u n n i n g ( S e e k e r & W a r b u r g , 1 9 6 9 ) . N o t quite so c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , P e n g u i n p i c k e d it u p a n d p r o d u c e d a p a p e r b a c k edition the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . R e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , the b l u r b o n the b a c k c o v e r o f this explains w h y — a n d h o w , in b o t h c o m m e r c i a l a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l terms, it m a d e perfect sense: ' T o say The Boys in the Band is a play a b o u t h o m o s e x u a l s is w r o n g . It is a h o m o s e x u a l p l a y , and as such is the first to accept h o m o s e x u a l i t y as an o r d i n a r y fact o f life, a n d t h e n g o o n to e x p l o r e the hates, doubts a n d a g o n i e s o f l o v e between men.' D e s p i t e this s u g g e s t i o n that the play is n o m o r e than a l o v e story, it is difficult today to understand h o w , w i t h the density o f its A m e r i c a n ­ isms, its references to b a t h - h o u s e s a n d its s h e / h e a m b i g u i t i e s , Boys in the Band Song But at Twilight The c o u l d h a v e b e e n a n y t h i n g o t h e r than in a d v a n c e o f had, after all, o p e n e d o n l y t h r e e y e a n p r e v i o u s l y . the e x t e n t to w h i c h curiosity about

c o n v e n t i o n a l W e s t E n d taste in 1 9 6 9 — N o ë l C o w a r d ' s final p l a y A that is to u n d e r e s t i m a t e

R o n a l d P i c k u p .the y e a r w h i c h s a w the m u r d e r o f J o e O r t o n b y his l o v e r K e n n e t h H a l l i w e l l — the N a t i o n a l T h e a t r e had p r o d u c e d an aU-male v e r s i o n o f As You Like It. ' P e t e r H a l l n o t e d in his diary. C o n t i n u i n g its e x p l o r a t i o n o f ' s e x u a l a m b i g u i t y ' .234 ORDINARY PEOPLE h o m o s e x u a l i t y a n d a c o n c o m i t a n t fascination w i t h ' g e n d e r issues' h a d p e r m e a t e d b o t h the theatre a n d its a u d i e n c e b y that t i m e . b o w i n g to the m o o d o f the t i m e s . this t i m e it w a s to b e o f W i l d e ' s The Importance of Being Earnest. n e v e r r e a c h e d the stage at the o p p o s i t e e n d o f the u n l i k e an theatrical 25 T h e r e . front-line j a c k e t n o t e o n a c h e a p . I a n d e v e r y b o d y else w o u l d b a c k his right to d o s o . It did n o t 'to fruition in 1 9 7 5 w h e n the A l m o s t F r e e T h e a t r e . T h u s in 1 9 6 7 . ) In the e v e n t .s i n g e r .000 b y the e n d o f the season. a fringe v e n u e in the W e s t E n d . W h e n e v e n t u a l l y C l i f f o r d W i l l i a m s t o o k o v e r f r o m D e x t e r . attendances at the tiny A l m o s t F r e e T h e a t r e h a d t o p p e d 6. A c c o r d i n g to o n e history o f the N a t i o n a l T h e a t r e c o m ­ p a n y . in the w o r d s o f the u r g e n t . w h i c h w a s originally to b e d i r e c t e d b y J o h n D e x t e r as a sort o f ' m a g i c a l release f r o m material d o m i n i o n ' . T h e y really d i d b e l i e v e that. O n c e again. ' 2 4 T h e r e w e r e theatrical precedents for such a p r o d u c t i o n . M i l l e r ' s Importance equally audacious production spectrum. E v e r y o n e s e e m e d intent o n d o i n g their bit for 'the b o y s ' . ' R i c h a r d ' 's c o m m e n t a b o u t t h e r e a l w a y s b e i n g plenty o f s e x for m e n l i k e h i m .m a l e cast — b u t that i f h e d e c i d e d h e m u s t . [ D e x t e r ] b r o u g h t in D o n o ­ v a n . staged the u n e q u i v o c a l l y titled Homosexual m a t t e r that it w a s ad part o f 'a crusade' b y the n e w l y established G a y S w e a t s h o p theatre c o m p a n y . b u t none for t w o further incursions at a r o u n d this t i m e into w h a t m i g h t o n c e h a v e b e e n called taste a n d d e c e n c y . w i d e l y available p a p e r b a c k . it w a s also specificaUy i n t e n d e d to b e 'a p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h w o u l d reflect the n e w m o o d o f s w i n g i n g L o n d o n . plans for a w h o l e season o f g a y theatre c a m e to Acts. the f o l k . to w r i t e s o m e songs. audiences w e r e u n d a u n t e d a n d flocked to the v a r i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s . p l a y e d the part l o o k i n g surprisingly l i k e T w i g g y . ('I s u m m e d u p [the m e e t i n g ] b y saying I h o p e d J o n a t h a n w o u l d feel h e d i d n o t n e e d to d o the play w i t h an a l l . h o m o s e x u a l i t y w a s 'an ordinary fact o f life'. in 1 9 7 4 the N a t i o n a l T h e a t r e g a v e serious c o n s i d e r ­ a t i o n to D r J o n a t h a n M i l l e r ' s plan for a n o t h e r aU-male p r o d u c t i o n . w h i c h h a d b e e n specifically set u p c h a n g e the w o r l d ' for g a y m e n . a D e x t e r c h o i c e for R o s a l i n d .

B o l t o n ' s a n d the C o l e h e r n e in Earls C o u r t .a n d . P l y m o u t h . L i v e r p o o l . In M a n c h e s t e r t h e r e w a s the R e m b r a n d t . it w e l l expresses the m o o d o f o p t i m i s m w i t h w h i c h t h e y — a n d they w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y y o u n g a n d w e l l e d u c a t e d — m a r c h e d o f f to take u p their places as students a n d u n d e r g r a d u a t e s at O x f o r d a n d C a m b r i d g e . l i k e ' N i c h ­ olas' a n d E . I k n e w a lot w o u l d n ' t b e g a y . T h e y h a d e v e r y r e a s o n to b e ' G l a d to B e G a y ' . freakish b e i n g s . In L o n d o n there w a s . M m m ! h u n k y ! I w a n t e d to h a v e t h e m all. M . flourished in t o w n s a n d cities i n c l u d i n g O x f o r d .p l a c e s o f ' t h e likes o f t h e m ' . the M a r q u i s o f G r a n b y in R a t h b o n e P l a c e . g o n e t h r o u g h the best years o f their lives b e l i e v i n g t h e y w e r e u n i q u e . H e ' s nice!. o t h e r students. W h e r e their fathers (or uncles) had. a n e w g e n e r a ­ tion o f m e n w e r e l e a r n i n g w i t h i n m o n t h s that t h e y w e r e n o t a l o n e . m o s t f a m o u s l y .' D O I N G O U R B I T F O R T H E B O Y S ' 235 still h e l d true — there w a s . o f course! — a n d t h i n k i n g . w h i l e I w a s at u n i v e r s i t y . B u t there w a s also m o r e to it than that. A l t h o u g h the slogan d i d n o t b e c o m e c u r r e n t f o r a n o t h e r d e c a d e . the Salisbury ( w h i c h h a d featured in the 1 9 6 1 f d m The Victim). B i n d i n g all this t o g e t h e r w a s a sense o f c o m m u n a l i t y w h i c h h a d little o r n o t h i n g to d o w i t h the (increasingly political) solidarity o f the G a y L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t .m i n d e d souls. H e ' s cute! o r w h a t e v e r w e said at the t i m e . Forster's M a u r i c e H a l l . N o r w i c h .c o n c r e t e ' p o l y t e c h n i c s : I r e m e m b e r o n m y first day at — I w a s l o o k i n g a r o u n d at this g r o u p o f t w o o r three h u n d r e d freshers — l o o k i n g at the m e n . S u d d e n l y . the Q u e e n ' s H e a d in C h e l s e a . in the pages o f Gay News m a g a z i n e (found in 1 9 7 2 ) t h e y f o u n d stories a b o u t p e o p l e l i k e t h e m s e l v e s .all offering their o w n discreet w e l c o m e s to m e n in search o f e v e r y ­ t h i n g f r o m drag/transvestite e n t e r t a i n m e n t to r o u g h trade a n d the ( n o w fast-disappearing) c o m p a n y o f g u a r d s m e n .b r i c k universities a n d any n u m b e r o f the t h e n proliferating ' g l a s s . B u t I fancied m y c h a n c e s . S e x w a s n ' t e v e r y t h i n g . the r e d . F o l l o w i n g legalization m a n y m o r e frightened hitherto g a y m e n ( w e m i g h t think o f the luckless ' N i c h o l a s ' ) p l u c k e d u p the c o u r a g e to visit pubs l o n g k n o w n a n d e v e n quasi-officially tolerated as the m e e t i n g . invitations to m e e t i n g s a n d parties b e i n g t h r o w n b y l i k e . b u t there w e r e a d o z e n o r so others t o o — the R o y a l V a u x h a l l T a v e r n . w h i l e similar establishments also q u i e t l y and Brighton. I r e c k o n I slept w i t h a b o u t three o r f o u r m e n . a d v e r t i s e m e n t s for pubs w h i c h actually w a n t e d their c u s t o m .

they g i v e a grassroots a c c o u n t o f a s o c i e t y w h i c h .b u t o n l y superficially s o . w e j u s t felt easy a b o u t o u r s e l v e s . e v e n in D e v o n in the spring o f 1 9 7 3 undergraduates w e r e f e e l i n g easy a b o u t themselves.236 ORDINARY PEOPLE O n e fairly r e g u l a r l y for a y e a r o r so.c o n f i d e n c e . A t S t L u k e ' s C o l l e g e . o r f o r c e it d o w n p e o p l e ' s throats.p r e s i d e n t . L e e d s . a b o u t the . It r e p o r t e d this latest manifestation o f the spirit o f the a g e w i t h a bizarre m i x t u r e o f o l d . entirely u n c o n n e c t e d in t h e m s e l v e s . A lot o f m y friends w e r e g a y o r b i . I g u e s s . T w o q u i t e separate episodes. a p p a r e n d y . E x e t e r . a n o t h e r p r o u d institution that has t u r n e d o u t m a n y g o o d teachers in the past. l i k e the f o r m e r student q u o t e d a b o v e . m a y s e r v e to s u m u p the spirit o f the 1 9 7 0 s w h i c h the last f e w pages h a v e p e r f o r c e e x p l o r e d o n l y b y snapshots a n d hasty bulletins f r o m the front. It has.] a G a y S o c i e t y w a s f o r m e d last t e r m . S t u d e n t U n i o n G a y S o c i e t i e s ( G a y S o c s ) w e r e s p r i n g i n g u p in E x e t e r e v e r y bit as q u i c k l y as t h e y w e r e in L o n d o n . B r i g h t o n o r a n y o f the c o u n t r y ' s o t h e r m o r e ostensibly c o s m o p o l i t a n student n e x i .. a m e m b e r s h i p o f 1 0 a n d is still g r o w i n g . T h e l o c a l n e w s p a p e r in E x e t e r w a s p r e d i c t a b l y appalled . the g r o w i n g m o o d o f p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e . 'there is a m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s g a y rights' a n d at E x e t e r C o l l e g e there is 'a fair c h a n c e ' o f a g a y s o c i e t y b e i n g f o r m e d in the future. b e f o r e A I D S and everything. M a n c h e s t e r . W h a t is so n a u s e a t i n g a b o u t these disclosures is n o t that s u c h a situation exists in E x e t e r [. . Y o u c o u l d get a w a y w i t h it t h e n . T h e y w a n t the w o r l d to k n o w . to c o i n a phrase. a c c o r d i n g to its v i c e .] b u t that the students are so b r a z e n a b o u t it. w h o I k e p t in c o n t a c t w i t h . . w h e n w e w e r e b o t h c o m i n g u p to forty!) T h i s w a s — w h a t ? — 1 9 7 2 until 1 9 7 5 o r 1 9 7 6 . T h u s . b o t h internaUy a n d e x t e r n a l l y w a s fast c o m i n g to terms w i t h o n e facet o f its identity. W e didn't 26 flaunt it t h o u g h . . i f n o t entirely at ease w i t h itself. that seat o f l e a r n i n g [. U n i t i n g ad the v a r i o u s strands — the h o m o s e x u a l ' s g r o w i n g feeling o f s e l f .f a s h i o n e d and up-to-the-minute broad-mindedness: abhorrence W e l e a r n that at the U n i v e r s i t y . ( O n e . I d i d n ' t actually g o to b e d w i t h until t w e n t y y e a n later. b u t strangely it w a s o n l y rarely w i t h t h e m . .

2? E v e n m o r e illustrative o f h o w far things h a d c o m e since 1 9 6 7 . T h e y f o r m a discrete g r o u p . the v e r y n e x t y e a r a m e r e 3 0 0 turned up. T h e y h a v e little in c o m m o n w i t h . T h e essential facts are clear e n o u g h . a n d n o w h e r e richer than in the uncertain fortunes o f the P r i d e m a r c h o v e r that p e r i o d .' D O I N G O U R B I T F O R T H E B O Y S ' 237 activities a n d proclivities o f s o m e o f their n u m b e r [.s i x in 1 9 7 2 . W e h a v e seen that in 1 9 7 2 the m a r c h attracted a r o u n d 2 .b o o m e r w h o t u r n e d twenty-one a n d b e c a m e a c o n s e n t i n g adult the day the S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t c a m e into effect w o u l d h a v e b e e n t w e n t y . M a n y reasons can b e a d v a n c e d for this apparent fickleness.] y o u t h a n d the w o r k i n g class' b u t o n advertisements a n d features in the s e d u c t i v e ' L o o k ! ' pages o f the Sunday c o n s e r v a t i v e . the G L F street-fighters and their batde against 'social p r e j u d i c e and overt repression' b e c a u s e they d o n o t t h e m s e l v e s feel p r e j u d i c e d against o r u n d u l y repressed. the C o l e h e m e — the listings in Gay News a n d c o m p a r a t i v e a c c e p t a n c e in a range o f s y m p a t h e t i c professions i f t h e y c h o o s e to b e o p e n o r ' o u t ' a b o u t their proclivities. is the story o f the G a y L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t a n d P r i d e in the 1 9 7 0 s . but.s e v e n t i e s precursors o f the straight ' Y u p p y ' materialists o f the eighties. 0 0 0 p e o p l e . in m a n y instances in spite of themselves. . for it w a s at a r o u n d this t i m e that a g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f g a y m e n h a d b e e n 'liberated'. everyone to his own choice. F o r these beneficiaries o f nearly t w o decades o f ' a c t i o n ' are n o w salaried y o u n g professionals. the M a r q u i s . affluent. . A c y n i c m i g h t say that t h e y h a v e .t w e n t i e s — the p o s t . aspirational — and fundamentally g r o w n up. n o t least a failure o f the a l w a y s c h a o t i c p l a n n i n g a n d administration o f the e v e n t . . who began finding less a n d less r e l e v a n c e in pressure g r o u p s a n d street politics. a l m o s t as the m i d . .] We are not moralising here. T h e ironies are rich.their i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h e x q u i s i t e radicalism a n d the gaysocs o f their u n i v e r s i t y days is l o n g b e h i n d t h e m . T h e y h a v e their bars . B u t d o w n r i g h t c o m p l a c e n c y p r o b a b l y has as m u c h to d o w i t h it. . o f h o w the v e r y h o m o s e x u a l w h o m the activists h a d s o u g h t to help ( r e m e m b e r ' N i c h o l a s ' ) h a d b e c o m e n o m o r e than the m a n in the street w i t h i n a d e c a d e . these children o f the r e v o l u t i o n . a n d in their m i d . W e can p i c t u r e t h e m . G r a d u a t e s n o w .the Salisbury.w a r b a b y . A lifestyle p r e d i c a t e d n o t o n solidarity w i t h ' w o m e n . black p e o p l e [. little s y m p a t h y for. .

in khakis buzzer sounds. moves towards the stairs to the bedroom doing a few crosses before a mirror. carrying an airline zipper bag.the full flowering o f the 'dream-world' m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y — is paraded in The Boys in the Band. goes to work. New York. level. consisting of a living-room the kitchen. . Bossa nova M I C H A E L . studies his hair — sighs. dressed listens. 21 T h i s is superficial — intentionally so — b u t i n d i c a t i v e o f s o m e t h i n g m u c h d e e p e r . B u t w h a t w e r e those things t h e y c o u l d h a v e v a l u e d ? T h e s m a r d y a p p o i n t e d o r at least their B r i t i s h equivalents — and all the o t h e r Y o r k d u p l e x . the L a c o s t e shirt — appurtenances o f style l o o m e d large a m o n g t h e m . c o m f o r t a b l e monogamy cham­ w h i c h w o u l d n o t necessarily h a v e offended the parliamentary g a n d i z e s o f the G L F w h o l l y failed to take into a c c o u n t . I tired fairly early o f p e o p l e b o a s t i n g a b o u t their o p e n relationships. the p h o n o g r a p h . and. A beat. He crosses to set them on a bar. M I C H A E L stops. turns off the music. More buzzing. T h e o p e n i n g stage directions b o d it d o w n to its essentials a n d in effect present a self-contained cameo: A smartly-appointed duplex apartment in the East Fifties. improvised dance steps en route. ' D o e s it s o u n d s m u g i f I say that I s a w t h r o u g h the seventies and its m o r a l i t y b e f o r e m o s t p e o p l e ? I can't help that. E v e n b e f o r e the first w o r d s are s p o k e n . turns off the drier. on a higher level. o n d e s i g n e r clothes and e v e n the C a l i f o r n i a n ' p o o l c u l t u r e ' celebrated b y D a v i d H o c k n e y (the first L o n d o n r e t r o s p e c t i v e o f w h o s e w o r k t o o k place in 1 9 7 0 ) w a s theirs for the asking. A s K e n n e t h W i l l i a m s (born in 1 9 2 6 b u t in g a y terms a l a t e . enters from carrying some liquor bottles. music blasts from a phonograph. a m o v e t o w a r d s an atavistic. he looks to see if the room is in order. a bedroom. The downstairs front-door living-room.J o n e s ' s later New short story ' T h e C h a n g e s o f T h o s e T e r r i b l e Y e a r s ' . the l i q u o r b o t d e s .d e v e l o p e r ) w a s also d i s c o v e r i n g in 1 9 7 2 . opens the door to reveal and a Lacoste shirt.238 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E Times a n d the n e w c o l o u r supplements. wearing a robe. an A m e r i c a n v e r s i o n o f this ' m a t u r e ' g a y lifestyle . In the bedroom. M I C H A E L quickly goes to the D O N A L D . ' 2 9 p i o n s o f the 1 9 6 7 reforms b u t w h i c h P r i d e a n d the p r o m i s c u o u s p r o p a ­ and t h e n com­ p l a i n i n g w h e n that s a m e openness let e v e r y t h i n g t h e y c o u l d h a v e S o says the narrator o f A d a m M a r s . v a l u e d trickle a w a y . He picks up a comb and a hair-drier.

I ready m u s t d o s o m e t h i n g positive a b o u t f i n d i n g a place to l i v e that is me. I w e n t o f f to o n e o f the r o o m s w i t h M o h a m m e d ( B a m b i ) h e a r t e n e d b y N o r b e r t ' s r e m a r k ' A U m y b o y s are c l e a n & reliable — y o u k n o w ' a n d w e roUed a b o u t a m o r o u s l y & it w a s aU v e r y siUy a n d unfulfiUed. .t h e y ' r e the o n l y reassurance I have. the v e r y 'sixties' p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f the G a y L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t s e e m e d increasingly irrelevant. 20 June T h i s t i m e . a n d that is w h y aU these dire c o n s e q u e n c e s o c c u r w h e n e v e r I defy his ruling. the c o n c r e t e things like m y b e l o n g i n g s & m y p r i v a c y & m y b o o k s & things are necessary . Tuesday. Saturday.' D O I N G O U R B I T FOR T H E B O Y S ' 239 they represented security.u p process o f his spir­ itual c o e v a l s w i t h i n the space o f j u s t f o u r days w h i l e o n h o l i d a y in T a n g i e r . H o t e l . identity: ' A s all m y life is an act a n d a h o l l o w s h a m . O n c e p e o p l e in the street. instead o f l i v i n g in c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h g i v e m e p e a c e o r aesthetic satisfaction. o r d i n a r y passers-by h a d c h e e r e d t h e m o n their w a y (or at w o r s t g o n e o f f ' l a u g h i n g to . as the 1970s w o r e on. 17 June I think that G o d d i d n o t i n t e n d m e to h a v e a s e x u a l relationship o f a n y k i n d . 16 June p o w d e r a n d start all that] T h e n U p at a b o u t 9 o ' c . . w h e n I get b a c k to L o n d o n . a n d o f c o u r s e . T h e setting w a s aU perfect b u t I c o u l d n ' t h a v e an ejaculation o r a n y t h i n g [. 31 no I n this c o n t e x t it is n o t surprising that.] Friday. H i s diary charts this graphically P a u l i n e c o n v e r s i o n : Thursday. f o u n d y o u r actual parasite so h a d to g o to the c h e m i s t for D D T f o u n d the skin o f the d i c k w a s s l i g h d y abrased! I t h o u g h t I felt the teeth last night! O h ! these adventures a l w a y s l e a v e m e disgusted and impaired. W i U i a m s w e n t t h r o u g h w h a t a m o u n t e d to the w h o l e g r o w i n g . 15 June W e w e n t to the B . I n the bar w e m e t N o r b e r t (the o w n e r ) a n d three b o y s .' 3 0 W i t h w h a t m u s t h a v e b e e n b e w i l d e r i n g rapidity. place. I reaUy m u s t start b e i n g selfish for a c h a n g e a n d create the k i n d o f s u r r o u n d i n g s w h i c h I ready w a n t .

240

ORDINARY

PEOPLE

e a c h o t h e r a n d s h a k i n g their h e a d s ' ) . T h e activists h a d h a d reason to b e l i e v e that a battle h a d b e e n w o n , b u t hardly a n y t i m e to celebrate. I n 1 9 7 5 n o m o r e than 2 0 0 p e o p l e h a d b e e n o n the P r i d e m a r c h . A f t e r w a r d s , there w e r e suggestions that the w h o l e G L F circus h a d o u t l i v e d its usefulness, that it h a d m o r e than d o n e its bit; e v e n that P r i d e ' 7 5 s h o u l d b e the last. It m i g h t h a v e b e e n better i f it h a d b e e n . It w a s n ' t , h o w e v e r , a n d 1 9 7 7 b r o u g h t the final i r o n y . N u m b e r s h a d p i c k e d u p — w e l l o v e r 1 , 0 0 0 lesbians a n d g a y m e n t o o k to the streets that y e a r - b u t e v e n the g a y press n o t e d rather ruefuUy that 'drinkers outside the w o r l d - f a m o u s g a y p u b T h e C o l e h e r n e in L o n d o n ' s E a r l ' s Court threw
32

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the press in J a n u a r y 1 9 7 6 . C r i s p ' s c e l e b r a t i o n o f ' C a m p ' h a d 'set the " g a y " w o r l d back by twenty years', he fumed: H e r e w e are, all d o i n g o u r nuts, saying to the hets, ' L e t us l i v e o u r lives as w e w a n t to as n o r m a l [sic] as w e c a n b e c a u s e as far as I a m c o n c e r n e d , b e i n g ' g a y ' m e a n s that I a m perfectly n o r m a l with o n e slight difference. I prefer to l o v e a n o t h e r m a n . I a m not, a n d see n o p o i n t in t r y i n g to ape, a female. T h e r e are a great deal l i k e m e . O u r local p u b has a g o o d n u m b e r o f 'affairs' and, a l t h o u g h in the ' C a m p ' life it w o u l d b e b o r i n g , o u r l o v e r s chat a b o u t f o o d a n d clothes [ w h i l e ] the m e n [talk] a b o u t cars, t e l e v i s i o n , etc - j u s t as n o r m a l c o u p l e s d o . [This includes] n o t i c i n g a n i c e y o u n g t h i n g h o w n o r m a l w e ready are.' G r a m m a r and punctuation frequently g o t the b e t t e r o f h i m , b u t h e j u s t as D a d w o u l d fancy a y o u n g bit o f skirt. I p u t this in to s h o w

did h a v e a p o i n t . F o r the majority o f g a y m e n — o r at least those w h o a c k n o w l e d g e d their gayness — the m i d - s e v e n t i e s w e r e , as w e h a v e b e g u n to d i s c o v e r , a p e r i o d o f q u i e t u d e , c o n s o l i d a t i o n a n d e v e n d o m ­ esticity. T h e r e is litde m o r e than a n e c d o t a l e v i d e n c e to g o o n (census returns a n d electoral rolls d o n o t r e c o r d the nature o f the relationship e n j o y e d b y adults sharing the s a m e address), b u t it is fair to say that s o m e t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g w h a t o n e m i g h t cad the G a y S u b u r b a n D r e a m w a s e m e r g i n g . E v e n in 1 9 7 0 there w a s an easy, n o r m a l m u n d a n e n e s s a b o u t m a n y a g a y relationship, a c o s y d o m e s t i c i t y w h i c h frequently 241

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w e r e g o i n g to L e e d s . I f y o u ' d m o v e d y o u r e y e s h a l f an i n c h y o u ' d h a v e s e e n m e in the m i r r o r . I w a s standing b e h i n d y o u s t u d y i n g y o u r neck and m y j o w l s . — I saw you. - A h ! W e l l , w h a t d i d y o u think o f aU that, w i t h o u r R e g , eh? — I t h o u g h t it w a s c r e e p y . — I w o n d e r w h a t y o u r n e x t w i l l b e l i k e . D o n ' t b e afraid to b r i n g h i m h o m e , dear, w d l y o u ? I d o w o r r y s o . - T h e r e isn't g o i n g to b e a n e x t o n e . A t least, n o t for s o m e t i m e . - H o , r e e l y ? I think that's a g o o d plan, h ' a b s t i n e n c e m a k e s the 'eart g r o w f o n d e r . — I ' m m o v i n g in w i t h R e g . - 1 d o n ' t t h i n k h e ' l l h a v e y o u , dear, after y o u r indiscretions a n d sauciness. — Y e s he will. - Y o u ' l l g o r u n n i n g after h i m , w d l y o u ? H o w d e m e a n i n g ! — P o s s i b l y . B u t it's better than h a v i n g h i m run after m e . I ' v e b e e n t h r o u g h that o n c e , I c o u l d n ' t face it again. - Y o u l o v e h i m then, y o u r butcher's b o y ? - A c t u a l l y , h e ' s n o t a b u t c h e r ' s b o y , in p o i n t o f fact. H i s father teaches maths at the university. H i s m o t h e r ' s a social w o r k e r . T h e y l i v e in an u g l y E d w a r d i a n h o u s e . . ? W h i l e n e w s p a p e r s w e r e d o m i n a t e d b y a c c o u n t s o f the p r o s e c u t i o n o f the B r i t i s h publishers o f H u b e r t S e l b y J r ' s Last Exit to Brooklyn, an A m e r i c a n n o v e l c o n t a i n i n g several graphic descriptions o f h o m o s e x u a l s e x , ' s e r i o u s ' novelists w e r e b e g i n n i n g to e x p l o r e this moraUy a m b i g u ­ ous X a n a d u . C h r i s t o p h e r I s h e r w o o d , b o r n in 1 9 0 4 a n d the archetypal E n g l i s h m a n a b r o a d b y this t i m e , h a d already d o n e it in his present-tense n o v e l A Single Man ( 1 9 6 4 ) b y p l a c i n g G e o r g e , a ' m i d - f i f t y i s h ' E n g l i s h academic, California. It is a d e c e p t i v e l y simple b o o k , the l i m p i d i t y o f its style p e r v e r s e l y a l m o s t o b s c u r i n g the p r o f u n d i t y o f w h a t it is t r y i n g to say. A persistent sense o f n o r m a l i t y runs t h r o u g h it, h o w e v e r , e v e n in its m o r e m e l o quite literaUy at sea in a h o m o - e r o t i c , Hockneyesque
3

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dramatic m o m e n t s . O n e such: o n i m p u l s e , after an e v e n i n g o f h e a v y d r i n k i n g , G e o r g e a n d o n e o f his students, K e n n y , strip o f f their clothes a n d d i v e n a k e d i n t o the Pacific for a m i d n i g h t b a t h e : A n d n o w K e n n y is d r a g g i n g h i m out, g r o g g y - l e g g e d . K e n n y ' s hands are u n d e r G e o r g e ' s armpits a n d h e is l a u g h i n g a n d s a y i n g l i k e a N a n n y , ' T h a t ' s e n o u g h for n o w ! ' A n d G e o r g e , stdl water-drunk, gasps, ' I ' m all right,' a n d w a n t s to g o straight b a c k i n t o the w a t e r . B u t K e n n y says, ' W e l l , I'm n o t - I ' m c o l d , ' a n d N a n n y - l i k e h e t o w e l s G e o r g e , w i t h his o w n shirt, n o t G e o r g e ' s , until George stops h i m b e c a u s e his b a c k is sore. T h e N a n n y - r e l a t i o n s h i p is so c o n v i n c i n g , at this m o m e n t , that G e o r g e feels h e c o u l d curl u p a n d fall i m m e d i a t e l y asleep right h e r e , s h r u n k t o child-size w i t h i n the safety o f K e n n y ' s bigness. K e n n y ' s b o d y seems to h a v e g r o w n g i g a n ­ tic since t h e y left the w a t e r . E v e r y t h i n g a b o u t h i m is l a r g e r than life; the w h i t e teeth o f his grin, the w i d e d r i p p i n g shoulders, b e g i n n i n g to shiver. ' C a n w e g o b a c k to y o u r place, Sir?' h e asks. ' S u r e . W h e r e else?' ' W h e r e else?' K e n n y repeats, s e e m i n g to find this v e r y a m u s i n g . H e picks u p his clothes a n d turns, stdl n a k e d , t o w a r d the h i g h w a y a n d the lights. ' A r e y o u c r a z y ? ' G e o r g e shouts after h i m . ' W h a t ' s the matter?' K e n n y l o o k s b a c k , g r i n n i n g . ' Y o u ' r e g o i n g to w a l k h o m e l i k e that? A r e y o u crazy? T h e y ' d cad the cops!' K e n n y shrugs his shoulders g o o d - h u m o u r e d l y . ' N o b o d y w o u l d h a v e seen us. W e ' r e invisible - d i d n ' t y o u k n o w ? '
4

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t o o , is the life o f D i c k T h o m p s o n , the w r i t e r - h e r o o f Francis K i n g ' s ( 1 9 7 0 ) . A g a i n , the b o o k is ' m i d d l e - c l a s s ' — this t i m e an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the d e s t r u c t i v e p o w e r o f the (unrequited) l o v e w h i c h T h o m p s o n feels for the straight, y o u n g Italian p h i l o s o p h e r h e takes in as a l o d g e r . A g a i n , t o o , its p o w e r c o m e s f r o m the sheer a m o u n t o f ' c o r r o b o r a t i v e detail'. T h o m p s o n ' s infatuation - a n d his h o m o s e x u a l i t y - is j u s t a n o t h e r aspect o f a m e s s y life d o m i n a t e d b y the i m p e r a t i v e s o f t a k i n g the d o g for a w a l k , g e t t i n g

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the builders o u t , a n d k n o c k i n g u p a q u i c k spaghetti b o l o g n e s e w h e n n e i g h b o u r s a r r i v e u n e x p e c t e d l y for supper: U n t i l t h e n i g h t o f m y h o u s e - w a r m i n g party, several days later, ' l o v e ' w a s n e v e r a w o r d either o f us used to describe m y d e v o t i o n to h i m . ' Y o u care t o o m u c h for m e , ' he w o u l d say; o r ' y o u s h o u l d n o t feel this w a y a b o u t m e ' ; o r ' I c a n n o t return the k i n d o f friendship y o u h a v e for m e . ' I n t u r n I w o u l d use simdar e u p h e m i s m s — 'the affection I h a v e for y o u ' , ' I ' v e n e v e r felt l i k e this for a n y m a n b e f o r e ' , 'this absurd attachment'. I t h i n k that b o t h o f us sensed s u b c o n s c i o u s l y that i f that m o n o s y U a b l e ' l o v e ' passed b e t w e e n us t h e n this curious relationship, still d u i d b e t w e e n us b e c a u s e it w a s n e v e r defined, w o u l d c o m e to a crisis; a n d that crisis, o d d l y , w a s w h a t h e as m u c h as I w i s h e d t o a v o i d .
5

B y 1 9 7 0 , t o o , real p e o p l e w e r e l i v i n g similarly ' o r d i n a r y ' lives - j u s t as t h e y a l w a y s h a d , o n l y m o r e so: A t s c h o o l I w a s v e r y friendly w i t h a c h a p caUed . H e wasn't during

particularly attractive, b u t w e w e r e v e r y close a n d o n c e ,

the h o l i d a y s , I w a s staying w i t h h i m a n d he said, H a v e y o u e v e r masturbated? A n d I said, W e d , n o , n o t ready. W h a t d o y o u m e a n ? I w a s s u d d e n l y interested a n d w a n t e d h i m to p u r s u e this subject further! H e d e s c r i b e d e v e r y t h i n g in detad a n d I said, W e d , s h o w m e ! H e said h e w a s n ' t g o i n g to s h o w m e ' o u t front', b u t u n d e r n e a t h his d u v e t h e started f o n d l i n g h i m s e l f a n d d e s c r i b e d w h a t he w a s d o i n g . I n the e n d w e w e r e d o i n g it t o g e t h e r n e x t to e a c h o t h e r u n d e r the d u v e t , a l t h o u g h w e d i d n ' t s h o w e a c h o t h e r w h a t w e w e r e doing. A n d t h e n later w e u s e d to h a v e c o m p e t i t i o n s - w e u s e d to support o u r t o w e l s o n o u r c o c k s w h e n t h e y w e r e rigid, a n d the p e r s o n w h o c o u l d k e e p it u p the l o n g e s t w o u l d w i n . W e actuaUy g o t quite g o o d at this, b u t h e a l w a y s s e e m e d to w i n ; h e h a d a slightly b i g g e r c o c k than m e a n d a w e s o m e s t a y i n g - p o w e r . A n d t h e n I i n v e n t e d forfeits. S o m e o f t h e m w e r e c o m p l e t e l y u n s e x u a l , b u t m a n y o f t h e m i n v o l v e d h a v i n g to s n o g e a c h other. I f I lost I ' d h a v e to s n o g h i m . I used to p r e t e n d to protest at this - b u t t h e n w e n t a h e a d a n d d i d it! H e ' d say, W e d , y o u d o n ' t h a v e

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to, y o u k n o w . A n d I ' d insist a n d say, Fair's fair, I h a v e lost; w e agreed. A n d w e ' d h a v e l o n g s n o g s .
6

F o r the t e e n a g e r c o m i n g o n 'the s c e n e ' at any t i m e f r o m the b e g i n ­ n i n g o f the 1 9 7 0 s until the m i d - e i g h t i e s life p r e s e n t e d a s e e m i n g l y endless range o f opportunities. T h e l i v i n g w a s easy. G a y businesses w e r e o p e n i n g u p — g a y travel agents, g a y p l u m b e r s a n d g a y builders w e r e a m o n g the first. T h e r e w e r e g a y l a w y e r s , g a y d o c t o r s , to find t h e m (Nighthawks, gay accountants a n d gay dentists. T h e r e w e r e g a y films i f o n e k n e w w h e r e the story o f a g a y s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l teacher, on His Way) Pink Narcissus, D a v i d H o c k n e y ' s A Bigger Splash, D e r e k J a r m a n ' s Sebastiane), a n d p u l p g a y n o v e l s b y D a v i d R e e s (The Milkman's a n d o t h e r writers, t o g e t h e r w i t h Gay News and a top-shelf range o f

m o s t l y A m e r i c a n magazines in 'specialist b o o k s h o p s ' . M o s t o b v i o u s l y , there w a s an e v e r - g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f g a y pubs, clubs a n d sauna-bars, where anything could happen: Wednesday, 1st September 1982

Frustrated a n d depressed. W e n t into t o w n o n the last o f m y m o n e y , recklessly a w a r e I w o u l d n ' t h a v e e n o u g h to g e t h o m e . W h a t a m a r v e d o u s e v e n i n g it t u r n e d o u t to b e ! After chatting to several p e o p l e I k n e w to try a n d c h e e r u p — i n c l u d i n g o n e o f the [pub] staff w h o b o u g h t m e a drink — I s p o k e to A s h l e y to see i f h e c o u l d h e l p . A f t e r an unsuccessful a t t e m p t to fix m e u p w i t h a 1 9 - y e a r - o l d , he finady i n t r o d u c e d m e to 2 0 - y e a r - o l d Robert. H e w a s quite beautiful, w i t h short, w i r y b l a c k hair a n d b l u e e y e s . H e listened to m y p r o b l e m s a n d c h e e r e d m e u p . I h a d n o m o n e y , b u t w i t h o u t t o o m u c h trouble s u c c e e d e d in g e t t i n g an i n v i t a t i o n to stay the night w i t h h i m .
7

I w a s at a party in a n i g h t c l u b o n e n i g h t a n d this m a n I slightly k n e w c a m e u p to m e a n d said, A r e y o u rich? I said, N o ; a n d h e said, I f I w a s to p a y y o u five h u n d r e d p o u n d s w o u l d y o u masturbate m e ? I said I ' d p r o b a b l y d o it for free!
8

In the years b e f o r e A I D S w a s h e a r d o f t h e r e w a s a certain i n n o c e n c e abroad. E v e r y t h i n g s e e m e d possible. ' T i m e a n d the y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n are o n o u r side,' Ian H a r v e y a v e r r e d in Gay News in 1 9 7 6 . E v e n i f the forces o f l a w a n d o r d e r d i d o c c a s i o n a d y i n t e r v e n e — in 1 9 7 7 Gay

. a n d are v i v i d l y r e d o l e n t o f a time w h e n Britain was convulsed b y sometimes violent change — the years w h e n the surprise resignation o f H a r o l d W i l s o n (and the i n e v i t a b l e d e p a r t u r e o f L i b e r a l leader J e r e m y T h o r p e after aUegations that h e h a d c o n s p i r e d to m u r d e r a f o r m e r m a l e m o d e l ) . freed from 10 the confines o f a barbaric l a w . M y s e x u a l i t y is s o c i a d y i m p o r t a n t . It can g i v e a p o w e r f u l s u p p o r t to the w o m e n ' s m o v e m e n t . . 1 3 . . 1 2 . L e t o t h e r p e o p l e see y o u are an o r d i n a r y g u y a n d that y o u a n d y o u r b o y f r i e n d can b e a n d are as h a p p y w i t h o n e a n o t h e r as y o u r straight friends a n d c o l ­ l e a g u e s are w i t h their husbands o r w i v e s . 9 supporters . . o f halting a ' s u b ­ versive gay potential'. . It takes n o a c c o u n t o f g e n d e r roles. m a n w o u l d turn i r r e v o c a b l y from w o m a n to the s u p e r i o r attraction o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y w i t h the w h o l e c o u n t r y b r o u g h t to its birthless e n d as an o r g y o f gay sex. It can s h o w the w a y to n e w e r a n d m o r e j o y f u l s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r for aU human beings. I k e e p m y treasure in m y arse. is p o l i t i c a d y p r o g r e s s i v e . its e x h o r t a t i o n s to g a y m e n to ' e m p o w e r ' t h e m s e l v e s a n d seize the m o m e n t w e r e v e r y m u c h o f their day. . .] is b y a n d large a p o s i t i v e fulfilment that c o u n t e r a c t s the n i g h t m a r i s h fears o f o u r adolescent years and. I n the m i d . the S e x Pistols' t a k e o v e r o f an early e v e n i n g television p r o g r a m m e a n d the A n t i . .246 News ORDINARY PEOPLE a n d its e d i t o r D e n i s L e m o n w e r e f o u n d g u i l t y o f b l a s p h e m o u s libel for p u b l i s h i n g a p o e m b y J a m e s K i r k u p d e s c r i b i n g the h o m o s e x u a l fantasies o f a c e n t u r i o n g u a r d i n g the c r u c i f i e d b o d y o f J e s u s C h r i s t — n o t h i n g s e e m e d capable o f s t o p p i n g the r e v o l u t i o n . G a y p o r n o g r a p h y [. b u t t h e n m y arse is o p e n to everyone. .N a z i L e a g u e ' s s o m e t i m e s v i o l e n t clashes w i t h N a t i o n a l F r o n t w e r e p l a y e d o u t to a s o u n d t r a c k o f p u n k r o c k : . as s u c h . n o t least in the c o l u m n s o f Gay News.a n d late seventies there w a s a lot o f this sort o f rhetoric a r o u n d . Its protestations that to b e g a y w a s ipso facto to b e political. 11 . . E v e n n o w t h e y h a v e a p e r i o d c h a r m . . It is n o t j u s t i f i e d b e c a u s e o f its r e p r o d u c t i v e possibdities. L i v e y o u r life o p e n l y as b e i n g g a y . . .

o f c o u r s e . I n the sheer earthiness o f their i m a g e r y . ' I w a s w a t c h i n g y o u w h i l e y o u w e r e s h a v i n g ' . N a n n y .a quarter o f an h o u r o n the front. n e v e r h a v i n g u n h o o k e d o n e in m y life. . h o w e v e r . In those days I seriously e n j o y e d d o i n g the m a s s a g e . w h o advertised in Gay News.s e v e n t i e s ] I w e n t a l o n g to see s o m e lad — I e x p e c t h e w a s a w h o r e — a m a s s e u r . . w h i c h w a s t h e n a bit deficient. the reminiscences and diaries o f those d i r e c d y i n v o l v e d w i t h 'the s c e n e ' at this t i m e — w i t h w h a t w e w o u l d n o w cad the ' s e x industry' — reflect litde o f this gleeful u r g e n c y . the o v e r a d t o n e is matter-of-fact. a n d it m i g h t a d d s o m e t h i n g to the p h y s i c a l side o f m y life. necessarily ' l i b e r a t e d ' b u t hardly nostalgic for a g o l d e n era o f arse a n d o r g y : I tried v a r i o u s j o b s . b u t c o u l d n ' t stand a n y o f t h e m . as w e h a v e already seen. I h a d to d o m y final e x a m i n a t i o n o n a w o m a n ! S h e w a s w e a r i n g a bra and. gay p e o p l e d o n ' t n e e d a n y i m p r o v e m e n t . t h e y ' r e so c o m p l e t e . 1 4 T h e s e w e r e . T h e n [in the m i d . m i n o r i t y v i e w s . Significantly. b u t h e g a v e m e a w a n k a n d h e told m e h e ' d t a k e n this massage c o u r s e w h i c h e n a b l e d h i m to advertise his services. R a t h e r . . n o t G e o r g e ' s ' . t h e fragments quoted a b o v e (and c h o s e n almost at r a n d o m ) c o n v e y s o m e t h i n g o f the frantic v e n e r y a n d erotic potential i m p l i c i t e v e n in the h u m d r u m m i n u t i a e o f the relationships w e h a v e thus far e x a m i n e d .h a v a b l e . a quarter o f an h o u r o n the b a c k . S o I t h o u g h t that w o u l d b e interesting b e c a u s e I l i v e m a i n l y in m y h e a d .l i k e . e v e n the fastidious D i c k T h o m p s o n is r e d u c e d to snuffling in the w a r d r o b e o f his u n r e c i p r o c a t i n g l o d g e r in a desperate attempt to have a n d h o l d the u n . B u t w i t h h a l f the clients — o r m o r e — y o u ' d get a w a y w i t h five m i n u t e s o f massage a n d t h e n t h e y ' d . h e t o w e l s G e o r g e . I c o u l d n ' t find a n y t h i n g I c o u l d b e a r to d o . h o w e v e r . . e v e n at the h e i g h t o f the p u b l i c i t y g e n e r a t e d b y the b l a s p h e m y trial Gay News n e v e r s o l d m o r e than a b o u t 2 2 . . H e d i d n ' t turn m e o n in the least. I h a d n ' t the faintest idea w h a t to d o .d e v e l o p e d . 0 0 0 c o p i e s and. 'and. the final years o f the 1 9 7 0 s m a r k e d the l o w p o i n t in p o p u l a r s u p p o r t for P r i d e . so intact. T h e physical t o u c h w a s g o o d for m e . w i t h his o w n shirt. so w e U . . S o I w e n t a l o n g a n d t o o k the c o u r s e : six lessons for thirty q u i d . I s o o n f o u n d o u t that massage m e a n t y o u w e r e ready s u p p l y i n g sex .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 247 .

I n w e d o v e r fifty p e r cent o f the m e n w h o c a m e to see m e . I think I c h a r g e d h i m a q u i d o r s o m e t h i n g . V e r y f e w w e r e ' o u t ' . a m i d d l e .248 ORDINARY PEOPLE start t o u c h i n g y o u r c o c k o r s o m e t h i n g .to use his affectionate r e f e r e n c e to m y u n c o . S o E n g l i s h ! N o t pleasure. there w e r e so f e w o u t gay m e n in those days.o p e r a t i v e a p p e n d a g e — b e g a n to take interest. T h e y w e r e nearly ad ' c l o s e t . a n d the w e a t h e r o u t s i d e is v e r y . w h i c h g o t m e a bit p a r a n o i d . It w a s 'massage a n d r e l i e f in those days. v e r y n i c e ' . . W h i l e he w a s g o n e the o l d w d l y . I ' d h a v e s e x w i t h a n y o n e w h o asked m e . . to the u p r o a r o f the passengers. a b a c k r o o m fud o f an e n o r m o u s p i e c e o f o r a n g e p a p e r (the b a c k g r o u n d ) a n d lights h a n g i n g f r o m the ceiling.] at the t o p o f a v e r y b u i l d i n g . b u t I m a d e a l i v i n g . .m a d e lighter b y t h e c o m m e n t a r y o f the Indian d r i v e r w h o c r o w n e d his act.a g e d . T h e y o u n g e s t I s a w w a s s e v e n t e e n . a n d did the unsuspicious 15 . T h r e e rods o f film later — time passed v e r y q u i c k l y b e t w e e n three a n d five — w e e m e r g e d f r o m the s t u d i o . the s e x w a s the e x c u s e a n d n o t the reason. t h e n o n to the basic a n d s o m e w h a t u n t i d y office [.j o b s ' . T h e c o m m o n e s t w e r e m e n in their fifties. I c o u l d n e v e r see the p o i n t in s a y i n g n o . T h i n g s o n l y g o t b e t t e r w h e n h e left the r o o m for s o m e t h i n g . k i n d disposition ( c h i c k e n . Q u i t e a lot o f t h e m w e r e m a r r i e d . to litde avail. w h i c h s e e m e d to take u m b r a g e at b e i n g o r d e r e d to ' g e t ready stiff!' — tried ' d u f f i n g ' m e . b u t s e x . It w a s n o p r o b l e m . m a k i n g it quite plain that the massage w a s j u s t the e x c u s e as far as t h e y w e r e c o n c e r n e d . perhaps a g a y t o u c h . M e n w o u l d ted m e things t h e y w o u l d n e v e r ted a n y o n e else — perhaps t h e y h a d n o o n e else to ted. relief] I f o u n d I w a s ready a social w o r k e r . I d i d n ' t m a k e a f o r t u n e . T h e n w e g o t started. w i t h ' T h i s is L o n d o n .c h a s e r ? ) p r o c e e d e d to take snaps o f m e g e t t i n g undressed. I g o t so b o r e d . slender m a n w i t h t h i n n i n g hair b u t a h u m o r ­ ous. — . t h o u g h ! It g o t so t e d i o u s ! [1983] H a v i n g e v e n t u a d y a r r i v e d after a l o n g train ride . o f course — I w a s a s h o u l d e r . T h e y w e r e s e e k i n g g a y c o m p a n y .basicady. I t h e n h a d to lie o n a m o s t u n c o m f o r t a b l e w o o d e n b e n c h a n d h o l d rather u n c o m f o r t a b l e positions as I thrust m y b u t t o c k s t o w a r d s his lens a n d tried desperately to p u t s o m e life i n t o m y penis. .w e n t for coffee.

o n c e u s e d .v i s c e r a l fear o f the legal c o n s e q u e n c e s o f g o i n g t o o far. t w e n t y .l e s s . h e described in his diary a day o n w h i c h his gayness w a s j u s t a n o t h e r e l e m e n t in his (literady) global consciousness: Tuesday. v e r y useful at the time b u t . b u t n o o n e else. m o r e o r less h a p p i l y .j o b ' w a s far f r o m b e i n g an isolated .c o n t r i b u t o r s 'Richard' masseur notes h o w f e w g a y m e n w e r e ' o u t ' at this p e r i o d (and i n d e e d h o w m a n y o f his clients w e r e m a r r i e d ) . like the death h e k n e w to b e i m m i n e n t . it w a s possible to exist t w e n t y . a n d to a n y o n e o t h e r than intimate friends s e e m e d perfectly ' n o r m a l ' . b u t it seems fair to c o n c l u d e that h e w a s s p e a k i n g o f a h o m o s e x u a l sensibility rather than the sort o f priapic were concerned.as o f c o u r s e t h e y w e r e : ' M i c h a e l H a r t h a d n e v e r married. certainly h e h a d n e v e r slept w i t h a w o m a n a n d possibly h e h a d n e v e r slept w i t h a m a n .f o u r h o u r s a day. m o p i n g a r o u n d the n o r t h L o n d o n flat h e shared w i t h his l o v e r K e n n e t h H a d i w e d ( w h o w a s to batter h i m to death in a frenzy o f s e x u a l a n d professional j e a l o u s y less than t h r e e w e e k s later). C l o s e friends w o u l d h a v e k n o w n a b o u t t h e m a n d their 'little secret'. b e t w e e n the endless ' o r g y o f g a y s e x ' a n d the s t u b b o r n o u t w a r d denial o f the ' h o m o s e x u a l e u n u c h ' . A s early as 1 9 6 7 . ' J e f f r e y W e e k s h a d t o l d Gay News in 1 9 7 6 . R a t h e r in a d v a n c e o f the times in this. ' 17 T h e generality o f the g a y e x p e r i e n c e lay s o m e w h e r e b e t w e e n the t w o e x t r e m e s . 16 flushed away ' T o m e .f o u r h o u r s a day. I h a d always t h o u g h t o f h i m as a h o m o s e x u a l e u n u c h . A n d o f course it w a s .o r necessarily pitiable — individual. s e v e n days a w e e k . absorption the w i t h w h i c h his f e d o w . J o e O r t o n h a d a r r i v e d at this stasis a fud d e c a d e earlier. h e a l w a y s k e p t f r o m a friend as old. at w h i c h . as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . as intimate a n d as understanding as m y s e l f . as in e v e r y t h i n g else. w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n seen o n a P r i d e m a r c h . D e t r o i t is t o r n b y rape a n d . a n d I left feeling j u s t a little bit l i k e u s e d toilet paper. w h a t h e cads the ' c l o s e t . o f course m y gayness is v e r y i m p o r t a n t . W e w e r e l o o k e d u p o n w i t h blatant disinterest. 25 July G r e y day. Francis K i n g ' s Dick T h o m p s o n another.'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 249 necessary deeds r e g a r d i n g m y fee o f £ 5 0 . T h e n . b u t the h o m o s e x u a l i t y . s e v e n days a w e e k as a sentient h o m o s e x u a l . as n o w . Isherwood's G e o r g e was one. T h e y w e r e n o t o v e r t l y c a m p . T h e r e w a s a m i d p o i n t b e t w e e n the p r i m a l desire for arse a n d the n o . N o t h i n g m u c h h a p p e n e d .

18 Throughout an e x t r a o r d i n a r y military a n d d i p l o m a t i c career. h i d d e n life. Y o u w e r e l i v i n g in c o n t i n u o u s danger. ' I w o u l d n ' t ' v e m i n d e d f u c k i n g h i m . ' I ' v e g o t to g o to the d o c t o r ' s t o m o r r o w . ' N e d ' w a s able to a c h i e v e h i g h security clearance. [ T e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c e r Peter] W i d e s rang to say that the I T A w o u l d a d o w [his play Entertaining p e r f o r m e d o n tedy.y o u w e r e leading a secret.b o y s ' a n d aggression w e r e part o f the atmo­ s p h e r e . D e s p i t e — o r m a y b e p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e o f — b e i n g f o r c e d to lead this d o u b l e life. A n o t h e r c a d e d h i m 'a loyal. h e can get stuffed. b e t w e e n the r a m p a n t F r e u d i a n Id a n d w h a t w a s in his case a necessarily a n d particularly c e n s o r i o u s E g o / S u p e r e g o . L o o t a n d the sack o f e m p i r e s is in the air. S p o k e a b o u t M o r o c c o . It's a w k w a r d . I rang C l i v e at five o ' c l o c k . H o m o p h o b i a . ' I said. H e h a d a n i c e b o d y . s e e . [he says] it w o u l d h a v e b e e n a total disaster. D É T R O I T B U R N I N G ! w a s o n e headline. p u t t i n g the p h o n e d o w n . ' A n o t h e r o n e crossed o f f the list. Y o u h a d to b e so b l o o d y careful! It w a s a bit l i k e b e i n g a m e m b e r o f the R e s i s t a n c e in o c c u p i e d F r a n c e . O n e confidential r e f e r e n c e w r i t t e n b y a v e r y senior m d i t a r y officer stressed that his w o r k ' w a s o f great i m p o r t a n c e in an adied c o m m a n d in E u r o p e ' . j o k e s a b o u t ' n a n c y . ' ' I ' d r i n g y o u s o m e t i m e t h e n . ' I said.' I said to K e n n e t h H . T a l k e d for a bit. y o u w e r e e n g a g e d in activities w h i c h c o u l d b r i n g a b o u t y o u r d o w n f a d . t h e r e w a s n o w a y any o f us c o u l d b e o p e n l y gay in the forces.250 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E rapine. ' I d o n ' t k n o w w h y y o u b o t h e r e d r i n g i n g . H e ' s the y o u n g m a n I w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o b y K f e n n e t h ] W i d i a m s . B u t i f s e x is out. e x t r e m e l y capable a n d intedigent i n d i v i d u a l w h o c o u l d p u t his h a n d successfudy to a w i d e variety o f . ' ' W e d . C a m e to the real p o i n t o f the t e l e p h o n e cad: ' H o w a b o u t m e c o m i n g u p to y o u r place a b o u t five t o m o r r o w for a c u p o f tea?' H e w e n t strange. ' I feel it's dated!' W d l e s said. I ' m n o t interested in h i m for any o t h e r r e a s o n ' . y o u r alarm s y s t e m w a s c o n t i n u a d y p r i m e d . Mr] Shane to b e S c i e n c e f i c t i o n v i d e . K e n n e t h s h r u g g e d . T h e r e is an e m p t y c h u r c h a r o u n d the c o m e r f r o m N o e l R o a d w h i c h w a s b u r n e d to the g r o u n d last night. ' N e i l ' e l e g a n t l y p e r s o n i f i e d the h o m o s e x u a l ' s c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n private life a n d p u b l i c self. H e w a s offp u t t i n g a b o u t h a v i n g dinner. O b v i o u s l y .

so I w a s rather i n t i m i d a t e d . ' Y o u m u s t be M a r t i n ' s b o y f r i e n d ! ' T h e r e w e r e lots o f glances cast in m y d i r e c t i o n .u p a n d a c l o v e n . asked the A i r M i n i s t r y to a p p o i n t m e to his staff as Assistant A i r A t t a c h é w i t h fud d i p l o m a t i c status. stripped to the waist. h e a r r a n g e d for m e to m e e t H e r m i o n e G i n g o l d for l u n c h . j e w e l s . M a r t i n h a d e v e n l i v e d in L o n d o n a n d k n e w ad k i n d s o f stage a n d screen stars.g o i n g l o v e affair. B u t w h a t m a d e o u r relationship u n i q u e w a s that M a r t i n w a s A m e r i c a n a n d I w a s E n g l i s h . O n e o f o u r parties w a s a b i g c o s t u m e ' d o ' at w h i c h ad the guests — ministers. w i t h diabolical m a k e .) It w a s a t h o r o u g h . w h e r e h e w a s able to o r g a s m w a s a s a l v o fired for f r e e d o m ' — h e w a s p o s t e d to a sensitive N A T O integrate his private a n d p u b l i c p e r s o n a e to a d e g r e e u n m a t c h e d at the t i m e e v e n b y m a n y civilians: T h e B r i t i s h a m b a s s a d o r in — . M a r t i n l o v e d g i v i n g parties. n o less. a n d the happiest p e r i o d o f m y life t o o . M a r t i n ' s a n d m i n e . W e w e r e i n v i t e d o u t to parties several times a w e e k . I s t o o d u p a n d she s w e p t t o w a r d s m e a n d said. I suppose. ( O n o n e o c c a s i o n w h e n I w a s in L o n d o n o n l e a v e . a lieutenant c o m m a n d e r in the U S navy. I ' d n e v e r h a d a m e a l w i t h a star b e f o r e . a hat a n d G o d k n o w s w h a t ! E v e r y b o d y w a s l o o k i n g . ready. there w e r e s o m e gays. e v e r y g a y capital at the h e i g h t o f the C o l d W a r . w h e r e she m a d e a sensational e n t r a n c e . a n d this w a s d o n e .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 251 tasks'. B u t I ceased to d o this w h e n I m e t an A m e r i c a n c a d e d M a r t i n . In those days a c c o m m o d a t i o n in — w a s e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e . so w e d i d quite a lot o f entertaining t o o . W e shared a h o u s e for g e t t i n g o n for t h r e e y e a n .furs. b u t I realized that t h e y w e r e o f e n v y a n d n o t o f a n y t h i n g else at ad. I f o r m e d friendships w h i c h l e d to s e x w i t h s o m e o f t h e m . A m o n g the diplomats a n d military officers f r o m v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s w h o w e r e s e r v i n g in — . everyone! — h a d to c o m e dressed as a G r e a t S i n n e r o f history o r fiction. It w a s absolutely ideal. 19 A l t h o u g h quietly s u b v e r s i v e — ' I n the military. the b i g g e s t l o v e affair o f m y life. I w a s Satan. w e f u c k e d e a c h o t h e r f r o m the start.as a pair. M a r t i n a n d I w e r e r e c o g n i z e d as a pair. so it w a s quite usual for officers to share a h o u s e to s a v e m o n e y . w e h a d the s a m e sense o f h u m o u r a n d the s a m e o u t l o o k o n life. attachés. I m e t h e r at an e x p e n s i v e restaurant.

I f they .252 ORDINARY PEOPLE hoof. a c o n c l u s i o n d e v o u t l y to b e w i s h e d for.b o o k s o f w h i c h .h o u s e s w e r e n e v e r reaUy significant e l e m e n t s . I ready d o n ' t k n o w h o w m a n y p e o p l e guessed that M a r t i n a n d I w e r e g a y . the g a y s c e n e b y the e n d o f the 1 9 7 0 s w a s . b a t h . R a t h e r . parties t o o . A m o n g the rest. the era w a s n o t c h a r a c ­ terized b y S a n F r a n c i s c o . I think s o m e p e o p l e m a y h a v e b e e n suspicious. as w e h a v e seen. A U the p e o p l e w h o w e r e in the k n o w cast their eyes d o w n . essentiady c o m m e r c i a l in nature. D e s p i t e p o l e m i c a l cads to arms in Gay News a n d o t h e r organs o f the radical Left. - a m a r r i a g e m a d e in h e a v e n .s c e n e s the purest i r o n y w h i c h l e d to its apparently i m m a c u l a t e huddle o f ' t h i n k . T h e B r i t i s h ambassador m a d e a short s p e e c h s a y i n g h o w pleased h e a n d the A m e r i c a n ambassador w e r e — in v i e w o f the 'special relationship' b e t w e e n B r i t a i n a n d the U n i t e d States — to see a B r i t i s h a n d an A m e r i c a n officer l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . b a c k . b e c a u s e w e k n e w a b o u t t h e m . T h e r e w a s o n e party w e g a v e at w h i c h b o t h the B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n ambassadors w e r e present. M a r t i n w a s M r H y d e . O b v i o u s l y the o t h e r gays in the d i p l o m a t i c c o m m u n i t y did.t h e . p u r e l y gay. N e v e r ready m o r e (the p a t t e r n . rather furtively. e v e n i r o n y o r ironies than a pale d e r i v a t i v e o f its W e s t C o a s t A m e r i c a n a r c h e t y p e Tales of the City. h o w e v e r . w i t h intermittent m o m e n t s o f D r J e k y d . C e r t a i n l y . M o r e o v e r .w e h a d separate. N o b o d y t h a n k G o d ! — c h e e r e d o r a p p l a u d e d . s o m e p e o p l e n e v e r sus­ pected a thing. A r m i s t e a d M a u p i n ' s Tales of the City a n d More w e r e r e s p e c t i v e l y p u b l i s h e d in B r i t a i n in 1 9 7 8 a n d 1 9 8 0 ) . B u t it w a s clear that h e j u s t didn't k n o w what he'd said.s t y l e 'street c u l t u r e ' . 20 T o the p u b l i c at large ' T h a t c h e r i s m ' d i d n o t so m u c h e v o l v e as spring fuUy f o r m e d u p o n B r i t a i n after the C o n s e r v a t i v e s w o n the G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n o f 1 9 7 9 .t a n k s ' a n d p o l i c y studies institutes. it w a s o n l y parturition e x a c d y c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the g l o r i o u s efflorescence o f w h a t w e n o w l o o k b a c k o n ( t h r o u g h the trompe l'oeil p e r s p e c t i v e o f less than t w o decades) as the G o l d e n A g e o f the B r i t i s h h o m o s e x u a l . It w a s . M a r t i n a n d I k e p t straight faces. the B r i t i s h ' G o l d e n A g e ' w a s o n e o f ostentatious c o n s u m e r i s m . I n fact it h a d b e e n c o n c e i v e d several years earlier a n d u n d e r g o n e a p r o l o n g e d gestation in a b e h i n d . b u t I d o n ' t k n o w . stid less.r o o m s and.

s w i t c h . H i s flat's h o r r e n d o u s .e y e d M a r l b o r o M a n m a s c u l i n i t y o f S t e v e M c Q u e e n a n d the P a u l N e w m a n o f The Hustler a n d Cool Hand Luke.w i n n i n g play first p r o d u c e d in 1 9 8 2 .in fatigues. Coming Clean. O w i n g s o m e t h i n g to the A c t i o n M a n dods o f his c h i l d h o o d . s o o n c l a i m i n g bars. b u t rather m o r e to A m e r i c a a n d the b l u e . a kind of construction w o r k e r in hardhat a n d m i r r o r e d sunglasses. H e w a s so p r o u d o f his d i m m e r . . In an a w a r d . o f holidays in Sitges o r P l a y a del Ingles a r r a n g e d b y the g a y t o u r c o m p a n y U r a n i a n T r a v e l . the m u s i c business.t e r m g a y couples p r o s p e r e d as m u c h as their Y u p p y o r D i n k y ('double i n c o m e . a n d c o n c e a l e d lighting. 21 A b o v e ad. ' 2 2 hard-bitten . retailing.S a n d y s t e r e o t y p e o f the g a y m a n w i t h the t o u g h e r . K e p t re-adjusting it to get the m o o d j u s t right. M o r e m o n e y than sense. the c l o n e a r r i v e d in B r i t a i n at a r o u n d the same t i m e as M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r a r r i v e d in D o w n i n g Street — w h e n an A m e r i c a n g r o u p c a d e d the V i d a g e P e o p l e a p p e a r e d o n 'YMCA'. the c l o n e m a r k e d o u t the territory. . m o r e m a s c u l i n e figure o f 'the c l o n e ' . w i t h h u n d r e d s o f m i r r o r s .c o n f i d e n c e i n e r a d icably r e p l a c e d the s i m p e r i n g J u l i a n . o f 'tasteful' dats furnished f r o m P e t e r J o n e s a n d the Habitat c a t a l o g u e .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 253 w e r e in w o r k (and l i v i n g in o r w i t h i n reach o f a m a j o r t o w n o r c i t y ) . the chains a n d the eagle b a d g e s . w h o looks like a V i e t n a m V e t cap. in 1 9 8 0 a n d 1 9 8 1 a n d 1 9 8 2 single g a y m e n a n d an i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f l o n g . the g a y central character c o n d e m n s a n o t h e r g a y m a n p u r e l y b y r e f e r e n c e to his l i v i n g r o o m : . I nearly said. a b l a c k m o t o r ­ cycle cop. G a d o n s o f d a r k . n o kids y e t ' ) straight equivalents in their v e r y o w n Thatcherite v e r s i o n o f the w o r l d o f The Boys in the Band. a n d glasst o p p e d tables. detads w e r e i m p o r t a n t . This w a s the era o f b o o m a n d b u o y a n t p r o p e r t y prices — o f w e d . I . A n e m e t i c c o m ­ b i n a t i o n o f S a l v a d o r D a l i a n d the Ideal H o m e E x h i b i t i o n . . this w a s the era w h e n b u r g e o n i n g s e l f .p a i d 'service industry' j o b s in estate a g e n c y .a n d . clubs a n d the v e r y p a v e ­ m e n t s o f E a r l ' s C o u r t in L o n d o n a n d the d e v e l o p i n g ' V i d a g e ' in . Style w a s aU. a black G . a n d a b i k e r in b l a c k leather w i t h the p e a k e d D e s c r i b e d b y the p o e t A d a m J o h n s o n as a 'stylish t h u g ' . the o n l y t h i n g that'd i m p r o v e this r o o m ' d b e a p o w e r cut. . .b l u e paint e v e r y w h e r e . Top of the Pops s i n g i n g their song ' T h e r e ' s a c o w b o y w h o w e a r s chaps a n d smiles a lot.

the c r o p p e d hair a n d c l i p p e d m o u s t a c h e . p o w e r a n d the g l o r y .' F r e d d i e M e r c u r y and T i m R i c e w e r e to w r i t e in their s o n g ' T h e G o l d e n B o y ' . W h a t can I say? I a r r i v e d in L o n d o n a n d h e r e it ad w a s . F o r ' G é o r g i e ' a n d his friends in E i r e . g o t a d o s e o r s o m e 'visitors'. S e x w a s part o f that. . that party k e p t r u n n i n g . fetish gear. b o t d e s o f ' p o p p e r s ' (Amyl the a n d B u t y l N i t r a t e stimulants). I quit m y j o b a n d r o o m a n d h e a d e d for the s m o k e . a real sense o f f r e e d o m . h e d i d n ' t hesitate H e p l a y e d . . s e e m e d to b e w e d i n t o s e x . specialist r e a d i n g matter. T h e S c e n e [. differentiated a n d d e l i c i o u s l y delineated pleasures in store. a n d the severest c o n s e q u e n c e w a s a w e e k o r t w o o f f the b o o z e . it isn't w o r k i n g ' .' T h r o u g h o u t the early eighties his w a s the k i n g d o m . g o o d friends. T h e r e w a s an o v e r t sexuality a b o u t the c l o n e w h i c h w a s at o n c e u n i f o r m — the tight T . ' sang the to the ' T h e y h a v e e v e r y t h i n g there for y o u n g m e n e n j o y .d y L e v i 5 0 1 j e a n s . m a c h o B r i t a i n a n d the c l o n e ' s lean. W e m a d e a stack o f friends. R e a d y . E v e r y b o d y I k n e w . it g a v e m e c o n f i d e n c e . c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e h o w g o o d it felt.the message w a s j u s t the s a m e : I w e n t to L o n d o n to c h e c k it o u t . ' 8 2 . A m e r i ­ c a n m a g a z i n e s . t h e y s a w . for those in the k n o w . H i s C l o n e Z o n e shops (a c h a i n established in 1 9 8 1 ) s t o c k e d ad the c o s t u m e s as w e d as a r a n g e o f p r o p s — v a r i o u s l y c o l o u r e d handkerchiefs. ' 7 9 .s h i r t o r vest. ' 8 3 . a trip to the clinic o r c h e m i s t w a s sufficient r e m e d y . a c o n n o i s s e u r range o f c o n d o m s — w h i c h .254 ORDINARY PEOPLE M a n c h e s t e r as his o w n . m a c h o torso w e r e almost t o o g o o d to b e true. I f y o u g o t c a u g h t o u t . the b u t t o n . a n d they c o u l d w e l l h a v e h a d the early eighties c l o n e in m i n d : H i s r o a d in life w a s clearly d r a w n . ' 8 1 .' 7 8 . It w a s a w o n d e r f u l thing. . ' H i s rise w a s irresistible. Y o u felt free a n d u n d e r s t o o d . h e c o n q u e r e d as the master o f his fate. T h a t c h e r ' s lean. g a y a n d straight alike. I r e a d y g o t o n g o o d terms w i t h myself. 2 3 . a n d v e r y strong. ' B o p 'til y o u d r o p ! ' . 'It's fun to stay at the Y M C A .] A l l o u r lives s e e m e d to start o v e r . ' I f it isn't h u r t i n g . ' 8 0 .a n d i n d i v i d u a l . . the s c e n e at that t i m e . F o r h i m the w h o l e o f T h a t c h e r ' s B r i t a i n b e c a m e a giant Y M C A : Village People.

c a n n o t r u n for e v e r . . I r o n i cady. s o m e t h i n g seen o u t o f the c o m e r o f the e y e .b a r ) . ' B r a d ' . Paris a n d A m s t e r d a m ' — w a s at b o a r d i n g . that m i d n i g h t w a s fast a p p r o a c h i n g : ' M y life w a s in a strange w a y that s u m m e r . V i d a g e P e o p l e w e r e l o n g forgotten (although ' Y M C A ' Own The Story.w h o . the last s u m m e r o f its k i n d t h e r e w a s e v e r t o be. S y d n e y . ' A t first the portents o f d o o m w e r e scarcely n o t i c e a b l e . T h e A m e r i c a n w r i t e r E d m u n d W h i t e p u b l i s h e d A Boy's i m m e d i a t e l y t o o k u p as a sort o f c o n t e m p o r a r y Catcher in the Rye.b u t ad the w h i l e w i t h a faint flicker o f c a l a m i t y . it w a s j u s t a n o t h e r n e w s story t h e n . I s e e m to r e m e m b e r . b u t it w a s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y difficult to d o so. ' ' G é o r g i e ' r e m e m b e r s .that's h o w w e referred to t h e m .it w a s m y t i m e . T h e party j u s t k e p t r u n n i n g . a n d m o r e o f the s a m e . H a d t h e y b u t eyes t o see. W e ' d h a v e ad the n e w s p a p e r s in the D a y R o o m a n d t h e y ' d b e fided w i t h a c c o u n t s o f h o w ' q u e e r s ' . m y belle époque . W i t h i n less than h a l f a d e c a d e 1 9 8 3 h a d a c q u i r e d m y t h i c status — b u t o n l y b e c a u s e . ten years o n . m o n k e y s o r S o u t h A f r i c a n airline pilots. 25 ' T h e n in ' 8 4 I started n o t i c i n g articles in the press a b o u t this n e w disease hitting g a y m e n in A m e r i c a . l i k e H o d i n g h u r s t ' s h e r o W d l i a m B e c k w i t h .s c h o o l at this t i m e : A s far as I w a s c o n c e r n e d . b y their v e r y nature. b u t b y t h e n the e q u a d y e g r e g i ­ ous B o y G e o r g e w a s riding h i g h in the charts w i t h his s o n g ' K a r m a Chameleon' . . at the t i m e I f o u n d it ad quite f i m n y . ad the reveders s h o u l d h a v e n o t i c e d . A l t h o u g h it w a s b a n n e d f r o m the B B C ' s play-list b e c a u s e o f its h o m o s e x u a l o v e r t o n e s .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 255 1983 l o o k e d set to b e the a p o g e e . P a u l C o n s has r e c a d e d a n e w c l i m a t e w h i c h w a s . hardly m o r e than flickers i n d e e d . freely admits that the c o n t i n u i n g threat o f A I D S has n o t p r e v e n t e d h i m f r o m l e a d i n g 'an active sex-life in L o n d o n . I w a s riding h i g h o n sex a n d self-esteem . l i k e flames 2 4 a r o u n d a p h o t o g r a p h . the golden year. Margaret T h a t c h e r a n d the C o n s e r v a t i v e s w o n a s e c o n d t e r m in office that y e a r w i t h promises o f m o r e .w e r e d y i n g b e c a u s e t h e y ' d b e e n h a v i n g sex w i t h m o n k e y s o r s o m e t h i n g .as A l a n H o l l i n g h u r s t r e c o g n i z e d w h e n h e c h o s e to set his 1 9 8 8 n o v e l The Swimming Pool Library in that annus mirabilis — parties. a sensitive (if rather sentimental) n o v e l w h i c h the g a y c o m m u n i t y w a s stid o n the play-list in e v e r y d e c e n t d i s c o . F r a n k i e G o e s to H o d y w o o d h a d a N u m b e r O n e hit w i t h their n o t o r i o u s single ' R e l a x ' in 1 9 8 4 . L o s A n g e l e s .

later. in M a n c h e s t e r as e v e r y w h e r e else: ' I n the late eighties t h e r e [was] a m a j o r depression o n the g a y scene t h r o u g h AIDS a n d t h r o u g h w h a t h a d h a p p e n e d to the sort o f p e o p l e w h o w e r e p a r t y i n g in the early eighties. ' w e r e c o m m o n w i t h m a n y y o u t h . The Downing n o t o n l y n o t interested. 0 0 0 ) h a d as its c e n t r e p i e c e a w a t e r carnival o n the T h a m e s w i t h the statuesque .b e d . . b u t a c t i v e l y hostile'. large n u m b e r s o f homosexuals Own in Story Street Years. n o w it w a s t r a n s f o r m e d into the irritant grit.u p to A Boy's w a s to b e entitled The Beautiful Room Is Empty). a n d d i s a p p r o v e ' . P r i d e ' 8 5 (attendance 1 0 . T h a t p u t a m a j o r d o w n e r o n the w h o l e g a y c l u b b i n g e x p e r i e n c e for a number of years. ethnic a n d m i n o r i t y g r o u p s — lost faith in T h a t c h e r i s m ( E d m u n d W h i t e ' s 1 9 8 8 f o d o w . Against this b a c k g r o u n d .t i m e health m i n i s ­ ter E d w i n a C u r r i e o b s e r v e d . b e c a m e o n e o f i n c r e a s i n g hostility.' 26 T h e d a m e s w e r e b e g i n n i n g to take h o l d . the t o n e w i t h i n the g a y c o m m u n i t y . T h e n c e f o r t h . the n e w T h a t c h e r g o v e r n m e n t a p p e a r e d to b e d o i n g little o r n o t h i n g to s u p p o r t t h e m . Thatcher herself'could only watch with p u r s e d lips w h a t w a s g o i n g o n . S i g n a d i n g this n e w i m p a t i e n c e . Its laissez-faire noni n t e r v e n t i o n i s m c a m e to b e seen as little m o r e than cadous c o m ­ p l a c e n c y . ' 27 ' G é o r g i e ' 's e x p e r i e n c e e c h o e d in m i n i a t u r e those o f the w i d e r gay c o m m u n i t y . I n 1 9 8 4 it w a s established that the H I V virus (then stid k n o w n as H T L V — I I I ) did cause A I D S . T h a t w a s in ' 8 s . I n e v e r t h o u g h t a b o u t it in a n y detail a n d n o n e o f m y friends talked a b o u t it w i t h m e u n t d I b e c a m e id.) C u r r i e ' s predecessors at the D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h . Instinctively prudish in matters s e x u a l (in 1 9 8 9 she w a s p e r s o n a d y to v e t o the idea o f a national survey o f sexual behaviour). d i d she so m u c h as m e n t i o n A I D S — ' p o t e n t i a d y the greatest health risk o f m o d e m t i m e s ' . a c c o r d ­ i n g to h e r o w n g o v e r n m e n t — in h e r m e m o i r s . . F e w e r a n d f e w e r m e n w e r e s i n g i n g a l o n g w i t h T o m R o b i n s o n that they w e r e g l a d to b e g a y . T h e y l o o k e d o n helplessly as A I D S increasingly b e c a m e a fact o f life and. so r e c e n d y o n e o f blithe c o m p l a c e n c y . ' I f I s n e e z e d o r c o u g h e d I ' d often m a k e a q u i p a b o u t A I D S a n d l a u g h it off. the d e c i m a t i o n that h a d o c c u r r e d .256 ORDINARY PEOPLE o v e r t a k i n g the c l u b s c e n e . b y t h e n thirty cases h a d already b e e n d i a g n o s e d . a n d a l m o s t o v e r n i g h t a r e a c t i o n against its o w n incipient c o n s e r v a t i s m e r u p t e d a m o n g large sections o f the gay c o m m u n i t y . W h e r e o n l y t w o o r three y e a n p r e v i o u s l y T h a t c h e r i s m h a d s e e m e d to offer a c o m f o r t a b l e o y s t e r . o n e . t o o . significantly. ( N o r .

B y the b e g i n n i n g o f 1 9 8 6 the c u m u l a t i v e total w a s 6 7 0 . P a p e r bags o f shit b u d t u p b e c a u s e n o b o d y c a m e to take t h e m a w a y . b y the y e a r ' s e n d it h a d risen to a little o v e r 2 . A d they told m e w a s that I h a d ' A i d s ' .' F i v e hours later the d o o r o p e n e d . N o t h i n g e l s e . j u s t this h u g e w i n d o w to o p e n . I t h o u g h t . ' Y o u h a v e A i d s . H e said h e h a d s o m e b a d n e w s . 0 0 0 . p i c k e d m e u p . after all. a n d n o b o d y w a s a d o w e d in w i t h o u t d o i n g the same. inescapably the ' v i c t i m s ' o f a brutal b l e n d o f p r e j u d i c e a n d m e d i c a l over-reaction: T h e d o c t o r said h e ' d g i v e m e an ' A i d s test'. p r o s p e c t for the m a j o r i t y o f B r i t i s h . t o o k m y b l o o d . I w a s n e a r the r o o m and thought. carried m e to m y r o o m . G a y m e n w e r e . I stayed in that r o o m for nearly a m o n t h a n d w a s barrier n u r s e d . ' A h . rapidly a n d i n e v i t a b l y b e c a m e the issue u p p e r m o s t in t h e m i n d o f this n e w g e n e r a t i o n o f agitators and. operating ' G o d ! I w o n d e r w h a t t h e y ' v e b e e n d o i n g in there. albeit terrifying. a n d l o c k e d the d o o r . H e ' d d e v e l o p e d a stutter a n d h e f i d d l e d w i t h a p e n c i l .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 257 from a launch drag-artiste AIDS D i v i n e symbolically shouting defiance m o o r e d o n l y a f e w h u n d r e d yards f r o m the P a l a c e o f W e s t m i n s t e r . 28 A c t u a l cases w e r e rare. D e s p i t e the p u b l i c i t y . I froze. b u t e v e n that w a s w e l l b e l o w official predictions. w i t h plastic bags o n his feet. a n d said the results w o u l d take eight o r n i n e days. a n d there w e r e n o e x t r a c ­ tor fans in the r o o m .a t references to a ' g a y disease'. selfishly. A I D S w a s stid a distant. I n 1 9 8 3 there h a d b e e n b e t w e e n thirty and forty c o n f i r m e d diagnoses o f A I D S (a total w h i c h i n c l u d e d a n u m b e r o f i n t r a v e n o u s drug-users a n d h a e m o p h i l i a c s i n f e c t e d b y ' c o n t a m i n a t e d b l o o d p r o d u c t s ' ) . e v e n p o s i t i v e l y e m b r a c i n g o n c e . as s o m e s a w it. w h o l o o k e d as i f h e h a d seen a ghost. I w o n d e r i f I can guess the results o f the test. W o u l d I w a i t in the hospital? T w o days later. It w a s m y d o c t o r .' [ B u t ] they c a m e a n d t o o k the p h o n e o u t o f m y h a n d . ' ' I ' v e g o t A i d s . they b e g a n t r y i n g to k e e p it for t h e m s e l v e s . T h e d o c t o r c a m e in c a p p e d a n d g o w n e d a n d m a s k e d . ' A n d I d i d n ' t think a n y t h i n g else.g i b e d . I j u s t n u m b e d out. F o o d w a s left outside the d o o r . there's m e in m y p y j a m a s in the c o r r i d o r o n the t e l e p h o n e a n d these t w o z o m b i e s w a l k u p w i t h their space suits o n . a n d that e v e r y t h i n g that w e n t o u t o f the r o o m h a d to b e burnt. I d i d n ' t k n o w w h a t it m e a n t . the w h o l e bit. top to b o t t o m .

h o l d i n g it surprisingly strongly for a f e w seconds. H e is hot. A l t h o u g h t h e y d o w h a t they can to p r e s e r v e his m o d e s t y . A b a g o f d e x t r o s e a n d saline s o l u t i o n a n d s o m e t h i n g m o r e sinister drip d o w n lines into his left a r m . a n d read a b o u t in n o v e l s such as O s c a r M o o r e ' s A Com­ Matter ( 1 9 9 0 ) b u t o n l y a c h i e v e d international b o x .o r a n g e urine into a b a g h a l f . H i s m o t h e r a n d I take turns — r o u g h l y t w o . D a w n breaks w i t h o u t a n y o n e n o t i c i n g it. It w o u l d h a v e b e e n k i n d e r i f t h e y ' d asked us to l e a v e . A I D S w a s h a v i n g a direct effect o n a far greater n u m b e r o f o t h e r w i s e healthy m e n as life b e g a n to imitate art a n d those m e n w e r e f o r c e d to share the e x p e r i e n c e s o f less fortunate friends: — 's b e e n m o v e d i n t o a private r o o m . O n c e . t h e y say.258 ORDINARY PEOPLE h o m o s e x u a l s . w i t h tiny beads o f perspiration o n his face.to sit w i t h h i m . W e m a y stay in the r o o m . A catheter drains b i l e . stands o u t like a w e a l o n his w r i s t . T h e n s u d d e n l y h e grips m y h a n d . S h o r t l y afterwards t w o nurses arrive to turn h i m . . again o n l y for a f e w s e c o n d s . n e c k a n d chest. h e h a l f . j u s t o n c e . h o l d i n g his h a n d a n d o c c a s i o n a d y s t r o k i n g his hair. I m p o s s i b l e to i m a g i n e h e has j u s t turned twenty-eight. T h i s h a p p e n s r o u g h l y e v e r y fifteen m i n u t e s . a little p u m p a d m i n i s t e r i n g shots o f d i a m o r p h i n e e v e r y m i n u t e O x y g e n m a s k o v e r his face. — n o w c o m p l e t e l y u n c o n s c i o u s .o f f i c e success w i t h of Life and Sex ( 1 9 9 1 ) .h i d d e n b e n e a t h the b e d . V e r y pale. 15 May or S t a y e d ad n i g h t at the hospital. it is i m p o s s i b l e to miss his n a k e d thighs. h o w e v e r . Insidiously.h o u r l y . 3 0 I m a k e coffee a n d toast — f r o m w h i c h his m o t h e r a n d I snack a r o u n d — ' s b e d . s o m e t h i n g to w a t c h w i t h appalled fascination in a series o f A m e r i c a n feature films w h i c h effectively b e g a n w i t h Longtime panion Philadelphia. T h e o n l y s o u n d emanates from a rotating fan a n d a discreet m a c h i n e w h i c h seems to innate a n d deflate his mattress.o p e n s his eyes. fine as it is. T h a t in itself is so thin the s h a d o w o f the n e e d l e . F o r l o n g p e r i o d s the o n l y sign o f life is the h e a v i n g o f his chest as h e struggles to breathe. A t a r o u n d 7 . s h r u n k e n n o w to a b o u t so t h r o u g h a l i n e w h i c h disappears into the w a d o f his s t o m a c h .

T a k e — ' s h a n d . the gay c o m m u n i t y q u i c k l y established a r a n g e o f b o d i e s offering practical h e l p a n d a d v i c e to those directly a n d i n d i r e c t l y affec­ ted b y the c o n d i t i o n . thighs. f o n d l e . bads. Y o u c o u l d g i v e h i m a soft sensual massage o r g e t t o u g h e r w i t h wrestling. ' it insisted. calves. B a t t l i n g . 'Safer sex is great s e x .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 259 the size o f m y u p p e r arms b u t hairier. arse. . E v e n to turn this s h a d o w the nurses h a v e to g i v e h i m an i n t r a v e n o u s shot o f D i a z e p a m . c r o t c h . h e l p . C r y a bit.a w a r e n e s s c a m p a i g n s e x p l i c i t l y targeted at g a y m e n — a n y atavistic selfishness q u i c k l y b e c a m e e n l i g h t e n e d self-help. 29 I n the face o f this a n d a p e r c e i v e d g o v e r n m e n t indifference — it w a s n o t until 1 9 8 9 that W h i t e h a d a n d the H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n A u t h o r i t y ( H E A ) s a n c t i o n e d a n d g r u d g i n g l y b e g a n to fund A I D S . rough-and-tumble or spanking . . T h e T e r r e n c e H i g g i n s T r u s t p i o n e e r e d a p r o g r a m m e o f frank 'practical support. m a k i n g n o a p o l o g y for u n l o c k i n g the b e d r o o m d o o r o n a w h o l e K a m a S u t r a o f c o n t e m p o r a r y h o m o s e x u a l practice: Y o u c o u l d s u c k . than I r e m e m b e r t h e m — than m y o w n .m a k i n g organizations a m o n g a p l e t h o r a o f s m a d e r regional a n d l o c a d y f u n d e d g r o u p s w h i c h w e r e to u n i t e u n d e r g e n e r i c title G a y M e n F i g h t i n g A i d s ( G M F A ) in 1 9 9 1 . I n L o n d o n a l o n e .e d u c a t i o n o f the entire h o m o s e x u a l c o m m u n i t y . . the T e r r e n c e H i g g i n s T r u s t .30 that it is time to g o . kiss.f o u r h o u r s . D e c i d e a b o u t 8. posters. armpits. toes. Leadets. for its v e r y survival. n e c k . n i b b l e a n d s q u e e z e ad o v e r his b o d y — his nipples. i n d e e d . bite. B o d y P o s i t i v e and the L o n d o n L i g h t h o u s e A I D S h o s p i c e ( 1 9 8 8 ) w e r e o n l y the h e a d l i n e . nose. furrier. kiss h i m o n the f o r e h e a d a n d w h i s p e r G o o d b y e . T h i s q u i c k l y relaxes h i m . a n d sleep o f f a n d o n for m o s t o f the n e x t t w e n t y . T h e i r a i m w a s n o t h i n g less than the c o m p l e t e r e . t o u c h .s e d i n g v i d e o t a p e stressed the i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n d o m use a n d g a v e e x p l i c i t a d v i c e o n w h a t constituted 'safe' (later p r u d e n t l y a m e n d e d t o 'safer') sex in the d e m o t i c l a n g u a g e o f w h i c h the g o v e r n m e n t a n d the H E A h a d a l w a y s f o u g h t shy. I know t h e n that h e c a n n o t r e c o v e r . as it s a w it. . ears. c o u n s e d i n g a n d a d v i c e for a n y o n e l i v i n g w i t h o r c o n c e r n e d a b o u t A i d s a n d H I V i n f e c t i o n ' . the . lick. L e a v e pretty certain that I w i d n e v e r see h i m alive again. advertisements in the g a y press a n d a b e s t . f i n g e r s .

N o n e o f m y friends there k n e w a b o u t h i m — h e w o u l d n ' t h a v e b e e n 'their sort o f p e r s o n ' — b u t at the e n d o f the e v e n i n g I ' d find s o m e e x c u s e a n d slope o f f to see h i m . rub a n d slap y o u r d i c k against his d i c k . b u t I think I k n o w a lot m o r e a b o u t safe s e x . in a sort o f way. W e ' d j u s t w a l k h o m e t o g e t h e r after c l o s i n g t i m e . S o m e ­ times h e ' d p u t his h a n d d o w n inside the b a c k o f m y trousers. like I didn't invite h i m b a c k . ready. j u s t grab e a c h other's c o c k a n d h a v e a q u i c k w a n k a n d h o p e n o o n e c a m e in w h i l e w e w e r e at it. face. W e d i d n ' t d o m u c h . buns. S a d . It w a s p r o b a b l y safer than the cottage at the p u b ! W e ' d masturbate e a c h other. I o n l y e v e r m e t h i m in the gents in this p u b . ' R a t h e r older. o u t there o n the ' p u b l i c h i g h w a y ' . yes. but never invited m e back. In 1 9 9 5 a s e v e n t e e n . safe. b e c a u s e h e w a s a h u n k a n d h e c a m e f r o m B e c k e n h a m . a n d let h i m r o g e r m e rotten i f w e ' r e g o i n g to b e honest! A n o t h e r c h a p I m e t at the s a m e p u b w a s a nurse: b l o n d . . b u t w e w e r e close. hairy chest. T h e r e w e r e t w o I s a w pretty regularly a r o u n d this t i m e . I think I w o u l d h a v e taken h i m h o m e . kiss a n d h a v e a bit o f a c u d d l e a n d s o m e t i m e s s u c k e a c h o t h e r off. t h o u g h . T h e r e w a s a dark a d e y o f f the r o a d — it's ad b e e n p u d e d d o w n n o w . It w a s (and c o n t i n u e s to be) an effective p r o g r a m m e . b u t it w a s t w o o r three times a w e e k . B e f o r e . I guess that w a s a sort o f c o n s c i o u s n o d t o w a r d s safe sex — o n m y part at a n y rate. 31 .o l d g a y L o n d o n e r told a n e w s p a p e r : ' I h a v e n ' t b e e n a n y m o r e p r o m i s c u o u s than a n y [straight] t e e n a g e r m y a g e . I d o n ' t t h i n k w e said m o r e than a b o u t six w o r d s to e a c h o t h e r in ad the t i m e I k n e w h i m . definitely bed-ablel B u t it w a s the s a m e w i t h h i m . o t h e r g a y m e n w e r e also h e e d i n g the m e s s a g e .y e a r . . i f y o u see w h a t I m e a n .a n d y o u ' d m e e t this b l o k e . chest.I'd g o to the p u b .260 You ORDINARY PEOPLE c o u l d w a n k e a c h o t h e r o f f — dry o r using lots o f l u b e 3 0 [lubricant] — o r press. m o d i f y i n g praxis a n d d e v e l o p i n g e x p e d i e n t s o f their o w n : M e n d i d start u s i n g c o n d o m s 'johnnies' round about then [ 1 9 8 5 — 6 ] — o r didn't. t h i g h s . w h i c h w a s fun a n d e x c i t i n g b e c a u s e it w a s idegal.a n d w e ' d a u t o m a t i c a d y stop o f f there. Y o u ' d g o to the p u b . H e l i v e d s o m e w h e r e near m e . T h e r e w a s o n e I c a d e d the B e c k e n h a m H u n k .

fulminated that it w a s ' m a i n l y s o d o m i t e s ' w h o w e r e spreading it. a l t h o u g h the g o v e r n m e n t ' s alarmist health e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s featuring i m a g e s o f t o m b s t o n e s a n d i c e ­ bergs h a d g o n e o u t o f their w a y to b e e v e n . T h a t c h e r ' s p r e m i e r s h i p . W e ' d b e really d r u n k a n d get o f f w i t h e a c h o t h e r . C e r t a i n l y its g e n e r a l readiness to a c c e p t the social implications o f H I V a n d its realistic — i f n o t a l w a y s enthusiastic — a d o p t i o n o f 'safer s e x ' practices w e r e w e d in a d v a n c e o f those o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . kissing. . a n d a sizeable.'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL I used to g o to g a y clubs o c c a s i o n a l l y . It w a s j u s t fondling. I ' d h a v e snogs a n d that sort o f thing. A t a time w h e n . W i t h a n u m b e r o f chaps. . c l a i m e d to b e s p e a k i n g for G o d w h e n h e described h o m o s e x u a l s as ' s w i r l i n g a r o u n d in a c e s s p o o l o f their . as the C o n s e r v a t i v e M P S i r N i c h o l a s F a i r b a i m w a s to ted the H o u s e o f C o m m o n s they did. pods s u g g e s t e d that a r o u n d 1 4 p e r cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n stid b e l i e v e d A I D S Sir Alfred Sherman. o r at least ' g r o w n u p ' . J a m e s A n d e r t o n . the Sun told its readers in 1 9 8 6 .' the c o m m e n t a r y to a t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s e m e n t h a d b e g u n — the v e r y fact that g a y m e n h a d p u b l i c l y r e c o g n i z e d that t h e y w e r e at particular risk c o u n t e d against t h e m .w a y o r s o m e b l o k e ' s p l a c e . b u t n e v e r a n y t h i n g m o r e than that. stroking. g r o p i n g . I n the p u b l i c m i n d s ' A I D S ' a n d ' g a y s ' c o n t i n u e d to h a v e m o r e than an assonant at c o n n e c t i o n .c a d e d ' w o r l d ­ w i d e A I D S p a n d e m i c ' to reinforce it. N o t h i n g serious h a p p e n e d for a n u m b e r o f years: I d i d n ' t h a v e a n y sex o r i n t e r c o u r s e o r a n y t h i n g . that it h a d ' c o m e o f a g e ' . A f o r m e r c h i e f constable o f G r e a t M a n c h e s t e r . despite the g o v e r n m e n t ' s health e d u c a t i o n p r o ­ g r a m m e s .h a n d e d — ' T h e r e is n o w a deadly disease. F r o m there it w a s o n l y a short step to attacking h o m o s e x u a l s m e r e l y for b e i n g h o m o s e x u a l — for ' p u t t i n g [their] penis into a n o t h e r m a n ' s arsehole'. It is a danger to us all. ' P e r v e r t s to b l a m e for g a y p l a g u e ' . 32 P e o p l e said that the g a y c o m m u n i t y w a s ' s h o w i n g the w a y ' . T h e r e w e r e a f e w occasions in s o m e a l l e y . though. v o c a l a n d s o m e t i m e s i n d u e n t i a l h o m o p h o b i c c o n s t i t u e n c y w a s q u i c k to seize o n the s o . b u t s o m e h o w this sixth sense told us w h e n to stop. B u t . c o u l d b e ' c a u g h t ' f r o m sharing t o w e l s o r u s i n g a D o w n i n g Street adviser during Margaret cups a n d plates w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n u s e d b y an i n f e c t e d p e r s o n .

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a n d that a L o n d o n h e a d t e a c h e r v e t o e d a s c h o o l trip to a p e r f o r m a n c e o f P r o k o f i e v ' s Romeo and had Juliet because the badet w a s 'totady h e t e r o s e x u a l ' . T h e m e n w e r e b o u n d o v e r for £ 1 0 0 e a c h after charges o f ' g r o s s i n d e c e n c y ' against t h e m . t w o m e n w h o w e r e kissing in a K i n g ' s C r o s s street [.s t o r y b o o k a b o u t a y o u n g girl b e i n g b r o u g h t u p b y h e r gay father a n d his m a l e l o v e r . E v e n r o u t i n e c o u r t p r o ­ ceedings w e r e seen as part o f a g r a n d a n d sinister plan. It's t h e m queers that h a v e m a d e y o u turn this w a y . W h e n t h e y f o u n d o u t t h e y said t h e y d i d n ' t m i n d . a S c a n d i ­ n a v i a n p i c t u r e . It's queer. ' T h a t p l a c e is t a k i n g o v e r y o u r life.] W h e n y o u ' r e s e v e n t e e n y o u can piss o f f a n d d o a n y t h i n g w i t h those o t h e r poofters!' H e said m u c h m o r e . T h e n m y dad said. . a n d a c c e p t e d it. It w a s n ' t the slaps that h u r t a n d m a d e m e c r y .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 263 gay p e o p l e . it w a s the hatred M o r e c r u c i a d y . m a n y g a y m e n . t h e n slapped m e r o u n d in his eyes a n d w h a t h a d c o m e o u t o f his m o u t h . w e ' r e g o i n g to get y o u r brain sorted o u t . T h e n . . Y o u ' v e b e e n w i t h dirty o l d m e n . . d o n ' t y o u g i v e a shit w h a t the n e i g h b o u r s say? [.] O n e day w h e n I g o t h o m e m y m u m said. . after a f e w m o n t h s I w a l k e d in a n d w a s five m i n u t e s late. . B u t all the t i m e I w a s g o i n g to the C e n t r e I w a s telling m y parents I w a s g o i n g to friends'. D o n ' t g o to that C e n t r e again. Y o u ' r e n o t g a y .s h r i n k e r . . w i t h j u d g e s a n d magistrates ' c r a c k i n g d o w n ' a n d h a n d i n g o u t dire w a r n i n g s — o r worse: . I'd paste y o u a n d b u m it d o w n . . I f y o u d o . M y dad g o t u p a n d started s a y i n g things l i k e . B a l e f u l m o t i v e s w e r e d e t e c t e d b e h i n d its reports that p r i m a r y s c h o o l libraries w e r e stocking_/e««y Lives with Eric and Martin. ' T h e r e is n o s u c h thing as g a y . .a n d an i n c r e a s i n g l y v o c a l b o d y o f lesbian w o m e n — c a m e to b e l i e v e that t h e y a n d their lifestyles w e r e u n d e r c o n c e r t e d a n d e v e n centralized attack. W e k n o w y o u ' v e b e e n g o i n g there ad the t i m e . T h e press w a s s e e n t o b e obsessed b y the p r o d i g a t e funding w h i c h s u p p o s e d l y s u b v e r s i v e g a y a n d (especiady) lesbian g r o u p s w e r e r e c e i v i n g f r o m ' L o o n y L e f t ' c o u n c i l s .] h a d b e e n arrested b y a p o l i c e officer w h o 'realised h o w offensive this can b e to o r d i n a r y m e m b e r s o f the p u b l i c ' . y o u ' r e a transvestite!' I c o u l d n ' t e x p l a i n [to m y parents] b e c a u s e they w o u l d p r o b a b l y hit m e . as far as I a m c o n c e r n e d . [. 35 the face. ' W h y d o y o u d o it? W e are g o i n g to take y o u to a h e a d . A n y w a y .

. A I D S b e c a m e j u s t a n o t h e r fact o f life. ' T h e r e w e r e radies a n d (not i n f r e q u e n d y ) b a d . o f c o u r s e . p o s t . T h o m a s P i g o t t Q C . any w a r w e n t o n . a n d that w a s e n o u g h . as M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r quit the s c e n e and. A b a t d e h a d b e e n lost — b u t the w a r . ' h e said. d i s c r i m i n a t o r y treatment. I n d e e d . I n e x o r a b l y . C l a u s e 2 8 passed i n t o l a w as S e c t i o n 2 8 o f the 1 9 8 8 L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t A c t . t o l d t h e m they w e r e l u c k y to escape a p r i s o n s e n t e n c e : ' T h i s k i n d o f t h i n g is i n t o l e r a b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s . the g o v e r n m e n t w a s specificady s e e k i n g to o u t l a w 'the p r o m o t i o n o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y [. S t o n e w a d a n d O u t R a g e ! reared u p against a n y . W e h a v e to r e s p o n d to that b y d e f e n d i n g o u r right to b e g a y a n d to b e treated w i t h d i g n i t y w e h a v e to d e f e n d h o m o s e x u a l i t y in order. I r o n i c a d y b l i n d to w h a t a later c o m m e n t a t o r has c a d e d the ' d a n g e r o f o v e r . ' 36 S e e m i n g l y substantiating this n o t i o n o f establishment c o n t r o l w a s the d i s c o v e r y that.264 ORDINARY PEOPLE w e r e d r o p p e d . 38 u l t i m a t e l y .a n d p r e d o m i ­ nantly Labour-controded local authorities. R a t h e r . .2 8 ' b o d i e s s u c h as the A I D S C o a l i t i o n to U n l e a s h P o w e r ( A c t .000) b u t ultimately. to abolish i t . it w a s ad in v a i n .t e m p e r e d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s in e v e r y part o f the c o u n t r y (in L o n d o n .l i v e d O r g a n i z a t i o n for L e s b i a n a n d G a y Action (OLGA). ' a n d y o u h a d better ted y o u r friends that they risk a p r i s o n s e n t e n c e i f t h e y d o i t . in an i n c r e a s i n g l y a c r i m o n i o u s c l i m a t e . t h r o u g h an o b s c u r e s e c t i o n in a local g o v e r n m e n t B i d b o u g h t b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t in 1 9 8 7 (the n o t o r i o u s ' C l a u s e 2 8 ' ) . the m o s t notable l e g a c y o f the C l a u s e 28 c a m p a i g n w a s the pettish. a w a r . as the 1 9 8 0 s b e c a m e the 1 9 9 0 s .g a y spleen o r A I D S i n s p i r e d h o m o p h o b i c atavism. it w a s ad part o f a c o n t i n u i n g g o v e r n m e n t battle to ' t r i m the w i n g s ' o f 'spendthrift' . N o n e o f this was p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d b y a n t i . for a n e w g e n e r a t i o n o f y o u n g p e o p l e . the s h o r t . l Newly established. T h e j u d g e . an a n g r y P r i d e '88 attracted an attendance o f 36.U p ) . 37 activist g r o u p s r e s p o n d e d b y i n v o k i n g c i v i l liberties a r g u m e n t s a n d a radical r h e t o r i c w h i c h h a d n o t b e e n h e a r d since the 1 9 6 0 s : ' S o c i e t y m a r k s h o m o s e x u a l s o u t as separate p e o p l e d e s e r v i n g o f different.] a n d the p r o m o t i o n o f the t e a c h i n g o f the a c c e p t a ­ bility o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y as a p r e t e n d e d family relationship' b y schools a n d l o c a l authorities.r e p r e s e n t i n g the p o w e r that it h a d ' . d y s p e p t i c qui v i v e attitude it e n g e n d e r e d . C l a u s e 28 in particular w a s seen as a d r a c o n i a n a n d u n i q u e l y v i n d i c t i v e m e a s u r e .

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R e a l equality. t o o . it m i g h t h a v e b e e n r o u t . . S e c t i o n 28 stid lay o m i n o u s (but unused) o n the statute b o o k .u p dares. Ironically the debate itself had b e e n h e l d 1 0 0 years . n o o n e s e e m e d to r e m e m b e r the fact). t y p i c a d y . b u t at the s a m e t i m e they h a d signady failed to ' a b o l i s h ' the n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f homosexuality. t o o . o c c a s i o n a d y featured g a y c o u p l e s c e l e b r a t i n g t w e n t y .w i t h o n e slight difference' — albeit in a different w a y to the o n e e n v i s a g e d b y that c o n t r i b u t o r to Gay News t w e n t y years p r e v i o u s l y . W h i c h e v e r .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL . the posters t r o d d e n u n d e r f o o t . h o m o ­ sexuals h a d b e c o m e m o r e visible than e v e r b e f o r e . so ad the traffic w a s shut o f f in P a r l i a m e n t S q u a r e . 0 0 0 cases o f h a d b e e n r e c o r d e d in the U K . s e e m e d as far a w a y as e v e r . o f w h i c h less than 2 0 0 h a d . a r o u n d AIDS 1 3 .s e x i n t e r c o u r s e w a s 'distasteful o r m o r a d y w r o n g ' .' 267 the road. T h e i m a g e o f a latter-day B e n B u d e y w a t c h i n g his partner s h a v i n g had b e c o m e an u n r e m a r k a b l e m e d i a n o r m . there w e r e significant signs that y o u n g g a y m e n at least h a d c o m e to regard t h e m s e l v e s as 'perfectly n o r m a l . 4 1 D e s p i t e this. S o c i a d y a n d politicady. a great deal h a d h a p p e n e d since 1 8 9 5 .a l m o s t to the w e e k — after the M a r q u e s s o f Q u e e n s b e r r y ' s first attack o n Wdde Oscar (although. the u s e d . F o r a d e c a d e o r s o . N e w s p a p e r s . i n retrospect. M . It w a s a riot! It m i g h t h a v e b e e n a riot. in w h i c h ' t w o m e n [ c o u l d ] fad in l o v e a n d r e m a i n in it for the e v e r a n d e v e r that fiction a d o w s ' . the o l d sparklers'.f i v e years together as w e d . .r e s p e c t e d pidars o f the c o m m u n i t y — but public o p i n i o n s u r v e y s rather m o r e often r e v e a l e d that a r o u n d 40 p e r c e n t o f the adult p o p u l a t i o n stid f o u n d the sight o f t w o m e n kissing in the street ' o f f e n s i v e ' a n d c o n t i n u e d to b e l i e v e that s a m e . finance c o m p a n i e s h a d b e e n offering j o i n t m o r t g a g e s t o g a y m e n . w a s stid fudy to d a w n . Forster's ' H a p p i e r Y e a r ' . the bits o f banners. the fudged c o m p r o m i s e o n a h o m o s e x u a l age o f c o n s e n t o f e i g h t e e n s e e m e d to s u m u p the d i l e m m a facing a gay m a n in a liberal b u t h e t e r o s e x u a l democracy. as the c r o w d s p i c k e d their w a y t h r o u g h w h a t E d m u n d H a d describes as 'the detritus o f the e v e n t . E . Public-sector and a g r o w i n g n u m b e r of private-sector j o b s were b e i n g offered to candidates irrespective o f their s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n .

w a s e n j o y i n g a n e w lease o f life. had taken to w e a r i n g T-shirts b e a r i n g the l e g e n d s '1 C A N ' T E V E N T H I N K S T R A I G H T ' 'QUEER AS F U C K ' and And - as fashion statements. its — straight — H I V . T h e n e v e r . a n d an o v e r t l y ' g a y sensi­ bility' c a m e to d o m i n a t e the fashion a n d m u s i c industries.l o v e ' a n d the n o t i o n 'manliness' s e e m e d absurdly p o m p o u s a n d earnest in an a g e in w h i c h ' g a y n e s s ' h a d b e c o m e a b o l t . It w a s n o t i c e a b l e that. for the m o s t part b o m after h o m o s e x u a l acts h a d b e e n d e c r i m i n a l i z e d .1 9 9 0 s attendances at w h a t h a d b e c o m e E u r o p e ' s largest annual g a y a n d lesbian festival regularly t o p p e d 4 0 . c y n i c s e q u a d y regularly p o i n t e d out. w h i c h w a s to c o m e closest to b r i n g i n g a b o u t the v e r y a b o l i t i o n o f the h o m o s e x u a l sensibility as it h a d traditionady existed. t h r o u g h series such as Out This Week a n d Gaytime TV. P r i d e . b u t in M a n c h e s t e r ' s rather self-conscious canal-side ' g a y v i l l a g e ' P a u l C o n s w a s w a t c h i n g the arrival o f 'a n e w g e n e r a t i o n o f y o u n g lesbians a n d g a y p e o p l e w h o h a d taken o n b o a r d the lessons o f A I D S a n d w e r e ready to h a v e a g o o d t i m e ' .268 O R D I N A R Y P E O P L E b e e n d u e to h e t e r o s e x u a l sex.c o h e r e n t theories o f E d w a r d C a r p e n t e r . i f a n y t h i n g it w a s 'the s c e n e ' . 0 0 0 — b u t o n l y . signifi­ cantly c a t e r i n g for a s o . the ideals o f the 'special friend' a n d ' l a d . w h e n EastEnders revisited h o m o s e x u a l i t y it w a s n o t t h r o u g h the e x p e r i e n c e o f M a r k . w e r e b e g i n n i n g to flourish in s m a d e r metropolitan centres as w h a t w a s p e r c e i v e d as ' g a y style'. t o o . A p o t e n t sign o f this w a s the fact that.o n fashion a c c e s s o r y . m o r e a n d m o r e n e w g a y clubs a n d p a v e m e n t cafés w e r e s p r i n g i n g u p . inspire the t y p o g r a p h i c a l a n a r c h y o f 'lifestyle' m a g a z i n e s and. a n e w g e n e r a t i o n o f g a y m e n . years after O s c a r W i l d e w a s h u m i l i a t e d b y b e i n g O n e hundred p u b l i c l y n a m e d as a s o d o m i t e .c a d e d ' m i x e d c l i e n t e l e ' o f g a y a n d straight y o u n g p e o p l e . m a k e themselves felt o n B B C radio a n d t e l e v i s i o n .q u i t e . straight 'gate-crashers' m a d e it i m p o s s i b l e to m o v e in the disco-tents a n d banners b e a r i n g the l o g o s o f m a i n s t r e a m sponsors fluttered a l o n g s i d e the r a i n b o w flags o f P r i d e . In the m i d . b e c a u s e the m a r c h h a d b e e n stripped o f any political significance a n d s e r v e d m e r e l y as the p r e l u d e to a free festival w h e r e straight bands p l a y e d . eight years after C o l i n first kissed G u i d o . i r o n i c a d y .p o s i t i v e character. b u t v i a a storyline in w h i c h a n o t h e r y o u n g m a n ' s admission . m o n t h after m o n t h there a n d in a n d a r o u n d O l d C o m p t o n Street in L o n d o n . O t h e r s . the M o l o c h w h i c h c o n t i n u e d to d e m a n d t h e y b e seen to b e l o n g a n d y e t to b e seen to b e different.

L i k e m o s t o f his friends.a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l h e r o H u g o H a r v e y c o n t e m p l a t e d life f r o m a p o s t . b e i n g at the cutting e d g e o f fashion. an e v o l u t i o n . S. w e that are y o u n g S h a d n e v e r see so m u c h .i n p r o p a g a n d i z i n g o f the G o l d e n A g e activists. T h u s . o b l i v i o u s o f the events w h i c h w o u l d later h o b b l e their progress. G i l b e r t h a d p o i n t e d o u t that ' W h e n e v e r y o n e is s o m e b o d e e . n o r l i v e so l o n g . t h e y w e r e self-appointed E d g a r s .o n . In 1 8 8 9 W . B u t t o o m a n y n o w w e r e dead. T h e r e h a d b e e n m o r e than enough self-delusion in the c o m e . T h e oldest hath b o r n e m o s t . B e a t i n g t i m e o n the d a n c e .b l o w n t r a g e d y o u t o f private tantrums: T h e w e i g h t o f this sad t i m e w e m u s t o b e y . I ' d It w a s a sign o f the times. tiny a r m y for w h o m A I D S a n d E c s t a s y h a d t e l e s c o p e d history a n d f o r e s h o r t e n e d a n y future. (It serves n o p u r p o s e n o w to r e m e m b e r that b a c k in 1 9 7 7 . n o t w h a t w e o u g h t to say.t o o .'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL 269 o f his gayness (again signalled b y n o m o r e than a male—male kiss) w a s s e e m i n g l y precipitated b y a p r e v i o u s i m m e r s i o n in the c l u b a n d d r u g scene. O s c a r M o o r e ' s a U . intent o n h a m m e r i n g f u d . / T h e n n o o n e ' s a n y b o d y ' . S p e a k w h a t w e feel. in his 1 9 9 1 n o v e l A Matter of Life and Sex. I n 1 9 9 6 it s e e m e d that b e i n g gay m e a n t n o m o r e than l i v i n g for the m o m e n t . in The Naked Civil Servant. h e p e r c e i v e d h i m s e l f d o i n g little m o r e than ' l o o k i n g f o r w a r d to the days w h e n y o u w i d l o o k b a c k f o n d l y o n the days y o u spent l o o k i n g .' 42 three children a n d h a v i n g affairs w i t h m e n o n the side a n d frankly. B y t h e n N e i l T e n n a n t o f the P e t S h o p B o y s w a s teding a national n e w s p a p e r : ' W e ' v e i n v e n t e d this thing c a d e d h o m o s e x u a l i t y a n d n o w e v e r y b o d y is either g a y o r straight. t h e y c o u l d reasonably h a v e l o o k e d f o r w a r d to a future . ) W i t h o u t p r e c o g n i t i o n .f l o o r .m o d e r n i s t p o s i t i o n w a y b e y o n d the traditional s p a c e . their m a n t l e h a d b e e n a s s u m e d b y a shrdl. b e i n g o n e o f the ' b o y z ' . w h i l e a w a i t i n g the results o f an H I V test. a d e v e l o p m e n t .t i m e c o n t i n u u m . I m e a n fifty y e a n a g o I ' d h a v e b e e n m a r r i e d w i t h probably be happier.o r at the v e r y least a 1 9 9 5 in w h i c h the 1 0 0 t h anniversary o f O s c a r W i l d e ' s c o n v i c t i o n a n d i m p r i s o n m e n t w o u l d b e m a r k e d as a m i l e s t o n e i n an o n w a r d m a r c h . Q u e n t i n C r i s p h a d m a d e the o m n i s c i e n t p r o n o u n c e m e n t : ' T h e r e is n o great dark m a n ' .

stid p i p i n g l y a d o l e s c e n t . q u o t i n g a B B C s p o k e s m a n as saying that ' T h e P r o g r a m m e s C o m ­ plaints U n i t d i d n ' t g e t a single c o m p l a i n t after EastEnders It w a s O s c a r F i n g a l O ' F l a h e r t i e W d l s W i l d e w h o o n c e w r o t e that ' t h e r e is o n l y o n e t h i n g in the w o r l d w o r s e than b e i n g talked about. . T h i n g s h a d m o v e d o n . a n d that is n o t b e i n g talked a b o u t . T h e g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e us h a d all the fun. m e m o r i a l s to W i l d e and A . J u s t for o n c e . H o u s m a n h a d b e e n u n v e i l e d in W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y . the central characters in the 1 9 9 2 End.i n d u l g e n t . s a w things m o r e s i m p l y : ' W e ' r e v i c t i m s o f the film The Living s e x u a l r e v o l u t i o n . A n d . against A I D S . t o o often.r e l a t e d illness. for w h i c h h e h a d b e e n w r i t i n g a g r a p h i c diary o f his fight Q u i e d y . 43 ORDINARY PEOPLE W a s t e d in o t h e r w a y s . w a s surprised b y the l e v e l o f h e t e r o s e x u a l a p p r e c i a t i o n h e attracted.270 forwards'. E . W h e n O s c a r M o o r e d i e d in the s u m m e r o f 1 9 9 6 the Guardian. q u e r u l o u s and.' It w a s n ' t quite as b a d as that.the Pink Paper t o o k n o t a little pride in g a y kiss'. ad m a n n e r o f panics a n d p r e j u d i c e s h a d b e e n o v e r c o m e .a n d 2 2 p e r cent felt that g a y characters s h o u l d n o t b e seen at ad . W e get to p i c k u p the f u c k i n g tab. a l t h o u g h research c o n d u c t e d for the B r o a d c a s t i n g Standards C o u n c d in 1 9 9 4 h a d d i s c o v e r e d that 50 p e r cent o f adults s a m p l e d stid disliked w a t c h i n g ' g a y s c e n e s ' o n t e l e v i s i o n . n e i t h e r as solipsistic n o r as m e l o d r a m ­ atically s e l f . ' I n the present c o n t e x t it is doubtful i f e v e n the e g r e g i o u s O s c a r w o u l d h a v e m i n d e d b e i n g p r o v e d w r o n g . the l o v e that d a r e d n o t speak its n a m e h a d nevertheless f o u n d a v o i c e .

Quoted in Ellmann. see 271 . op. 4 1 2 and footnote. Cf. p. Oscar Wilde. p. Montgomery Hyde. p. p. The Cleveland Street Scandal. 14. Act I. pp. 2. op. 6. Montgomery Hyde. Wilde's enduring legacy as a homosexual icon is traced in Alan Sinfield. pp. 18. p. 15. 5. 11. John Betjeman. Oscar Wilde. The Trials of Oscar Wilde. n October 1 9 9 6 . Ibid. 12. p. pp. Ellmann.. Ibid.5 (my italics). 3 4 4 . 4 2 5 . 1 7 5 . 17. The Cleveland Street Scandal. 2 9 . op. 14. I l l — 1 2 . p. 4 2 7 . 16. 10. H. ONE: 'FOR T H E P U B L I C BENEFIT' 1. Letter published in The Pink Paper. 4 9 . p. 9. quoted in Ellmann. 1 0 5 .. 4. the street-cries of'Quentin!' which followed the transmission of the television adaptation of Quentin Crisp's The Naked Civil Servant in 1 9 7 5 . Against the Law. Gide. For a more detailed account of the origins and aims of Aestheticism. cit. Oscar Wilde. Martin Fido. pp. Montgomery Hyde... Le Temps. 7. 1 4 2 . André Gide. 4 2 8 . p. 13. Oscar Wilde.. The Wilde Century: Effeminacy. 7 April 1 8 9 5 .3 (my translation). cit. cit.Notes and Sources Publishing details for books quoted frequently in these Notes are to be found in the Bibliography. Oscar Wilde and the Queer Movement. I N T R O D U C T I O N I . Peter Wildeblood. op. p. 3. 'The Arrest of Oscar Wilde at the Cadogan Hotel'.. cit. 3 1 . 8.3 . See Richard Ellmann. The Importance of Being Earnest. 8 7 (my italics). H.

6 8 .3 . p. quoted in Ellmann. 45. 43. 38. The Fitzrovians. Quoted in ibid.. 29. pp. Ibid. 1 4 February 1 8 8 0 . Weidenfeld .West. p. Ibid. pp. Cases That Changed the Law. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 2 2 . 2 8 1 .. The Trials of Oscar Wilde. 3 9 .. lines 4 1 5 — 2 0 . Ibid. Montgomery Hyde. Punch. p. 37.. Cases That Changed the Law. quoted in ibid.. pp. 1 7 9 . 1 8 8 5 (48 & 4 9 Vict. 2 7 6 .2 0 0 . 28. Montgomery Hyde. 25. Quoted in Montgomery Hyde... 32. 69).. 2 6 January 1 9 1 8 . c.. 2 1 . pp. 4 5 . p.6 . 1 2 September 1 8 8 9 . sec. op.272 N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S Holbrook Jackson. cit.8 7 . 1 5 0 24. 3. Quoted in Montgomery Hyde. 40. Imperialist. 27. 3 1 5 . 11. See Victoria Glendinning. 36. Ibid. 19. Henry Harland to Edmund Gosse. Pall Mall Gazette..1 7 . Portrait of a Marriage. 4 3 0 . 34. 3 3 5 . The 1890s ( 1 9 1 3 ) . p. 3 . Act I. Ibid.. Ibid. book. 4 3 0 . Montgomery Hyde. The Cleveland Street Scandal. p. Sackville. 26... and my own 2 3 . 2 6 . 46. 12 February 1 8 8 1 . Alan Sinfield. Act I. 1 9 9 .4 . 42.. 2 0 .. pp. p. 2 8 1 . 2.. pp. 3 1 6 . 6 9 footnote. 9 6 . 177-8. The Trials of Oscar Wilde. p. 1 9 8 3 . p. 44. p. p. p. pp. Punch. Criminal Law Amendment Act. Quoted in Cases That Changed the Law. 5i- 1988. Ibid.2 . op. Ibid. 30. Ibid. quoted in H. Cresset Library. pp. Ellmann. cit. 1 9 2 . 41. 1 7 7 . p.. 3 1 8 . lines 2 0 6 — 9 . Ibid. Ibid. 2 7 5 (my italics). Ibid. 5 May 1 8 9 5 . and Nigel Nicolson. Vita: The Life of V. Montgomery Hyde. op. Ibid. p. Ibid. 31. 33. p. T W O : ' Y O U A N D I A R E O U T L A W S ' 1. pp. p.. 39. 2 2 . 35. 3 3 9 .. 6 . cit. Patience. The Trials of Oscar Wilde. p.

A.. p. cit. p. 11. 2 4 .. M. 31.. Beverley Nichols: A Life.. 2 3 6 . 4 0 .. 9 3 . Ibid.. Maurice.. Forster. 21.. Davidson. p. 19. 30. Harold Nicolson's letter. 33. written on 1 5 September 1 9 1 9 . Lawrence. p. & Nicolson. 1 9 9 2 . Forster. . Viking. p. Case V I I .3 . 7. Frustratingly. Ibid. 2 3 5 .. 1 9 7 3 . pp. E. Ibid. 6. cit. 9 8 . i 9 6 0 . p. 9 2 .. 23. Michael Davidson. op. 10. Denton Welch: The Making of a Writer. Between the Acts: Lives of Homosexual Men. 9. Ibid. Quoted in Kevin Porter and Jeffrey Weeks (eds). p. Ibid. 14.. X I I . 20. 18. quoted in Paul Delany. 7 1 (my italics. Havelock Ellis. p. p. pp. cit. 2 3 2 . 1 3 6 . op. the incident at the Southampton swimming pool need not concern us). p. E. p. Quoted in Michael De-la-Noy. Last Poems. 27. p. 25. p.). 2 4 . Penguin. 2 3 6 . pp. Forster. Ibid. p... E. 3 1 . L I . D. 1 3 4 . Ibid. See Bryan Connon. 1 1 6 . 3 1 0 .3 . 24. The Neo-Pagans. 28. pp. Vita and Harold: The Letters of Vita Sackville-West and Harold Nicolson. 1 3 8 . op. 1984.1 7 . Housman. 26. p. pp. A Shropshire Lad. Forster. I. 9 3 . Ibid. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Women in Love. p.. is reproduced in Nigel Nicolson (ed. 22. Connon has 'deliberately avoided footnotes or an appendix of sources' in this full and otherwise exemplary biography. Ibid. 15. p. op.5 (my italics). Quoted in Bevis Hillier. p. 1 9 6 6 . A... Forster. Housman. L V I I I . 32. 1 1 7 . 10.. 3 7 . 4 2 . op. The World. Ibid.7 . Ibid. 16. the Flesh and Myself. cit. 2 3 5 . cit. 12.. 17. Forster. p. p. 1893-1967. 8. 16. 2 2 3 . Young Betjeman. Ibid. 5. Quoted in ibid. cit. op. 9 1 . p. Studies in the Psychology of Sex. p. John Betjeman. 7 0 . 13. 1 2 5 . 'Narcissus'.NOTES AND SOURCES 273 4. 29. H. p..

felt compelled to move against what they called 'Lack of Moral Fibre'. it is perhaps worth including here a passage from the robustly heterosexual Robert Graves's But It Still Goes On ( 1 9 3 1 ) : 'Do you know how a platoon of men will absolutely worship a good-looking gallant young officer? If he's a bit shy of them. SherrifF. 11. pp. H. 7 7 .. The World. 12. 9. As a corollary addendum to this and the previous extract. 14. 5 . Collected Poems. no mention of homosexual activity in Lyn Macdonald's on-going social histories of the Great War (Somme. Davidson. R. 6. 17-18. Mavericks and Bounders. p. 1 6 8 — 7 1 . 13. p. pp. for instance. 1 9 9 1 . pp. pp. p. Oxford University Press. There is. too that it was Graves who published an early (and now thankfully forgotten) collection of war poems entitled Fairies and Fusilliers in 1 9 1 7 .7 passim. 7 7 . Auden.274 N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 34. pp. Nor. etc.. op. Michael Joseph. 10. 4 4 1 . Ibid. p. Michael Davidson. Wilfred Owen: Collected Letters. Act I. 5 3 (my italics).8 . SherrifF. 73. and decent to them. 16. p.2 passim. Shoeing Smith C. 3.). 1 9 8 8 . Forster. 1914. 36. 'Doggerel by a Senior Citizen'. 15. Act I. Journey's End. they get a crush on him. M . H. 2 5 . pp. 8. cit.. Michael Joseph. Quoted in Harold Owen and John Bell (eds). 16. 1 9 8 5 .' Maybe we should note. C. op. 2. cit. Faber. Ibid. They Called It Passchendaele. 8 1 — 2 passim.8 . 1 5 (my italics). C .. 5. Between the Acts... R. (See my book Heroes. Ibid. Ibid. pp. op. 1928-1985. E . THREE: ' I ' M A W F U L L Y P R O U D TO THINK HE'S M Y FRIEND' 1 . He becomes a sort of military queen bee. 6 9 . Stephen Spender.. 37. . the Flesh and Myself. p. 1914—1918: Voices and Images of the Great War. W.. p. apparently.. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. 35. cit. 'Ultima Ratio Regum'. p. 8. ) 4. Ibid. quoted in Lyn Macdonald. Williams. 8 1 .. He's a being apart: an officer's uniform is most attractive compared with the rough shapeless private's uniform. 73. during the last year of the Second World War. 1 9 6 7 . p. p. p. 7. 188. was there any officially voiced concern akin to that of the army high command who.

20. Montgomery Hyde. Between the Acts. p. Ibid. op. 'gays') as a euphemistic . Turd burglar' (quoted in Edmund Hall. 7 . Shirtlifter.. Last Poems. Ibid. however. p. politically correct . 'Nonce'. seems now only to be used within prisons as a cant term for child sex offenders.. regimental gathering: 'At dinner. In Bryan Connon's biography of Beverley Nichols there is an account of a similar episode. Beef bosun. 2 1 . cit. apropos of nothing. both adjec­ tivally and as a noun ('a gay'. We Can't Even March Straight: Homosexuality in the British Armed Forces. Arse grabber. Ibid. J E U N E H O M M E ' 1. Botty-bandit. p. cit. E. pp. 2 6 3 . X X X V . 134. Davidson..8 passim. 7 4 . 9 2 (my italics). principal medical officer at Britannia Royal Naval College. p. H. quoted in James Gardiner. Several of these phrases have dropped out of common currency. Nichols is at formal. especially in the police and armed forces. 57). Boweltroweller.. Quoted in Connon. A.. X X I I I .. p. 121-2. 86. listed a few which he regarded as still 'common' in the navy: 'Brownhatter. 31. op. Uphill gardener. op." 'The major opposite grinned. In common parlance in Britain. 2 7 . A Class Apart: The Private Pictures of Montague Glover. for instance. Pejorative terms remain.M O I . Between the Acts. op. Between the Acts. Housman. 73). 2. pp. 2 8 . 30. As late as 1 9 9 2 Surgeon Commander Richard Jolly.N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 275 16... 18. 24. 2 3 . if a chap wants to go in for buggery.synonym for 'homosexual' seemingly began in the early 1 9 7 0 s . cit. 17. p. 2 5 . 6. cit. I have omitted the final stanza. a captain said. he doesn't bugger a woman?" 'Much laughter greeted this. quoted in Macdonald. 7. op.5 . op. 2 2 . Housman. "Talking of buggery.and later. p. O B E . Last Poems. Davidson. 4 7 . Raving nosh. the use of the word 'gay'. pp. p. "What. p. cit.. Davidson. Anonymous. Porthole-gazer. The Other Love. about it?" ' " I never understood why. 2 6 .. cit. 9 3 . 6 1 . p. but Beverley kept quite and got on with his meal' (Connon. 2 6 2 . . op.. p. 2 9 . Quoted in ibid. cit. 52. p. Davidson. FOUR: ' S U I V E Z . 19. p.

Duckworth. Quoted in Cole Lesley.3 .. 7. They are quoted in Ellmann's Oscar Wilde (p. Noel. 6. the last edition of his Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English includes no reference to its homosexual usage. 1 4 . John Gielgud. 13. 12. 4 6 .3 . 1 1 2 — 1 3 ) that Waugh inserted this description of Howard into the novel (originally published in 1 9 4 5 ) only when he came to revise it in i 9 6 0 . pp. pp. Quoted in ibid. Beverley Nichols. 6 1 . 5. Sidgwick and Jackson. however — although a gloss that in nineteenth-century slang the term 'the gaying instrument' referred to what he called the 'male member' reinforces the idea that for a long time the word has enjoyed a double — or even a triple — life. 'gay' had connotations of both (female) prostitution and intoxication ('gay and frisky' was rhyming slang for 'whisky'). 38) and are thus assured of immortality. 16. It was an American import. 10.). Ronald Firbank: Memoirs and Critiques. Cecil Beaton. Connon's biography is the only serious study of Nichols's life and work which has so far appeared. op. 6 4 .1 3 4 See Humphrey Carpenter.276 NOTES AND SOURCES 3. The Life of Noël Coward. 3 0 . 1 9 7 7 . p. Self-Portrait with Friends: The Selected Diaries of Cecil Beaton. 4. two yean after Howard had killed himself. Godfrey Winn. Richard Buckle (éd. Memoirs of an Aesthete. p. 1 4 4 . Ifan Kyrle Fletcher.2 . 1 7 9 .8 1 passim. 8 2 . Eric Partridge noted that. Quoted in Connon.. Ibid. The Infirm Glory. p. cit. Quoted in ibid. p. . 18. Published in 1 9 6 1 . 1 5 . His own six volumes of autobiography are notoriously unreliable and at times demonstrably misleading. pp. 17. pp. The present author can certainly recall having heard it employed at around that time. although the word has always had a certain redolence and was very probably part of a private homosexual argot ('palari') long before the 1 9 7 0 s . p. Carpenter notes (pp. pp. 7 6 . 9. 1 1 9 — 2 0 . An Actor and His Time. PP. Quoted in Hugo Vickers. Ronald Firbank: A Memoir ( 1 9 3 0 ) . quoted in Bryan Connon.. 8.). Quoted in Charles Casde. 2 6 2 . 1 2 2 . p. My information about Nichols's circumstances at this time is largely drawn from chapters four to ten of the book. p. 11.. Harold Acton. The Brideshead Generation: Evelyn Waugh & His Friends. 1 0 7 . Provenance unknown. reprinted in Mervyn Horder (ed. p. 1 9 7 9 . since at least the early nineteenth century. 80.

' (p. 5 6 . These were. p. 5 1 4 . p. Tom Driberg: His Life and Indiscretions. p. unrealistic expectations. 20. 1 9 9 2 . The Orton Diaries. 5 0 .N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 277 19. The Kenneth Williams Diaries. William Gerhardie. Auden. HarperCollins. Simon Blow. Taylor. 9 8 .2 . 6. FIVE: ' T H E H O M I N T E R N ' 1. The radicalization of otherwise Establishment public schoolboys at this period is a theme which has been explored in various works of fiction over the past thirty years. Williams's own account of the incident is recorded in Russell Davies (ed. the Ordinary . 22. p. it underlies Julian Mitchell's play Another Country ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Ibid. 7. June 1 9 7 3 . of his correspondents burnt his papers. Forewords and Afterwords. 1 7 7 . 120). cit. 1 2 1 . 12. p. 25. 1 9 8 3 . at first I was drawn to them like a moth. Penguin. 23. Self-Portrait with Friends. 1 9 7 9 . 1 9 8 1 . pp. 21. 5. Selected Poems. . Ruling Passions. 4 1 . p. Ibid. 3 0 7 (14 July 1 9 6 7 ) . See Ben Pimlott. p. 1 9 7 3 . W. At least three posthumous biographies have appeared in Britain or America. Harold Wilson. 7 5 — 7 passim. . pp. 'Consider this and in our time'. Driberg.). a thinly disguised account of Guy Burgess's last terms at Eton. p. Faber. Cole Lesley. Auden. 2. God's Fifth Column. .). Faber. 13. Quoted in Between the Acts.5 passim. Broken Blood: The Rise and Fall of the Tennant Family. 9 8 . cit. p. . p. Recollection by A . To Keep the Ball Rolling. dining and literary clubs and societies to which he belonged: '. p.. . H. P. 2 5 . Ibid. as it seems today. I fluttered my wings at the Italian Circle. p. 26. in his autobiography Memoirs of an Aesthete ( 1 9 4 8 ) Harold Acton devotes almost nine pages to descriptions of the fashionable luncheon. H. p. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 3 9 2 . 3 . as he must have known. W. and substantial archives of his letters and manuscripts are anyway held by the Berg Collection at 8.. 7 1 . the Spanish Society. 4. Cyril Connolly.. quoted in Francis Wheen.. 15Tom Driberg. .. 3 0 7 . 4 2 . J . Ibid. Harper's Magazine. 2 1 8 . if any. Anthony Powell. 11. Lindsay Anderson addressed it in his film If. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . 24. John Lahr (éd. 2 5 1 (23 July 1 9 6 7 ) . op.. . 10. Rather pathetically. Few. p. More subtly. 9. pp. op.

7. 19. 26. Auden. pp. p. quoted in ibid. 'What I Expected'. H. quoted in Hugo Vickers. 'It was Easter as I walked in the public gardens'. Stephen Spender. Cecil Beaton's diary. 32. Faber. has been turned down as a prefect. H. 9 October 1 9 2 3 . p. Collected Poems. p. The Climate of Treason. 27. 16.278 N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 14. 1 9 8 1 . He rails at his left-wing friend Judd: JUDD: 22. The Missing Diplomats. BENNETT: There's no reason you have to be any kind of prefect at all. titles were inserted. In the first editions of his early work the poet presented his poems untitled. 25. ibid. Guy Bennett (an obvious fictionalization of Burgess). Selected Poems. W. Jack Hewit. cit. 21. The climax of Julian Mitchell's play Another Country ( 1 9 8 1 . 7. George Allen & Unwin. p. Quoted in Andrew Boyle. op. A homosexual public schoolboy. p.. 3 0 and 2 2 respectively. The Temple. 4. 2 4 . 2 7 — 8 . 17. Mendelson's definitive editions revert to Auden's original form. p.. p. 5 3 . Auden. Ibid: 'Us'. p. 1 8 . The referencing of Auden's work has always been difficult. 7 2 . World Within World. 4 8 . p. Stephen Spender. Thus. Cyril Connolly. the New York Public Library and the universities of Oxford and Texas (the Humanities Research Center). See. Mendelson dates this poem to March 1 9 2 9 . 30. 1 4 5 . Spender. 15. 31. p. op. and later filmed) descants on this theme. p. 4 0 . 24. Quoted in Vickers. In subsequent editions. p. 20. in his Collected Shorter Poems (Faber.9 passim. See poems such as 'The Truly Great' and 'Trigorin'. 5 1 . Cecil Beaton. p. . p. 1 9 6 8 .. Christopher Isherwood. 1 9 6 6 ) this couplet comes from a poem entitled '1929'. H.. p. 1 1 2 . 23. Quoted in Conspiracy of Silence. but only latterly entitled 'A Free One'). Lions and Shadows ( 1 9 3 8 ) . 1 2 1 . 'Watch any day his nonchalant pauses. pp. Quoted in Barrie Penrose and Simon Freeman. remove such titles and index these poems by their first lines. 4 7 . therefore. 1 9 7 9 . Ibid. Humphrey Carpenter. cit. W. W. 29. p. Yes. there is. Conspiracy of Silence: The Secret Life of Anthony Blunt. 4 7 . 18. pp. Auden. I follow his practice. If I'm spending the rest of my life hiding my true nature from the rest of the world. New English Library. I'm taking every comfort that's going while it is going. see' (tellingly. 5 3 . 28..

7 April 1 9 9 1 . 33. . Michael Davidson. 35. 4. W. Jack Hewit. pp. being absolutely objective. 8 6 . 1 7 . p. cit. See A. [He picks up 'Das Kapital'] As for this .[He drops it] Too heavy. unpublished poem. Scene Six) JUDD: BENNETT: 32. Guy Burgess: A Portrait with Background. 2. pp. 40. Sunday Times magazine. See Driberg. 1 8 8 . John Lehmann. Goronwy Rees. 7 April 1 9 9 1 . Jack Hewit. Ibid. Guy. 1 3 4 — 5 .1 8 . 2 1 9 . 24. p. p. P. p. In the Purely Pagan Sense. 3 8 . p. well.. 35. 39. 16-17. 3. 8 6 .let them despise you! But all the time (Act T w o . wouldn't it? J U D D : Y O U can't have things both ways. 3 4 .). 8 3 . Macmillan. H. if that's your attitude — Besides. Twenty Thousand Streets Under the Sky. 3 6 . in the 1 9 6 0 s Auden disowned much of his early work.. op. quoted in Sunday Times magazine.5 3 3 5. Sunday Times magazine. B E N N E T T : What do you want me to do . p. op. B E N N E T T : [Suddenly gay] Why not? Why not both? Pretend to do one. 1 9 3 5 .N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 279 Oh. Auden. or you try to change it. pp. cit. 37... Quoted in Conspiracy of Silence.. Patrick Hamilton. Ibid. calling it 'trash which he is ashamed to have written'. H. cit. Trends in British Society Since 1900.. 18. The Naked Civil Servant.march about the streets shouting slogans with you? I wouldn't get past the first pub. 'September 1. Stephen Spender. it would dish me once and for all. pp. H. Halsey (ed. Auden. With particular reference to the last line quoted in the text. Goronwy Rees. W. World Without World. p. 6.7 . 1 9 7 2 . There's no alternative. p. quoted in Conspiracy of Silence. Chatto and Windus. J U D D : Either you accept the system. while you really do the other? Fool the swine? Play along with them! Let them think what they like . 7 April 1 9 9 1 . Constable and Co. 1 9 7 2 . A Chapter of Accidents. 2 5 5 . op. six: 'I H A D T H E T I M E OF M Y LIFE' 1 . Quentin Crisp. 1 9 3 9 ' .

5 7 . Opposition and Racism in Everyday Life.). Letters to Christopher: Stephen Spender's Letters to Christopher Isherwood.280 NOTES AND SOURCES 7. Quoted in Between the Acts. quoted in Between the Acts. 2.8 .. 2 1 December 1 9 3 3 . p. 4 5 . See Lee Bartlett (ed. Christopher Isherwood. Peukert (trans. revised edition. Christopher and His Kind. Crisp. pp. Vol. 16. 2 5 .. 1 9 7 2 . 1 9 7 9 . 10. 13. 2 7 3 . cit.. 3 5 — 6 . Quoted in Nigel Nicolson (ed. K. Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity. 17.). 1 3 8 . pp. op. 9. pp. 1929—1939. 'Trevor'. 10. Black Sparrow Press. diary entry. Crisp.2 . Crisp. 256-7. 1 9 8 0 . p. Quoted in Between the Acts. pp. p. 3 1 August 1 9 2 8 . 1 9 9 0 . Batsford. Virginia Woolf. 1 2 9 . quoted in Quentin Bell. cit. . The term 'steamer' seems to have been a short-lived part of the homo­ sexual patois. Chapman and Hall. Quoted in Martin Gilbert. 1 1 7 . cit. letter to Jacques Raverat. Degenerate Oxford?. p. Richard Deveson). Spender. op. 1 7 6 — 7 . pp. pp. 1 3 9 . p. Volume IV . Lehmann. U S A . 1 3 7 — 8 . 1 9 8 2 . op. 2 6 6 . Letter to Quentin Bell. pp. John Lehmann. Ibid. p. 1 9 8 7 . it meant nothing to any of the homosexual men I interviewed in the course of my research for this book.1 8 passim. cit. Although in his Dictionary of the Underworld ( 1 9 5 0 ) Eric Partridge defines the verb 'to steam' as meaning 'to prepare a "mug" for a fleecing' and notes a first printed usage in 1 9 3 6 . op. Ibid. p. Quoted in Detlev J . 32. 261-2. 14. Terence Greenidge. In the Purely Pagan Sense. Stephen Spender.1931-35. pp. cit. cit.. 2 8 . Santa Barbara. Virginia Woolf. 1 3 8 . The Diary of Virginia Woolf. 3 0 . 2 0 .. 1 7 5 . 2 7 . Second World War. Hogarth Press. 12. 18. 2 4 . 2 1 . Fontana.. 2 7 . 1 3 9 . 31. pp. quoted in Nicolson (ed.. 8. 2 9 . 166-7. Spender. Virginia Woolf. 2 8 .). pp. 11. 'John'. quoted in Between the Acts. cit. 2 9 . Hogarth Press.. quoted in ibid.. 2 3 . 'John'. 2 2 . p. 2 5 — 6 . p. p. 19. 1 9 3 0 . op. 6 1 . 2 6 . 3 3 .. p.). Volume V — 1932-5. World Within World. Quoted in Anne Olivier Bell (ed. Hogarth Press. 6 4 . The Sickle Side of the Moon: The Letters of Virginia Woolf. 15. op. 2 4 January 1 9 2 5 . p. quoted in Between the Acts. op. p. p. 'John'.

Dudley Cave. Writing less than a generation after the time he was describ­ ing. p. Civilians at War: Journals 1938-1946. pp. Spender. cit. 50. p. 'Tony'. p. 35. quoted in Between the Acts. 1 7 6 . op. cit. Lehmann. 37. Dudley Cave. Crisp. p. Ibid.. 4 7 . Nichols. quoted in Between the Acts. 5. 8. 179. cit. 194-5- 2. 7 7 . his comparison . 130. pp. p. 4 3 . 1 5 7 . 2 8 May 1 9 9 5 . October 1 9 9 5 ... 'Neil'. Crisp. Ibid. 40. letter to the Independent on Sunday. 1 9 6 9 . 6 3 . in Michael Sissons and Philip French (eds. 'David'. passim. op.7 . Angus Calder. p. cit. interview with the author. 2 7 0 . Victor Gollancz.. Coughlin. Tony Whitehead. p. 2 3 March 1 9 9 6 . p. 13 May 1 9 4 5 . Among You Taking Notes. p. cit. 52. Crisp.. Hughes possibly pushes the idea of the spivs as post-war inheritors of the mande of the pre-war 'beautiful people' too far. Dorothy Sheridan). The People's War: Britain 1939-1945. p. 8 7 (my italics). interview with the author. 38. SEVEN: ' T H E HORRORS OF P E A C E W E R E M A N Y ' 1... 10 October 1 9 9 4 . 4 1 . 7 May 1 9 9 5 . 'The Spivs'. 78. op. 1 4 9 . p. Jonathan Cape. p. Nevertheless.. Lehmann. quoted in Between the Acts. 7 May 1 9 9 5 . David Hughes. 'Cecil'. cit. W. 1 9 6 3 .and vocabulary . quoted in Between the Acts. cit. pp. Age of Austerity.is illuminating: . p. 7. 4 8 . (ed. 6. 1 4 2 . Life magazine. 4 5 . 44. 'David'. quoted in the Independent on Sunday. 4 9 . 51.). op. Observer. 'Roy'. p. 171 — 3 passim. 4 5 . op. 1 9 8 4 . 3. 31 December 1 9 9 5 .N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 28l 34. pp. op. letter to the Guardian 'Weekend'. George Beardmore.5 1 passim. B B C Radio 5. 4 2 . 4 9 . pp. interview with the author. 'John'. 39. 'Neil'. 4 5 . 4. Crisp. 53. 3 2 1 . 4 6 . 1 9 8 6 . 2 0 0 . Oxford University Press. quoted in ibid. op.. Hodder and Stoughton. Anonymous speaker.. 36. 1 9 8 5 . John Murray.8 . quoted in Between the Acts. 10 October 1 9 9 5 . P. Naomi Mitchison.

The phrase may not be precisely echt. 1 9 7 6 ) which opens in the Cambridge of the early 1 9 5 0 s . becoming almost feminine in the process. 7 7 — 8 ] . never embraced it. Sir Dirk Bogarde. For such pansy braggadocio surely meant that these characters only flirted with crime. 0. the barrow-boys — as flashy as neon. Angus Wilson. 1 9 May 1 9 5 4 . B B C Television. tricked out in the patterns and shades of cheap bulls-eyes. . as exaggerated as the cut of their suits . 1 9 9 2 . p.82 NOTES AND SOURCES The spivs descended on the wreckage of central London during 1 9 4 6 . pp. The West End has never been abandoned for long without an élite. The Polizei. as if by magic.). gay capital. 9 3 — 1 0 0 passim. The girls in blue. Oh never mind' [p. cit. Denis. still residential. op. all their tough swagger just a device to conceal a soggy cowardice beneath. but it meant nothing to any of the men I interviewed for this book. interview. ' Denis said. disparages younger. Mavis Polizei. 1.] However. . June 1 9 9 5 . better-looking men as.were only the façade that stuck out with such vitality against the scarred hungry background of a city down on its uppers. 89]. It is interesting too that in Angus Wilson's early novel Hemlock and After ( 1 9 5 2 ) the homosexual Terence Lambert. patriotic to the last clothing-coupon. I suppose? Because — ' 'Oh I wouldn't carry anything like that in the street. and this was largely true [pp. 108. 3. They over-compensated for the drabness. they dressed dowdily and the spivs had assumed their plumage as well as their habitat [. 2. 'Who's Mavis?' 'Mavis. among other things. a brand image for the idea of a great. 'You never know when Mavis will stop you and search you. dear. It occurs in Frederick Raphael's loosely autobiographical novel The Glittering Prizes (Penguin. 9.. attended functions in full drag. now. Bishop of Southwark. That notwithstanding. do you?' 'Mavis?' Cadman said. a carefree cynosural focus for the tired eyes of sightseers. a middle-aged stage designer. the upper crust. Before the war. to fill the gap left by the exodus of the toffs. ibid. it is vividly illustrative of the fear which the police inspired in many homosexuals of the period: 'You don't happen to have the cheque stubs with you. quoted in Hansard. Earljowitt. 'golden spivs' and 'butterfly spivs' (Penguin. .

1 9 7 8 . pp.. Prick Up Your Ears. 37.. Ackerley. cit.. p. 39. pp. p. pp. 36. Williams's comments were provoked by a performance of Julian Green's play South. 3 4 . p. 'Nicholas'. 38.9 passim. op. Wildeblood. 27. 52..5 .. pp. interview with the author. 35. Wildeblood.. quoted in Parker.. Wilson.5 . 2 8 . p. 21 September 1 9 9 4 (my italics). Quoted in Parker. James Kirkup. 21. Colin Spencer. and I have been unable to trace it. 32. 1 9 October 1 9 9 4 . 2 2 . 45. 33. cit. p. p. 24. .. Ibid. 108. 19. 'Tony'. 4 6 . quoted in Russell Davies (ed. Quoted in John Lahr. 4 1 . interview with Peter Parker. op.. 25. p. 3 3 8 . Ibid. Ibid.9 . Allen Lane. The Kenneth Williams Letters. 1 4 7 . 23. 36. I didn't. Anonymous. pp. but its findings accord with other literature of the period. pp.. 2 6 .3 . 15.6 . interview with the author.. p. 17. 30. p. op. 32. interview. Ibid. 9 0 . material supplied to the author.. 13 April 1 9 5 5 . 4 0 . 2 5 October 1 9 5 3 . 'Nicholas'. 'Trevor'. cit. cit. Michael Davidson. Simon Raven. 84.NOTES AND SOURCES 283 14. op. Ibid. Wildeblood gives no source for the survey. p. 2 July 1 9 8 7 . 44.. Ibid. p. 20. cit. 16. quoted in Between the Acts. p. 55. 3 4 . p. pp. 40. of course. p. 19.).. Sydney Morning Telegraph. 2 9 8 . p. This is the earliest general British usage of the phrase in its now-familiar sense which the present author has come across. Ibid. Ibid. 'He remarked on your absence from the gay scene. cit. 31. Peter Wildeblood.. quoted in Between the Acts. 3 3 7 . interview with the author. 24. 6 5 . 60. 6 5 . 'Richard'. 2 5 October 1 9 9 4 . 43.. Ibid. 18. 2 9 . 2 2 August 1 9 9 5 .. A Poet Could Not But Be Gay. 42. 2 6 . Ibid. 9 2 . 56).. p. op. Channel Four Television. know you were so often there' (Wilson. p. op. Ibid. op. Ibid. 89. cit. Ibid.9 2 passim.. p. 9 2 . 9 4 . Letter to Annette Kerr.

1 3 . during a House of Commons debate held on 2 6 November 1 9 5 8 . 8 August 1 9 9 6 . cit. Through a Glass Darkly: The Life of Patrick Hamilton.6 . and Tudor Rees and Harvey V. op. op. Turning Points. The complete letter is reprinted as an appen­ dix to Antony Grey's book Quest for Justice: Towards Homosexual Emanci­ pation.. pp. p. Anonymous man. (first edition) 1 9 5 5 . Broughton. 7 March 1 9 5 8 . Dark Secret. Although slightly re-ordered.. 279ft" 4. p. B B C Television. Bellenger. The Bodley Head. D.. 15. Dark Secret. 11. M P . .. 18. cit. 2 1 . M P . Forster. and the specific experiences of two other men. 1 6 6 . James Kirkup. D. inter alia. Anonymous letter. p. 8. F.7 . Usill (eds). 1 6 9 . 17. They Stand Apart: A Critical Survey of the Problem of Homosexuality. op. 1 9 5 5 . respectively.. The Times. pp. 3. cit. op. 1 9 5 .284 N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 4 6 .5 .. Anonymous man. op. from speeches given by William Shepherd. Nicholas's words remain as the almost-verbatim transcript of an interview he gave me on 2 1 September 1 9 9 4 . M. quoted in Peter Wildeblood. 8 August 1 9 9 6 . Forster. 1 9 7 6 . Neither Forster nor Maurice was mentioned on this occasion. E . 19. 16. 10. Duckworth. in what follows I have interpolated 'Nicholas' 's story. Dr A.1 5 passim. Sunday Times. 13. quoted in Nigel Jones.. 12. 5 July i 9 6 0 . p. pp. 7. Ibid. Sunday Times. p. 2. and Dr Broughton again. Ibid. D. 1 3 8 . 8 August 1 9 9 6 . B B C Television. Daily Telegraph. pp. 1 9 9 1 . 1 6 9 . cit. Dark Secret. The editorial juxtapositions are entirely mine. pp. pp. 2 0 21. 3 2 8 — 9 . Undated letter. 2 0 . T o illustrate this. West. 2 April 1 9 5 4 . B B C Television. J . Homosexuality. 5.. 1 4 . op. cit. Scribners. p. Ibid. 1 4 5 . p. 26 March 1 9 5 4 . Ibid. 22. 1 5 6 . 1 6 7 . Forster. John Wolfenden. Heinemann.. The quotations are taken. Wolfenden. EIGHT: ' T H E R A Y OF HOPE' 1. Ibid. Anonymous man. M P . cit. with quotations from Maurice. J . Forster. 1 3 4 . See. 2 3 . 6. 9. A Way of Life.

Grey. Self-Portrait with Friends. p. 8. 27. Shout!: The True Story of the Beatles. p. op. 2 0 6 . Having sex with a man is more attractive than having sex with a woman. Richard Hauser. p. 7. Then the argument ran that. 3 5 6 . you must be careful when you go to the lavatory in a railway station or somewhere like that. 'Nicholas' remembered a conversation with his father. John Pearson. . The Kenneth Williams Diaries. 1 9 6 2 . 19 October 1 9 9 4 . 3 8 1 — 3 passim. 1 9 8 1 . Hamish Hamilton.. if homosexuality were re- . Grey. 29. . and he explained what they did and said that it was against the law. Elsewhere in his interview with the author. The Times. op. '[Nich­ olas]. it might be seen to have some psychological bearing: When I was about thirteen or fourteen my father said to me. p. 1 5 7 . because a man's body is firmer and more muscular. 4 5 . Philip Norman. 4. that some man doesn't come along and have a look at your tiddly-om-pom.' I was appalled! I couldn't believe anyone would want to do something as awful as that. 'Why was that?' I asked. interview with the author. and she repeated the same conversation.' 1. cit. 'Oh. but then fifteen or twenty years later my mother said. The Pendulum Years: Britain and the Sixties. everybody would be doing it. Ibid. p. 138.. pp. Bernard Levin. May 1 9 9 5 . op. cit. 20. 4 9 . 2 August 1 9 6 4 . 2 9 . p. 'and the human race would disappear. 5. . The present author can recall having heard similar sentiments expressed by a few gay men when A I D S was first making headlines in the early 1 9 8 0 s . 11. In the light of the stress he put on this phrase. 140—41. 'Richard'.' I often thought I must have dreamt that. 9. 28. The Bodley Head. 10.N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S 285 24. pp. 'Nicholas'. 25. p. Daddy always used to say . The Homosexual Society. A Way of Life. 'Because if it wasn't. p. quoted in Between the Acts. Quoted in Francis Wheen.'. 26.' he said. cit. 6. interview with the author. The Profession of Violence: The Rise and Fall of the Kray Twins. 2 8 . 3. So he said there were these people known as homosexuals. Wildeblood. NINE: ' Y O U ' L L P A R D O N T H E MESS . 'John'.. . 2. p.

5 4 (entry for 11 February 1 9 6 6 ) . .286 N O T E S A N D S O U R C E S criminalized. Bob Mellors. 16. 2. Barbara Castle.. Anonymous. 1 0 6 (entry for 4 March 1 9 6 7 . June 1 9 6 7 ) . Newspaper reports taken from the New York Times. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 9. 4 0 7 (entry for 3 July 1 9 6 7 ) . September 1 9 9 5 . 3 1 . The Kenneth Williams Diaries. p. 1 9 9 5 . 8. Aubrey Walter. pp. 'Richard'. p. p. Richard Crossman. Both quotations from a B B C radio interview. p.. p. 1 3 9 (entry for 13 July 1 9 6 7 ) . material supplied to the author. p. (my italics). interview with the author. pp. 'Sam'. 7. Macmillan Papermac. Ibid. 1 1 3 .5 0 . 2 7 3 (entry for 3 July 1 9 6 7 ) . 10. Methuen. Barbara Casde. 9 8 . 2 7 June 1 9 6 9 . 2 0 October 1 9 9 4 . 'Francis'. to all intents and purposes it would effectively disappear from the public gaze. p. 14. Vol. Village Voice and the New York Daily News respectively. p. 4. 2 7 3 (entry for 11 February 1 9 6 6 ) . 3. 12. 1 9 7 6 . 1 9 9 5 .1 4 The Orton Diaries.). The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister. my italics). 11. 6. B B C interview. p. p. Ibid. p. 1 1 5 . 19. Quest for Justice. 1 4 7 ( 3 0 April 1 9 6 7 ) . 21. p. 14. material supplied to the author. This and the following extract come from the only published text. The Castle Diaries. which is that of the first stage version of The Ruffian on the Stair (Royal Court Theatre. 1 9 8 4 . and things could go back to 'normal'. p. 12. October 1 9 9 4 . interview with the author. 1 9 October 1 9 9 4 . Ibid. interview with the author.. Ibid. The Complete Plays. The Castle Diaries 1964—1976.. Sexual Behaviour in the Human Male. 15. which was first published in America in 1 9 4 8 . 17. 1 5 4 . Preju­ dice and Pride: Discrimination Against Gay People in Modern Britain. Hamish Hamilton and Jonathan Cape. 1 9 9 0 . TEN: ' D O I N G O U R B I T FOR T H E BOYS!' 1. 20. The Kinsey Report. 5.. 18. New York Times. quoted in Between the Acts. 2. Ibid. 13. 13. 8 4 . Antony Grey. The Orton Diaries. Nigel Warner. 'Parliament and the Law'. in Bruce Galloway (ed. Joe Orton. 2 8 June 1 9 6 9 et seq. 1 0 0 (entry for 2 0 December 1 9 6 6 ) . 'Stephen'. 4 9 . claimed that the incidence of male homosexuality in the general population was much higher (approximately 1 0 per cent) than had pre­ viously been thought. September 1 9 9 5 .

interview with the author. had been given a private performance (i. pp.8 . B B C Radio 5. John Elsom and Nicholas Tomalin. . 2. 9 . material supplied to the author. 2 9 . 2 0 October 1 9 9 4 . No. 1 0 7 . Penguin. Mart Crowley. p.). too. No. Pink Paper. of course. 24. 2 7 . 1 9 7 8 . 1 7 June 1 9 9 4 .NOTES AND SOURCES 287 15. 1 9 9 2 .1 0 . A Queer Reader. 3 1 . Ibid. Faber. originally appeared as a sort of stream-of-consciousness rant.. p. Penguin. 1 9 9 1 . reprinted in The Faber Book of Gay Short Fiction. Crowley. 1 9 8 3 . Jonathan Cape. Hamish Hamilton. Anonymous.. 1 7 September 1995- 2 1 . Purely for the sake of clarity.3 . My inter­ polations (here as elsewhere in the text) are contained within square brackets. p.8 . Peter Hall's Diaries. Staircase. 1 9 7 0 . with its notorious drag-ball scene. 'The Changes of Those Terrible Yean'. that John Osborne's A Patriot for Me. 'Stephen'.. 4 7 . 1 9 6 . 18. 1 9 6 6 . 'Sam'. 3 9 2 . 4 3 2 (entry for 2 2 September 1 9 7 2 ) . in The Definitive Simon Gray. pp. Out This Week. Adam Mars-Jones. cit. London. 23. quoted in Between the Acts. 2 5 . 20. 19. 2 8 . one not subject to the censorship of the Lord Chamberlain) by the English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre a full year previously. cit. 3 0 . pp. May 1 9 7 3 (my italics). The Boys in the Band. 1 9 9 4 . 6 2 . in the summer of 1 9 6 5 . I have intentionally removed character names and stage direc­ tions from this extract. 22. p. March 1 9 7 1 . John Goodwin (ed. 32. The Kenneth Williams Diaries. interview with the author. 'Sam'.). Butley was first performed in July 1 9 7 1 at the Criterion Theatre. 1 9 9 4 . I have extensively repunctuated this passage which. p. 5. The History of the National Theatre. interview with the author. p. op. 'Richard'. p. the original text is reproduced in Patrick Higgins (éd. Anonymous contributor. It should be remembered. ELEVEN: 'i AM PERFECTLY NORMAL' 1. Come Together. 3. 8 1 (entry for 7 February). London G L F newspaper. either by editorial choice or failure of sub-editorial function. 4 2 7 . op. December 1 9 7 0 (my italics). 26. 16. Butley. I. Faber. Exeter Express and Echo. pp. 1 9 9 5 .e. Simon Gray. 9. Mary Renault. Charles Dyer. 17. (Slightly abbreviated. had written The Charioteer as long ago as 1 9 5 3 . 2 0 8 ) . 2.

cit. 2 7 . May 1 9 9 3 . 2 1 2 . January 1 9 7 6 . p. February 1 9 7 9 . 2 3 . quoted in A Queer Reader. one-to-one basis. quoted in A Queer Reader. 'Edward'. p. Entries from the diary of the author. quoted in Bodies of Evidence: Stories about Living with HIV. January 1 9 7 7 . January 1 9 7 6 . 138-9. Francis King. 5. 3 0 June 1 9 9 5 . 'Géorgie'. interview with the author. 7. which won the 1 9 8 2 Samuel Beckett Award. 10. Both these confidential Ministry of Defence letters have been seen by the author. 1 9 8 0 . p. 'Brad'. Kevin Elyot. Methuen. Homosexuality and Liberation. Sidgwick & Jackson. 20. Jeffrey Weeks. 19. Michael Denneny. As with other direct quotations from interviews in this book. 17. 2 1 3 . 2 4 . as above. 2 2 . 1984. Gay News. 2 6 . This interview was conducted jointly by Edmund Hall and myself at 'Neil' 's home in southern England. Harpers and Queen. 8 October 1 9 9 5 . Gay News. 'Richard'. interview with the author. The article is reprinted in York's book Style Wars. 'Géorgie'. a public school pupil in the early 1 9 8 0 s . I29ff. 11. 12. quoted in Bodies of Evidence. p. A Single Man. 5 1 . David Starkey. The Orton Diaries. Diary made available to the author. 1 9 8 0 . 16. 18. p. 14.288 NOTES AND SOURCES 4. Alan Hollinghurst. his words are here transcribed from a tape recording. Diary made available to the author. Further information about 'Neil' 's military career is contained in Hall's We Can't Even March Straight. 'Edward'. Gay News. 1 9 October 1 9 9 4 . 'Machomania'.. Nicholas de Jongh. Christopher Isherwood. op. unpaginated. in November 1 9 8 2 . Francis King. February 1 9 7 6 . Paul Cons. interview with the author. 2 8 . London. 12. 9. Anonymous. 2 9 . 1 0 October 1 9 9 4 . 8. 15. 1 2 7 . 1 9 7 9 . Peter York. Eyre Methuen. 6. 1 3 . The Swimming-Pool Library. 1 9 6 4 . 1 9 8 0 . pp. Faber. quoted in Bodies of Evidence. 2 1 . . The play. p. was first produced at the Bush Theatre. 1 9 9 5 . 'Neil'. This was the only conversation undertaken as part of my research for this book which was not conducted on a private. interview with the author. A Domestic Animal. Gay News. 3. p. 2 5 3 . p. Coming Clean. 2 5 . Camerawork/The Photo Co-Op. Mario Mieli. 1531F. 1 9 8 9 . p. interview with Granada Television.

NOTES AND SOURCES 289 30. Peter Tatchell. Safer Sex for Gay Men. I April 1 9 9 0 . 2 1 January 1 9 9 6 . as Note 6. . 2 3 May 1 9 9 4 . Edmund Hall. 34. 2 5 November 1 9 9 5 . 3 1 0 . 32. A Matter of Life and Sex. 40. interview with the author. leaflet produced by the Terrence Higgins Trust. Independent magazine. 4 2 . Clare Tomalin. interview with the Albert Kennedy Trust. 8 October 1 9 9 5 . 35. June 1 9 8 9 . 39. Gay Times. Ibid. Independent on Sunday. 1991. Independent on Sunday. quoted in the Independent on Sunday. 'Edward'.. 'Tim'. 11 December 1 9 9 4 . 2 1 April 1 9 9 6 . 1 9 9 1 . 33. Forty-year-old man. 2 4 May 1 9 9 6 . Ibid. quoted in the Pink Paper. 38. 36. 37. 31. Additional information provided to the author by Will Parry. 4 1 . 4 3 . p. Sue Sanders. interviewed by the author. Oscar Moore.

Bibliography This is no more than a check-list of those books to which I have had most frequent recourse. Humphrey: The Brideshead Generation: Evelyn Waugh & His Friends. HarperCollins. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1 9 6 2 . Fontana. 1 9 9 3 . James: Beaton. Methuen. Michael: The World.):77ie Kenneth Williams Diaries. Paul: The Neo-Pagans. Where these are now difficult to obtain and more recent and/or revised editions generally available. and to which reference is made in the Notes. Collins. 1 9 8 5 Davies.The Kenneth Williams Letters. G M P Publishers. 1 9 8 7 291 . Simon: Broken Blood: The Rise and Fall of the Tennant Family. Harold: Memoirs of an Aesthete. 1 9 8 0 Davenport-Hines. Charles: Noël. place of publication is London. Richard (éd. Michael Joseph. Coronet. HarperCollins. H. 1 9 7 1 Connolly. Cyril: The Missing Diplomats. Queen Anne Press. revised edition. Macmillan. Seeker & Warburg. Hugh: The Fitzrovians. Russell (ed. in general. 1 9 8 0 Buckle. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Constable. W. Arthur Barker. Allen. Faber and Faber. Except where otherwise stated. 1984 Blow. the latter. have been listed. Acton. 1 9 8 5 Castle. too. Death and Punishment. 1 9 4 8 . 1 9 9 4 Delany. Bryan: Beverley Nichols: A Life. the Flesh and Myself. Richard: Sex. 1 9 9 0 David. 1 9 7 9 Carpenter. first editions. Quentin: The Naked Civil Servant. 1 9 5 2 Connon. The publication details are. Hamish Hamilton. 1 9 9 1 Crisp. 1 9 8 8 Davidson.): Self-Portrait with Friends: The Selected Diaries of Cecil Beaton. 1 9 7 7 Danziger. Andrew: The Climate of Treason. 1 9 8 7 Boyle.

Methuen. David: The Lost Language of Cranes. Hodge.Ruling Passions. 1988 Hyde. . John: In the Purely Pagan Sense. Carcanet Press. Serpent's Tail. Allen. Richard: Oscar Wilde. 1 9 8 3 Garfield. Inc. Chatto & Windus. 1 9 8 7 Lesley. 1 9 9 1 Lahr. 1 9 9 4 King. Eyre Methuen. John (ed. Edmund: We Can't Even March Straight: Homosexuality in the British Armed Forces. Heinemann. Knopf. New York.): Prejudice and Pride: Discrimination Against Gay People in Modern Britain. Francis: A Domestic Animal. Penguin. Patrick (éd. M. Jonathan Cape. 1 9 9 2 Gide André: Oscar Wilde. 1970 Moore. Adam: The Playground Bell. 1 9 4 8 Isherwood.): A Queer Reader. Viking. 1 9 9 2 Parker. Sinclair-Stevenson. 1 9 9 3 Hoare. Jonathan Cape. 1 9 7 0 Kirkup. H. Antony: Quest for Justice: Towards Homosexual Emancipation. 1 9 7 1 Galloway. H. 1 9 2 5 Grey. Mercure de France. Peter: Ackerley: A Life of J . 1 9 5 1 . Manchester. Granada. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Alan: The Swimming-Pool Library. James: A Class Apart: The Private Pictures of Montague Glover. G M P Publishers. Jonathan Cape. 1 9 8 8 Higgins. Constable.292 BIBLIOGRAPHY Driberg. Simon: The End of Innocence: Britain in the Time of Aids. John Murray. 1 9 7 7 Johnson. Longman.The Cleveland Street Scandal.: Maurice. Ackerley. Blond & Briggs.): The Orton Diaries. John: The Profession of Violence: The Rise and Fall of the Kray second edition. W. 1 9 9 4 Gardiner. 1 9 7 6 . 1 9 7 7 Ellmann. Oscar: A Matter of Life and Sex. Christopher: Christopher and His Kind. 1 9 9 5 Hollinghurst. Fourth Estate. Hamish Hamilton. 1 9 7 2 Twins. Tom: Guy Burgess: A Portrait with Background. 1 9 9 2 Hall. Bruce (ed. Cole: The Life of Noël Coward. 1 9 9 5 Hillier. Martin: Oscar Wilde. Bevis: Young Betjeman. Montgomery: Cases That Changed the Law. 1 9 7 6 Levin. 1 9 8 9 Pearson. 1 9 8 5 Leavitt. Routledge & Kegan Paul. James: A Poet Could Not But Be Gay. 1 9 7 3 Forster. Hamlyn.The Trials of Oscar Wilde. R. 1 9 8 7 Fido. 1 9 7 6 . Sinclair-Stevenson. 1 9 8 6 Lehmann. Peter Owen. Paris. Faber and Faber. Bernard: The Pendulum Years: Britain and the Sixties. Vintage. Edward Arnold. Alfred A. 1 9 5 6 . E. Philip: Noël Coward: A Biography..

1990 Wildeblood. 1 9 9 4 Spencer. Hugo: Cecil Beaton. Michael Joseph. Peter: Against the Law. 1 9 9 5 Spender. 1 9 5 6 Winn.): Between the Acts: Lives of Homosexual Men. 1 9 9 5 Porter. 1 9 8 6 . Cassell. 1 9 9 5 Vickers.A Way of Life. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. and Freeman.BIBLIOGRAPHY 293 Penrose. Francis: Tom Driberg: His Life and Indiscretions. Quartet. Alan: The Wilde Century: Effeminacy. 1 9 8 7 Pickles: Queens. Jeffrey (eds. Fourth Estate.World Within World. 1 9 8 8 . Faber. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. and Weeks. Grafton. 1984. Routledge. Simon: Conspiracy of Silence: The Secret Life of Anthony Blunt. Chatto & Windus.. Oscar Wilde and the Queer Movement. Queers and the Military. Peter: We Don't Want to March Straight: Masculinity. 1 9 6 7 . 1 9 8 5 Wheen. Colin: Homosexuality. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1 9 9 1 Sinfield. Kevin. Cassell. revised edition. Faber. 1 9 5 1 . Stephen: The Temple. Godfrey: The Infirm Glory. 1 9 5 5 . 1885-1967. Barrie. 1 9 7 7 Tatchell. Penguin.

269 AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (Act-Up) 2 6 4 .2 . 1 3 3 sexuality 5.5 Albany Trust 1 9 2 . Stanley. 76. 85. 8 1 . W. Teddy 129 Asquith.3 . H. 2 1 6 Beaton. 220. 226. Aubrey 9.2 . 75. 50 Bailey. Leo 2 1 8 . H. Sir Herbert 1 1 295 . 2 5 5 .1 3 . George 1 5 1 Beardsley. 190 Auden. 158 Aren't We All? (Lonsdale) 85 Arlen. 270 Beardmore. Sir Cecil 74. and Actonites 80. 193 Ayer. 265 Arnold. 99 Army and other services 5 3 .9 . 8 8 . 101. 92. 216. 1 1 3 . Tallulah 86 B B C shows 9 1 . R. 101 Against the Law (Wildeblood) 1 7 1 . Prince 1 5 .1 2 . 2 6 8 .7 . 74.6 . 227 Albert Victor. 105. Clement 189. 2 1 7 . 1 0 1 .8 .1 . 44.2 . 2 6 7 . 1 9 5 . 107 Adam's Breed (Radclyffe-Hall) 29 Aesthetic Movement 1 0 . James 2 6 1 . 165. 80. 221 Ashton. 198 Acton. 7 7 . 10 Beatles 2 0 1 . 120.9 . 1 3 5 aversion therapy 1 8 1 . 100 Bankhead. 2 5 0 .6 3 . 2 3 1 .1 4 . 1 0 2 . H.6 7 . J.1 4 . 2 3 1 .1 0 .7 .5 0 . Hermione 93 Badley. 2 2 1 . n o Back. life and writing 3 3 . 2 6 . 1 3 5 . Atalanta 75 Arlen. H. 1 5 8 .9 Beaton's Book of Beauty 94 The Beautiful Room is Empty (White) 256 Bedales school 50 Beerbohm Sir Max 33 Beerbohm Tree. 79 neo-Aesthetes 76. 1 1 2 . Earl 99. 82 Attlee. N.5 . 1 4 1 . 90.3 . 2 0 9 . Michael (Dikran Kouyoumdjian) 74. Paul 1 5 7 . 102. 24. 189 Ayerst. 208.8 . 262. I 2 I . 1 0 9 . 2 0 8 . and Arran Bill 2 1 3 . Barbara 87 Baddeley. 2 2 2 Ackerley. 96. David 1 0 5 . 99. 9 4 . 7 3 . 1 9 8 .9 .Index Abbotsholme school 50 Abse.2 Annan. G. 4 3 . Harold. J. Matthew 1 1 3 Arran. 5 3 . 43. 120. A.2 . 'Boofy'. J.1 6 Almost Free Theatre 234 Anderton. 1 5 8 Baldwin. 8th Earl. 42.1 3 . 45. 189 Another Kind of Loving (Rowley) 198 Any Questions? (radio) 198 Aphrodite (Louys) 9—10 Aquarium (Acton) 81 Architect's Journal 85 Are You Being Served (TV) 9 1 . 190 A I D S and HIV xi.

Charles 14 Brown. Derek 163 Bergler. Dave 2 2 2 Cashman. 2 1 7 . 189 Boy George 2 5 5 Boyle. Lord 195 'Brad' 2 5 5 Bricklayers' Arms (London) 165 Brideshead Revisited (Waugh) 8 0 . 120. 2 1 8 . Barbara 1 0 3 .4 Chatterway.1 6 .8 Berners. C. 163. 166. 1 2 2 . 1 7 2 Black Horse pub (London) 165 Blackett. 7 7 . Henry 'Chips' 1 5 1 Chariot. André 65. 105 Between the Acts (Porter & Weeks) x.2 1 . 7 5 . i l l . 1 1 9 A Boy's Own Story (White) 255 The Boys in the Band (Crowley) 2 3 2 . Humphrey 1 1 0 Carr. D. Leonard 129 Blunt. 3 1 . 166. 1 5 1 Civilization. 189 Broadcasting Standards Council 270 Brooke.5 1 . David 189 Chamberlain. Baroness 87 Burgess. 58 Beyond our Ken (radio) 199. 25 . Christopher 2 1 7 Cherwell (magazine) 106 child abuse 42 Christopher and His Kind (Isherwood) 134. 1 3 0 . 2 2 6 . Sir Winston 85. Muriel 1 2 9 . 7 3 . Edward 4 8 . Rupert 5 1 .9 .2 . Anthony 1 1 4 . George 221 Cagney. Julian 1 1 6 Bentley. 200 A Bigger Splash (Hockney) 245 Birkenhead.3 .1 Cavalcade (Coward) 95 Cavour bar (London) 129 Cazalet. 122 Bobbie's club (London) 165 Body Positive 259 Le Boeuf sur le Toit club (London) 129-30 Bogarde. Pete 208 Betjeman.7 Calthrop. Neville 140 Channon. 253 Brabazon of Tara. 83 Budberg.8 0 . 80. Yorck and Mme 78 'Black Books' 2 8 . M. 87. Leonard 189 Bismarck.1 9 .3 . Edmund 180 Berkeley. 1 5 6 Bolton's pub (London) 2 3 5 Boothby. 2 2 1 Berlin. 190 Burnand. 70. Lady 87 Birmingham. 1 1 4 . 8 3 .9 Cambridge University. 84. Guy 6.1 7 . 54 Brookfield. Sir Francis 1 1 Buzz-Buzz (Chariot) 65 Byng. 268 Carpenter. 173 Cash. Victor 87 'Cecil' 146 Cecil. Sir Edward 8. 52. 2 2 0 . Sir Edward 19 'Cleveland Street Scandal' 1 5 . 1 3 5 Chu Chin Chow (musical) 65 Church of England 265 Church of England Newspaper 85 Churchill. Robert 2 3 1 Carson. Lord 74. 204-6 Bowra. 161 Campaign for Homosexual Equality (CHE) 2 1 6 . Michael 262 Casde. 100.3 0 Bell. C. 76. Isaiah 189 'Bernard' 9 7 . 2 2 8 . 7 5 . 1 1 6 . 102 Broad. 1 0 1 . Gerald Tyrwhitt.9 Caravan Club (London) 129 Careless Stork Club (London) 129 Carpenter. Jack 74.296 INDEX Buchanan. Sir Dirk 1 5 5 . 1 0 2 . 159. 7 9 . 1 0 1 .7 . 49. 238. Gladys 8 8 . 1 1 3 . Baron 189. Andrew 1 1 7 . Angus 1 4 6 . Anthony 40 Burgess. 96 Best. Its Cause and Cure (Carpenter) 50 'Clara' 144 Clarke. Robert. James 96 Calder.8 .1 'Brideshead Generation' 80. Humphrey 2 1 7 . Douglas 84 Belcher. Sir John 9. 93.

240 Collins. 270 Eliot. 65. Michael 3 2 . G.9 . 1 2 9 . 72 Douglas-Home.9 . 189. Sir Noël 8 3 . 9 0 . 1 1 7 . Cecil 102. 6 6 .6 . Forster (Furbank) 42 Encounter (magazine) 198 England's Ideal (Carpenter) 50 English. Richard 103. 1 2 0 . 2 3 5 . 170. 1 7 2 Davis.9 . Baron Alfred 203 d'Erlanger. 2 3 7 .4 Cole. 139 post-war 9 2 . Tom 43. 192 Daily Daily Daily Daily Express 106. 8 8 .4 .6 . 154. Quentin 1 3 0 . Sir C. Lady 87. Chris 2 3 2 Dyson. 1 2 8 . 204. 190 The Colonel (Burnand) I I Colony Club (London) 130 Comfort. 90.3 . D. John 234 Dickens.6 . 1 8 8 . 204. Mabel 86 Cornford. 4. 57.1 .4 Douglas. 9 5 . Canon John 189. 2 3 . 165.2 . 83 Cochran's lgjo Revue 8 3 . Benjamin. 7. 189 De Profundis (Wilde) 6. 42. Mart 2 3 2 ..3 . 220 Crowley. Lady Emerald 84. 3 1 . 2 6 8 . Earl of Beaconsfield 16 A Domestic Animal (King) 2 4 3 . Peter 1 7 4 Driberg. 165. 205 Sketch 2 3 1 Earthly Powers (Burgess) 40 Eastenders (TV) 262. 1 3 4 Coleherne pub (London) 2 3 5 . A. 1 5 1 .9 Daily Worker 106 The Dales (radio) 2 3 1 Dance. 233-4 Crisp. 7 3 . Paul 2 5 5 . 85. George 10. 245. 1 2 2 Connon. T.9 . 159.6 . 14. 85. Rupert 163 Crossman.3 Cunnard. 174 Mail 85. Geoffrey 262 Die Traumdeutung (Freud) 29 Dietrich. 85. 198 The Decline of the West (Spengler) 99 Degenerate Oxford 1 3 2 Denning. 1 4 2 . Marlene 90 Disraeli. 98 plays 74. 268 Cochran.9 . and 'Cole group' 1 0 4 . 2 3 . B. 7 5 . S. E. 1 0 4 . 1 1 7 .3 0 . 40.8 .4 . 27 E. Gladys 89 Corey.7 0 . 9 5 . Sir Alec 203. 115. 208 de Maurier. 109 Ellmann.5 Colefax. 88. 6 1 .INDEX The Climate of Treason (Boyle) 1 1 7 clubs and pubs to W W 2 65. Sir Arthur Conan 38 Drake. Catherine 86 The Destructive Element (Spender) 1 3 6 Dexter. M. 149 Davidson. 1 4 7 . James 220 'David' 1 4 5 . 92. 262 Minor 83. Lord Alfred ('Bosie') ix. 89 Currie. Cyril 1 0 1 . 1 2 Dyer. 1 1 6 . 2 3 7 . 2 0 5 . Arthur 1 5 5 Entertaining Mr Shane (Willes) 250 Epstein. Edwina 256 297 Daily Telegraph 24. 1 1 9 . 1 5 2 . Richard 10. 88 Cons.4 . 207. Brian 208 Esquire Clubs 227 Essays (Macaulay) 26 European Court of Human Rights 265 . 1 1 0 . 2 4 1 . 1 6 8 . 1 2 7 . John 1 1 7 Cory don (Gide) 1 3 2 The Counterfeit Sex (Bergler) 180 Coward.3 .6 . 116-23 Conan Doyle see Doyle Concerning the Eccentricities of Cardinal Pirelli (Firbank) 79 Connolly. 268 The Conspiracy of Silence (Penrose and Freeman) 1 1 7 Cooper. Bryan 65. 205 The Downing Street Years (Thatcher) 256 Doyle.2 . Alex 189 Coming Clean (play) 253 Communism and Socialism: Oxbridge 102-3. Bette 93 Day-Lewis. H. 269 Criterion (magazine) 109 Croft-Cooke.

Lord Ronald 27 Grayson. Bruce 200 'Francis' 2 1 6 — 1 7 'Fred' 5 8 . 48. Sir John 74. 14. 209 Halliwell. Jo 2 1 7 Guardian 270 Guevara.5 Galbraith. Earl of Euston 15 Fitzroy Tavern (London) 129 Fontanne.9 Gordon Walker. 2 4 5 . 1 0 2 . 180. 1 9 5 . 88. 240. Elinor 85 Goon Show (radio) 1 9 8 . André 6. Thomas 197 A Garland of Ladslove (Nicholson) 43 Garland. 1 8 9 . Sir Peter 234 Hallidie Smith. Simon 1 1 7 Freud. Earl of. Justin 6 Fellowship of the N e w Life 49 Festival Club (London) 129 Field. 178 Gilbert. P. Sir Nicholas 261 Fashanu. 100. 158 Green. 1 3 2 .9 3 .9 . Larry 92. 105 Gentlewoman (magazine) 85 'Géorgie' 254. Baroness 2 1 3 Gaitskell. 71 3 Germany: pre-WW2 1 1 2 .7 . 2 5 2 Haggard. Patrick 103 Gosse. 4 6 . 247. life 42. 222-40. 201. Edmund 27 Gower. Rev Andrew 196. 87. 2 2 7 . 249. Sir David Maxwell 1 6 3 .7 Exon. 239-40 gay liberation movement 142—3. William 163 Firbank. 237. Geoffrey 189 Fairbairn. 1 3 2 Gielgud.1 2 . P. 30.8 0 First World War 5 3 . 1 7 5 6 The Happy Prince and Other Tales (Wilde) 13 Harris. N. 62. 2 1 3 . 235. 201. 1 2 1 . Ronald 7 9 . 47 Hart-Davies. Hermione 2 5 1 Ginsberg. 7 . 269 Gingold.1 . 264 Gay Sweatshop theatre company 234 Gay's the Word (Novello) 74 Gaytime TV 268 General Strike (1926) 99.7 Gay Men Fighting Aids (GMFA) 259 Gay News (magazine) 2 3 5 . Kenny 2 2 2 Exeter University 2 3 6 .9 . S.6 . 165 sexuality 43.4 Gide. Sir Henry Rider 50 Hair (muscial) 2 3 1 Hall. 1 3 1 . 2 4 9 Hamilton. Robert 189 INDEX Gay Pride rallies 2 2 5 . Patrick 1 2 8 . 6 0 . 2 2 3 . 195.5 Gautier. Antony activist 1 7 9 . 64. 2 3 4 . Janet 1 5 5 The Green Hat (Arlen) 7 5 .9 2 passim.7 . see also Maurice Forsyth. 209-10. 267 novels 36. 73 Fisher. Henry.3 . 2 2 1 . 1 7 1 . 2 5 6 . Sir W. 2 2 2 Grimond. 5 ° . Sigmund 29. 149 Freeman. 2 3 7 . 39. 90. 1 6 3 . 1 1 . Timothy 163 Evening Standard 25.7 . 89 Greenwood. Allen 208 Gloeden. 39. Judy 9 3 . 177 Gaitskell. Rupert 198 Hartley. 47 Furbank.8 books xi. 102. 1 0 4 . Frank 6. 160. Hugh 1 0 1 . 25. Baron von 42 Glyn.5 . M. 231. 1 8 3 . Che 226 Guy Burgess: A Portrait with Background (Driberg) 1 1 7 Faber. L. Théophile 10 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) 2 2 7 . 2 3 7 . 42 Fyfe.6 6 .6 'Gerald' 60.6 . 196. 2 5 5 .1 2 . E.5 . Anthony 103 Grey. Henry Fitzroy 50 Evans. Lynn 87 Forster. 8. 1 3 3 . 2 4 5 . 2 1 8 .298 Euston. 70. 178 Everett. Kenneth 2 1 1 . Stanley i n Fitzroy. 4 4 .

Brian 8 0 . 1 9 1 . 101 Howard.9 1 . A.6 post-war 9 2 . 1 3 7 . 1 3 . 1 8 9 . 130-2. Roy.9 . 93. 62. Rock 6 Hughes. 234 In the Purely Pagan Sense (Lehmann) 148 Institut fur Sexual. 1 0 . 190 Hyde. 51 Isherwood. Heinrich 133 Hitler.8 1 . 266 homosexuality common and legal terms for xi. Mick 2 0 8 .6 .3 . David 238. 2 4 2 . Moses 33 Jagger. E. 222-40. Gerald 7 7 Heber-Percy. 2 0 1 . 199 Hawkes.1 5 . 2 3 1 . Adolf 133 HIV see A I D S and H I V Hockney. 3 3 . 1 2 1 .3 .6 1 . 226. 1 3 0 Hickey. 1 9 5 . David 1 5 5 Huxley. 1 2 3 . Martin 1 5 8 Hemingway. 1 7 1 . 267 AIDS 262-4 pressure groups and gay liberation 1 4 2 . 270 Howard. Ian 1 7 9 . police see law and politics media interest see media and pederasty 3 2 . 112. 195.3 . William 106 Hillier.3 2 .2 . 26. 245 Hillinghurst. Derek 245 Jarrow Hunger March (1934) 120 'Jazz Age' 7 4 . 2 0 1 . 43 to 1st W W and after 2 8 . 70.6 . 260 _ 299 Homosexuality 156 The Homosexual Society (Hauser) 198 Housman. 245 Hauser. Alan 255 Home. 262 class aspects Victorian 1 4 . 222.9 James.9 The Importance of Being Earnest (Wilde) 6. 5 8 .9 0 . Christopher life and sexuality 43. 136.8 0 . 209-10. 2 0 9 . 1 3 6 . 193 types and numbers of homosexuals ix-x. 76 2nd W W and after 1 4 5 .8 . 7 1 . Brian 209 .2 . 195. 2 1 8 .INDEX Harvey. 96-7. 249 books 3 3 . 1 3 5 . 6 8 . 14 LTmmoraliste (Gide) 1 3 2 Imperialist (magazine) 2 8 .3 0 .9 3 .4 2 .5 .1 0 . Sir Julian 189.7 0 . 40.Wissenschaft 1 1 2 The Intermediate Sex (Carpenter) 50. 8 9 . 159 public perceptions Victorian 5 . Holbrook 68 Jackson. 27.7 . 1 3 6 Jarman. 42. 2 4 5 .8 Hypocrites' Club 101 / Fight to Live (Boothby) 205 An Ideal Husband (Wilde) 1 3 .7 legal aspects. 1 8 9 . 27 1st to 2nd W W 2 9 . 192 Haxton. Adam 253 Jones. 4. Jack 120. 8. 1 1 2 . 1 2 1 . 40. 2 2 1 Jenny Lives with Eric and Martin (children's book) 263 'John' 1 3 6 . Tony 1 3 5 . I 9 5 6 . i n . Henry 1 3 5 . 1 5 5 . 1 7 4 . 236. 198 use of condoms 259.4 . 1 3 3 . Jacquetta 189. 1 7 . 3 9 . i n . 2 0 7 . 1 3 2 . 4 2 . Ernest 47 Hemlock and After (Wilson) 160 Hewit. 27. 220. H. Bevis 31 Himmler. 50.1 . Lord 1 9 2 . Montgomery 14 Hyndman. 1 3 4 . Richard 198. Robert 87 Heidegger.7 . Lena 2 2 1 . 2 2 .1 6 .3 . 192.6 .7 Jeger. Trevor 189 Hudson. 2 2 2 Jenkins.7 therapy 1 8 1 . 2 2 . 200 Johnson. 6 9 . Yevgeny 202 Jackson. 1 3 5 .3 . 129. Lord see Douglas-Home Homosexual Acts (play) 234 Homosexual Law Reform Society (HLRS) 1 9 1 .3 Isis (magazine) 82 Ivanov. 160.2 . Reiss 1 9 1 Howard's End (Forster) 47 Huddleston. 74. H.

2 5 3 . 164. 94 Layard. Ronnie 2 0 4 . 80 Lane. Lady 1 8 8 . Bernard 2 0 2 . Jimmy 1 1 9 . 51 Lawrence. Henry 1 7 . 188-93.7 Landsberg. 93. 71 The Last of Mrs Cheyney (Lonsdale) 85 Lathom. 1 9 ° Lockwood. 196 Criminal Law Amendment Act (1886) and 'Blackmailer's Charter' 1 7 . 45. 2 0 9 . 181 Gielgud trial 1 7 8 Montagu trial 1 6 7 . 9 8 Lemon. 265 A I D S and Clause 28.7 5 Harvey case 1 7 9 . Immanuel 10 Keeler. 1 2 9 .1 3 . Godfrey 195 Laing. 1 7 2 . Earl 70 Lloyd. Gertrude 90 Lawrence. 140. 1 4 6 . Francis 2 4 3 . 146. 20 London Victorian 1 0 . Earl 156 INDEX Wolfenden report and pressure groups 1 7 7 .1 0 . William.8 . A. 1 7 2 Lady Chatterley's Louer (Lawrence) 37.4 .5 . 268 see also clubs and pubs. 1 4 . 2 1 3 .7 Lawrence. 2 6 1 . 5th Earl 7 4 . John 14 Langtry.8 .9 2nd W W and after 64. 2 1 3 . D. 45 Lady Windermere's Fan (Wilde) 13 Lady's World (magazine) 24—5 Lagden.5 . Denis 246 Lennon.2 police harrassment see law gay rights marches 2 2 5 . D.7 Jowitt. 160 law and politics Wilde trials 3 .8 0 Lions and Shadows (Isherwood) i n A Uttle Bit of Fluff (farce) 65 Littlewood. E. Philip 201 Last Exit to Brooklyn (Selby) 242 Last Poems (Housman) 3 3 .9 . 246 Kit Kat Club 1 3 4 Klugman. 204 Liberace 92 ! Kant. 68—9. 128-9.2 3 . 95. Danny 92 Labouchère. 2 0 6 . 37. Lady see Parry Lloyd George of Dwyfor.1 4 . John 208 Lesley. 22. 1 5 3 . 2 6 3 .8 .3 0 . 94. R.8 . Earl of 2 1 3 The Longest Journey (Forster) 36 Longtime Companion (film) 258 Lonsdale.9 .8 La Rue. 89.3 . James 1 1 7 Knox. 1 6 3 .5 . 201. 1 5 6 . H.6 . David. 67 1st W W and after 6 3 .1 8 . 2 1 6 . 1 5 1 . 249 King-Hall. 7 7 . James 1 5 7 . Arthur 69 Korda. Driberg and Kray 204—7 Arran Bill and 1967 Sexual Offences Act 1 3 8 .8 . Lillee 65 Larkin. 46 Loot (Orton) 2 1 4 Louys. Sir Alexander 87 Kray. 1 2 7 . John 1 3 4 . 1 7 7 indictable sexual offences ( 1 9 0 0 .9 . 1 4 7 . Joan 206 The Living End (film) 270 Llewelyn-Davies.6 .6 1980S-90S ix. Frederick 85 The Loom of Youth (Waugh) 36. Ned.1 8 . Pierre 9 2 . Collie 76 Koestler. 1 9 5 .2 . 267 age of consent 2 6 5 . John Maynard 1 3 1 King.5 . 8 3 . 2 1 6 . 1 8 1 . 195 Well of Loneliness trial 1 3 2 Criminal Justice Bill (1948) 1 5 5 police harassment (19502-60S) 1 3 0 .8 0 .1 . 1 5 6 . 83. theatre London Lighthouse A I D S hospice 259 Longford.6 .300 Journey's End (SherrifF) 5 4 . 1 8 0 . T. 5 9 . John 1 1 2 Lees.3 . C.2 5 .3 Boothby. 4 7 . Christine 202 Keynes. 1 3 8 . Cdr Stephen 90 Kirkup.6 3 ) 130. 1 8 5 . Cole 95 Levin.1 0 . Sir Frank 19. 9 2 . see also gay liberation movement Profumo affair 2 0 1 .20 Lehmann.8 . 3 2 .

Carmen 93 202. 3 5 . 1 7 2 Molyneux. 1 1 7 . Your Tomorrow (Boothby) 205 235. 2 3 7 . 62. Naomi 1 5 1 McNally. Dolly 1 2 9 . The Milkman's on his Way (Rees) 245 Milhgan. 270 A I D S 2 6 1 . Bob 2 2 7 . 1 3 9 My Days and Dreams (Carpenter) 50 My Yesterday. William 49 Mostyn. 2 0 0 . Sidney 20—1. Anita 65 Mount Temple. Lord and Lady 86 Mousehole coffee bar (London) 165 Music Box (London) 1 2 9 . 269 National Theatre 234 Navy see Army and other services 'Neil' 1 4 2 .9 0 T V and radio 9 1 . 263. 267. Liza 223 Macmillan.9 .1 Boothby and Kray 2 0 4 . 1 9 8 .2 . 254. 78. Lady 2 1 1 Montagu of Beaulieu. 205 The Missing Diplomats (Connolly) 1 1 7 Macmillan. Ramsay 99 Merrill. 1 7 5 Wolfenden report 1 8 8 . 1 4 5 . 1 7 1 .7 6 . 2 1 4 .8 . 163.7 passim Mavor. 76 McQueen. Donald 1 1 4 . Olga 87 301 Vassall affair 1 9 7 . Princess 90.9 .4 . Freddie 92. 26 Mass Observation Project x A Matter of Life and Sex (Moore) 258. 5 3 . Alfred 87 Lymington Lord and Lady 86 Lynn. George 48. Oliver 76.9 190 Minnelli. FM Viscount 214 Moore. Steve 253 Monroe. 74. 50.2 New Statesman 1 9 6 . Lady Ottoline 134. 2 3 1 . 1 4 3 . Miranda.2 . Lady Dorothy 204 Mitchison. 2 6 9 . 270 Melba. 58. 22 Maxwell Fyfe. Eric 91 Morning Post 85 Morrell.8 Macaulay. Robin 168—9 Maugham. 1 5 1 Marquis of Granby pub (London) 165. 262 MacDonald. John 1 5 5 Mercury. 85. 2 3 1 . Edward 1 1 3 McCormick.5 gay liberation ix. Edward. Bernard. Dame Nellie 85. 268. 1 6 7 . 91 post-war Montagu trial 1 7 3 .INDEX Love's Coming of Age (Carpenter) 50. Harold: Earl of Stockton 2 0 1 .1 5 . Somerset 7 6 . 52. Eddie 1 6 9 .8 . 237 Married Love (Stopes) 29 Mason. 210 Montgomery. Marilyn 93 Malcolm. Thomas Babington. Sir David 1 6 3 . 84 Macklin. Oscar 258. 2 1 0 . Spike 1 9 8 . Baron 26 Memoirs of an Aesthete (Acton) 81 McCartney. 168 Maupin.7 0 More Tales of the City (Maupin) 252 Morecombe.9 0 . Edward 30.7 .1 1 New York Evening Post 83 Newman. Sir Ian 6 Messel. 2 0 3 . and Manchester 2 3 5 .1 5 .5 . 'Montagu trial' 6. 8 9 . 177 Mayers. Paul 208 Mendelson. 3 3 . 4 4 . 86 Mellors. 1 3 5 Morris. 120. 51 Lunt. 1 8 1 . 236. 268 Margaret. Lord.3 0 media interest Wilde trials 2 4 .5 . 166. 2 4 1 . Paul 253 .7 0 . Charles 2 1 . Armistead 252 Maurice (Forster) 25. 250 The Naked Civil Servant (Crisp) 1 5 2 . 265. Ernest 21 Maclean. 269-70 Maugham. 49. 2 5 0 . 4 0 .2 .6 . 42 inter-war years 85. 51 McKellen.

Goerge 3 3 . Joe 92.7 . 7 5 . 192 Profumo. Laurence.3 . Beverley life and society 70. 99 Nicholson.2 October Club 103 Oh. Charles 1 8 . 80.5 .1 2 . 79. 44 Penrose. 76.5 0 Orwell. 58. 222.3 Olivier. 8 0 . R. 42. 3 2 . 2 0 1 . 83. 2 3 7 Nichols. Baron 54 On Approval (Lonsdale) 85 Organization for Lesbian and Gay Action (OLGA) 264 Orton. 90. 88. John 2 0 6 . 189. 93. 1 2 . 1 6 1 . B. 27 Pygmalion (Shaw) 38 News of the World 24 Niblett. 84.2 psychiatry 1 8 1 .8 .6 0 North-Western Homosexual Law Reform Society ( N W H L R C ) 226-7 Nott-Bower. 74.1 5 . Hugh 199. 114 Paddick. 6 8. 8th Marquess of 4 . 222 Radclyffe-Hall. Barrie 1 1 7 'Phil' 7 1 . Archbishop Michael 2 1 3 Rank Outsiders 143 Rattigan. Noël 2 8 .9 . J. 5 9 . Sir John 1 6 5 . 200 Portrait of a Marriage (Nicolson) 30 Powell. 94. 1 3 2 Ramsey. Terence 85 . 27 Pearson. 79. 14. Anthony 80. Wilfred 57 Oxford University 10. 235. 74 Nicolson. 43.3 . 1 9 . Harold 2 9 . William 1 3 5 The Plough (London) 129 Poems (Wilde) 13 politics see law and politics Porter.2 2 passim. 134. Marguerite 29.3 Philadelphia (film) 258 Pickup. 1 2 8 . 2 1 4 . Hesketh 27 Pearson. 101 Prancing Nigger (Firbank) 79 Prelude (Nichols) 83 Priestley. 76. Ivor 74. 90. 200 Pall Mall Gazette 16 Pallenberg. 7 5 . W. 3 2 . 166 Novello. 1 9 3 .3 0 . Michael 167.1 6 . Anita 209 Parker. Will 266 A Passage to India (Forster) 36. 266 Owen. 202 Pink Narcissus (film) 245 Pink Paper ix. 264 5. What a Lovely War (musical) 6 2 . Nigel 30 Nighthawks (film) 245 'Norman' 5 1 . 8 2 . 65. 1 31 Pigott. 99 Out This Week (TV) 268 Outlook (magazine) 83 Outrage! 1 9 3 .5 . 234. 270 Pitt Club 1 1 9 Pitt-Rivers. 166. 96 writing 8 2 . Patricia (Lady Llewelyn-Davies) 1 1 4 .7 Pemberton-Billing. Judge Thomas 264 Pimlott. 189 'Nicholas' 1 6 1 . Walter 10 Patience (Gilbert) 1 1 . 2 1 1 . 193 The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Freud) 29 pubs see clubs and pubs Punch (magazine) 10. 43 Parry. John Gambril 43 Nicolson. 1 5 2 Observer 1 5 1 .5 . Ronald 234 The Picture of Dorian Gray (Wilde) 6. II. 85. Prof Ben 104. 121 Parry. 2 4 9 .302 INDEX Patchwork (Nichols) 83 Pater.3 . 101-13. 142 sexuality 3 1 . 1 8 1 . 39 Queen's Head pub (London) 235 Queensberry. 68. John 1 8 0 .1 2 . 1 6 9 . 267 Quest for Justice (Grey) 196. Kevin x.7 4 passi 210 Plomer.

205 Russell. 1 5 8 . 2 1 0 . Simon 198 Raverat.7 . R. 38. Mary 86 Ridley.2 Selby. 1 2 7 .8 . 51 Shelley. 196 Socialism see Communism and Socialism Society and the Homosexual 156 Somerset. 153-4 VE Day 1 5 1 .1 6 . Ernst 133 Roll. 230 'Sapper' 90 Sartre. H. Jacques 1 3 1 Rawlinson.9 . Oswald 99 Sphinx club (London) 129 The Stage (Nichols) 83 Staircase (Dyer) 2 3 2 Stallworthy. 2 1 2 . George 'Dadie' 1 1 4 303 'Sam' 97. Eric 221 Rolling Stones 2 0 8 . 1 4 2 . 47 Strachey. Keith 209 Ridgely. Michael 103 Stocks. 199 Rowley. Alan xi A Single Man (Isherwood) 2 4 2 . Mary 189 Stonewall 1 4 3 . 1 5 6 Spanier. Robbie 27 Rothschild. 1 3 2 2 6 6 Sabatini. Jon 57 Standard bar (London) 129 'Stephen' 210— 11 Stephenson. Stephen 54. 46 Ross. 70 1 . John 169. 192. 249 Richard. 2 6 4 . 2 2 5 . Len 1 9 1 . Tom 256 Rockingham Club (London) 165 Roehm. Earl 5 1 . Bertrand. 2 2 9 .3 Smith. Sir Alfred 261 Sherriff. 1 4 0 . 1 3 4 . Tim 254 'Richard' 1 5 8 .1 3 . Edward 18 Sherlock Holmes stories (Conan Doyle) 38 Sherman. 104. Goronwy 1 1 7 Rembrandt pub (Manchester) 235 Reynolds. 42 A Song at Twilight (Coward) 2 3 3 .INDEX Raven. 1 6 6 . 1 0 9 . acting Captain 57 Southwark. Jean-Paul 1 5 8 Sassoon. Siegfried 54 Sebastiane (Jarman) 245 Second World War 64. 170. 80. Stopes.8 Spencer. 190 Rylands. Rafael 74 Sackville-West. 16 Salome (Wilde) 13 .9 Rolph. 5 4 . Hubert 242 Self (Nichols) 83 Shaw. 2 3 4 . 1 7 2 Reynold's News 24 Rice. C. 2 3 7 Salisbury. 107 9. 51 Rees. Nicholas 2 1 7 Riefenstahl. Lord 173 Reddie. 1 9 1 Spengler. Colin 1 5 7 .5 . Lytton 74. 47. Peter. 40 Sinfield. 193. A. Anthony 198 Rowse. Donald 189 Sorrel. 102. 196 Romeo and Juliet (ballet) 263 Romilly Club (London) 130 A Room with a View (Forster) 36.5 0 Royal Shakespeare Company 2 3 2 Royal Vauxhall Tavern 235 The Ruffian on the Stair (Orton) 2 1 4 1 5 Ruling Passions (Driberg) 106. L. George Bernard 3. 200. Victor 1 1 9 Round the Home (radio) 9 1 . Peter (Lord Churchill) 86 Spender. 1 4 9 . C.5 0 . 1 4 1 . Cecil 50.7 A Shropshire Lad (Housman) 3 3 . 189. Marquis 1 5 . Bishop of 1 5 5 . David 245 Rees. 1 3 1 . 131. Ginette 90 Spencer. Robert Cecil. Marie 29. n o 'Roy' 66.3 0 . Vita 30 St James's Gazette 24 Salisbury pub (London) 2 3 5 . 189. John 102 Strachey.4 Soper. Sir Augustus 16 Stem (magazine) 204 Stewart. Lord Arthur 1 5 .5 . Kenneth 195 Robinson. 2 1 4 .5 . Chris 6 Smith. Leni 1 1 2 The Road to Wigan Pier (Orwell) 99 Roads to Freedom (Sartre) 158 Robinson.

67. H. 205 'Tony' 1 6 7 . 2 3 2 . 207 Where's the Cat? (Beerbohm Tree) 1 1 Whistler. 2 5 . 228. Sir Herbert Beerbohm 1 1 'Trevor' 1 4 1 Turing. Sidney and Beatrice 49 Wedgewood. Neil 269 Tennant.3 .3 The Waste Land (Eliot) 109 Watts-Dunton. and Thatcherism 2 5 2 . 76. James 10. Dame Rebecca 86 Wheatsheaf pub (London) 165 Wheen.6 . 264 theatre Victorian n . Francis 68 Thorpe. 44. 105. 189. W. 237 The Swimming Pool Library (Hollinghurst) 255 Swinburne.1 2 The Sun 2 6 1 . 132 Wells. 13 . Francis 1 6 3 .2 3 . Christopher 78 Tales of the City (Maupin) 2 5 2 Tatchell. FM Lord 78 A Way of Life (Wildeblood) 190 We Think the World of You (Ackerley) 198 Weatherhead. David 74.5 . Alec 189 Village People (group) 2 5 3 .1 . Denton 43. 8 8 .8 . John. Leslie 189 Webb. Edward I I I Student Union Gay Societies (GaySocs) 236-7 Sullivan. 87 West. Clifton 84 Webb. 95 post-WW2 152. Hugh 74.4 . Alan 5 . Kenneth 189 Wall Street crash and depression 9 3 . 107. 204. 90 Walker.1 2 Tennant.1 2 . 45. 207 Sunday Times 83. 1 1 4 Wavell. 49.5 . 1 3 . 47 Welch. Henri 6 Towards Democracy (Carpenter) 51 Tree.4 . 9 3 . Dick 2 1 7 Taylor. 1 0 1 . 7 1 . 199. 2 2 3 . 107 Untergang des Abendlandes (Spengler) 99 Upward.6 .J. 262 Sunday Mirror 1 9 7 . 190 Taylor.4 . 47 Tite Well of Loneliness (Radclyffe-Hall) 29. 44. 189. 45. Jeremy 246 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (Freud) 29 Tillyard. 102. 1 7 8 . 1 8 . Archibald.6 Vassall. Evelyn 8 0 .9 . Aubrey 2 2 7 . 180. 134 Walter.3 The Times 64. Dame Veronica 189.6 . 1 7 9 . A.304 INDEX Twenty-Five (Connon) 85 Tyrwhitt. Alfred 1 7 . 90. Lady Margaret. 96.4 Tennant. 65 inter-war period 7 5 . G. Theodore 72 Waugh.8 Ward's Irish House 129 Warner. Stephen 74 Terrence Higgins Trust 259 Thatcher. E. and 'Vassall affair' 197. P. Jeffrey x. M. Sir Arthur 1 1 . 171 Tchaikovsky. 107.4 They Stand Apart: A Critical Survey of Homosexuality 156 Thompson. 190 Weekly Dispatch 85 Weeks. Peter 7 The Temple (Spender) 1 1 1 . 88. 1 7 1 Toulouse-Lautrec. 189 'Tim' 2 6 2 . Algernon 10. 262.1 4 . 1 6 2 . 2 5 2 University Labour Club (ULC) 1 0 3 . 238. Peter 265 Taverne. 199 200-1 Victim (film) 1 5 5 . 235 Vidler. 189. 255 Village Voice 228 The Vortex (Coward) 85. Nigel 2 2 2 . Alec 36 Waugh. 8 3 . Gerald see Berners United States: gay liberation 1 4 2 . 72 The Swiss bar (London) 129 Sykes. 245. 99 Walpole.8 .

104. 189 Wilson. 2 1 0 . Edmund 2 5 5 . 3 0 .7 . 160. 25. 2 1 8 . Rex 76. 2 2 2 A Woman of No Importance (Wilde) 13 Woman's World (magazine) 25 Women in Love (Lawrence) 4 7 .1 9 .9 1 . 2 0 1 .1 0 . Oscar life and times 4. 68 Yeats.9 Williams. Shirley 2 1 7 Wills. 76. 1 4 . 2 2 .INDEX Whistler. 2 1 3 . 2 1 0 Willes. 14 Yellow Book (magazine) 9—10. 137 Wooton. 218. 1 0 .1 9 passim. 1 5 8 .3 . 1 3 . 234 Wilde. Baron John.2 4 . 190. 256 Whitman. 199. 3 1 . Sir William 82 Wildeblood. Peter 6. Kenneth 92. 196.1 .1 9 . 200 1. 1 7 4 .4 0 . 159. Ernie 91 Wittgenstein. 84 White. 1 6 7 .7 5 . 220. 270 trials first and second 3 . 27. 14 Y M C A (song) 2 5 3 . B. W. Angus 1 5 8 . John 189 Winn. 198. Constance 7 Wilde. Godfrey 7 6 . Virginia 30. 1 3 4 .7 Wise. 216. 196.8 Wood. 2 4 . Barbara 189 Words and Music (Coward) 95—6 World Health Organisation 1 8 1 World Within World (Spender) 1 3 5 The World. 246 305 Wilson. Ludwig 58 Wodehouse. Clifford 234 Williams. 270 plays and books 6. 72.4 . 1 5 9 . 1 3 1 . the Flesh and Myself (Davidson) 40. 77.4 . Walt 49 Wilde. 1 7 4 Wilson.1 4 . 100. 2 3 8 . and Wolfenden Report 1 7 7 . Peter 250 Williams. 85 Wolfenden.5 . Sir Harold 103. 26. G. P. 6 1 . 1 6 9 . 20 Woolf. 3 9 . 2 3 . Mr Justice 19. 1 8 8 .1 4 . 160. 78. 1 3 5 Woolf. 2 1 3 . 4 2 .3 . 79.3 . Leonard 1 3 2 . 1 1 6 . 1 7 1 . 82. 267 third and aftermath 1 9 . 2 1 2 . Alfred 18.

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