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Lichtbericht 91

Published in November 2010

Arrival/departure Are tourism and air travel on the verge of transition from quantitative to qualitative growth? The increasing attention given by airport operators, hoteliers and restaurant owners worldwide to the requirements of their guests – and therefore also to the architecture and lighting design – certainly

supports this impression. To give one example: the new airport in Montevideo, where Rafael Viñoly’s design uses light and lightness to celebrate the aesthetics of flying.

Contents

About this issue

Introduction

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About this issue Keylights Bright prospects

Light & Technology

Report

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Logotec LED Surface-mounted and recessed spotlights ­ With Logotec LED, ERCO presents its first spotlight series which has been exclusively designed for LEDs. Focus Spotlight and floodlight characteristics in use. Double focus Directing the light of LEDs with Spherolit lenses. ­ Tim Henrik Maack

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Carrasco International Airport, Montevideo With its curvaceous roof design, the new airport building at Montevideo in Uruguay celebrates the aesthetics of aviation. Light forms the link between indoor and outdoor areas.

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Background

Projects

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Light and shadow: airports need innovation Technical journalist and aviation expert Andreas Spaeth reports on the trends and developments in the global competition between the major airports.

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Tokyo International Forum New light for the building that gave Rafael Viñoly the international breakthrough in 1996. Efficient visual comfort achieves an energy saving of up to 70%. Malaga, terminal T3 Modern and efficient – that’s the impression made by the extension to Malaga Airport in the Spanish holiday region of Andalusia. Hotel Nixe, Binz In the boutique hotel on Rügen Isle, a combination of location, architecture and top cuisine fuse together to produce a gastronomic synthesis of the arts. Hotel Santa Marta, Lloret de Mar The traditional holiday hotel on the Catalan coast is expanded by a new spa area with sea view. Expo Shanghai 2010: German Pavilion ­ Technology produces a city in equilibrium or a "Balancity" – to use the title of the German Pavilion. Backlights

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Logotec LED spotlights: technology comes of age. Whenever there are innovations in a particular area, it takes a while for the new technology to find its definitive form. The development from the horse-drawn coach, to the motorised coach through to the automobile, for instance, went through various technical concepts and design stages. In the Logotec LED spotlight, we have now succeeded in developing a completely new spotlight design based purely on the use of LEDs. We have capitalised on ERCO’s core ­ capabilities in the field of optoelectronics and channelled them into a constructional concept. The design brief for this new spotlight concept is probably best described with the classic ­ catchphrases “Form follows function” or even “Less is more”. For ERCO, a design brief is more than a knee-jerk reaction to short-lived fashions, but something that actually comes full circle because, in the ideal case, design is the vehicle for further innovation. We are pleased to present two airports to you in this Lichtbericht. The first is Carrasco International Airport in Montevideo, built by ­ Rafael Viñoly. The architecture of this airport is of captivating beauty, especially with its spectacularly curved roof which ensures an impressive spatial experience. Its graceful construction gives travellers a feeling for the aesthetics of flying right from their first steps in the airport. By providing lighting with a connected load of 14W/m2, we have also reacted to this lightness in terms of the energy requirements. But just as important to us as efficiency is, as always, the lighting quality – and the key feature here is the uniform illumination of the “floating roof” with Parscoop ceiling washlights. All in all, a thoroughly successful implementation of a lighting concept following the dictates of effi­ cient visual comfort. The second airport project is the new terminal T3 in Malaga. Architecture and lighting design for Spain’s fourth largest airport come from the Madrid-based GOP Oficina de Proyectos. Highly shielded double-focus luminaires were used here in order to create a very tranquil and therefore also elegant ceiling appearance. The wide axial spacing between the luminaires,

which is also possible here, further augments this effect, while making a good contribution to economic-efficiency and energy saving. This is another example of how the concept of efficient visual comfort can be skilfully harmonised with the requirements of the architecture concerned. Sometimes it’s nice to see old friends – or to light up their faces again. The Tokyo International Forum is one such example. We first got to know this building back in 1996. Then, as now, it was a fascinating and daring construction that just lends itself to scenic lighting. Today, a good 14 years later, we have had the honour of revamping this scenic lighting using modern lighting technology. The result is an energy saving of 70% combined with improved lighting quality. We are delighted that on this project – as one of the symbols of Tokyo – lighting quality and lighting efficiency so positively complement each other.

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ERCO Lichtbericht Imprint Publisher: Tim H. Maack Editor in Chief: Martin Krautter Design/Layout: Thomas Kotzur, Christoph Steinke Printing: Mohn Media Mohndruck GmbH, Gütersloh 1028749000 © 2010 ERCO

Photographs (Page): Frieder Blickle (2, 3, 28-29), Howard Brundrett/Das Fotoarchiv (36), Christian Hacker (37), Julia Holtkötter (1), Aksel Karcher/ electricgobo (19, 20), Andreas Keller (32), David Kuntzsch (3, 36), Joshua Lieberman (22-23), Thomas Mayer (2, 3, 4, 20, 24-27, 30-31), Rudi Meisel (2), Thomas Pflaum (3), Rogerio Reis (U1, 6-11), Alexan­ der Ring (2, 16-19, 21, 37, U4), Andreas Spaeth (12-15), Dirk Vogel (2, 3), Michael Wolf (2, 32-35). Translation: Lanzillotta Translations, Düsseldorf ERCO Lichtbericht 91   

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Keylights

Antwerp The Italian architects Bernardo Secchi and Paola Viganò designed ­ an urban development structure plan for the Belgian port of Antwerp. One sub-project is the 20-metre-high roof over the forecourt of the “Stadsschouwburg” theatre, illuminated at night by precise beams of light from Beamer projectors mounted in the steelwork.
Theaterplein, Antwerpen Architect: Studio Bernardo Secchi & Paola Viganò, Milan

Turin Before the gates of Turin lie the “Venaria Reale” palace and gardens – a former residence of the Savoy Kings and now home to various museums. The orangery and royal stables were extensively renovated and converted into exhibition halls. They have been fitted out with a flexible lighting system consisting of track, Cantax spotlights and a Light System DALI lighting control.
Reggia di Venaria Reale, Turin Architect: Massimo Venegoni, Studio Dedalo, Turin. www.lavenaria.it

Rome “Radio Dimensione Suono” is one of Italy’s most popular radio stations. Surrounding the prestigious headquarters in Rome, spacious gardens welcome the visitors, effectively illuminated by ERCO outdoor luminaires such as Kubus, Panorama and Tesis.
RDS Radio Dimensione Suono, Rome Architect: Nigel Rayan Lighting design: Baldieri, Rome www.rds.it

Solms At the headquarters of LEICA ­ Camera in the Hessian town of Solms, a new, modern-looking ­ entrance hall awaits ­ customers, giving the exclusive products an ­ appropriate introduction – all bathed in ERCO light. The installation uses downlights and wall­ washers from the new Quintessence system, while Cantax wallwashers are fitted in the LEICA gallery.
LEICA brand world, Solms Architecture and lighting design: Labor Weltenbau, Elmar Gauggel, Stuttgart www.leica-camera.com

Paris Outside: a facade scenically illuminated by Focalflood varychrome Design Hotels™ Future Forum 2010, LED. Inside: brilliant Compact HIT Berlin downlights with Spherolit technol- www.designhotels.com ogy, fully controlled as a unified whole by a Light System DALI. The light in the Parisian Sony Store compliments the image of the technology provider.
Sony Style Flagship Store, Paris Architect: Saguez & Partners, Saint-Ouen; Versions, Versailles www.boutiquegeorge5.fr

Berlin Design Hotels™, the international association of individually designed hotels, organises an annual symposium on architecture and design in the context of the hotel trade. The Future Forum 2010 took place on the 10th and 11th of June in Berlin and included interesting talks and exhibitions – all beneath ERCO light.

Karlsruhe With a fresh design concept, the Accor group is ­ repositioning its economy hotel brand, Ibis. This also includes intelligently designed, attractive light to eco­ nomically increase the ambience – for instance with Lightscan wallwashers in the hotel bar.
Ibis Hotel, Karlsruhe Architect: Essari & Lequime, Karlsruhe Interior design and lighting design: Dreesen & Partner, Düsseldorf www.ibishotel.com/Karlsruhe

Beijing The new building for the Capital Museum in the Chinese capital is home to a priceless collection of Asian artworks and artefacts. In an atmosphere of subdued lighting, Optec spotlights accentuate exhibits such as this golden Bodhisattva Puxian.
Capital Museum, Beijing Architect: AREP, Paris; Cuikai Architect, CADRG, Beijing Lighting design: Guangzhou Mingshi Lighting Co., Ltd., Beijing; Zhongtai Lighting Co., Ltd. ­ www.capitalmuseum.org.cn

Barcelona Welcome to the VIP lounge of the “Best Airport in Europe 2010”. This high accolade was awarded to the new terminal T1 of Barcelona Airport in the over 25 million passengers category by the “Airport Council International” organisa­ tion (ACI Europe). First class and business class passengers are able ­ to appreciate the merits of this building in a modern and elegant atmosphere, under the glare-free light of ERCO’s square downlights.
Terminal T1, Barcelona Airport Architect: Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura, Barcelona ­ www.bcn-viplounge.com

Ulm The new Hotel Lago at the Ulm trade fair presents a sleek and modern appearance. Many details make reference to the tradition of the Ulm School of Design. ERCO lighting tools add scenic lighting to the architecture both inside and out, and the restaurant is a prime example of successful wallwashing.
Hotel Lago, Ulm Architect: Nething Generalplaner Ulm/ Neu-Ulm Lighting design: Conplaning GmbH, Ulm www.lago-ulm.de

Amsterdam House of God with a double function: the “Nieuwe Kerk” in the heart of Amsterdam, a building from the 15th century, not only serves as the official coronation church of the Dutch royal family but also as an unusual concert and exhibition venue. For this purpose, a lighting system consisting of track and Stella spotlights and controlled by Light System DALI has been installed.
De Nieuwe Kerk, Amsterdam Architect (restoration): Kentie & Partners B.V., Zwanenburg Interior design: Zinsmeister interieurarchitectuur, Amsterdam Lighting design: Jan Hofstra, Soest (NL) www.nieuwekerk.nl

Königswinter The Drachenburg castle towers high above the Rhine near Bonn. It is not a real Medieval castle, but a pseudohistorical mixture of villa, castle and stately home, built in 1882 by Baron Stephan von Sarter. After a varied history, Drachenburg castle received a preservation order in 1986 and was subsequently restored with financial resources from the North Rhine-Westphalia foundation trust. Since spring 2010, events and exhibitions have again drawn in visitors into the splendid rooms and onto the terrace with its view of the Rhine. Midipoll bollard luminaires mark out and illuminate the outdoor areas of this listed building.
Drachenburg castle, Königswinter Architect: KKW Architekten, Altena; Gerd Bermbach Landschaftsarchitekt, Nümbrecht www.schloss-drachenburg.de

Barcelona Poble Nou, the former worker’s area near to Jean Nouvel’s “Torre Agbar”, has recently been greatly regenerated. One example of the change is the Can Framis art gallery in a former factory, now illuminated with Cantax spotlights on suspended track.
Can Framis, Fundació Vila Casas, Barcelona Architect: BAAS arquitectes, Barcelona www.fundaciovilacasas.com

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Bright prospects

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen (K20), the Klee Gallery in the new extension Düsseldorf. Architect: Steen Trojaborg at Dissing+Weitling, Copenhagen Lighting design: Licht Kunst Licht, Bonn/Berlin

“Clouds” installation by Michael Sailstorfer © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn Photographer: Thomas Mayer www.kunstsammlung.de

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Carrasco International Airport, Montevideo
With its curvaceous roof design, the new airport building at Montevideo in Uruguay celebrates the aesthetics of aviation. Light forms the link between indoor and outdoor areas.

Inside – Outside: the ERCO product range enables a lighting concept that is all cast from the same mould. The compact Powercast floodlights, mounted on the low wall abutting the access ramp, continue the lighting of the monolithic roof out into the outdoor area. The Powercast floodlights are fitted with oval flood Spherolit reflectors, pro­

ducing a flat, ­ axially symmetrical light inten­ sity distribution, and with highly efficient 150W metal halide lamps.

Architect: Rafael Viñoly, New York Partnering architects: Carla Bechelli Arquitectos, Buenos Aires Site management: Puerta del Sur S.A. / Corporación América, Arq. Julian M. Evans ­ Lighting designer: Ricardo Hofstadter, Montevideo ­ Photographer: Rogerio Reis, Rio de Janeiro www.aic.com.uy

The small, Latin-American country of Uruguay lies between Argentina and Brazil. Although on the Atlantic coast, the capital, Montevideo, is located on the Rio de la Plata inlet giving it a harbour that is both naturally protected and suitable for overseas transit. The population and the economy are concentrated in the capital – the rest of the country is sparsely peopled. With approximately 1.5-million inhabitants, Montevideo accounts for almost half of the country’s total population of about 3.3 million. The Uruguayans are a colourful mix of peoples, mainly of European origin and predominantly 19th-century emigrants from Italy and Spain. Uruguay is often called “Swiss South America”, though not so much due to the cattle that graze on the gentle hills of the interior, but rather due to the highly developed banking and financial sector, the stable democracy, public safety and good educational opportunities. Stability creates prosperity and Uruguay’s per capita income is one of the highest in South America today. Virtually the entire industrial production in the import and export business is concentrated at the transport hub of Montevideo. The city is characterised by South-European inspired colonial architecture, yet this is intermixed with modern buildings including such architectural gems as the American Embassy by I. M. Pei, built in 1969. The airport site was first opened back in 1947 in the town of Carrasco, about 11 miles east of Montevideo. Prospering tourism and the location’s growing significance as a commercial and banking centre made it urgently necessary to build a new arrival and departure terminal. Departure and return Rafael Vinoly, an American architect of Uruguayan origin, received the contract to design a suitable, new setting for the transfer of around 1 million passengers a year. The termi­ nal is his largest project to date in his former homeland and his first ever airport building. Although airports are items of functional infrastructure, they are also the scene of intensive feelings. Saying farewell and returning home are such emotional moments, but they are also characteristic features in Viñoly’s own biography. As a young man he left home to study in Buenos Aires in the neighbouring country of Argentina, where in 1964, aged just 20, he cofounded the “Estudio de Arquitectura”. This was to develop into one of South America’s largest architectural design offices. The next big step led him to the United States, firstly to Harvard in 1978 and then to New York in 1979, where he established his current design office in 1983. His first major project in the US was the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in 1988. Rafael 6   ERCO Lichtbericht 91
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A spectacular spatial experience in the extensive departure lounge – for passengers and their companions. The indirect lighting with Parscoop ceiling washlights follows the concept of efficient visual comfort, i.e. it is suited to our perception because indirect light is free of glare, it gives the ceiling a feeling of light-

ness and it softens the contrast to the daylight coming in through the glass surfaces. It is also efficient due to the use of economical metal-halide lamps, high-performance lighting technology and bright reflection surfaces.

Viñoly’s international breakthrough came with the design of the Tokyo International Forum cultural and congress centre, which was completed in 1996 (see page 22 in this issue). With its gigantic steel and glass roof construction, reminiscent of a whale’s rib cage, the Tokyo International Forum impressed the architectural world. It showed that Viñoly understood how to make the big gestures, a talent that he also used for the airport project of Carrasco. For his former homeland, he created a stand-alone structure with a monolithic roof which curves in two axes and is impressively dimensioned at 80-metres wide and 366-metres long – 150 metres covering the building and 108-metres for each of the extended eaves. Beneath this protective, elegant canopy, which blends in well with the undulating landscape, he placed a vertically orientated, ­ transparent building. The arrival zones are located on the ground floor, the departure areas on the upper floor. Above these is a large, public viewing platform and a restaurant overlooking the runway 8   ERCO Lichtbericht 91

and the main hall. Arriving passengers are not simply herded through anonymous corridors and underground halls, but are able to get their bearings from a glazed mezzanine floor in the terminal building before going to baggage reclaim and passport control. Referring to the spacious room dimensions with an unbroken line of sight, architect Viñoly explains that it is common practice in Uruguay for friends, relatives and business acquaintances to accompany a passenger to and from the airport, so the new terminal is therefore designed to be a spatial experience for both travelling and nontravelling visitors alike. ­ The aesthetics of flying The wing-like, arched roof and the filigree, tubular-steel supporting structures celebrate the aesthetics of aviation, thereby establishing a link with such historical predecessors as the TWA Flight Center in New York, designed by Saarinen. The building gives a deceptive impression: the roof appears heavy simply due to its

sheer size, yet it rests – seemingly afloat – on a slender spaceframe structure. Solid walls adding rigidity don’t seem to be needed. The glass walls are inclined outwards, or rather “heavenwards” in the true sense of the word, like a valuable vase that opens out at the top. The lightness is emphasised by a stringent, reflection-friendly and bright concept for the colours/materials, whereby white and silvergrey, glass, metal and polished stone dominate. A few, sparsely located, cube-shaped counters in shining black accentuate specific functional areas. Daylight plays an essential role due to the clever dovetailing of indoor and outdoor areas beneath the unusual roof construction together with the transparent walls. The design offices of Ricardo Hofstadter were commissioned with the task of implementing a fitting dramaturgy of artificial light in this unusual project. His lighting concept is based on a strict, indirect illumination of the curved roof canopy in both indoor and outdoor areas using a unique quality of light. This is executed in such a way
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that the light completely mimics the contours of this impressive architectural feature. The result is that the architectural spaces are presented as spacious halls that are flooded with light yet offer maximum visual comfort since there are no visible lamps. The halls are therefore absolutely glare-free despite an average illuminance of approx. 300lx. In the indoor area, Ricardo ­ Hofstadter opted for hundreds of ERCO Parscoop washlights for 400W metal halide lamps, mounted on the horizontal booms of the

The editors of the American travel magazine “Travel + Leisure” chose Montevideo-Carrasco as the best new terminal of 2010. Almost too beautiful for a functional building, the new terminal rises from the ground as a notable landmark, having all the ingredients to become a modern symbol for this charming city, where cosmopolitan citizens are impressively welcomed and bid farewell.

The 280 Parscoop wash­ lights for metal halide lamps integrate inconspicuously into the space­ frame structure. They are equipped with 400W metal halide lamps. The lighting concept ensures horizontal illuminances in the hall of approximately 300lx for a connected load of 14W/m².

Rafael Viñoly Architects Rafael Viñoly founded his current office in New York in 1983, later adding branches in London and Los Angeles. With international architectural projects bringing worldwide recognition, the design office can now look back on a whole series of contracts not only for striking cultural edifices, public buildings and laboratories, but also for major urban planning schemes. The total workforce of 225 employees not only includes architects but also stress engineers, visualisation specialists, model builders, artists and design engineers. This gives the office the necessary experience, structure and capacity for projects of any size. In addition to the Tokyo International Forum, other significant designs from the office include the Kimmel Center for Performing Arts, Philadelphia and the Boston Convention & Exhibition Center. www.rvapc.com

spaceframe structure. Due to their asymmetrical light intensity distribution, these luminaires provide a uniform illumination of the roof without any beam edges being noticeable. The light: efficient and comfortable With an average lamp life of 12,000 operating hours and a connected load of approx. 14W/m2, the concept sets a high standard – not only in terms of architectural lighting quality but also in terms of maintenance and energy consumption. The continuation of the indirect illumination of the roof canopy into the outdoor area is provided by compact ERCO Powercast floodlights for 150W metal halide lamps, mounted on the low wall abutting the access ramp. Their flooding, axially symmetrical light distribution with an oval beam from precise Spherolit reflectors can be exactly aimed thanks to the mounting bracket’s adjustable angle of tilt. In the departure gate area, the glass walls fold back at right angles into the horizontal plane, allowing a direct view of the sky. Powerful ERCO Optec spotlights are mounted on tracks integrated into the supporting structure and define the concentrated direct lighting component. Metal halide lamps are again used here, this time 70W versions. A recessed-mounted variation of these direct lighting components is found in the retail, VIP and restaurant zones in the form of ERCO Gimbal recessed spotlights for 35W and 70W metal halide lamps. These luminaires have a cardanic suspension, allowing the narrow, rotationally symmetrical light intensity distribution to be exactly aimed. 10   ERCO Lichtbericht 91

Retail galleries and duty-free shops are an indispensable part of any international airport today. In these areas of the new terminal the lighting designers used Gimbal directional luminaires for metal halide lamps.

At the departure gates: the glass and steel construction affords a clear view of the sky. Powerful yet compact Optec spotlights are mounted on the structure’s bottom gird­ ers. The light sources used are 70W metal halide lamps.

Ing. Ricardo Hofstadter Ricardo Hofstadter has been running an independent design office for electrical engineering and lighting design in Monte­ video since the mid-80s. As well as the design of electrical installations for highly diverse projects, the office’s area of activities now primarily includes the lighting design for buildings and public spaces. Examples include hotels, cultural centres, office parks, sports facilities, industrial buildings, shops, shopping centres and town squares. It is the aim of the office to offer its clientele reliable solutions that combine sheer elegance with state-ofthe-art technology. www.richof.com

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Light and shadow: airports need innovation
Text and photos: Andreas Spaeth

Even post-credit crunch, aviation still remains a growth industry, making immense investment in the infrastructure a necessity. This is because flying can only ever be as efficient as the facilities on the ground will allow. Worldwide, the race is on to see who can build the greatest, best looking and most efficient airport terminal. Lighting plays an important role here too. The early jet age only produced a few architectural icons that still exist today. Two of which are located at New York’s JFK airport, which has always been one of the most important international hubs for global air traffic. One is the TWA Flight Center by the Finnish architect Eero Saarinen, who died just a few months before the opening in May 1962. Resembling a giant bird about to take off, the highly notable building with its wing-like twin roofs is designed as an abstract symbol of flying and is one of the most architecturally striking buildings in the history of aviation – both outside and inside. Now decommissioned though still maintained, the terminal building offered its former users a fascinating and spacious interior without any interfering columns ­ or other supporting structures. This was combined with gently flowing lines and, above all, plenty of light. Giant panoramic windows afforded ample incoming day­ light, while clever indirect lighting provided a pleasant ambiance by night. New Yorkers became so attached to the old TWA termi­ nal that the proposed demolition was prevented and the building deftly integrated into the JetBlue terminal, which was opened in 2008. Nevertheless, its practical future use remains unclear. Icons and their half-life Not far away is the current terminal 3, formerly known as “Worldport” belonging to Pan American World Airways. Opened in 1961, this building was also a symbol of the early jet age that had begun in 1958. Most striking is its giant, round, umbrella-like roof which – as at Berlin Tempelhof – was designed to protect the passengers from inclement weather when boarding from the initial nine departure gates. Here too, the dominating features at first were spaciousness and lavish lighting. The latter achieved through giant skylights and dramatic indirect lighting of the roof both inside and out. Yet air traffic developed so rapidly that the original design was not able to keep pace and was subject to constant expansion. This all came to a head at the beginning of the Jumbo Jet age in 1970 and, as ever more facilities were accommodated at the cost of spaciousness and light, the Worldport very soon lost its original architectural appeal. After Pan Am’s demise, Delta Air Lines took over operations in 1991, thereby inheriting an increasingly inadequate building that no longer met today’s requirements in terms of aesthetics and efficiency and was ridiculed by its users as a “Third-World terminal”. Delta-Chef Ed Bastian recently stated with agitation, “It is the worst facility that we operate.” In August 2010 it was announced that demolition of the old Worldport would commence in 2013 and that, from 2015, additional aeroplane parking positions would be created in its place. The passengers would be routed through the then expanded neighbouring building. Aviation is a dynamic branch and remains a growth industry. This single fact is the bottom line for all current global airport construction, making a modular extendable design an absolute must. Worldwide, growth in air traffic had been running at an annual average of about five percent. Following the crisis-plagued years of 2008 and 2009, the branch predicts this level will be regained in 2010. There are, however, substantial differences in the growth figures between the regions of the world. Europe recorded the most modest figures at about two percent, followed by North America. While AsiaPacific was for a long time the region with the most extreme growth. Yet two-figure growth is now primarily to be seen in the Middle East and in Latin America. However, this cannot hide the fact that amongst the most important drivers of all are actually two Asian countries – countries where a newly developing, well-healed middle class is fuelling considerable additional demand for air travel: India and China. China and India take off In the Land of the Dragon the construction of new airports is one of the government’s most important instruments for regional economic development. Whereas there were just 147 commercial airports in this giant country at the end of 2006, by 2010 this had already increased to 192. By 2020 the government is planning to build an additional 97 airports for an investment volume of 64 billion US-dollars. In the outlaying countryside, however, such projects often end as “white elephants“ that hardly generate any air traffic. But this will not be the case for the second airport for Beijing which is also in the pipeline. This comes after the capital’s existing airport was already massively expanded to cater for the 2008 Olympics. Though traditionally a country with greatly neglected infrastructure, India is also now catching up, aiming – at its international airports at least – to be able at last to offer world standard facilities. There were previously just 28 cities on the subcontinent

London-Heathrow, terminal 5: the planning by Richard Rogers began as early as 1989. In terms of its architecture, terminal 5 represents the norm today for modern airports – a solid, standard design. Flyers, who were used to

the former gloomy catacombs of Heathrow, are still amazed to this day.

Completed in 2006, Bangkok International ­ Airport’s functional design by Murphy/Jahn avoided any superficial regional tokens. It is only later cultural additions like this pagoda-style pavilion or the presence of such passengers as Buddhist monks that betray the location.

that were served by cross-border, scheduled air traffic. In Hyderabad and Bangalore new facilities have been developed on greenfield sites in recent times. It was only in July 2010 at the chronically overloaded Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi that India’s largest public building was opened: termi­ nal 3. Built in cooperation with private shareholders, this was erected in the record time of three years, keeping within the planned budget of three billion US-dollars. It was a sensation in India. The nine-storey complex can handle up to 34 million passengers a year, 95% of whom, according to the air­ port operators, should have left the building within 45 minutes of their plane landing. This is another unprecedented development in the Indian capital, a city where efficiency was previously a rather unfamiliar concept. Another “hotspot” in global airport construction is the Persian Gulf, headed up by Dubai. Nowhere else in recent years has seen such an extreme increase in air-traffic volume as the desert region and, instead of just relying on oil, it is now endeavouring to become a central air traffic hub and a location for the tourism and service-provider sectors. Even today, Dubai already processes 40 million passengers a year, but a final expansion stage is set to bring the annual capacity of the airport, which is close to the city, up to 80 million passengers. Opened in 2008, terminal 3 is the world’s largest building when measured by its floor area which has a usable space of 1.5 million square metres. The lack of space on the airport site was so acute that the new main building with check-in desks for departures and baggage claim for arrivals had to be built beneath the airfield’s existing apron. This presented a huge challenge given the design brief to give the passengers a bright and airy spatial experience. The architects therefore endeavoured to compen­ sate for the inevitably lower transparency of the underground location by way of high ceilings, as in the arrivals area for instance. Whereas the ceilings in many airports appear rather low and gloomy, in the terminal which is the exclusive preserve of the domestic Emi­ rates Airlines, Dubai greets its visitors with cathedral-like halls that even include towering white columns and bright light. Other challenges are being faced in the current construction of the New Doha International Airport in the neighbouring, but no less ambitious, Emirate state of Qatar. Here, a large proportion of the floor area for the new building, likely to be opened in 2012, has had to be claimed from the flat sea of

Kuala Lumpur’s unique architectural feature is the glass cylinder in the centre of the building, in which Kisho Kurokawa planted tropical rainforest trees and shrubs. The effect is intended to give passengers a foretaste of Malaysia’s flora and fauna.

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Shanghai International Airport, Pudong, was designed by old-hand Paul Andreu/Aéroports de Paris. A second terminal with identical architecture was inaugurated in March 2008, increasing the capacity to 60 million passengers per year.

the Gulf. In fact, the theme of “water” was chosen as a design element and symbol for the three-storey terminal building, which, when operational, will offer 350,000 square metres of floor space. “The terminal roof curves like a wave, the Emir’s private checkin complex is designed to look as if made from billowing sails, the Mosque looks like a drop in water, the multi-storey car park like a flying dragon and, from one side, the triangular-section control tower looks like a half moon, the symbol of Islam,” explains Omran Assa from the US construction firm Bechtel, the main contractor for the project. The building interior also features Arabic elements such as the load-bearing, round arches, shaped to be reminiscent of crossed swords. Local sandstone is also used. In regions where the heat and light can be so overwhelming, such as the Arabian Desert, the trick in large terminal buildings is to find the right balance between natural light and artificial lighting. And the combination of both is most interesting, as can be seen in Abu Dhabi where the Mosque-like terminal from the airport’s opening year of 1982, which solely uses artificial lighting, stands in harmony with the adjacent extension block in western architectural style, opened in 2009. A piece of jungle in the terminal A glance at Southeast Asia gives an idea of what modern airports should look like to the mind of operators and planners. Sustained strong growth since the 1990s has ultimately led to a series of newly opened major airports in the big cities here. The most recent addition was Bangkok Suvarnabhumi in 2006, whose passenger area at 563,000 square metres of floor area is the world’s third largest space enclosed under one roof after Dubai and Beijing (the competition, Hong Kong Chek Lap Kok opened in 1999, “only” has 510,000 square metres). The elongated check-in areas in Bangkok resemble giant caterpillars. Their V-form roofs are constructed from an alternation of steel and glass together with a white, transparent fibreglass membrane. This patented design from a firm based in the Bavarian town of Rosenheim has already been used in Munich Airport Center. So it seems Bavaria provided the inspiration for architect Helmut Jahn, whose Chicago-based company Murphy/ Jahn is responsible for Bangkok. The airport in Bangkok also uses a mixture of direct light through windows, diffuse light through the membrane and clever, indirect lighting from luminaires placed at strategic locations and resembling modern chandeliers. In Bangkok, elegant indirect light with umbrella-shaped reflectors can even be found in the spacious duty free shops. Malaysia’s gateway is seen as a real jewel. Quiet music piped from speakers, extensive, glazed areas and a piece of real rain forest right in the middle of the terminal building all combine with the spectacular architecture by the Japanese designer Kisho Kurokawa to give passenger comfort throughout. This is

Terminal 4 in MadridBarajas: Right from the initial approach, the main building makes a striking impression due to its shape and size. Characteristic features include its undulating, wave­ form, aluminium roof and light-flooded interior. Designed by British architect Richard Roger ­ and his Spanish colleague Antonio Lamela, the

terminal has an overall length of 1,140 metres and a floor area measuring an impressive 470,000 square metres.

exactly as the ambitious Malaysians wanted their air traffic hub, which was opened in 1998 far south of Kuala Lumpur and is generally known by its abbreviation KLIA (Kuala Lumpur International Airport). Seen by its operators to symbolise the progressiveness of their country, Malaysia’s largest airport was voted by the ACI airport association best in the world in its category three times in succession (2005-2007). A unique architectural feature is the glass cylinder in the centre of the building, in which Kisho Kurokawa planted tropical rainforest trees and shrubs. The effect is intended to give passengers a foretaste of Malaysia’s flora and fauna. The trees and plants growing here were transplanted from an existing rain forest. Even local travellers from South Korea are pleas­ antly surprised when they land at the elegant and extremely well designed Incheon Airport, which is bathed in light. Opened in 2001, it lies about 30 miles west of the capital of Seoul. The complex with its wave­ form terminal, which is made of glass, steel and marble and offers a floor area of almost a half a million square metres, is the international hub of South Korea. Although from the outside the terminal does not look very Asian, the team of native architects suc­ ceeded in breathing a distinctly Korean air into the interior. A large atrium accommodates a garden with real trees, with trunks that tower up over two storeys, and also water effects. Bold, new airport buildings such as those in Asia or in the Gulf would be unthinkable in America or Europe. Here it takes decades to overcome all the resistance, obstacles and political hurdles just to extend an existing airport. Completely new projects such as Munich (opened in 1992) or Athens (2001) remain absolute exceptions. Even Berlin Brandenburg International, which is set to commence operations in the German capital in 2012, will use the runways from the old Schönefeld airport. One of the most daring airport expansions in Europe came in 2006 when terminal 4 was opened in Madrid Barajas. Right from the initial approach, the main building makes a striking impression due to its shape and size and, above all, its undulating, waveform, aluminium roof and light-flooded interior. Designed by British architect Richard Roger and his Spanish colleague Antonio Lamela, terminal 4 has an overall length of 1,140 metres and a floor area measuring an impressive 470,000 square metres. It is spanned by a curvaceous roof, the inside of which is clad with bamboo wood specially grown in China. The feeling of space is spectacular thanks to the light coming in through over 550 ­ skylights with reflectors and through large glass walls. The building has three large lanes of light which provide colour-coded orientation for travellers while also clearly separating the terminal’s three building wings. ­

Helsinki, terminal 2: a wellness oasis of almost 600 square metres, ­ located airside of an ­ airport terminal with a view of the planes – that must be the only one of its kind worldwide. In addition to a sauna, a small swimming pool bubbles with

mineral water, which is immersed in the mystical light of greenish reflections.

Liberating Heathrow from its past Another significant new building in Europe is British Airways’ terminal 5, which opened in 2008 at London-Heathrow. Despite being the continent’s most important airport, prior to this development it was dated and chronically overloaded. With a ground area the size of Hyde Park, the new building is one of the biggest of its kind. Planning – also by Richard Rogers – began as early as 1989. In terms of its architecture, terminal 5 represents the norm today for modern airports. It does not make any grand aesthetic gestures, but is a solid, standard design. Measuring 40-metres high and 396-metres long, it is enveloped by 30,000 square metres of glass and, in its final stage, will be able to handle up to 35 million passengers per year. ­ Passengers are greeted by a large, airy departure lobby, spanned by a curved roof through which the daylight floods in. Flyers, who remember the former gloomy catacombs of Heathrow, are still amazed ­ to this day. The new lounge is spectacular. Looking from the terrace of the “Concorde Room” for first-class travellers, giant windows afford a grand view as far as Windsor Castle and the new Wembley Stadium in the distance; while, intimate seating by the fireplace is offered in the restaurant. With ­ an open display kitchen, a champagne bar with Swarovski crystal chandeliers and specially produced designer furniture and ­ works of art everywhere, the overall impression is a real design experience, leaving the previous “Heathrow Horror” of many travellers a fading memory. Sometimes, however, even small changes can work wonders. In Helsinki airport’s terminal 2 extension, which opened in 2009, a thousand square metres of the elegant Via-Lounge were fitted out with finest Finnish designer furniture and lamps, and the lounge’s own dedicated wellness area was built directly adjacent. This leisure oasis, measuring almost 600 square metres and located airside of an airport terminal with a view of the aeroplanes, must be the only one of its kind in the world. In addition to a sauna, a small swimming pool bubbles with mineral water, which is immersed in the mystical light of greenish reflections. One end of this area is fitted with a glass front, whereby the lower section is one-way glass for privacy. An endless stream of people rush silently by, some lugging heavy handbaggage. Immediately beyond them, the ­ view continues out onto the airfield apron. Now and then, aeroplanes roll past and

giant Airbus jets dock at the airbridges. Yet looking through the glass pane of the hot, 95°C sauna, all this seems like a completely different world, it is as if watching a video clip on a screen instead of looking at the real thing.

About the author Andreas Spaeth is an aviation journalist based in Hamburg. He has been working for about 20 years for a number of German and English media (including Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, DIE ZEIT, Lufthansa Magazin, Flug Revue, monocle and Air International) and has appeared as an expert on radio and TV. As the author of many books on all subjects to do with passenger air travel, his research has taken him to over 90 countries, ­ visiting airline companies, aircraft builders and airports from all around the world. www.aspapress.com

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Logotec LED spotlights

Logotec LED Recessed spotlights

With Logotec LED spotlights, ERCO presents its first spotlight series which has been exclusively designed for LEDs. Logotec LED, with its modern LED lens technology, is already a viable substitute for all spotlights with conventional reflectors and low-voltage halogen lamps up to 100W. The energyefficient product range is particularly noted for its system design and state-of-the-art optoelectronics. The luminaire’s flat shape is characteristic for the use of the new LED technology. The shape contributes to the optimum heat management of the high-power LEDs. The luminaire’s design makes it an ideal choice thanks to its compact shape which contains the control gear. Six different light intensity distributions are available with Logotec LED. The interchangeable Spherolit lenses provide various light distributions ranging from narrow to wide beam, and even including vertical illumination. Logotec LED is also available as a recessed spotlight. Logotec LED spotlights available from 2011
LED 4.6W Daylight white Warm white LED 14W Daylight white Warm white narrow spot

ERCO has specifically extended the product range of ceiling-integrated Logotec LED recessed spotlights to make use of the properties of LEDs. Equipped with the innovative Spherolit lens technology, this range makes a viable replacement for spotlights with conventional reflectors and low-voltage lamps up to 100W. The luminaire housing features the flat design typical for the use of LEDs and also contributes to the optimum heat management of the high-power LEDs. Due to the efficient LED optical system, the light output ratio is higher than with conventional systems. The tilt mechanism for the luminaire housing means that walls can be uniformly illuminated right up to the ceiling. Six different light intensity distributions are available with Logotec LED. Since no tools are required for mounting, the recessed spotlights are economical to install. The system design of the ceiling-mounting ring or frame means that there is consistency between the Quintessence and Logotec ranges and that they are fully interchangeable. Logotec LED is also available as a track-mounted spotlight.
oval flood wallwash

Design

spot flood wide flood

Logotec LED recessed spotlights available from 2011

LED 4.6W Daylight white Warm white LED 14W Daylight white Warm white

narrow spot

spot flood wide flood

oval flood

wallwash

Design All Logotec LED spotlights have a bracket which allows rotation and tilt. The compact luminaire housing contains the control gear for the highpower LEDs.

Mounting detail Depending on which mounting ring is used, the installation can be finished flush with the ceiling or with an overlapping border. Logotec LED is available in white or silver finish.

Design Logotec LED recessed spotlights are available in round or square formats, allowing its appearance in the ceiling to be selected to suit the architecture and the style of the interior decor.

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Logotec LED spotlights and recessed spotlights

With the product range of Logotec LED surfacemounted and recessed spotlights, a uniform solution can be found for complex lighting tasks that combine accent lighting, floodlighting and vertical illuminance.

LED technology The quality of the optical systems has a major influence on the overall efficiency of an LED. To produce directed light, ERCO therefore uses optical projection systems that have been designed and built in-house. A collimating lens, as a secondary lens, forms the interface between the LED lens on the printed circuit board and the interchangeable Spherolit lens acting as the tertiary lens. This system design gives the user of ERCO luminaires a unique variety of light distributions for professional lighting design applications. Decades of experience in injection-moulded polymers ensure the highest quality levels from our in-house production plant.

ERCO LED module ERCO collimator ERCO Spherolit lens

Primary lens The primary lens is mounted directly on the LED chip and produces a hemispherical beam emission.

Secondary lens As the secondary lens, the collimator aligns the rays of light into a parallel beam, enabling different tertiary lenses to be added.

Tertiary lens After focusing the beam, it is the Spherolit tertiary lens that then determines the light distribution. This ranges from narrow beams to wide beams and also includes asymmetric light distributions for vertical illuminance.

Characteristics with Spherolit lenses

Narrow spot The two large collimators behind the Spherolit lens are characteristic for the Logotec LED spotlights with the narrow spot optical system. The control gear is housed in the lower section.

Oval flood The axially symmetrical surface structure of the oval flood Spherolit lens gives a characteristic appearance to the floodlight. The outline of six high-power LEDs with collimators is visible behind the Spherolit lens.

Spherolit lens identification To identify the various tertiary lenses, the name of the light distribution is inscribed around the edge of each Spherolit lens.

Heat management ERCO places particular importance on heat management. This ensures that LED modules operate within their safe temperature range, achieving rated life and output for the specified power throughout their entire operational life.

LOR Efficient Spherolit lenses The new LED wallwasher technology with a wallwash Spherolit lens produces double the illuminance levels achieved with conventional Spherolit wallwashers. LED lens wallwashers With wallwash Spherolit lens. Light output ratio (LOR): approx. 80%

Narrow spot Used to accentuate small objects with high light intensity or to project over greater distances between the luminaire and the target object. Beam angle < 10°.

Spot This is the standard characteristic for accent lighting for objects of all kinds, especially to reveal the three-dimensional shape. Beam angle 10°-20°.

Flood Used for efficient accentuation of large objects or to uniformly emphasise a complete spatial zone. Beam angle 25°-35°.

Wide flood Used for flexible, flooding illumination of surface areas and spatial zones, especially useful for the presentation of goods. Beam angle > 45°.

Oval flood The oval flood Spherolit lens produces a widebeam, axially symmetrical light distribution. An oval beam of approximately 20° to 60° is produced.

Wallwash The light distribution of the lens wallwasher is designed to produce very good uniformity.

Dimming on the spotlight Logotec LED spotlights can be dimmed in two ways, which can also be combined. Firstly, every LED light head has an integrated potentiometer to adjust the luminous flux precisely and individually.

Dimming a circuit Secondly, ERCO’s newly developed control gear for the Logotec LED spotlights can also be operated by external trailing-edge dimmers.

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Focus

Double focus
LED Collimating lens

Spotlight and floodlight characteristics in use ­ Track-mounted luminaires bring flexible light into architecture. They offer adjustability in terms of both position and direction, while the selection of different light intensity distributions gives an important added advantage. As a result, the various optical systems allow indi­ vidual, efficient solutions to be found for highly varied ­ lighting tasks. The categorisation into accent lighting, floodlighting and wallwashing provides an approach to the design work. The narrow beam of accent lighting separates what is important from what is not and can therefore help guide our perception, e.g. in exhibitions or salesrooms. The decision whether to go for a wide or very narrow beam depends on the desired contrast to the surroundings and on the size and distance of the object. To scenically illuminate a bouquet of flowers in a lobby to good effect, a “narrow spot” would be ideal, whereas larger objects at shorter ranges can be better emphasised with a “wide flood”. The “oval flood” light distribution is optimum for elongated displays or elements, whereby a luminaire with an “oval flood” light distribution can be used instead of several rotationally symmetrical spotlights. The “wallwash” characteristic produces a uniform light for vertical surfaces, e.g. to illuminate pictures in museums or to clearly divide spaces. The precise harmonisation of the light distribution to the lighting task is a crucial factor for efficient visual comfort. Such harmonised concepts require fewer individual luminaires and therefore also need fewer resources for installation and operation. TS

Accent lighting The directed accent light differentiates between what is important and what is not. It attracts attention and directs the viewer’s gaze to details.

Directing the light of LEDs with Spherolit lenses With LED lighting tools for directed light, ERCO uses Spherolit ­ lenses as tertiary lenses to direct the light. In terms of their technology and light distribution, the Spherolit lenses are based on the ­ patented Spherolit reflectors, which are well established with conventional light sources. In addition to excellent lighting quality, they also offer many practical advantages for both lighting designers and users. The transmission of light through the polymer Spherolit lens has fundamentally lower losses than with reflection, which has a positive effect on the light output ratio (LOR). The Spherolit technology is based on dividing a large lens or reflector surface into many individual, three-dimensionally domed

Spherolit lens

facets, each of which directs the light through refraction. After the collimator has focused the rays of light, it is the Spherolit ­ tertiary lens that determines the light distribution. This ranges from ­ narrow beams to wide beams and also includes asymmetric light distributions for vertical illuminance.

Floodlighting The flood-type illumination allows large objects or spatial zones to be emphasised. Oval beams are ideal especially for elongated items or for objects arranged in a row.

Characteristics with Spherolit lenses

At ERCO, the manufacturing process for the Spherolit lenses and collimators all takes place under one roof: from complex calculations

and computer simulations to tooling up and final production.

Wallwashing Vertical illuminance is able to clearly present a given space, making the form of the architec­ ture more legible and creating a bright spatial impression.

Narrow spot Used to accentuate small objects with high light intensity or to project over greater distances between the luminaire and the target object. Beam angle: < 10°.

Spot This is the standard characteristic for accent lighting for objects of all kinds, especially to reveal the three-dimensional shape. Beam angle: 10°–20°.

Flood Used for efficient accentuation of large objects or to uniformly emphasise a complete spatial zone. Beam angle: 25°–35°.

Wide flood Used for flexible, flood­ ing illumination of surface areas and spatial zones, especially useful for the presentation of goods. Beam angle: > 45°.

Oval flood The oval flood Spherolit lens has an axially symmetrical light intensity distribution, producing an oval beam of approx. 20° to 60°.

Wallwash The light distribution of the lens wallwasher is designed to produce very good uniformity.

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Tokyo International Forum
New light for the building that gave Rafael Viñoly the international breakthrough in 1996. ERCO’s efficient visual comfort achieves an energy saving of up to 70%. With its striking shape, Tokyo International Forum has not only developed into one of Tokyo’s most important cultural and conference centres, but has also become a veritable landmark, an unchanging constant in the everchanging cityscape of the Japanese capital. At the time of its construction in 1996/97, it was heralded as the pinnacle of technology and architecture. Today, new lighting poses enormous potential for saving energy, yet still retains the qualities of the original lighting design. The lighting designers originally created the fascinating lighting of the spectacular atrium and many other areas of the building using the best lighting tools from ERCO that were then available – partly using traditional spotlights and downlights for halogen lamps and partly using custom-built designs. The management of Tokyo International Forum recently decided to completely renew the lighting installation. Their objective was to ensure that the quality was at least equal to that of the original lighting concept while using modern, future-proof, off-the-peg products. The investment was to pay for itself via drastic reductions in energy consumption and maintenance costs. An additional challenge was presented by the owners’ request to keep to the existing installation openings. Using the concept of efficient visual comfort, ERCO offered a solution for this task, which was based on intelligent, perception-orientated lighting design. Implemented with efficient metal halide lamps in luminaires with high-quality lighting technology, this promised total energy savings of about 70%. Efficient wallwashing in the atrium The illumination of vertical surfaces defines the architecture and determines the overall impression of brightness. This is why wallwashing is a central factor of efficient visual comfort. On the access ramps, wallwashers with 500W and 300W halogen lamps were replaced by models with 150W metal halide lamps. This gave a 70% energy saving with improved lighting quality. An energy saving and a simultaneous improvement of the visual impression was also made possible with the illumination of the inclined walls in the atrium using recessed floor luminaires. Uplights with PAR lamps from another manufacturer were replaced by Nadir grazing light wallwashers with 20W metal halide lamps, giving an energy saving of 69%. ­

Architect: Rafael Viñoly Architects, New York Lighting designer: Claude R. Engle, Chevy Chase; Lighting Planners Associates, Tokyo Photographer: Joshua Lieberman, Tokyo www.t-i-forum.co.jp/english

Accent light for the roof construction The gigantic, zeppelin-like, steel roof construction is now scenically illuminated by no less than 588 recessed spotlights with spot and flood reflectors, shining from the lower edge of the glazed side walls. It was possible here to replace the previously used Gimbal recessed spotlights for 75W AR111 low-voltage recessed spotlights by versions with 20W metal halide lamps. The lighting effect is most convincing and the energy saving is 73%. At 12,000 hours, the functional life of the high-pressure lamps is about six times longer, giving a corresponding reduction in maintenance work. Given the large number of individual spotlights, this makes a significant difference. In the lobby of the large “Hall A”, it was also evident that 15 years of progress in lighting technology have enabled the idea for a lighting concept to be re-implemented and even improved upon – with reduced energy consumption. For instance, the high-quality reflectors of the Gimbal recessed spotlights for metal halide lamps produce a more uniform light on the floor than the old spotlights for 150W halogen lamps. The new design specifically uses different wattages for the different mounting heights (35W or 70W), giving an energy saving of 73% here too. The building operators are most satisfied with the result. “When we thought about renovating the lighting, it was important for us to find an energy efficient lighting solution to reduce the CO2 emission and to save energy costs, a crucial aspect nowadays, but at the same time to keep the high level performance of the original lighting design,” explains Toshikazu Koike, Senior Operating Officer of the Facilities Management Group of TIF, adding, “With the new efficient lighting performance we are happy that this great architecture can maintain its attractiveness and stand as one landmark of Tokyo for many more years in the future.”

HIT

Efficient vertical illu­ minance determines the impression of brightness and defines the spatial boundaries. Lens wallwashers as well as washlights with 150W HIT lamps in warm white (3,000K) replace the custom-built luminaires with 300W and 500W PAR lamps.

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Malaga, terminal T3
Modern and efficient – that’s the ­ impression made by the extension to Malaga Airport in the Spanish holiday region of Andalusia. Here too, efficient visual comfort dictated the lighting design in the new terminal T3.

Supported by slender columns, the compart­ mentalised ceiling sets the tone for the new terminal. It protects the building against over­ heating due to the direct ingress of sunlight, while its height allows suffi­ ciently diffused daylight in through the glass facade.

Architecture and lighting design: GOP Oficina de Proyectos, Bruce Fairbanks, Madrid Electrical planning: Ghesa Ingeniería, Madrid Photographer: Thomas Mayer, Neuss www.aena.es/malaga Malaga’s international airport is the fourth largest in Spain and plays a central role in the tourism of Andalusia due to its location on the Costa del Sol. The new terminal T3, which went operational in March 2010, has enabled the ­ airport to double its passenger capacity to 30 million per year. The architect of the new terminal is Bruce Fairbanks, an American who has lived in Spain for two decades and co-founded the GOP design office in Madrid. He has already designed the control tower at Malaga Airport and those at Madrid-Barajas, Barcelona and Santiago. He is currently work­ ing on the new terminal for the airport in Alicante. Uniformly designed, high ceilings provide a spacious atmosphere in the terminal’s various waiting areas and traffic zones. And even from this great height, the Lightcast double-focus downlights ensure efficient visual comfort through glare-free, uniform light. Their superior performance allows an economical mounting layout with large axial spacing. By fitting the ­uminaires with long-life metal halide lamps l rated at 35W, 70W or 150W, the luminous flux can be adjusted to suit the actual mounting height. The departure gates or ancilliary areas such as toilets have also been carefully illuminated with high-quality lighting. In these areas, Lightcast and Compact 100 downlights for compact fluo­ rescent lamps economically provide ambient lighting with high visual comfort.

The ERCO double-focus downlight for metal halide lamps offers all the usual advantages typical for this optical design, such as high visual com­ fort for a particularly small ceiling opening. Furthermore, since it can be optionally fitted with 35W, 70W or 150W lamps, it is also extremely flex­ ible, for instance, allowing the luminous flux to be adapted to different ceil­ ing heights.

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Airport adventure Air travel has now become affordable for more members of society and yet it is still not an everyday experience for most passengers. There­ fore, after decades of expansion, in which the dark side of commercial operations for the masses have also become appar­ ent, airport operators are now devoting much attention to the architec­ tural quality and pleasant ambiance of an airport. Events such as the flying bans imposed after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, or the increasingly strin­

gent security measures, have thrust both the importance and the vul­ nerability of the complex system that is aviation into the public conscious­ ness.

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Hotel Nixe, Binz
Beach view, Michelin-star cuisine, light and design. In Thomas Hummels’ boutique hotel on the island of Rügen, a combination of prime location, Art Nouveau architecture and a strict design concept fuse together to produce a gastronomic synthesis of the arts.

Architecture and lighting design: Thomas Hummels, Tauting Photos: Frieder Blickle, Hamburg www.nixe.de

From the attractive substance of the building, he created a boutique hotel combining a classic resort style with contemporary architecture. Hotel Nixe opened in 2008 and offers 16 individual, luxurious suites and junior suites as well as a cosy spa area. The icing on the cake is the hotel restaurant. Under its head chef Ralf Haug, it had already gained a Michelin star and 16 points with Gault-Millau by 2009, making it one of the top culinary addresses in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. The attention to detail given throughout the whole establishment to the interior design and the lighting does not stop at the restaurant. Both inside and on the terrace, ERCO light exudes an apt, highquality, yet discreet atmosphere, bringing out the best in the décor and in the dishes served, while also ensuring efficient visual comfort. The latter is attributed to the perception-orientated design and the highly shielded lighting tools. The guests feel at ease, while efficient technology protects the environment and contributes to an economical operation.

The lighting concept in the restaurant uses highly shielded Starpoint downlights in surface­ mounted and pendent versions, together with Optec spotlights and indirect lighting from Trion uplights. A Light System DALI installation ensures the lighting is always right for the situation.

Head chef Ralf Haug is delighted with the high accolade awarded to his kitchen in November 2009. The Nixe is the first ever restaurant on Rügen to receive a star from the Michelin Guide.

Prominent location: even at night, the Hotel Nixe on the southern beach promenade of Binz is a real eye-catcher. The building is scenically illuminated by Beamer projectors and by LED-equipped Kubus and Focalflood varychrome facade luminaires. Midipoll bollard luminaires provide lighting on the terrace and in the park, while also acting as a design element delineating these areas.

Tourism on the Baltic island of Rügen is doubtless one of the success stories of the German reunification. Since 1989, Germany’s largest island has been steadily regaining its deserved status as a holiday destination. Seaside towns such as Binz, Sellin, Göhren and Sassnitz sound as if they come from the times of the Kaiser, when Rügen was the preferred summer resort of Berlin’s gentry. The typical, seaside-resort architecture, which is influenced by Art Nouveau and characterises the atmosphere of these places, also dates back to this time. Fortunately, entrepreneurs and caterers turned up, who, recognizing the value of this heritage, awoke many a sleeping beauty from its 100-year sleep or rescued it from ruin. As was the case with the “Villa Seenixe” in Binz, located directly behind the popular, 5-mile-long sandy beach. The current manager, Thomas Hummels, took on the Art Nouveau jewel, which was built in 1903 as a summer residence but had experienced mixed fortunes in the post-war period prior to the German reunification.
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Hotel Santa Marta
Surrounded by woody hills and with a view of the sea, Hotel Santa Marta offers the ­ ideal refuge from the tumult of the nearby seaside resort of Lloret de Mar on the ­ Spanish Costa Brava. A new, elegant spa area now brings an additional plus to the traditional establishment.

Midipoll bollard luminaires not only provide efficient light on the open areas, but their discreet grazing light on their ­ cruciform profile also allows them to act as design elements that delineate these areas. For the garden and terraces of the new spa, the lighting designers chose tall and short versions with 35W metal halide lamps.

In addition to Midipoll, the hotel uses Cylinder facade luminaires, LED orientation luminaires and Kubus floor washlights all around the new building.

Standing on the roof terrace of the new spa of the Santa Marta hotel, which is discreetly illuminated by Midipoll luminaires, and watching the sunset over the hotel’s private bay, one would hardly believe that only a few kilometres separate this beach from the Catalan bathing resort of Lloret de Mar. The noise and tumult of the latter, famous – or rather infamous – as the destination for Europe’s party-hungry youth, is not felt here at all. Situated in six hectares of pine forest, the location on the hilly coast has always been the main argument for the traditional holiday hotel, which can boast a splendid sea view from the majority of its rooms. With personal service and a charm typical of the country, the hotel gives its guests an impression of the bygone era before mass tourism on the Mediterranean. This stance, conservative in its positive sense, has not prevented the hotel management from integrating contemporary comfort and design and up-to-date architecture into their overall concept. This is exemplified by the hotel’s newly opened spa area, moulded into the site as a separate building. It includes an indoor pool, a fitness room, cosmetics and massage treatment rooms , as well as the previously mentioned roof terrace, which is ideal not only for enjoying the view but also for events of all kinds. The clean architectural lines with high-quality materials are augmented by the carefully planned light­ ing design in indoor and outdoor areas that underscores the hotel’s status.

Architect: Carles Sobirà, Lloret de Mar Photos: Thomas Mayer, Neuss www.hstamarta.com

Keep-fit with sea view: even the fitness room incorporates the landscape into the architecture. Compact 100 Downlights for compact fluorescent lamps provide efficient and userfriendly lighting here. ­

IP65 Lightcast Downlights illuminate the periphery of the indoor swimming pool, whose glass front opens up the view to the sea. The high protection mode of these luminaires ensures a lasting resistance to the loads in the wet areas.

Efficient wallwashing in the corridors of the spa area. Quadra lens wallwashers illuminate the wall surfaces, pro­ viding pleasant, glarefree brightness and scenic display lighting of the care products on the fitted shelves.
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Expo Shanghai 2010: German Pavilion
Technology produces a city in equilibrium, or “Balancity” – headed up by this title, the German Pavilion in Shanghai has developed into one of the crowd-pullers of the World Fair.

Architecture and master planning: Schmidhuber + Kaindl GmbH, Munich Exhibition design and media design: Milla und Partner GmbH, Stuttgart Execution and project management: Nüssli (Deutschland) GmbH, Roth Lighting design: E³ Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Altenbeken Photos: Michael Wolf, Andreas Keller www.expo2010-deutschland.de The German Pavilion was one of the crowdpullers at the Expo 2010 in Shanghai. Halfway through, at the end of July, the organisers had already recorded two million visitors; queuing times of 3 to 4 hours was more or less patiently accepted by the predominantly Chinese guests. “Typically German” stereotypes such as garden gnomes or fairy castles are present as mere ironic props. However, the complex and tech­ nical overall form of the shining silver pavilion and the thoroughness and seriousness with which the “Balancity” exhibition has taken up and honed the Expo’s underlying urban theme of “Better City, Better Life” may in fact seem to visitors just as “typically German” as the meat platter with sauerkraut, naturally served in the restaurant. As in any real city, the stream of visitors meandered through the reconstructed city scenes by foot, conveyor belt or escalator. The exhibition was conceived by the Stuttgartbased agency Milla and Partner in close cooperation with the pavilion’s architect, Lennart Wiechell from the Munich design offices of Schmidhuber + Kaindl. Similarly, as in any real city, lighting designer Ulrich Kunkel from the E³ design office was faced with many different usage situations. Initially commissioned to do the exhibition’s lighting, during the course of the project he also took on further areas such as the restaurant and VIP lounge as well as the outdoor lighting. Like a diamond, the optimum effect of the pavilion’s facetted surface is only brought out under the right lighting. With the help of ERCO’s outdoor lighting tools, the expectations awoken in the run-up to the event by the highly effective architectural visualisations were more than fulfilled.

A tour de force through the many facets of today’s Germany awaits the visitors: the presentation of technology and visions of the future, would not be complete without the clichéd stereotypes of history and German home comforts.

A design exhibition informs visitors about the state of the art of German industrial products. Acting as both lighting tool and exhibit: the track-mounted Cantax spotlights are “made in Germany” to Naoto Fukasawa’s design.

Constructed from metalfabric, the shimmering silver outer skin emphasises the technological complexity of the volumes and intermediate spaces that constitute the German Pavilion. Tesis in-ground luminaires and Beamer pro­ jectors with efficient metal halide lamps add scenic lighting to the building shell (above).

The use of angular forms is continued on the inside, as here in the VIP lounge (right), which is fitted out with Lightcast downlights and Quadra wallwashers.

In the pavilion’s metaphorical “Energy Centre”, the three metre diameter “disco ball” hanging in the middle of the room is set in motion by the sheer volume of visitors’ calls and their applause. To augment the scenic display, Quadra wallwashers with varychrome LED technology illuminate the hall’s rear wall with intensive, changing colours.
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Expo Shanghai 2010: impressions
Photos: Michael Wolf, Hong Kong

View of the Huangpu ­ River, which divides the Expo site (above). The sprawling industrial wasteland and the old residential suburbs were both moved for the World Fair. Although 18,000 people were resettled, amidst the mushrooming development of the metropolis this was nothing more than a footnote. The Chinese Pavilion with its illuminated red

roof construction of stacked steel girders towers above the site. As per the building regulations, it is three times the size of all other pavilions (left).

Like a UFO, the saucer of the Expo Cultural Centre hovers above the site (left). This is one of the buildings that is designed to continue to be in use after the Expo – in contrast to the temporary ­ structures such as the British Pavilion (above). What remains are the impressions and encounters of the visitors from all around the globe.

After the 2008 Summer Olympics, China was once again in the limelight of the world stage this summer with a second mega-event. The Expo 2010 World Fair was held in Shanghai from the 1st of May to the 31st of October 2010. Furthermore, as is fitting for a land of superla­ tives, it was the largest Expo of all times with a site measuring 5.28km2 (approx. 2 square miles), 242 participating nations and organisations, and a planned 70 million visitors. Rallying under the banner of “Better City, Better Life”, the event focused in on a subject matter that is a particularly burning current issue for such a rapidly growing country as China: the design of cities that are worth living in and fully functional. The basic tenor of the exhibition was one of optimism and enthusiasm for progress, combined with the desire for conflict-free intercultural dialogue. One thing was clear: for China this Expo was an important milestone in its devel­ opment towards a modern industrial society.

In a former shipbuilding shed, the state-owned CSSC shipyard presents its latest concepts. Narrowbeam Oseris spotlights provide highlighting, but without any spill light which would otherwise impair the ubiquitous multimedia presentations.

Play of colours, gener­ ated by LEDs, on the Expo Boulevard, the main axis of the exhibi­ tion grounds (above). At the Moroccan Pavilion (left), oriental motifs are illuminated with scenic light from ERCO lighting tools such as Kubus facade luminaires, Grasshopper projectors and Tesis in-ground luminaires. ­

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Backlights

Munich The showroom in the Bavarian metropolis first opened back in 2009 on the 19th of November. ERCO occupied one floor of a listed building, a former factory dating back to about 1895. Notable architectural offices and design offices are in the vicinity. The exposed, historical brickwork and the cap-vaulted ceilings

attractively combine with the modern furnishings and fittings used for demonstrating lighting tools and their effects.

New showroom in Zurich With its spacious new showroom for Switzerland, ERCO adds a lighting design highlight to the Zurich district of Wipkingen. The flexible mock-up area allows a wealth of lighting tools and effects to be demonstrated, while offices and meeting areas create the optimum conditions for individual client consultation.

ERCO Lighting AG Trottenstrasse 7 8037 Zürich Switzerland Tel.: +41 44 215 28 10 Fax: +41 44 215 28 19 email: info.ch@erco.com

On the 20th of May 2010, ERCO Switzerland celebrated the showroom opening together with clients and friends. As host and as Head of ERCO Switzerland, Peter Schwägli greets the guests (right).

ERCO Leuchten GmbH Showroom Munich Nymphenburger Str. 125 80636 München Germany Tel.: +49 89 120 099 40 Fax: +49 89 120 099 499 email: info.muenchen@erco.com

New showrooms in Germany ERCO’s German sales organisation follows the concept of establishing a presence in Germany by having attractive offices and showrooms in the country’s important major cities so that it is then able to offer architects and designers the best service from a nearby location. Following Stuttgart and Munich in 2009, now in 2010 Berlin and Hamburg also have their own new ERCO showrooms, offering all the possibilities for bringing light to life. The showrooms are, on the one hand, central offices for the support of the lighting consultants in the field sales force, while, on the other, they also provide a venue to demonstrate lighting effects and product samples and to hold seminars and project meetings. For all the contact addresses of the ERCO showrooms, please go to: www.erco.com/contact

ERCO Leuchten GmbH Showroom Berlin Reichenberger Str. 113A 10999 Berlin Germany Tel.: +49 30 769 967 0 Fax: +49 30 769 967 20 email: info.berlin@erco.com 36   ERCO Lichtbericht 91

Berlin On the 6th of May 2010, ERCO opened its new showroom in the Berlin district of Kreuzberg. After extensive renovation, the industrial premises in a typical, historical Berlin rear-courtyard house now provide state-of-the-art technical infrastructure. The ERCO corporate identity has made it possible to largely retain the

essential character of the premises, while clearly conveying the philosophy of the brand. The setting of the new showroom is a popular location for businesses from the creative branch.

International Lighting Workshop Lüdenscheid, 17-21 August 2010 For several years now, ERCO has been ­ offering lighting workshops outside of the usual term times for students of architecture, interior design and lighting design. This was initially just in German, but later also in English for international participants. The programme includes exercises for lighting design as well as excursions to excellent examples of museum and retail lighting, accompanied by experienced architects and lighting designers. The events were hugely popular and very well received – which was both a positive surprise and confirmed the attraction of the subject of architectural lighting. We would like to thank all participants for their interest and enthusiasm! www.erco.com/seminars

The Structure of Light: Richard Kelly and the Illumination of Modern Architecture by Dietrich Neumann (publisher) Yale University Press ISBN-13: 978-0300163704 The American Richard Kelly (1919-1977) was a pioneer of architectural lighting. His qualitative approach to lighting design not only left its mark on subsequent generations of designers, but also influenced manufacturers such as ERCO. The first comprehensive monograph on Kelly, dedicating 224 pages to his life and work, has now been published by the renowned Yale University Press.

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Retrospective on Light+Building 2010 11th – 16th of April 2010 Messe Frankfurt www.light-building.com

Linked by the overarching concept of efficient visual comfort, two major themes governed this year’s ERCO trade fair stand. Firstly, the new range of recessed luminaires, Quintessence, and secondly, the LED technology introduced across all areas of the product range. The interest shown was overwhelming and even put the success of past trade fairs in the shade. A kinetic

installation using light and moveably mounted Quintessence reflectors made an eye-catching stand display that amazed visitors. A sincere thank you to all guests and employees – we look forward to meeting again in 2011 at the Euroshop in Düsseldorf and in 2012 in Frankfurt!

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ERCO GmbH Postfach 2460 58505 Lüdenscheid Germany Tel.: +49 2351 551 0 Fax: +49 2351 551 300 info@erco.com www.erco.com

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