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RAMAYANA MYTHOLOGY OR HISTORY

FACTS & EVIDENCES COMPILED AND PRESENTED By

K.Gopalakrishnan,

Director (Retired), Geological Survey, Government of India


(THE FULL PPT COVERS FACTS AND EVIDENCES FROM A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS INCLUDING GEO-SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCES). INTERESTED PERSONS MAY CONTACT AUTHOR FOR THOSE OTHER DETAILS.

WHY THIS QUESTION ?


TWO CONTROVERSIES REGARDING RAMAYANA ARE RAGING IN INDIA.
1. Rama Janma Bhoomi issue.

Rama Janma Bhoomi issue 2. Rama Sethu issue. Both cases are pending with the Supreme Court of India. One concerning the Demolition of a Mogul structure-Babri Masjid, which was built over pre-existing Hindu Temple, by Hindu activists. The Other regarding the Attempt at the Destruction of an existing Hindu Religious and Heritage Structure-Rama Sethu, by the secularist Government of India. The Main controversy in both cases is whether Ramayana was a Mythology and Rama was a Mythological Figure or Ramayana is a Historical record of a Historical figure. So a Scientific analysis of all related Scientific Data is of paramount importance to arrive at proper conclusion.

1.

FACTS & EVIDENCES -1


1. 2. A. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (i) (ii) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) COMMON SENSE REASONS. AGE OF RAMAYANA FROM HINDU COSMIC TIME SCALE As per Yuga Cycles As per Vishnu Purana As per Manu Samhita As per Srimad Bhagavatham As per Swami Yukteshwar Giri B. ASTRONOMICAL EVIDENCES By Vedic Astronomy by Dr. P.V.Vartak By Modern Astronomy by Pushkar Bhatnagar C. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCES Sea Level Changes Anthropological Evidences of Early mans Migration Botanical evidences Zoological evidences

FACTS & EVIDENCES - 2


3. HISTORICAL EVIDENCES A. Lineage of Rama (i) Ramas Ancestors (ii) Ramas Descendants B. References in Ancient Literature (i) Puranas (ii) Tamil Sangam Literatures (iii) Other 5th 6th Century Literatures (iv) References Later Ramayanas in Other Languages (v) Moghul Time Ramayana and Mahabharata C. HISTORICAL PAINTINGS D. OLDER RECORDS AND TRAVELLOGUES E. REFERENCES IN HISTORICAL MAPS F. LOGO OF SURVEY OF INDIA 4. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES A. From Excavations B. Inscriptions on Pillars, Plaques and Copper Plates C. References in Ancient Coinages D. References in Ancient Temple Sculptures E. Terracotta Depictions & Sculptures

FACTS & EVIDENCES - 3


A. B. A. 5. GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES Ramas Trip with Maharishi VISHWAMITRA Ramas route during Vanavas and to Sri Lanka 6. GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES FROM TAMIL NADU 7. GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES FROM SRI LANKA 8. GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES FROM TAMIL NADU 9. GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES FROM SRI LANKA 10. GEOTECTONIC EVIDENCES (i)From the present-Day Active zone in South Pacific to the Present-Day apparently Inactive Rama Sethu Zone (ii) Rise of hill from mid-ocean in response to horst-graben tectonics along both coasts B. Valmikis Description of the above site with Ramas arrow piercing the ocean & seismic, volcanic and tsunami activities in the ocean C. Drying up of ocean in the far away north at Markandara by Ramas Brahmaastra the present day Taar desert in Rajasthan with trillinos of tons of rock salt below the sands. 11. EVIDENCE FROM BOREHOLES IN RAMA SETHU AREA

NOT A MYTHOLOGY COMMON SENSE REASONS


No Mythology has been rewritten in so many languages through thousands of years. In India, apart from at least four more Ramayanas in Sanskrit, there are the Jain Paumachariyam in Prakrit, Ramcharit Manas by Tulsi Das in Hindi, Sundarananda Ramayana and Adarsha Raghava in Nepali, Katha Ramayana in Assamese, Krittivas Ramayan in Bengali, Jagamohan Ramayana in Oriya, Rama Balalika in Gujarati, Ramavatar in Punjabi, Ramavatara Charita in Kashmiri, besides the well known Kamba Ramayanam in Tamil, Ramacharitam in Malayalam, Ranganatha Ramayanam in Telugu and Torave Ramayana in Kannada. No Mythology is discussed with so many different explanatory notes in so many languages. No Mythological characters were revered and worshipped through ages in any other country by people of varied races, different languages, diverse traditions and habits, having assorted and multiple types of dresses and foods. No Mythological characters have been built with so many temples, memorials and pilgrimage centres for representing the various incidents of their lives at so many places not only throughout India but also outside like Sri Lanka and many SE Asian countries. Lives of no Mythological Characters formed the sources of so many festivals, dances, dramas and other art-forms through many centuries not only throughout India, but also in many other countries of SE Asia.

AGE OF RAMAYANA ON HINDU COSMIC TIME SCALE (YUGAS)


The 4 Yugas and the Hindu Cosmic Time Scale Satya Uuga 17,28,000 yrs Treta Yuga 12,96,000 yrs Dwapara Yuga - 8,64.000 yrs Kali Yuga - 4,32,000 yrs. According to Hindu scriptures Rama was born in the FIRST QUARTER of TRETA YUGA and roughly 5,000 yrs. have passed in KALI YUGA. Then Today Ramas age will be around 18,00,000 yrs. NASA first gave the AGE OF RAMA SETHU as 17,50,000 yrs.

COSMIC(SIDEREAL ?) TIME-SCALE AS PER VISHNU PURANA


Time measurement section of the Vishnu Purana Book I Chapter III explains the above as follows: 2 Ayanas (six month periods) = 1 human year or = 1 day of the devas 4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divine years = 1 Krita Yuga 3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divine years = 1 Tret Yuga 2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divine years = 1 Dwpara Yuga 1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divine years = 1 Kali Yuga Total of 12,000 divine years = 4 Yugas = 1 Mahayuga (also called divine yuga) Reckoning of time for Brahma. 1000 Mahayugas = 1 kalpa = 1 day (DAY only) of Brahma (4,320,000,000 human years). AS PER THIS TIME SCALE, AGE OF RAMA IS ABOUT 6,300 DIVINE YEARS

MANU SAMHITA YUGA TIME - SCALE


MANU SAMHITA ALSO DESCRIBES THE 4 YUGAS AS FOLLOWS: Dawn Era Dusk Total Name 400 + 4000 + 400 = 4800 years. Satya Yuga (Golden Age) 300 + 3000 + 300 = 3600 years. Treta Yuga (Silver Age) 200 + 2000 + 200 = 2400 years. Dwapara Yuga (Bronze Age) 100 + 1000 + 100 = 1200 years. Kali Yuga (Iron Age) TOTAL = 12,000 years (Note this time scale is the same as the Divine years as stated in Vishnu Purana). AGE OF RAMA ACCORDINGLY WILL BE 6,300 DIVINE OR SIDEREAL YEARS

Time structure (Skandam-3; Chapter-11; Srimad Bhagavatam).

SWAMY YUKTESHWARS YUGA TIME-SCALE - 1


According to Swamy Yukteshwar Giris concept, the sun, with its planets and their moons, takes a companion star and revolves around it in about 24,000 years of our earth a celestial phenomenon which causes the backward movement of the equinoctial points around the zodiac (PRECESSION OF EQUINOXES). The sun also has another motion by which it revolves round a grand center called Vishnunabhi, which is the seat of the creative power, Brahma, the universal magnetism. The cycle of yugas takes place twice in each 24,000 year revolution. As the sun recedes from Vishnunabhi, the yugas pass in the descending phase: Satya (4,800 YRS), Treta (3,600 YRS), Dvapara(2,400 YRS), and Kali(1,200 YRS) for a total of 12,000 yrs. As the sun approaches Vishnunabhi, the yugas pass in the ascending order: Kali (1,200 yrs), Dvapara (2,400 yrs), Treta (3600 yrs) and Satya (4,800 yrs) for another 12,000 yrs.

SWAMY YUKTESHWAR GIRIS YUGA TIME-SCALE - 2


In his book, The Holy Science, Sri Yukteswar explains that the ascending phase of Kali Yuga began in September of 499 C.E. So it follows that we have been in the ascending phase of Dwapara Yuga since September of 1699 CE. Accordingly, the age of Ramayana in the 1st quarter of Treta yuga will be around 8700 BP.(ca.6700 BC.) [Note the 12,000 years ascending and descending yuga cycles are the same as those described in Vishnu Purana and Manu Samhitha] Yukteshwars 24,000 yrs cycle is nearly equivalent of the Modern Astronomical PRECESSION CYCLE OF THE EQUINOXES of 25,920 yrs which are also divided into 4 quadrants. It would be appropriate to refer at this point in this presentation to the finer divisions within a year : 12 months per year 30 days per month 24 hours per day 60 ghatikas per day (1 ghatika = 24 minutes) 60 palas per ghatika 6 asus (breathing) one pala 1 asu = 2.5 kasthas (the time interval of 4 seconds) 1 kastha = 4 dirgha matras

FINER DIVISIONS OF TIME


Our Present division of A DAY 24 hours a day; 12 hours (roughly) DAY time, when we are facing SUN and 12 hours (roughly) Night Time, when we are away from SUN. 60 Minutes per hour; 720 minutes for DAY & 720 Minutes for NIGHT. 60 Seconds per Minute; 43200 Seconds for DAY and 43200 seconds for NIGHT. NOTE THAT THE UNITS OF 43200 (SECONDS) AND 12 (HOURS) ARE THE SAME AS THE UNITS OF COSMIC YUGAS & DESCENDING AND ASCENDING YUGAS CONCEPT OF SRI YUKTESHWAR GIRI. (The basic concept of yuga, Chaturyuga etc. are fundamental, the measure of a yuga varies on the object being measured. Measures such as yuga basically denote the ratio and phase, with the scale varying, based on the time-scale of the event being measured. As such, the yuga for COSMIC EVENTS are different from the yuga for SOLAR (SIDEREAL) EVENTS, which are again different from the yuga for EARTH EVENTS.)

ASTRNOMICAL EVIDENCES
Specific Planetary Configurations will occur only once in many thousands of years. Many Ancient Hindus, even many Indians of today, are well versed in the traditional Vedic Astronomy and are producing Solar and Lunar based Hindu calendars every year for many centuries, depicting accurately movements of planets, dates & periods of different eclipses as well as places where they are visible etc. In Valmiki Ramayana precise Planetary Configurations are given during specific events in Ramas Life, on particular days (Tithies), Fortnights (Pakshas) and months of Indian Lunar Calendar. These configurations were verified and corroborated by the use of Vedic Astronomical computations by many Indian astronomers. The computed data, backwards from the present ,tallies very well sequentially with Valmiki Ramayana astronomical details, thus proving them to be Actual Recordings and not mere conjectures or figments of imagination.

ASTRONOMICAL EVIDENCES By Vedic Astronomy Dr. P.V.Vartak


Dr. P.V.Vartak, with same astronomical descriptions of Valmiki Ramayana, but using manual calculations ,had determined ages of different events of Ramas life with respect to Gregorian Calendar. Rama's Birth Date 4th December 7323 B.C Rama-Seeta Marriage 7th April 7307 B.C Rama Exiled 29th November 7306 B.C. Hanuman enters Lanka 1st September 7292 B.C Hanuman meets Seeta 2nd September 7292 B.C. Setu (Bridge) built 26-30th Oct. 7292 B.C The War begins 3rd November 7292 B.C Kumbhakarna is killed 7th November 7292 B.C. Ravana is killed by Rama 15th November 7292 B.C. Rama returns to Ayodhya 6th December 7292 B.C. (Vartak,P.V. 1999 The scientific Dating of Rmayana and Vedas,Ved Vidnyana Mandal,Pune)

ASTRNOMICAL EVIDENCES By Modern Astronomy & use of Computer software


Specific Planetary Configurations will occur only once in many thousands of years. In Valmiki Ramayana precise Planetary Configurations are given during specific events in Ramas Life, on patricular days (Tithies), Fortnights (Pakshas) and months of Indian Lunar Calender. These configurations were verified and corroborated by Sri. Pushkar Bhatnagar by using modern computer techniques involving Planetorium Software developed by NASA. Bhatnagar could determine very accurately the date of birth of Rama as well as his correct age during many phases of his life sequentially and tallying with descriptions given in Ramayana, thus proving the veracity and authenticity of Valmikis writings. Such accurate astronomical facts can not come from the wild imagination of a poet, but only from historical facts.

ERA OF RAMA BHATNAGARS FINDINGS


DATE OF BIRTH OF RAMA Valmiki-Around Noon on Navami tithi of Shukla Paksha of lunar month of Chaitra in Indian Lunar Calender. Bhatnagar- Between 12 Noon to 01.00pm on 10 January, 5114 BC (7126 BP-from Present) DATE OF EXILE Valmiki- Rama was 25 years old when he left Ayodhya on exile. Bhatnagar around 05 January, 5089 BC (age of Rama 25; 5114-5089), from the planetary positions seen by Dasharatha of his impending death, which led him to plan to coronate Rama as King. WAR WITH KHAR & DUSHAN AT PANCHAVATI, NASIK Valmiki In the later half of 13th year of exile, Rama fought with Khar- Dushan on an Amavasya tithi coinciding with a solar eclipse when Mars was in the middle.

ERA OF RAMA BHATNAGARS FINDINGS (CONTD.)


Bhatnagar Solar Eclipse on 07 October, 5077 BC on an Amavasya day, with Mars in the middle, and on one side were Venus and Mercury, & On the other side-Sun and Saturn. Eclipse could be seen from Panchavati, Nasik in the Afternoon. It is exactly in the later half of 13th year of exile (Jan,5089Oct.5077=+12). OTHER FINDINGS Six months later, Bali(Vali)s death was also on an Amavasya day of Ashadh month another Solar eclipse day- 3 April,5076 BC. After five months, Hanumans meeting with Sita Devi during a Lunar Eclipse day 12 September,5076 BC. Hanumans return from Lanka 8 out of 12 constellations seen on horizon - 14 September, 5076 B.C. Ravanas death 04 December, 5076 BC. Ramas return to Ayodhya after Exile 02 January, 5075 BC, on a Shukla Paksha Navami day of Chaitra month (Jan.5089Jan.5075 = 14 years).

HINDU COSMOLOGICAL DATING & SEA LEVEL CHANGES DURING MIOCENE-PLEISTOCENE TIMES
RESEARCH PAPER BY MALCOLM P.R.LIGHT HAS SHOWN AUTHENTICITY OF RAMAYAN WRITINGS AND CONSTRUCTION OF RAMA SETHU IN TRETA YUGA.
It has resisted the relentless erosion of the sea for almost 2 million years and it attests to the great engineering skills of the ancient Indian people. It is the earliest and largest carbon-fibre reinforced civil engineering structure known to man and should be protected as a world heritage site.

SEA LEVEL CHANGES DURING HOLOCENE PERIOD


Supreme Court mandated excavations of 2002-03 indicate that the earliest habitations at Ayodhya go back well before 1000 BCE (possibly 1980-1320 BCE). Ayodhya excavations suggest Ram's era fell around 1,000 BCE, when the sea level was probably six metres below current levels, exposing the entire landmass near Dhanushkodi to Talaimannar. The odd stretch underwater could easily be filled up to create a ford to cross over. A close up of the setu shows firm edges on both sides (to prevent erosion), suggestive of human agency. It can be seen from the report that although around 1,800,000 years BP, India and Sri Lanka might have been connected by land, around 7,300 years BP, the sea level in Southern Tamil Nadu coast was about 3.5 m above the present level (of 0 13 m water depth at Rama Sethu). This was arrived at by Dr.P.K.Banerji from the study of corals on land around Pamban, Rameswaram, and Tuticorin. This period of sea level increase coincides with the era of Rama (~7000 years BP), as arrived at from the astronomical evidences of Pushkar Bhatnagar. This will thus become a scientific evidence for the oscillations in sea level and existence of sea between India and Sri Lanka during Ramas era and the descriptions in Valmiki Ramayana are authentic.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL EVIDENCES MIGRATION OF EARLY MAN, HOMO-ERECTUS FROM AFRICA TO S.INDIA IN TRTA YUGA
RESEARCHES BY D.JOSEPH AND G.P.EBERLI HAD INDICATD THAT HOMO-ERECTUS, THE EARLY MAN STARTED TO MOVE OUT OF AFRICA TO INDIA DURING 2.0 TO 1.8 MILLION YRS. AGO (IN TRETA YUGA). TRETA YUGA REPRESENTS A PRIOD OF RISING SEA LEVELS DURING WHICH HINDU COSMOLOGY SAID THAT THERE WAS INCREASED RAIN FALL AND FORMATION OF NEW RIVERS. DVAPURA YUGA IS A PERIOD OF FALLING SEA LEVEL, FOLLOWED BY A RISE AT THE BEGINNING OF KALI YUGA. ACCORDING TO JOSEPH AND EBERLI, ADAMS BRIDGE APPEARS TO HAVE BENN CONSTRUCTED BY SUCH HOMINIDS CONNECTING SOUTH INDIA AND SRI LANKA BETWEEN 1.8 AND 1.6 MILLION YRS. AGO IN TRETA YUGA, DURING A PERIOD OF SHARP SEA LEVEL FALL TO SOME 60 METERS BELOW THE PRESENT SEA LEVEL.
(Note this the age given at first by NASA for Rama Sethu Bridge)

BOTANICAL EVIDENCES
The research scientists from CPR Environmental Education Centre, Chennai, who undertook a journey from Ayodhya to Lanka to retrace the life of exile by Ram, Sita and Lakshman found all the plants, trees, flowers and fruits that have been mentioned by Valmiki in Ramayan. The accounts given by Valmiki about different landscapes, mountains, river basins and forests are accurate. When the Ramayan was being written, there were thick forests in Naimisharanya, Chitrakoot, Dandakaranya and Panchavati. The Kishkindha Kanda of Ramayan discusses the geographical distribution, botanical wealth and forestry. The places Ram chose to stay during his exile from Ayodhya were full of plants, vegetations and biodiversity. The poems contain all flora and fauna mentioned in Rig Veda. In Yuddha Kanda, Valmiki describes the Sanjeevani hill with exquisite medicinal plants and herbs, brought by Hanuman from the Himalayas to revive the fallen Lakshmana and others of vanara army by the Brahmaastra. A hillock named ROMOSOLA or SUMERU PARVAT within the tropical forests of Sri Lanka is reported to contain exquisite flora, fauna and medicinal plants. It stands distinct from the Lankan topography, giving credence to the theory that this is the hill that Hanuman brought from the Himalayas. Another small hillock with similar medicinal plants and herbs is reported from near Nagarkoil in Tamil Nadu. No such herbs and plants were seen in the surrounding areas in Kanyakumari district or in the nearby western ghats forests. The above hill is also thought to be a part of Sanjeevani parvat fallen during its transport.

ZOOLOGICAL EVIDENCES

Valmiki has mentioned in many places in Aranya Kanda regarding the existence of dense jungles full of lions and tigers, in Dandakaranya covering parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The coexistence of the two cats in this region is hard to imagine now, as these areas are now the exclusive domain of only tigers and the lions are restricted elsewhere to the west in Girnar, Gujarat. The scientists from CPREEC point out that a corollary proof of such habitat in the past was found in the Bhimbedka caves in Madhya Pradesh that has 10,000-year-old wall carvings and paintings featuring lions and tigers together.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES LINEAGE OF RAMA - 1

Rama was the 64th king of Surya Vansh. In various Hindu scriptures, the lineage of Rama through his 63 ancestors are traced and recorded. Also the names his 30 Descendants are also traced and recorded. SUCH A LONG LINEAGE IS BY ITSELF IS HISTORY & RAMA IS A HISTORICAL FIGURE AND NOT A MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTER.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES LINEAGE OF RAMA - 2 (63 ANCESTORS)


MANU IKSHVAKU VIKUKSI SASADA KAKUTSTHA ANENAS PRITHU VISHTARASVA ARDRA YUVANASVA 1 SRAVASTA BRIHADASA KUVALASVA DRADHASVA PRAMODA HARYASVA 1 NIKUMBA SAMHATASVA AKRSASVA PRASANAJIT YUVANASVA 2 MANDHATR

PURUKUTSA TRASADSYU SAMBUTA ANARANYA TRASADSVA HARYASVA 2 VASUMATA TRIDHANVAN TRAYYARUNA TRISHANKU SATYAVRATA HARISCHANDRA ROHITA HARITA, CANKU VIJAYA RURUKA VRKA BAHU (ASITA) SAGARA ASAMANJA AMSUMANT

DILIPA 1 BHAGIRATA SRUTA NABHAGA AMBARISA SINDHUDVIPA AGUTAYUS RTUPARNA SARVAKAMA SUDSASA MITRASAHA ASMAKA MULAKA SATARATHA AIDAVIDA VISVASAHA 1 DILIPA 2 DIRGHABAHU RAGHU AJA DASARATHA

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES LINEAGE OF RAMA - 3 (30 DESCENDANTS)


KUSA ATITHI NISHADA NALA NABHAS PUNDARIKA KSEMADHANV AN DEVANIKA AHINAGU PARIPATRA BALA UKTHA VAJRANABHA SANKHAN VYUSITASVA VISVASAHA 2 HIRANYABHA PUSYA DRUVASANDHI SUDARSANA

AGNIVARNA SIGHRA MARU PARASURATA SUSANDHI AMARSA MAHASHWAT VISRUTAVANT BRIHADBALA BRIHATKSAYA

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES References in Ancient Literatures 1.Puranas


Rama Sethu is talked about in Muni Vyas's Mahabharata at four places -- Ramopakhayan, Aaranyak Parva, Drona Parva and Dashrath Kathanak Vedavyasa refers to Nalasetu in Mahabharata nalasetur iti khyto yo 'dypi prathito bhuvi rmasyj purasktya dhryate girisanibha MBh. 3.267.45 .... which even today, popular on earth as Nala's bridge, mountain-like, is sustained out of respect for [Lord] Rama's command. (Nala was son of Viswakarma). Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa (sarga 13): Rama, while returning from SriLanka in pushpaka vimaana: "Behold, Sita, My Sethu of mountains dividing this frothy ocean is like the milky way dividing the sky into two parts" Skanda Purana (III.1.2.1-114), Vishnu Purana (IV.4.40-49), Agni Purana (V-XI), Brahma Purana (138.1-40) refer to the construction of Rama Setu. Skanda Purana (VI.101.1-44) describes the installation of three Shiva lingas at the end, middle and beginning of Rama Setu and making the same bridge submerged and thereby creating Setu-Teertham. This is also related in Kurma Purana (21.10-61). Garuda Purana (1.81.1-22) lists sacred places including Setubandh and Rameswar. Narada Purana (Uttara Bhag 76.1-20) extols the greatness of Rama-Setu. The Vayu Purana and the Uttara Kanda mentioned two Kosalas, with Shravasti the capital of Uttara Kosala and Kausavati of Dakshin Kosala or Mahakosala. The two Kosalas were once believed to have been under the suzerainty of Rama, who installed his son Lava in North Kosala and Kusa in South Kosala.

SETHU REFERENCES IN ANCIENT TEXTS


There are many more texts which contain references to Setu: 1. Rigveda, 2. Krishna Yajurveda, 3. Dhanu Smruti, 4. Galavasmruti, 5. Gautama smruti, 6. Marichi Smruti, 7. Devala Smruti, 8. Parasara Smruti, 9. Valmiki Ramayanam, 10. Adhyatma Ramayanam, 11. Ananda ramayanam, 12. Tulsidas Ramayanm, 13. Agneya Puranam, 14. Bhagavata Puranam, 15. Padma Puranam, 16. Shiva Puranam, 17. Karma Puranam, 18. Skanda Puranam, 19. Markandeya Puranam, 20. Brahmanda Puranam, 21. Matsya Puranam, 23. Deyva Ganapati, 24. Periya Puranam, 25. Tiruppugazh, 26. Thaayumaanavar songs, 28. Dayaasatakam, 29. Venkatadri Vishvaguna Darsam, 30. Tiruvilaiyadam Puranam, 31. Devaiyulaa, 32. Setu Puranam. Apart from there, it is rare to find any Bharatilla language ancient literature without reference to Setu. (Acknowledgement: Hindu Endowment Department officer, Shri K. Sundaramurthy, IAS, Chennai, 1980).

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES References in Ancient Literatures 2 Tamil Sangam Literature- (I)


1.kadunter iraaman udanpun.ar seetaiyaivalittakai arakkan vavviya jnaanrainilamcer madaran.i kan.d.a kurangincemmukap perunkil.ai izhaippolindaa anguaar-aa a varunakai yinidu per-r-ikume (Pur-anaanooru paadal 378) When Arakkan Ravana abducted Sita who came with Rama, the ornaments removed from her body and thrown by her to the ground, the monkey families adorned themselves erratically with these ornaments. People enjoyed seeing this sight. 2.venve_r- kavuniyar tonmudu ko_d.imuzhangirum pauvam iranku mun tur-aivelpo_r iraaman arumar-aikku avittapal veezh aalam po_lao_viyavintanr-aal iv azhunkaloore (Akanaanoor-u paadal 70) Before Sri Rama embarked upon his journey to Sri Lanka, he sat below a big banyan tree on the banks of the sacred Setu (tiruvan.aikkarai) and was engrossed in conversation with his friends. The birds on the banyan tree were chirping. Sri Rama stopped the chirping by his command.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES
References in Ancient Literatures2 ;Tamil Literature- (2)
Besides above ,Rama Sethu is referred in KALITTOGAI, PARIPAADAL, TOLKAPPIYAM (Purattinaiyaiyal/Purattirattu) & MANIMEKALAI. Ramayana and Rama Sethu are referred in later period Tamil literature also, such as in Appar and Thirujnana Sambandar Tevarams, Kalingattuparani, Periyashwar and Kodai Nachiyar Pasurams in Villiputtur Mahabharatham as well as in 15th century Sethu Puranam.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES REFERENCES FROM ANCIENT LITERATURE - 3


Setubandha Kavya in Prakrit by the King Damodara Sen (5th Century). King Pravarasena II (550-600 CE) called Setu bandha or Ravanavaho, Dasamuha Vadha" Varahamihiras Brhatsamhita (sixth century AD) which formulates rules for making images of Rama.
Tulsi Dass Sriramachandramanas describes the decision to construct the bridge.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES
References in Ramayanas
Valmiki describes the construction of Sethu in detail (85 shlokas). hastimaatraan mahaakaayaaH paaSaaNaamshca mahaabalaaH parvataamshca samutpaaTya yantraiH parivahanti ca Valmiki Ramayana 2-22-58. Vaanara having huge bodies, with mighty strength uprooted elephant-sized rocks and mountains and transported them by mechanical contrivances (yantraih). Kamba ramayanam in Tamil has a separate sarga called Setubandha padalam. Sethu is the water body in which Sri Rama purified himself from Brammahatti dosha on his return from Lanka after killing Ravana. It is located in the sea in Rameshwaram area near sethubandhanam. Rameswaram is called: Setubandha Rameswaram.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES References in Ramayanas of Other Religions -1

Three Buddhist Jatakas which form part of the Khuddaka-nikaya, third century BCE, deal with the Ram story, with minor variations. The Rama story finds mention in three early Buddhist texts, Dasharatha Kathanam (first-second century AD), Anamakam Jatakam and Dasharatha Jataka The Dasarath Jataka is set in Varanasi, not Ayodhya; however, Ram gives his sandals to Bharat to rule the kingdom on his behalf. The Nidana of the King of Ten Luxuries is lost, but survives in a Chinese translation by Kekaya in 472 CE. Similarly, the Anamaka Jataka or Jataka of the Unnamed King is preserved in Chinese translation by Sogdian monk Kan-Seng-hui in 251 CE. Sri Lanka has many sites associated with Ramayan. Its literary texts include Janakiharana by Kumaradasa, 7th century Even in other countries we can find versions of Ramayana, like the Tibetan Ramayana, Turkistan's Khotani Ramayana, Indonesia's Kakbin Ramayana, Java's Seratram, Sairiram, Ramkeling, Patani Ramkatha; Indo-China's Ramkerti (Ramkirti), Khamer Ramayana; Burma's Ramyagan of Yuto; Thailand's Ramkiyen etc all narrate the story of Ram in a picturesque way. Scholars also believe that Homer's Illiad and the Dionysia of poet Nonus of Rome have surprising similarities with our Ramayana.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES References in Ramayanas of Other Religions -2


The Jain Ramayans are in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsa, and Kannada. The canonical second century Anuyogadvara lists many works, including Ramayanam; Vimala Suri's Pauma-chariyam , fifth century, is the earliest version, along with Vasudevahindi. There followed Ramayan of Svayambhu in Apabhramsa (eighth century); Mahapuran of Pushpadant in Prakrit (tenth century); Pampa Ramayan by Nagachandra (11th century); Nagachandra records a tradition that the ancient inhabitants of Kishkinda were not monkeys but a tribe whose banner carried the insignia of a monkey. Jina Ramayan by Chandrasagar Varni (19th century).

OTHER HISTORICAL EVIDENCES


Chandragupta Maurya's mentor, Kautilya (Chanakya), treated Ramayan and Mahabharat as history. He incorporated the lessons learnt from the histories of the two era in the Adhikarana chapter dealing with discipline, wherein the author of Arthasastra advises shunning the vices of lust, anger, greed, vanity, haughtiness and excessive joy, for Ravan perished because he was too vain to restore a stranger's wife; Duryodhan because he would not part with a portion of his kingdom.
The Rama cult was promoted by Madhavacharya Anandatirtha (variously placed between AD 1199-1278 and 1238-1317). He devoted seven chapters to the Ramayana story in the Mahabharat Tatparya Nirnaya and brought an image of the world-conquering Digvijaya Rama to the south. Similarly, Narahari Tirtha, probably the same as Narasimha, is recorded in a Telugu epigraph dated AD 1293, as having set up the image of Rama, Sita and Lakshman in the Vaishnava temple near Chicacole, Ganjam district.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES Moghul - Time Ramayanas


During the Mughal times, Begum Hamida Banu, wife of Humayun and the mother of Akbar prepared the Persian version of the Ramayana as it was a historical text of her land. Akbar prepared one more Ramayana during his times as Emperor, besides Persian version of Mahabharat, where reference to construction of Rama Setu had been made. These texts are richly painted and are today in various museums of the world. These were not prepared as religious texts but as historical texts of the land they ruled.

RAMAYANA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA - 1


. Sri Lanka believes in the Ramayana and therefore till date has proudly shown the coronation of Vibhishan in its parliament; Ashok Vatika has been converted into a famous tourist attraction and not only that, the Sri Lankan government is still paying pension to the descendents of Ravan. Ram's travails made their way to China, Tibet, Mongolia, Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, and found representation in the visual and plastic arts. The name "Rama emerges everywhere in Southeast Asia covering two monarchies (Thailand and Cambodia), two Communist countries (Vietnam and Laos) and one democracy (Indonesia). The walls of the 9th century Shiv temple Parambanan (Parambhram) of Java and the 11th century Angkor Wat Temple of Cambodia are pictorially engraved with the scenes of Ramayana and Mahabharata. In Indonesia, the world's largest Islamic nation, Ramayana and Mahabharata are compulsory subjects in most of the universities. The Indonesian version of Ramayana is called Kakawin Ramayana in the old Javanese (Kawi) language. The sultan of Jogjakarta supports the daily performance of a leather puppet show of either Ramayana or Mahabharata in his Palace annexure. He also subsidizes the world's only daily performance of a dance ballet based on Ramayana, performed with the Prambanan towers as its backdrop. The highlight of the extraordinary show is that all the two hundred artistes are Muslims. We ask the leading actors how they perform Ramayana with such ardent involvement. The spontaneous reply is: "Islam is our religion. Ramayana is our culture."
Garuda is the national insignia of Indonesia. The predominantly Hindu territory of Bali in Indonesia has a few thousand Hindu temples, where the strong influence of Ramayana in the sculptures and performing arts are seen.

RAMAYANA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA - 2


The Laotian version of Ramayana, called "Palak Palang," is the most favorite theme of the dancers of Laos. The National School for Music and Dance, in this communist country, teaches the Ramayana ballet in the Laotian style. Several Buddhist monasteries and stupas of Laos have sculptures depicting Ramayana in stone as well as in wood panels. There is a perceptible Hindu-Buddhist syncretism in that entire region. There are sculptures of Rama and Krishna and other avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu in the Shiva temple at Wat Phu Champasak in southern Laos, which has been declared a World Heritage Centre by UNESCO. Ramayana is immensely popular in Thailand. Huge statues of Sugriva and other characters from Ramayana decorate the courtyard of the Royal palace, surrounded by huge corridors depicting the whole story of Ramayana in large paintings from floor to ceiling. Ramayana sculptures adorn the walls and balustrades of several other Buddhist temples in Thailand. In the Thai version of Ramayana called Ramakian, rediscovered and re-composed by the Thai King, Rama I in the 18th Century, Hanuman is a powerful figure. Several kings of the royal family of Thailand (including the present king) adopted the name 'Rama', over the last three centuries. Before the capital was shifted to Bangkok, the capital of Thailand (then Siam) was in a place called Ayuthya (Ayodhya).

In Vietnam, a nation predominantly under the ancient Chinese influence, one can see Rama and Krishna, although there is no local version of the Ramayana. In central Vietnam, which was known as the Hindu kingdom of Champa for over 1500 years, there are a large number of Hindu temples, some of them have an unbroken tradition of worship, dating back to a thousand years.

RAMAYANA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 3 & RUSSIA


In the war torn Cambodia, the Buddhist monarchy, which has met many tragedies in recent times, one finds that coronation of King is complete only with the handing over of ancient gold idols of Shiva and Vishnu by the rajaguru to the king. The 11th century built Angkor Wat, the largest stone temple for any deity in the world, has a nearly 2.7 km circumambulatory passage with gigantic carvings devoted to the epic stories of the churning of the ocean, Ramayana, Mahabharata and so on. Russian Professor Nicolai Retih notes that Ramayana presents a unified perspective of Indian thought. The unequalled spiritual strength of Indian people, their devotion to protection of their heritage, find expression in Indian thought formed over millennia, not only through art but also through their lives. Indo-Soviet cultural relations book notes that Rama, Sita, Lakshmana were adored by Russians as embodiments of humanism. The winner of Indias Nehru Prize, Ragli Abashitchev says that every Georgian family has a copy of the Georgian translation of Ramayana in their homes. It is disheartening indeed that we Indians do not have even the pride that Russians have in the Ramayana heritage.

RAMAYANA AS AN INSPIRATION
. In all these foreign countries as well as in all parts of India, generations of people are influenced continuously for centuries and Ramayana is depicted in all forms of arts such as literature, dance , drama, music, paintings and sculptures. Ramayana is popular even today not only in various parts of India, but in Sri Lanka and other Southeast Asian countries, most of which are practicing other religions such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and even no-religion (communism). So this popularity is not based on religion (Hinduism), or due to literary merit (poetry or story telling). The sustained popularity of Ramayana in all these countries with different religious beliefs and varied culture should be attributed to a more Strong Psychological reasoning.
Rama was an embodiment of Dharma and lived a life of noble human being, a dutiful son, loving husband, protector of rishis, tribals and animals from Rakshasa, treating all beings and human beings as equals, compassionate towards animals and birds, valiant but considerate even with his enemies during war etc. Only these noble qualities of Rama had inspired all people from different cultures and religions to revere him for centuries. NO MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTER, OTHER THAN A MAN LIVED OR LIVING,

CAN BE INSPIRATION FOR MILLIONS OF PEOPLE OF VARIED RELIGIONS, LANGUAGES AND CULTURE FOR SUCH A PROLONGED PERIOD. This fact itself will
prove beyond any doubt the historicity of Rama and Ramayana.

This was amply proclaimed by the Russian Professor Nicolai Retih.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES REFERENCES IN HISTORICAL PAINTINGS


Razmnama : illustration to Persian translation of Mahabharata by Akbar (on left)

A 19th century painting depicting a scene from Ramayana, wherein monkeys are shown building a bridge to Lanka (on right)

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES REFERENCES IN HISTORICAL PAINTINGS

The ape-army building the bridge. Illustration by Balasaheb Pandit Pant Pratinidhi from a 1916 edition of the Ramayana epic

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES REFERENCES IN HISTORICAL PAINTINGS


Paintings by Raja Ravi Varma, Gond Ram Katha by the tribals drawn from Madhya Pradesh, Madhubani paintings, Stone Age sculptures of 2nd century BC, Patta Chitra by artistes of Odisha and paintings from various South East Asian countries were on display at the Ramayan exhibition organised by the CPRF at Chennai in early 2013.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES Other Records, Travellogues etc


Glossary entry: Adam. Called the bridge of Rama It really joined Ceylon to India until 1480, when a breach was made through rocks during a storm. A subsequent storm enlarged this and foot traffic then ceasedPartly above and partly below water; but when covered has now here above three or four feet of water Source: Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency./C.D. Maclean (1903). New Delhi, AES, 3 Vols., 2440 p., Contents: Vol. 1: Chapters 1-9 Containing: The Principal Articles of the Manual Arranged so as to Conform to the Order of Subjects in the Yearly Presidency Administration Report. Vol. 2: Appendices Containing: Articles and Statements, Supplementary of the Articles in Vol. 1 Arranged Under General Heads. Vol. 3: Glossary of the Madras Presidency: A Classification of Terminology, a Gazetteer and Economic Dictionary of the Province and Other Information, the Whole Arranged Alphabetically and Indexed. Travelogue A book by Alexander Hamilton, 1744, A New Account of the East Indies: Giving an Exact and Copious Description of the Situation, P. 338 describes his visit to zeloan (alt. spelling for Ceylon) by walking on the bridge.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES References In Other Records & Publications


Research report Asiatic Society, 1799, Asiatick Researches: Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal, P. 52 refers to the bridge called Setband (alt. spelling, setuband like Allahband; setu-bandha), broken in 3 places. It also notes The people call it a bridge; or otherwise it appears to have wood growing on it, and to be inhabited.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES References in Other records & Publications


Books of Roads & Kingdoms by Iben Khordadbeh (ca.850 CE) refers Set Bhandai or Bridge of the Sea. In the book The travels of MARCO POLO, the Venetian (1854), Adams Bridge Area is called Ramar Bridge.

In The Ramanathapuram District Gazetteer published by the Government of Tamil Nadu in 1972, Mu. Karunanidhi, the then Chief Minister writes a foreword and praises the contents as the most valuable and important document for the general public. The book refers to Rama Setu (as also called Adams bridge or Nala Setu). The Rajas of Ramanathapuram are traditionally called sethupathis Protectors and Guardians of Sethu / Rama sethu.

HISTORICAL EVIDENCES REFERENCES IN HISTORICAL MAPS

PURANIC INDIA
Schwartzbergs Atlas-p.27- The Historical Atlas of South Asia, The university of Chicago Press, 1978

Rama Setu is shown as Setuka

MAP DURING ASHOKAN EMPIRE(321 181 BC) Schwartzbergs Atlas


In an Ajanta painting the scene of landing of King Vijay in Ceylon in about 3rd century BC has been depicted along with elephants, horses and foot soldiers which obviously was possible only if land route was used for travelling from Rameswaram to Sri Lanka.

MAP OF SATAVAHAN-SAK-KUSHAN AGE (1-100AD) (Schwartzbergs Atlas)

Rama Setu used as land route to Lanka

MAP DURING RASHTRAKUTA EMPIRE (700-955-AD) Schwartzbergs Atlas

Land route to Lanka via Rama Setu.

Islamic expansion and changing Western views of South Asia, 7th-12th centuries (Al-Birunis record) Schwartzberg Atlas, v. , p. 33.

Religious and cultural sites, 8th-12th centuries Schwartzberg Atlas, p. 34.

SETU is clearly depicted with Adams Bridge only in brackets.

MAP DURING THE REGIMES OF KHALJIS & TUGHLUQS CE 1290 - 1390

Map drawn by Joseph Banks, Australian Botanical explorer (1788) with J.Rennell shows Ramar Bridge (Map in Sarasvati Mahal Lib., Thanjavur),

1804 MAP OF JAMES RENNEL, THE FIRST SURVEYOR GENERAL OF INDIA


In this map, RAMA SETU is marked as ADAMs BRIDGE. In an earlier map prepared by him with the help of Sir Joseph Banks in 1788, however, Rama Setu has been marked as Ramas Bridge

Malabar Bowen map (1747) drawn by Netherlands shows Ramarcoil I (that is, Rama temple).

LOGO OF SURVEY OF INDIA

THE LOGO DEPICTS THE EXTENT OF INDIA TO BE FROM SETHU TO HIMACHALAM (RAMA SETHU TO HIMALAYAS) SINCE 1767

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES From Excavations


Excavations in the raised Teri Sand Formations in Tirunelvali District, Tamil Nadu (Adhitchanallur) had shown a rich assemblage of mesolithic-microlithic tools indicating the presence of strong Human habitation and activity during 9000 to 8000 BP.

On the Sri Lankan side, there are indications of Human habitations extending to Late Pleistocene (BCE 13,000), based on fossils of bones of human and animal forms.
All these point to flourishing Human activity on both sides of Rama Sethu during the period of Ramayana.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES Historical Inscriptions on Pillars & Copper Plates


The 249 BC ASHOKA PILLAR Inscription at Lumbini describes the visit of both RAMA and BUDDHA to Lumbini. Aparajitavarman Copper Plate LHernault F. 1978. LIconographie de Subrahmanya au Tamilnad, Institut Francais d Indologie. Pondichery, p.111, ph. 63.) The copper plates indicate that Aparajitavarman went to Setutirtha.

Parantaka Chola copper plate (10th cent.) (Nagaswamy R. 1979. Thiruttani and Velanjeri Copper Plates. State Dept. Of Archaeology, Tamilnadu. Madras.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES Historical Inscriptions (Krishnadevaraya-1508AD)

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES 13 th Century Aryachakravarthy SETU Coins of Jaffna

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES Ancient Coins (16th to 17th Centuries)


Setupati coinage, 16th and 17th century Obverse: Sri Ganapati, seated.Reverse, in Tamil, Se-Tu-Pa-(Ti missing). Tamil script.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES Ancient Coins & Seals


Kushan emperor Kanishka had an engraving of the wind-god Hanuman on his regime's seal. Emperor Akbar had also similarly depicted Ram-Sita on one of his golden guineas. Scenes from Ramayana have been sketched in the Safdarjang Madarsa of Delhi. Central India's Dhar and Ratlam principalities had engraved Hanuman on their seals. Brass guineas introduced by the Sant regime also had the etchings of Ram and his three brothers, as well as Sita and Hanuman.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES Temple Sculptures - 1


Numerous Temples in India built in the Historical past by kings of different dynasties are dedicated to Lord Rama. Paintings and sculptures of Ramayana events abound in many temples not only in India , also in many SE Asian countries. One such sculpture in India is from the Gupta Period 5th 6th Century A.D.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES Temple Sculptures - 2


Numerous Temples in India built in the Historical past by kings of different dynasties are dedicated to Lord Rama. Paintings and sculptures of Ramayana events abound in many temples not only in India , also in many SE Asian countries. One such temple is the PRAMBANAN (Brahmavana) Temple, Java, Indonesia 9th Century A.D.

Archaeological evidences Prambanan Temple Sculptures (9-10thCenturies CE)


Devi Sita talking to Sri Hanuman

Vaanara Sena carrying stones, in their arms and on their heads, to build Rama Setu, followed by Sri Rama, carrying a sword. Fish and other sea creatures handling stones from Rama's bridge to Lanka, during the construction of Nala Setu (Rama Setu). Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/2616

Archaeological evidences Prambanan Temple Sculptures (9-10thCenturies CE)


Note Rama, Lakshmana & Vibhishana marching with vanaras after victory over Ravana

GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES 1
(Initial Trip with Sage Viswamitra)
Rama went out of Ayodhya in his childhood (13th Year)along with Rishi Viswamitra and returned after marrying Sita. The places visited by Rama during this phase of his life are described in Valmiki Ramayana 23 of these places are traced on ground today which have memorials for Rama ,commemorating the events connected. Some of these include Shringi Ashram, Tadka Van, Siddhashram, Gautam Ashram, Janakpur (now in Nepal), Sita Kund etc.

GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES -2 (During Vanavas)


Rama went out of Ayodhya again on exile for 14 years in his adulthood (25th Year)along with Sita and Lakshmana The places visited by Rama during this phase of his exile are described in Valmiki Ramayana. The route taken by Rama from Ayodhya to Lanka had been traced on ground. 195 places along this route are recognised on ground today (by Sri. Ram Avtar) which have memorials for Rama ,commemorating the events connected. Sri Lanka also has relics of the Ramayana. There are several caves, such as Ravana Ella Falls, where Ravana is believed to have hidden Sita to prevent Rama from finding her. The Sitai Amman Temple at Numara Eliya is situated near the Ashokavana where Ravana once kept her prisoner.

GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES - 3
RAMAS ROUTE TO LANKA
Rama, Lakshmana and Sita left Ayodhya and went to Sringaverapura modern Sringverpur in Uttar Pradesh - where they crossed the River Ganga. They lived on Chitrakoot hill where Bharata and Shatrughna met them and the brothers performed the last rites for their father. Thereafter, the three wandered through Dandakaranya in Central India, described as a land of Rakshasas, obviously tribes inimical to the brothers' habitation of their land. Tribals are still found in these forests. The trio reached Nasik, on the River Godavari, which has sites such as Tapovan where they lived, Ramkund where Rama and Sita used to bathe, Lakshmankund, Lakshmana's bathing area, and several caves in the area associated with their lives in the forest. Rama then moved to Panchavati where Ravana abducted Sita. The dying Jatayu told them of the abduction, so they left in search of Sita. Kishkinda, near Hampi, where Rama first met Sugriva and Hanuman, is a major Ramayana site. Anjanadri, near Hospet, was the birthplace of Hanuman (Anjaneya); Sugriva lived in Rishyamukha on the banks of the Pampa (Tungabhadra); Sabari probably also lived in a hermitage there. Rama and the Vanara army left Kishkinda to reach Rameshwaram, where the Vanaras built a bridge to Lanka from Dhanushkodi to Talaimannar in Sri Lanka.

GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES OF RAMAYANA IN SRI LANKA


According to the Ramayana, Ravana abducted Sita to Sri Lanka in a flying machine called Pushpaka Vimanam by the Hindus and Dandu Monara Yanthraya by the Sinhalese Buddhists. Detailed documents prepared by the Sri Lankan Tourism Ministry said the Pushpaka Vimanam could have landed at Werangatota, about 10 km from Mahiyangana, east of the hill station of Nuwara Eliya in central Sri Lanka. Sita was then taken to Goorulupota, now known as Sitakotuwa, where Ravanas wife Mandodari lived. Seetakotuwa is about 10 km from Mahiyangana on the road to Kandy. Sita was housed in a cave at Sita Eliya on a highway that links Colombo with Nuwara Eliya, another exotic hill station. A temple dedicated to her exists there. According to the document, Sita is believed to have taken bath in the mountain stream flowing beside the temple. North of Nuwara Eliya, in Matale district, is Yudhaganapitiya, where the Rama-Ravana battle took place. According to a Sinhalese legend, Dunuwila is the place from where Rama shot the Bramshira arrow (Brahmastra) that killed Ravana. Ravana was making battle plans in a place called Lakgala when the killer arrow struck him. Since Ravana was a Brahmin, it was considered a sin to kill him, even in battle. To wash off the sin, Rama prayed at the Munneswaram temple in Chilaw, 80 km north of Colombo. Rumassala and Ramboda, also in the tea-growing central highlands, are associated with Hanuman. Believers say that Hanuman dropped the Dronagiri mountain, which he brought from the Himalayas, at Rumassala. At Ramboda, known for its massive waterfalls, a temple for Hanuman has now sprung up. The documents state that at the Buddha Vihara at Kelani, near Colombo, there is a representation of Rama handing over the captured Sri Lanka to Ravanas brother Vibheeshana, who sided with him in his conflict with Ravana.

GEOGRAPHICAL EVIDENCES ON INDONESIA


The verse 'Yatanvanto yavdweepam ______ shishiro naam parvat' (Valmiki Ramayanam; Kiskindha Khand, Sarg 40, Verse 30-31) explains that Sughreev had advised the leaders in his army to visit the eastern frontiers, in search of Sita, to go to Yavadwipa (Java) -- the conglomeration of seven kingdoms, and from there to visit Swarnadeep (Sumatra) and after Sumatra to visit Shishir mountain (New Guinea) inhabited by gods and demons, which kisses the sky with its summit'. Such detailed geographical knowledge of far away islands can not emerge from the imagination of poet.
The most important event took place in the history of Indonesia. In November 1949, the Dutch government agreed to give independence and sovereignty to the Indonesian Islands, except Erian (New Guinea). The Indonesian public launched an agitation, asking also for the inclusion of New Guinea, but the Dutch government asked for any irrefutable proof to prove that New Guinea was an integral part of Indonesia. Then the people of Indonesia, who have a tradition of reciting the Valmiki Ramayana ,quoted above verse of Sugreevs describing the continuity of Indonesia comprising Java, Sumatra and New Guinea as their evidence. After reading this ancient irrefutable evidence, the Dutch handed over New Guinea also to Indonesia. New history was created in Indonesia just because of the Ramayana.

BATHYMETRIC MAP Palk Bay Gulf of Mannar Region


Shallow, Muddy and sediment laden Palk Bay. Deep and Clear Gulf of Mannar. Rama Sethu separates these two contrasting seas. South of Rama Sethu, there is sudden and steep fall in Bathymetric contours, indicating steep cliff-like feature of Rama Sethu area on the gulf side. Occurrence of Coral Reefs only on Gulf of Mannar side on both Indian and Sri Lankan coasts. Occurrence of Heavy Mineral Sands including monazite, sillimanite, ilmenite, garnet, rutile etc. only on the gulf of Mannar side indicationg availability of suitable Ocean Currents for their concentration and deposition.

Geographical Significance of Rama Sethu Adams Bridge Feature


It rises as a Very Steep Wall-like Feature rising from the Gulf of Mannar It is a Strait during monsoon, joining two seas - Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar It is an Isthmus connecting two land masses Rameswaram and Thalai Mannar islands under the sea. It is a unique curvilinear feature. It is nearly 17 Lakhs years old. It is a Barrier Zone that separates two contrasting seas. It is a Protection Zone against Tsunami impacts.

Due to these reasons, Rama Sethu can be declared as an International Geographical Heritage Site and protected.

SATELLITE IMAGE OF RAMA SETHU 1 (BY NASA)


Space images taken by NASA in 2002 reveal a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. The bridge named as Adam&laqno;s Bridge is made of chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long. The bridge&laqno;s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is Man Made. The legends as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the a primitive age, about 1,750,000 years ago and the bridge&laqno;s age is also almost equivalent. Later, NASA distanced itself from the claims saying that what had been captured was nothing more than a 30 km long , naturally occurring chain of sand islands. Remote sensing images or photographs from orbits cannot provide direct information about the origin or age of a chain of islands, and certainly cannot determine whether humans were involved in producing any of the patterns seen.

SATELLITE IMAGE OF RAMA SETHU 2 ISRO PICTURE


Government in March, 2007 stated in Parliament that there are no archaeological studies that reveal the existence of a Ram Setu bridge between India and Sri Lanka.
However, NASA and ISRO satellite pictures show the existence of a stretch of land bridge in the Palk Strait between the countries

The book Images India by NRSA, Dept. of Space, states that Satellite Images reveal an ancient bridge between India and Sri Lanka in Palk Straights and archaeological Studies have revealed the bridge to date back to about 1,75,000 years. Its Structure suggests that it may be Man-made. (This book is tabled in Parliament in December,2007)

GEOGRAPHICAL & GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES


IN RAMAS&VANARAS ROUTE ACROSS TAMIL NADU
CAUVERY RIVER FLOWING IN A VERY PLACID MANNER WHEN VIEWED FROM AYAMUKHA PARVATHA (Valmiki). Cauvery flows placidly only from Bhavani through Erode and further eastwards. Ayomykha parvatha - IRON ORE-BEARING KANJAMALAI & NAINARMALAI HILLS, SOUTH OF SALEM, TN. CROSSING TAMBRAPARANI RIVER, CLIMBING AGASTHIYA MALAI (PODIGAI MALAI). MOVING TO MAHENDRAGIRI HILL (PRESENT DAY HILLS WEST OF TIRUKKURANGUDI. OCEAN WAVES LASHING AT THE FOOT HILLS OF MAHENDRA GIRI & OCCURRENCE OF MARINE LIMESTONE OF 10,000 YRS. AGE AT THE FOOT HILLS. THE PRESENT COAST IS FAR AWAY TO THE EAST. MOVING TO PLACES LIKE TIRUPPULLANI, GANDHAMANA PARVATHAM, RAMESWARAM. FLOATING STONE IN CONSTRUCTION OF RAMASETHU & OCCURRENCE OF CORALS AND PUMICE IN THE NEIBOURHOOD.

GEOTECTONIC EVIDENCES

1.

Tectonism means Movements (Activities) within Earth. These activities will be manifested differently on Surface As Faults Planes along which blocks of Earth will move vertically or horizontally or obliquely producing Uplifts and Subsidences. 2. As Sciesmic Activities producing Earthquakes. 3. As Volcanic Activities producing Vocanic Eruptions. 4. As Disturbances in Oceans producing Tsunamies.

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE- 1

A yacht was traveling in the south Pacific when the crew came across a weird sight. Look at these photos and try to imagine the thrill of experiencing this phenomenon

A BEACH?

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE -2XCITING

SPECTACLE - 2

NO!!!! This is not a beach

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE -3

It is volcanic stones (Pumice) floating on the water.

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE -4

WHERE IS THE VOLCANO?

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE - 5

UNBELIEVEABLE SITE SO TAKE PICTURES. NO ONE WOULD BELIEVE IT

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE - 6

THE WAKE OF SHIP

AN AMAZING EXCITING SPECTACLE -7

Then this was spotted, ash & steam rising from the ocean..

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE -8

A plume of black ash... HUGE CLOUD COVERING RED EVEN THIS FAR AWAY

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE - 9

THEN THE SKY TURNS BLACK WITH ASH AND THE OCEAN GOLD WITH SUNS REFLECTION

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE M- 10

OUT OF THE OCEAN MOUNTAIN PEAKS ARISE?

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE - 11

MORE ERUPTIONS ASH AND CLOUDS

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE - 12

THE MOUNTAIN PEAKS RISE HIGHER WITHIN MINUTES

AN AMAZING & EXCITING SPECTACLE - 13

CREATION OF MOUNTAINS & A brand new island formed...

CREATION OF A NEW VOLCANIC ISLAND WEST OF TONGA


Volcanic eruption & formation of new Island was sighted by yacht Maiken during August, 2006 near Home Reef, west of TONGA between Vavau islands and Fiji. IT IS PROBABLY DUE TO SUBDUCTION OF PACIFIC PLATE ALONG TONGA TRENCH
NOTE THE SERIES OF DEPRESSIONS (TROUGHS) & RIDGES (RISES) IN THE ENTIRE AREA TO WEST. Now compare this with our Tamil Nadu Coast

TECTONIC PLATES OF THE WORLD SHOWING ACTIVE VOLCANOES


See to the East of Australia & NNE of New Zealand Tonga Trench with volcanoes

TECTONIC ACTIVITIES & VOLCANICERUPTIONS

TECTONIC PLATES CONVERGENT MARGINS


(RED) & DIVERGENT MARGINS (YELLOW).

NOTE TENTATIVE SEPARATION OF INDIAN PLATE & BURMA MICRO-PLATE FROM CENTRAL INDIAN-OCEAN RIDGE

EARTHS TECTONIC PLATES (Indian-Australian Plate Boundary Tentative)

VOLCANOES(RED) & EARTHQUAKES(YELLOW) ALONG PLATE BOUNDARIES

TECTONIC PLATES OF THE WORLD SHOWING ACTIVE VOLCANOES


See to the East of Australia & NNE of New Zealand Tonga Trench with volcanoes

VOLCANOES ALONG PLATE BOUNDARIES

See Volcanic activity shown near Rama Sethu, South India

VOLCANOES AROUND THE WORLD

See Volcanic Activity shown near Rama Sethu

FAULTS ORIGINATING FROM INDIAN OCEAN RIDGE & CARLSBERG RIDGE

NOTE THE N-S TRENDING 90 E RIDGE AND THE CHAGOSLACCADIVES RIDGE ORIGINATING FROM SE. INDIAN OCEAN RIDGE

Relationships Between N-S & NE-SW Fault Systems From SE-Indian Ocean Ridge & Carlsberg Ridge

Relationships between Fault Systems NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S Faults

EMERGENCE & SUBMERGENCE OF VOLCANOES OFF-SHORE OF PONDICHERRY & KAKINADA IN BAY OF BENGAL

HORST-GRABEN (RIDGESDEPRESSIONS) STRUCTURES IN CAUVERY SEDIMENTARY BASIN, TAMIL NADU. Note the important MandapamDelft high 4 major Deep Crustal Fault Systems which control the above structures (Both on-shore&Off-shore). NNE-SSW to NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and N-S

Neo-Tectonic Activity along NW-SE to WNW-ESE Fault in Rameswaram - Dhanushkodi Island During 1948-49

Neo-Tectonic Activity along NW-SE to WNW-ESE Fault in Rameswaram - Dhanushkodi Island During 1948-49

SATELLITE IMAGE Vellar (Manamelkudi) Fault Extending Off-shore Into Palk-Bay

GEOTHERMAL SIGNATURES Fault Systems and Surface Manifestations around Palk-Bay

GEOTHERMAL SIGNATURES Heat-Flow Map of India Note High Heat flow around Rama Sethu

Gravity Anomaly of Ramnad Rameswaram Danushkodi Area

Magnetic Anomalies within Gulf of Mannar

Gravity Profiles Within Indian Ocean Extending into Gulf of Mannar

EMERGENCE & SUBMERGENCE OF VOLCANOES OFF-SHORE OF PONDICHERRY & KAKINADA IN BAY OF BENGAL

A recent press report says that Smithsonian Institute, USA had identified buried volcanoes in the Bay of Bengal region from their research, corraborating the earlier reports.

GEOLOGICAL (GEMSTONES) EVIDENCES ON MAHENDRAGIRI


MAHENDRAGIRI IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, FROM WHERE HANUMAN FLEW TO LANKA IS DESCRIBED BY VALMIKI IN MANY SLOKAS. IT IS STATED TO BE GLISTENING WITH NATURALLY FORMED BLUE, RED, YELLOW, PALE (LOTUS) ROSE, WHITE AND BLACK COLOURED SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES AND GEMSTONES (SLOKA.5; SARGAM-1; SUNDARA KANDAM). WHEN HANUMAN PRESSED MAHENDRAGIRI FORCEFULLY WITH HIS LEGS, BECAUSE OF EXERTED PRESSURE, THE HILL EXPOSED GLITTERING GOLDEN YELLOW, BLACK, RED AND WHITE COLOURED VEINS OF DIFFERENT ROCKS ON TO THE SURFACE.(SLOKAS. 18-19 & 27-28; SARGAM-1; SUNDARAKANDAM). GEOLOGICALLY EVEN TODAY THE NORTHERN PART OF MAHENDRAGIRI LYING TO WEST OF KALAKKADU IN TIRUNELVEL DISTRICT IS KNOWN FOR ROCKS OF VARYING COMPOSITION AND COLOUR SUCH AS PALE RED AND YELLOWISH RED PEGMATITES, BLACK DOLERITE/BASIC DYKES AND WHITE QUARTZ, BESIDES SOME OCHRES (OXIDISED SULPHIDE ORES), ALL OF WHICH OCCUR IN THE FORM OF LINEAR VEINS. VARIOUSLY COLORED GEMSTONES ARE ALSO RECOVERED FROM THESE ROCKS.
GEMSTONES DO NOT OCCUR IN ALL PARTS OF TAMIL NADU, BUT RESTRICTED TO ONLY SOME AREAS SUCH AS MAHENDRAGIRI, KARUR, KANGEYAM ETC. THIS TYPE OF RARE OCCURRENCE OF GEMSTONES FROM SPECIFIC AREA CAN NOT COME FROM IMAGINATION.

EARTH MOVEMENTS AND RISE OF HILLS FROM OCEANEvidence from Sundara Kandam - 1
SLOKAM-15 (SARGAM-1;SUNDARAKANDAM) DESCRIBES THAT DUE TO PRESSURE EXERTED BY HANUMAN PRELUDE HIS FLIGHT TO LANKA, THE NORMALLY IMMOVABLE MAHENDRAGIRI SHOOK FOR A SHORT DURATION AND FRACTURED AT PLACES. THIS DESCRIPTION REFLECTS THE HIGHLY STABLE NATURE OF MAHENRDAGIRI MADE UP OF HARD PRECAMBRIAN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS FORMING THE CONTINENTAL EDGE. THE SHORT DURATION SHAKING PROBABLY REFLECTS AN EARTHQUAKE. SLOKAM-17 DESCRIBES SPRINGS OF WATER GUSHING OUT OF FRACTURES FORMED.
THE INITIAL SLOKAS DETAILING HANUMANS FLIGHT FROM MAHENDRAGIRI TO LANKA DESCRIBE DISTINCT CYLONIC AND TIDAL WAVE CONDITIONS IN THE OCEAN. (SLOKAMS50-65;73,77-84,88;SARGAM-1;SUNDARAKANDAM). IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT FREQUENT CYCLONES ARE KNOWN FROM GULF OF MANNAR AND RAMESWARAM AREAS EVEN TODAY. Such descriptions of significant Geographical phenomenon in Potential area can not come from the imagination of a poet. SLOKAM 88(SARGAM-1; SUNDARAKANDAM) MENTIONS ABOUT FORMATION OF DEEP VALLEY WITHIN OCEAN ALONG THE DIRECTION OF FLIGHT. IT PROBABBLY DESCRIBES A FAULT-SUBSIDENCE IN THAT PLACE, SIMILAR TO DHANUSHKODI FAULT.

EARTH MOVEMENTS AND RISE OF HILLS FROM OCEANEvidence from Sundara Kandam - 2
LATER VARUNA REQUESTED MYNAKA PARVATHAM (HIRANYANABHAM) TO RISE FROM THE DEPTHS OF OCEAN TO OFFER A PLACE OF REST FOR HANUMAN DURING FLIGHT. HE DESCRIBES THE CAPABILITY OF MYNAKA TO GROW BOTH VERICALLY AND ACROSS (PROBABY LATERALLY ALSO), (SLOKAM-103;SARGAM-1; SUNDARAKANDAM), INDICATING A FAULT UPLIFT (HORST) ACROSS THE PATH OF HANUMAN. THIS HORST MAY REFER TO THE MANDAPAM-DELFT HIGH ON ONGC MAP WHILE RETURNING FROM LANKA ALSO, HANUMAN IS REPORTED TO HAVE RESTED ON SUNAABHAM HILL MIDWAY ACROSS THE OCEAN. (SLOKAM.13; SARGAM-57; SUNDARA KANDAM). THIS SUNABHAM MAY REFER TO HIRANYANABHAM (MYNAKAM) OR ANOTHER UPLIFTED HILL SIMILAR TO MYNAKA PARVATHAM. Such descriptions of significant GEOTECTONIC phenomenon in Potential area can not come from the imagination of a poet.

HORST-GRABEN TECTONISM ALONG TAMIL NADU SRI LANKA COASTS

Note the important Mandapam-Delft High Is it Mynaka Parvatham ?

Similar Horst-Graben tectonism experienced on west coast of Sri Lanka upto Boundary Fault

GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FROM SRI LANKA - 1


WHILE RETURNING FROM LANKA TO MAHENDRAGIRI, HANUMAN CLIMBED THE HILL CALLED ARISHTAM WHICH WAS RICH IN ORES AND MINERALS. (SLOKAS.9,11,18; SARGAM.56; SUNDARAKANDAM). WHEN HANUMAN PRESSED HIS LEGS FORCEFULLY AS A PRELUDE TO HIS RETURN FLIGHT FROM LANKA, THE ROCKS ON HILL ARISHTAM GOT PULVERISED.(SLOKAM-22). DUE TO THE EXTREME PRESSURE EXERTED BY HANUMAN, 100 YOJANA HIGH AND 10 YOJANA WIDE ARISHTAM HILL WAS SENT DOWN THE EARTH AND WAS PENEPLAINED. (SLOKAMS 26,32,33; SARGAM-56; SUNDARA KANDAM). THIS IS A BLOCK DOWN FAULTING (GRABEN /DEPRESSION FORMATION), OPPOSITE OF AND COMPLEMENTARY TO BLOCK UPLIFT (HORST / RIDGE FORMATION) WITNESSED IN THE RISE OF MYNAKA PARVATH IN THE INITIAL JOURNEY OF HANUMAN TO LANKA. SUCH BLOCK FAULTING IS COMMON BOTH ON LAND (TAMIL NADU & SRI LANKA) AND IN THE IN-BETWEEN SEAS). GEOTECTONIC KNOWLEDGE OF THIS SPECIFIC AREA CAN NOT COME FROM WILD IMAGINATION OF A POET.

GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FROM SRI LANKA-2


HANUMAN LANDED ON LAMBAGIRI HILL (ALSO CALLED SUVELA HILL) IN LANKA AT THE END OF HIS FLIGHT FROM MAHENDRAGIRI. THIS HILL APPEARED LIKE HAVING DISTINCT PEAKS; AT PLACES LOOKED WITHOUT VISIBLE PEAKS, APPEARING TO BE MADE OF HANGING ROCKS FROM THE CLOUDS. (LAMBA-TALL, STHAMBHA- PILLAR-LIKE).(SLOKAMS- 226; SARGAM-1& SLOKAM-1;SARGAM-3; SUNDARAKANDAM). ROCKS HAVING THIS TYPE OF HANGING STRUCTURE IS VERY TYPICAL OF VOLCANIC ROCKS. SUCH STRUCTURES MAY INDICATE COLUMNAR JOINTS OR A VOLCANIC VENT OF VERY VISCOUS LAVA AND HAVING ITS TOP AND SIDES ERODED, THUS EXPOSING HANGING ROCKS. (EG. HANGING ROCKS IN VICTIRIA, AUSTRALIA). THIS LAMBAGIRI HILL WITH THIS STRUCTURE SHOULD BE IDENTIFIABLE IN SRI LANKA. SUCH GEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION CAN NOT COME FROM WILD IMAGINATION OF A POET. IT IS NOTICEABLE THAT HANUMAN FLEW FROM LANKA FROM ANOTHER HILL, ARISHTAM, HAVING DIFFERENT GEOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES.

EXAMPLES OF HANGING ROCK VOLCANICS

COLUMNAR JOINTS IN RYOLITES, ST. MARYS ISLAND, OFF MANGALORE, INDIA

HANGING ROCKS (TRACHYTE LAVAS),VICTORIA,AUSTRALIA

EARTH MOVEMENTS, SEISMICITY&VOLCANIC ACTIVITY IN RAMA SETHU ENVIRONS


DESCRIPTIONS IN VALMIKI RAMAYANA
Valmiki Ramayana, Sarga 21, Yuddhakandam describes Rama , after Tapus at Tiruppullani requesting Samudra Rajan to give way for his army , releases the arrow which makes the earth tremble (earthquake),large volumes of dark smoke and fire erupts high onto the sky from the depths of ocean followed by shower of ashes (a volcanic eruption) resulting in drying up of a part of ocean (pretsunami). This episode is validated by the heatflow and geotectonic maps of Bharatam in the Rama Setu region. By simple Imagination, a poet can not describe such Geo-tectonic episode in a specifically vulnerable area of Rama Sethu.

RAMAYANA & NUCLEAR EXPLOSION


BEING ANGRY WITH VARUNA, RAMA FIXES BRAHMAASTRA TO HIS BOW TO DRY UP THE ENTIRE GULF OF MANNAR OCEAN. VARUNA THEN APPEARS AND SURRENDERS TO RAMA AND PLEADS FORGIVENESS. RAMA FORGIVES HIM, BUT ASKS VARUNA TO SHOW A PLACE FOR THE BRAHMAASTRA SINCE IT HAS ALREADY BEEN ARMED. VARUNA DENOTES A SEA AREA NAMED DURUMAGULYAM WITH AN ISLAND CALLED MARKANDARA, A PART OF ANOTHER OCEAN FAR AWAY IN THE NORTH, WHERE EVIL AVUNARS (AABHEERAMS) ARE GIVING TROUBLES TO ONE AND ALL, AND VARUNA IS UNABLE TO CONTROL THEM. HE REQUESTS RAMA TO SEND THE ASTRA TO DRY UP THAT OCEAN AND DESTROY ALL THE WICKED AVUNARS. ACCEPTING, RAMA SENTS HIS BRAHMAASTRA TO THAT OCEAN AND DRY IT UP AND KILLING THE EVIL DOERS. THAT PLACE IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE PRESENT-DAY TAAR DESERT IN RAJASTHAN. THAT TAAR DESERT REPRESENTS AN ANCIENT DRIED UP OCEAN HAS BEEN PROVED BEYOND DOUBT BY THE DRILLIN OF GSI, WHERE TRILLIONS OF TONS OF ROCK SALT ARE LOCATED. SUCH A GEOLOGICAL FEATURE CAN NOT BE PENNED FROM IMAGINATION. IT IS COINCIDENTAL OR RAMAS GRACE THAT IT IN THIS DESRT AREA (POKHRAN) ONLY BHARAT HAD TESTED ITS NUCLEAR DEVICE (THE PRESENT-DAY BRAHMAASTRA).

GEOLOGICAL STATUS OF RAMA SETHU


GOVT. AGENCIES & PRO-GOVT. SCIENTISTS
ADAMS BRIDGE (RAMA SETHU) IS NOT MADE UP OF ANY MAN-MADE BRIDGE STUCTURE, BUT FORMED ONLY DUE TO NATURAL MARINE SEDIMENTALOGICAL PROCESSES. THIS STRUCTURE IS DESCRIBED VARIOULY BY DIFFENT SCIENTISTS AS A GROUP OF SANDY ISLANDS, SANDY SHOALS, A SPIT, A TAMBOLA, BARRIER REEF ETC.- EACH ONE IS A DIFFERENT COASTAL FEATURE. THE STORY OF 5 BLIND MEN TRYING TO IDENTIFY ONE ELEPHANT.

All these Pro-government geoscientists had not given any vertical section of Rama Sethu. They had not also stated anywhere what type of Man-made structure or Bridge they searched and NOT FOUND in Rama Sethu area. Did they search for any remnants of Steel and Cement or Lime, Mortar and Bricks ONLY there?

Does Ramas Bridge Exist? Geographical, Geological & Geo-archaeological perspectives


The term Rama Sethu / Adams Bridge has been defined and described here to represent the distinct physiographic feature that forms the geological, geo-tectonic, oceanic and oceanographic divide between PB - GM areas and that probably existed for millions of years. In contrast to this feature, we would like to define the temporary bridge structure that was built by Lord Ramas army on this basement feature as Ramas Bridge. Usage of the above two terms without proper definition by many workers and Government agencies have caused much confusion.

Many of the geographical and some geological descriptions of Valmikis writings are found to be accurate with the present day features, denoting the veracity and authenticity of his writings and establishing Ramayana as a historical fact Aya Mukha Parvatha and Cauvery river, Tambraparani river, Agasthiya Malai, Mahendragiri and ocean waves, Floating Stones of bridge etc. As such his descriptions of Rama Sethu should also be authentic.

TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF RAMA SETHU CONSTRUCTION (Valmiki Ramayana Yuddha Kanda-Sarg.22;Slokas 45-73
The army men of Shri Rama utilized various tools and implements for uprooting trees like Taar, coconut, mango, ashoka, bakul etc., and with the help of various yantras transported these trees, stones, and rocks to the seashore. Shilpakar Nal directed the army men to stand with long ropes/chains on either side and filled the space in between with creepers, trees, stones and bound them together. The construction of Rama Sethu was completed in 5 days by connecting existing land route consisting of islands, rocks and shoals. See the Boundaries looking like ropes & the fillings in between.

Nalan, the builder of Rama Sethu comes from the lineage of Vishwakarma, the architect of the Devas. In Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, there exists even today a Vishwakarma Clan, who are associated with temple architecture.

Does Ramas Bridge Exist? Geographical, Geological & Geoarchaeological perspectives Contd..
Valmikis description of Ramas bridge clearly states that it was built with rock boulders, earth and trees, over the pre-existing loose beach sand and other marine sediments in the seas. Thus it was a rock and earth fill structure supported by logs of wood. In all probability, this temporary structure would not have withstood the fury of the ocean during a period of over 7000 years since Ramayana and would have been completely destroyed and removed. It is possible that some portions of this structure might have been preserved in rare cases where it was covered by later marine sediments and protected from destruction and erosion. Boreholes drilled along and across RS/AB feature by NIOT and SSCP have indicated that within the top 8 to 18m, two layers of loose marine sand sediments, separated by a central zone are encountered in RS/AB. NIOT describes the central zone to be made up of boulders and pebbles of varied composition, such as calcareous sandstone, shelly limestone and corals and interprets it to be not due to any natural phenomenon, but probably due to human activity.

GENERALISED CROS-SECTION OF RAMA SETU


DERIVED FROM BOREHOLE DATA OF NIOT (SECTION NOT TO SCALE) Similar Boulder Conglomerate Beds are recorded in Mannar on Sri Lankan side

Does Ramas Bridge Exist? Geographical, Geological & Geo-archaeological perspectives


Contd..
SSCP considers that the central zone is made up of indurated calcareous sand and all the three zones are due to natural processes. It is to be noted that the ship used for breaking this zone got broken and the second rescue ship was also got damaged and could not be retrieved. Here only SSCP wanted Navys help to BLAST the rocks. It is very difficult to explain the formation of a hard consolidated rock in between layers of two loose unconsolidated sand zones by sedimentation. Similar succession has been reported from Mannar side also. In order to understand the true nature of this central zone it is recommended to do large scale pitting to 20m depth till the second loose marine sand zone is reached in RS/AB feature and to carry out detailed under-water videography and close spaced sampling of all the four walls and the base of the pits for determining the composition and age of rocks and sediments a Geo-Archaeological excavation It is very significant to note that coral reefs will be formed only on hard and consolidated rocks in order to have firm footings for growth. So if the central zone shows coral boulders, it is not formed naturally in that place.

Most important aspect is that these boulder conglomerate beds can not be formed either by marine or fluvial processes along sea shores or river mouths.
Unless all the above investigations and studies are carried out, the existence of the remnants of Ramas bridge over the RS/AB feature cannot be conclusively disproved.

WHY GANDHIJI UTTERED HEY RAM- NOT HARE RAM AS HIS LAST WORDS ?

RAMA BROKE THE MIGHTY SHIVA DHANUSH & GOT MARRIED TO SITA THE SECULAR GOVERNMENT OF INDIA TRIES TO BREAK THE MIGHTIER RAMA DHANUSH (RAMASETHU) FOR DESTROYING HISTORICAL HINDU CULTURAL , GEOGRAPHICAL & GEOLOGICAL HERITAGE SITE. SEE THE SHAPE OF RAMA SETHU A DHANUSH !!!
THE LINE OF VOLCANIC VENTS PROBABLY FORM RAMA BHAANA !!!

Satellite images of Bow Shaped RAMA SETHU


Rama Sethu- Satellite Image. See the Shape of Sethu as The Bow of Rama

Satellite images of Bow Shaped RAMA SETHU

Satellite images of Bow Shaped RAMA SETHU

Satellite images of Bow Shaped RAMA SETHU