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Sub: Engineering

Topic: Civil Engineering

Deep Foundations
Deep foundations are used where soil of adequate strength is not available close enough to the surface for the use of shallow foundations. Deep foundations consist of either piles or piers and are generally used for high-rise buildings. However, where the soil near the surface is unsuitable (e.g., subject to swell and shrink phenomenon), deep foundations are utilized for low-rise buildings as well so that the loads are transferred to a suitable stratum. Deep-foundation systems include piles and drilled piers that are like slender columns buried in the ground. They are prevented from buckling because they are confined by the soil. Piles and drilled piers transfer the load either to bedrock or to soil of high bearing capacity while passing through unsuitable soil conditions. Piles are generally steel, timber, or concrete elements driven into the ground, except concrete piles, which can also be site-cast in predrilled holes. Site-cast piles are called drilled piers or caissons. Thus, contiguous bored concrete piles can be called drilled piers. Another term used for drilled piers is bored or drilled piles. Deep foundations are also used in low-rise, lightly loaded buildings in situations where the soil near the surface is unstable. Piles as deep foundations The material selected depends on availability, cost, below-grade environment, type of soil, the load to be supported, and the equipment required to drive the piles. Steel and concrete piles are generally used under heavier loads. Wood piles are limited in their load-bearing capacity because of the nature of the

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Sub: Engineering

Topic: Civil Engineering

material and the limitations on the cross-sectional area of tree trunks. Steel piles may be H-shaped or hollow pipes. Hollow steel piles are filled with concrete after being driven. Steel piles are covered with protective coatings if used in corrosive environments. Concrete piles are made of precast concrete and are generally solid. They are subject to attack by the sulfur present in some soils, requiring the use of sulfate-resistant Portland cement. Concrete piles can be provided with a steel tip extension for easier penetration. Wood piles are treated with creosote or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) as a preservative. Piles support loads through two mechanisms. Piles that support loads primarily through friction created between the surface of the pile and the soil are called friction piles. They are generally tapered to a narrow cross section at the bottom to facilitate driving. Piles that transfer most of the load to the bottom stratum, with very little through friction, are called tip-bearing or end-bearing piles. For piles driven in weak soils, the end reaction from tip bearing may be ignored. Drilled piers as deep foundations Drilled piers are often used individually (as opposed to a cluster of piles) because they can be made almost as large as required. The drilled pier diameter generally varies between 18 and 36 in. Larger-diameter piers (6 ft. in diameter or larger) are used for bridges or high-rise structures. Another reason for using individual piers is that their vertical alignment is almost assured.

Civil Engineering Homework Help from Classof1.com *The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not for docstoc&utm_medium=ra_footer
submitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.

Sub: Engineering

Topic: Civil Engineering

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Civil Engineering Homework Help from Classof1.com *The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not for docstoc&utm_medium=ra_footer
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