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In 1979, the process of staff development: component of change a book of Tobin Yoder made a major contribution. In

1928, Pfefferkorn discussed the issues related to the improvement of nursing service. Staff development is the process directed towards the personal and professional growth of nurses and other personnel while they are in a health care agency. INTRODUCTION National nursing staff development organization (NNSDO) was formed for the provision of uniform standards Hence regulatory bodies began to recognize the need of an organized staff developmental activities such as orientation and in service education. In 1976, the council of continuing education in nursing published a pamphlet titled guidelines for staff development guided by Dorothy Coye. DEFINITIONS OF STAFF DEVELOPMENTPROGRAMMEAccording to Karen J Kelly, Staff development programme is a process that includes both formal and informal activities which are related to the employees role expectation within organizations.According to American Nurses Association Staff development programme is a term that includes both formal and informal learning, opportunities to assist individuals to perform competently in the fulfillment of role expectations within an agency. NEED1. Societal change and scientific advancement.2. Provision of opportunity for nurses to continually acquire and implement for maintenance of high quality of nursing care.3. As a part of individuals long term career growth.4. To add or the knowledge, skills, attitude, ideals and valued essentials improve

skills.5. Fill the gap in the past performance.6. Change or correct long held attitudes of the employee.7. To move ahead and keep up the change.8. Fast changing technologies.9. Need to increase productivity and quality of work.10.To motivate employees and promote employee loyalty..11.Fast growing organization. To help employee cope with new practice. To ensure job satisfaction. To ensure safe and effective patient care by nurses. Assist each employee to acquire personal and professional abilities. To improve productivity and to assist the nurses to improve her performance. OBJECTIVES SDP MODEL POST BASIC NURSING NURSING EDUCATION PRACTICE CONTINUING EDUCATION EXPERIENCE EDUCATION OTHER REAL LIFE INSERVICE EXPERIENCE EDUCATION EXTRA MURAL EDUCATION SOCIOECOMICS COUNSELLING MANPOWER CAREER PLANNING PLANNING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION EMPLOYEE- EMPLOYER RELATIONS STAFF DEVELOPMENTPROGRAMME, HEALTH CAREORGANIZATION MODELThe staff development programme, within ahealth care agency will provide aframework as follows: Labour relations Health services. Personal politics and practices. Promotion. iii. Employee- employer relation Career planning. Performance evaluation. Placement ii. Counselling: Selection Recruitment. Socio Economics. i. Manpower planning Indirect patient care: Supervision, administration, teaching and research. ii. Other real life experiences colleague interaction. voluntary activities to health care. Professional association and participants. Personal life. Direct patient care.

Approach of independent patient care assignment or team approach. Experience i. Nursing practice Post graduate education Education after graduation or the basic education. In service Orientation Skills, attitude and knowledge pertinent to nursing practice within health care team. Extra mural education. Continuing education Education ROLE OF A MANAGER Applies adult learning principles when helping the employees learn new skills or information. Coaches employees readily regarding knowledge and skill deficits. Actively seeks out teaching opportunities. Uses teaching techniques that empowers staffs. Is sensitive to the learning deficit of staffs and creatively minimizes these deficits. Frequently assess the learning needs of the units. FUNCTION AND ROLE OF A SD PERSONNEL Provide input in formulating staff development policies. Ensure that all staff are competent of roles assigned. Makes appropriate decisions regarding educational resource allocation in periods of fiscal constraints. Assures responsibility for quality and fiscal control of staff development activity. Ensure that there are adequate staffs for staff development. Works with reduction department to delineate shared individual responsibility. FUNCTION OF THE MANAGER Determination and establishment of lines of communication for the utilization of facilities and resource personals for staff development programme. Determination and establishment of organizational methods policies and procedures of staff development programme. Determination of administrative structure of the staff development programme. FOR THE HEALTH AGENCY

Provision of a consultive service and a resource for information relative to staff development. Promotion, development, implementation and evaluation of programmes to meet these objectives. Planning, coordination and utilization of community resources to assist in meeting these objectives. Development of measurable short and long term objectives for staff development programmes.

TYPES OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT Continuing education is all the learning activities that occurs after an individual has completed his basic education. COOPER That education which builds on previous education SHAMNON CONTINUING EDUCATIONDEFINITION

To provide a variety of CNE in high quality and service changes. To acquire specialized skills developing wise leadership and competent practioners For new Professional roles are altered as society changes and new technology emerge For career advancement updating nurses knowledge and prepare them for specialization. To meet the needs of society. To ensure safe and effective nursing. NEEDS

TYPES OF CONTINUINGEDUCATION1. Mandatory continuous education It is compulsory with registration like the B Sc programme.2. Voluntary continuing education. It occurs only if individual nurse is matured to make choice to acquire knowledge for scholastic reasons.

3. Formal education planned with specific & exclusive aims within an institution to advance.(M.Sc nursing)4. Informal education continuing to learn while practicing. This can attained through in-service educational programmes.


aims to improve quality of service. provided by the employing organization to enhance workers knowledge, skills, attitudes part of continuing education that is carried on with in the work environment IN SERVICE EDUCATION Introduction:

The education given to a nurse while in- service for her professional growth is called in-service education . In-service education is defined as learning experiences provided in the work of setting for the purpose of assisting staff in performing their assigned functions in that particular agency. DEFINITION

To provide better nursing care to patients by improving the ability Aim & To improve performance Main responsibility of head nurse is professional growth of her staff. knowledge of the staff. & Assume responsibility for providing orientation, skill training and CE for her staff attitudes.


Orientation provides for verbal presentation of information, physical tours, time to examine descriptive material ,reports Orientation consists of experiences designed to help the new worker become proficient as soon as possible. ORIENTATION & procedures & policy manuals & introduction of personal to the work of enterprises in general & to the department & the unit particular.

It is a maintenance On the job training & simplified nursing acts programme including supervised clinical practice that provides auxillary workers such as nurses aides, nursing

assistants with the knowledge & It is more economical skill necessary to do their job. & efficient to prepare personnel centrally . It is the most important part of a total in-service programme. It helps to analyze: Specific points in the nursing care of individual patients. Gaps in nursing care are to be reported. Reports on one or more patients admitted in 24 hrs. ON GOING EDUCATION Importance of charting New diagnostic test. Changes in nursing procedure. Review the procedures which are unfamiliar. Executive developmentTo develop management skill in the nurseswhich help them to provide care including:1. Patient education2. Incidental teaching. The induction follows this step and is considered to be a part of hiring procedure. After a candidate is finally selected he is issued the appointment letter and requested to join the organization up to some specific period. INDUCTION TRAININGIntroduction DEFINITIONInduction may be defined as the socializingprocess by which the organization goals orobjectives are absorbed by the individualfor the achievement of the personal goals. AIMS OF INDUCTION TRAINING: To bring an agreement between the organizational goals and the personal goals of the person. To build the new employees confidence in organization and himself. To promote a feeling of belonging and loyalty to the organization- its structure, products, rules and regulations.

To give the new employee the picture about the organization, to ensure that the new employee may not have false impression regarding the work place. To give the new entrant the idea regarding the physical structure of the organization. To foster a close relationship between the new and old workers and even the supervisors.

To create a sense of security for the workers by assuring him the idea that fairness to the worker is the inherent policy in the organization. To avoid cost of replacing workers who separate during the early impression period due to lack of accurate information.

Objective To help the nursing personal to perform correct methods and procedures with understanding. Definition This is concerned with developing expert technical or manual skills, communications and helps the personal to perform their functions effectively. TRAINING FOR SPECIFIC FUNCTION

Establishing standards and quality of nursing services. Procedures to skill nurse.

Types of Skills: Psychomotor skills. Cognitive skills. Teaching skills. Affective skills. Communicative skills. Supervisory skills. An ability that has been acquired through training. Skill training

To avoid fear of making mistake. Avenues of advancements and promotion need for better development. Good work to be recognized and rewarded. Individual nurse needed to have greater freedom to choose specific field of nursing in which she should work. NEED FOR SKILL TRAINING

Break the activities into logical steps necessary to carry out the procedure. Give reasons why procedures are carried out

in this way in this agency. Create in a worker a learner attitude. Set the stage using equipment similar to that of the worker in work situation. Guidelines Provide written outlines for references. Make certain that the person has learned by requiring a return demonstration. Demonstrate step by step. EVALUATE ESTABLISH FILES ON MAJOR TOPICS DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN RECORDS DEVELOP MATER CALENDER DETERMINE THE RESOURCES FEEDBACK DEVELOP GENERAL OBJECTIVES SET PRIORITY ASSESS NEEDS STEPS OF SDP STANDARD 1:ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION The nursing service department and the staff development unit, philosophy, purpose, goals address the staff development needs of the nursing personnel STANDARD 2:HUMAN RESOURCE Qualified administrative, educational and support personnel are provided to meet the learning and the developmental needs by nursing personnel STANDARDS OF SDP (ANA) STANDARD 5:EDUACTIONAL DESIGNEducation and learning experience aredesigned through the use of theeducational process and incorporateadult education and learning principles STANDARD 4:PROGRAM PLANNINGProvides the unit , systematic plans andevaluates the overall nursing staffdevelopment programme in response tohealth care needs STANDARD 3:LEARNERNursing staff development programmeassist nursing personnel in identifyingthe learning needs and planninglearning activities to meet those needs STANDARD 6:MATERIAL RESOURCES AND FACLITIESMaterial sources and f STANDARD 8:EVALUATIONEvaluation is an integral ongoing andsystematic

process, which includesthe measurement of the impact oflearning STANDARD 7:RECORDS ANDREPORTSThe nursing staff developmentestablishes and maintains a recordsystem acilities areadequate to achieve the goals andimplement the functions of theoverall nursing staff development STANDARD 11:SYSTEMATIC ENQUIRYNursing staff developmenteducates, encourages systematic enquiryand the application of the results intopractice STANDARD 10:CLIMATENursing staff development educatorsfosters a climate which promote opencommunication, learning andprofessional growth STANDARD 9: CONSULTATIONNursing staff development educators usethe consultation process to facilitate andenhance the achievement ofindividual, departmental andorganizational goals BARRIERS OF STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMELACK OF TIMEINADEQUATE RESOURCE AT DISPOSALUNDERFUNDED DAISCONFLICTING PRIORITIESLACK OF CLARITY ABOUT WHAT SHOULD BE DONEFAILURE TO IDENTIFY OR ACCEPT THE NEEDTREATED AS COST NOT INVESTMENTCLINICAL ATITUDE TO STAFF DEVELOPMENT NOTDIRECTLY MEASURABLESHORTFALL IN TRAINIG SKILLFEAR THAT THE TRAINED EMPLOYEE WILL LEAVE THEORGANIZATION OR WILL BE POACHED BY THECOMPETITOR