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InternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights TextinPDFFormat Adoptedandopenedforsignature,ratificationandaccessionbyGeneral Assemblyresolution2200A(XXI) of16December1966 entryintoforce23March1976,inaccordancewithArticle49

Preamble TheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenant, Consideringthat,inaccordancewiththeprinciplesproclaimedinthe CharteroftheUnitedNations,recognitionoftheinherentdignityandof theequalandinalienablerightsofallmembersofthehumanfamilyisthe foundationoffreedom,justiceandpeaceintheworld, Recognizingthattheserightsderivefromtheinherentdignityofthe humanperson, Recognizingthat,inaccordancewiththeUniversalDeclarationofHuman Rights,theidealoffreehumanbeingsenjoyingcivilandpoliticalfreedom andfreedomfromfearandwantcanonlybeachievedifconditionsare createdwherebyeveryonemayenjoyhiscivilandpoliticalrights,aswell ashiseconomic,socialandculturalrights, ConsideringtheobligationofStatesundertheCharteroftheUnited Nationstopromoteuniversalrespectfor,andobservanceof,humanrights andfreedoms, Realizingthattheindividual,havingdutiestootherindividualsandtothe communitytowhichhebelongs,isunderaresponsibilitytostriveforthe

promotionandobservanceoftherightsrecognizedinthepresent Covenant, Agreeuponthefollowingarticles: PARTI Article1 1.Allpeopleshavetherightofselfdetermination.Byvirtueofthatright theyfreelydeterminetheirpoliticalstatusandfreelypursuetheir economic,socialandculturaldevelopment. 2.Allpeoplesmay,fortheirownends,freelydisposeoftheirnatural wealthandresourceswithoutprejudicetoanyobligationsarisingoutof internationaleconomiccooperation,basedupontheprincipleofmutual benefit,andinternationallaw.Innocasemayapeoplebedeprivedofits ownmeansofsubsistence. 3.TheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenant,includingthosehaving responsibilityfortheadministrationofNonSelfGoverningandTrust Territories,shallpromotetherealizationoftherightofselfdetermination, andshallrespectthatright,inconformitywiththeprovisionsofthe CharteroftheUnitedNations. PARTII Article2 1.EachStatePartytothepresentCovenantundertakestorespectandto ensuretoallindividualswithinitsterritoryandsubjecttoitsjurisdiction therightsrecognizedinthepresentCovenant,withoutdistinctionofany kind,suchasrace,colour,sex,language,religion,politicalorotheropinion, nationalorsocialorigin,property,birthorotherstatus. 2.Wherenotalreadyprovidedforbyexistinglegislativeorother

measures,eachStatePartytothepresentCovenantundertakestotake thenecessarysteps,inaccordancewithitsconstitutionalprocessesand withtheprovisionsofthepresentCovenant,toadoptsuchlawsorother measuresasmaybenecessarytogiveeffecttotherightsrecognizedin thepresentCovenant. 3.EachStatePartytothepresentCovenantundertakes: (a)Toensurethatanypersonwhoserightsorfreedomsasherein recognizedareviolatedshallhaveaneffectiveremedy,notwithstanding thattheviolationhasbeencommittedbypersonsactinginanofficial capacity; (b)Toensurethatanypersonclaimingsucharemedyshallhavehisright theretodeterminedbycompetentjudicial,administrativeorlegislative authorities,orbyanyothercompetentauthorityprovidedforbythelegal systemoftheState,andtodevelopthepossibilitiesofjudicialremedy; (c)Toensurethatthecompetentauthoritiesshallenforcesuchremedies whengranted. Article3 TheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenantundertaketoensuretheequal rightofmenandwomentotheenjoymentofallcivilandpoliticalrights setforthinthepresentCovenant. Article4 1.Intimeofpublicemergencywhichthreatensthelifeofthenationand theexistenceofwhichisofficiallyproclaimed,theStatesPartiestothe presentCovenantmaytakemeasuresderogatingfromtheirobligations underthepresentCovenanttotheextentstrictlyrequiredbythe exigenciesofthesituation,providedthatsuchmeasuresarenot inconsistentwiththeirotherobligationsunderinternationallawanddo notinvolvediscriminationsolelyonthegroundofrace,colour,sex,

language,religionorsocialorigin. 2.Noderogationfromarticles6,7,8(paragraphsIand2),11,15,16and 18maybemadeunderthisprovision. 3.AnyStatePartytothepresentCovenantavailingitselfoftherightof derogationshallimmediatelyinformtheotherStatesPartiestothe presentCovenant,throughtheintermediaryoftheSecretaryGeneralof theUnitedNations,oftheprovisionsfromwhichithasderogatedandof thereasonsbywhichitwasactuated.Afurthercommunicationshallbe made,throughthesameintermediary,onthedateonwhichitterminates suchderogation. Article5 1.NothinginthepresentCovenantmaybeinterpretedasimplyingforany State,grouporpersonanyrighttoengageinanyactivityorperformany actaimedatthedestructionofanyoftherightsandfreedomsrecognized hereinorattheirlimitationtoagreaterextentthanisprovidedforinthe presentCovenant. 2.Thereshallbenorestrictionuponorderogationfromanyofthe fundamentalhumanrightsrecognizedorexistinginanyStatePartytothe presentCovenantpursuanttolaw,conventions,regulationsorcustomon thepretextthatthepresentCovenantdoesnotrecognizesuchrightsor thatitrecognizesthemtoalesserextent. PARTIII Article6 1.Everyhumanbeinghastheinherentrighttolife.Thisrightshallbe protectedbylaw.Nooneshallbearbitrarilydeprivedofhislife. 2.Incountrieswhichhavenotabolishedthedeathpenalty,sentenceof deathmaybeimposedonlyforthemostseriouscrimesinaccordance

withthelawinforceatthetimeofthecommissionofthecrimeandnot contrarytotheprovisionsofthepresentCovenantandtotheConvention onthePreventionandPunishmentoftheCrimeofGenocide.Thispenalty canonlybecarriedoutpursuanttoafinaljudgementrenderedbya competentcourt. 3.Whendeprivationoflifeconstitutesthecrimeofgenocide,itis understoodthatnothinginthisarticleshallauthorizeanyStatePartyto thepresentCovenanttoderogateinanywayfromanyobligation assumedundertheprovisionsoftheConventiononthePreventionand PunishmentoftheCrimeofGenocide. 4.Anyonesentencedtodeathshallhavetherighttoseekpardonor commutationofthesentence.Amnesty,pardonorcommutationofthe sentenceofdeathmaybegrantedinallcases. 5.Sentenceofdeathshallnotbeimposedforcrimescommittedby personsbeloweighteenyearsofageandshallnotbecarriedouton pregnantwomen. 6.Nothinginthisarticleshallbeinvokedtodelayortopreventthe abolitionofcapitalpunishmentbyanyStatePartytothepresent Covenant. Article7 Nooneshallbesubjectedtotortureortocruel,inhumanordegrading treatmentorpunishment.Inparticular,nooneshallbesubjectedwithout hisfreeconsenttomedicalorscientificexperimentation. Article8 1.Nooneshallbeheldinslavery;slaveryandtheslavetradeinalltheir formsshallbeprohibited. 2.Nooneshallbeheldinservitude.

3. (a)Nooneshallberequiredtoperformforcedorcompulsorylabour; (b)Paragraph3(a)shallnotbeheldtopreclude,incountrieswhere imprisonmentwithhardlabourmaybeimposedasapunishmentfora crime,theperformanceofhardlabourinpursuanceofasentencetosuch punishmentbyacompetentcourt; (c)Forthepurposeofthisparagraphtheterm"forcedorcompulsory labour"shallnotinclude: (i)Anyworkorservice,notreferredtoinsubparagraph(b),normally requiredofapersonwhoisunderdetentioninconsequenceofalawful orderofacourt,orofapersonduringconditionalreleasefromsuch detention; (ii)Anyserviceofamilitarycharacterand,incountrieswhere conscientiousobjectionisrecognized,anynationalservicerequiredbylaw ofconscientiousobjectors; (iii)Anyserviceexactedincasesofemergencyorcalamitythreateningthe lifeorwellbeingofthecommunity; (iv)Anyworkorservicewhichformspartofnormalcivilobligations. Article9 1.Everyonehastherighttolibertyandsecurityofperson.Nooneshallbe subjectedtoarbitraryarrestordetention.Nooneshallbedeprivedofhis libertyexceptonsuchgroundsandinaccordancewithsuchprocedureas areestablishedbylaw. 2.Anyonewhoisarrestedshallbeinformed,atthetimeofarrest,ofthe reasonsforhisarrestandshallbepromptlyinformedofanycharges

againsthim. 3.Anyonearrestedordetainedonacriminalchargeshallbebrought promptlybeforeajudgeorotherofficerauthorizedbylawtoexercise judicialpowerandshallbeentitledtotrialwithinareasonabletimeorto release.Itshallnotbethegeneralrulethatpersonsawaitingtrialshallbe detainedincustody,butreleasemaybesubjecttoguaranteestoappear fortrial,atanyotherstageofthejudicialproceedings,and,should occasionarise,forexecutionofthejudgement. 4.Anyonewhoisdeprivedofhislibertybyarrestordetentionshallbe entitledtotakeproceedingsbeforeacourt,inorderthatthatcourtmay decidewithoutdelayonthelawfulnessofhisdetentionandorderhis releaseifthedetentionisnotlawful. 5.Anyonewhohasbeenthevictimofunlawfularrestordetentionshall haveanenforceablerighttocompensation. Article10 1.Allpersonsdeprivedoftheirlibertyshallbetreatedwithhumanityand withrespectfortheinherentdignityofthehumanperson. 2. (a)Accusedpersonsshall,saveinexceptionalcircumstances,be segregatedfromconvictedpersonsandshallbesubjecttoseparate treatmentappropriatetotheirstatusasunconvictedpersons; (b)Accusedjuvenilepersonsshallbeseparatedfromadultsandbroughtas speedilyaspossibleforadjudication. 3.Thepenitentiarysystemshallcomprisetreatmentofprisonersthe essentialaimofwhichshallbetheirreformationandsocialrehabilitation. Juvenileoffendersshallbesegregatedfromadultsandbeaccorded treatmentappropriatetotheirageandlegalstatus.

Article11 Nooneshallbeimprisonedmerelyonthegroundofinabilitytofulfila contractualobligation. Article12 1.EveryonelawfullywithintheterritoryofaStateshall,withinthat territory,havetherighttolibertyofmovementandfreedomtochoose hisresidence. 2.Everyoneshallbefreetoleaveanycountry,includinghisown. 3.Theabovementionedrightsshallnotbesubjecttoanyrestrictions exceptthosewhichareprovidedbylaw,arenecessarytoprotectnational security,publicorder(ordrepublic),publichealthormoralsortherights andfreedomsofothers,andareconsistentwiththeotherrights recognizedinthepresentCovenant. 4.Nooneshallbearbitrarilydeprivedoftherighttoenterhisown country. Article13 AnalienlawfullyintheterritoryofaStatePartytothepresentCovenant maybeexpelledtherefromonlyinpursuanceofadecisionreachedin accordancewithlawandshall,exceptwherecompellingreasonsof nationalsecurityotherwiserequire,beallowedtosubmitthereasons againsthisexpulsionandtohavehiscasereviewedby,andbe representedforthepurposebefore,thecompetentauthorityoraperson orpersonsespeciallydesignatedbythecompetentauthority. Article14 1.Allpersonsshallbeequalbeforethecourtsandtribunals.Inthe determinationofanycriminalchargeagainsthim,orofhisrightsand

obligationsinasuitatlaw,everyoneshallbeentitledtoafairandpublic hearingbyacompetent,independentandimpartialtribunalestablishedby law.Thepressandthepublicmaybeexcludedfromallorpartofatrial forreasonsofmorals,publicorder(ordrepublic)ornationalsecurityina democraticsociety,orwhentheinterestoftheprivatelivesoftheparties sorequires,ortotheextentstrictlynecessaryintheopinionofthecourt inspecialcircumstanceswherepublicitywouldprejudicetheinterestsof justice;butanyjudgementrenderedinacriminalcaseorinasuitatlaw shallbemadepublicexceptwheretheinterestofjuvenilepersons otherwiserequiresortheproceedingsconcernmatrimonialdisputesor theguardianshipofchildren. 2.Everyonechargedwithacriminaloffenceshallhavetherighttobe presumedinnocentuntilprovedguiltyaccordingtolaw. 3.Inthedeterminationofanycriminalchargeagainsthim,everyoneshall beentitledtothefollowingminimumguarantees,infullequality:(a)To beinformedpromptlyandindetailinalanguagewhichheunderstandsof thenatureandcauseofthechargeagainsthim; (b)Tohaveadequatetimeandfacilitiesforthepreparationofhisdefence andtocommunicatewithcounselofhisownchoosing; (c)Tobetriedwithoutunduedelay; (d)Tobetriedinhispresence,andtodefendhimselfinpersonorthrough legalassistanceofhisownchoosing;tobeinformed,ifhedoesnothave legalassistance,ofthisright;andtohavelegalassistanceassignedtohim, inanycasewheretheinterestsofjusticesorequire,andwithoutpayment byhiminanysuchcaseifhedoesnothavesufficientmeanstopayforit; (e)Toexamine,orhaveexamined,thewitnessesagainsthimandto obtaintheattendanceandexaminationofwitnessesonhisbehalfunder thesameconditionsaswitnessesagainsthim; (f)Tohavethefreeassistanceofaninterpreterifhecannotunderstandor

speakthelanguageusedincourt; (g)Nottobecompelledtotestifyagainsthimselfortoconfessguilt. 4.Inthecaseofjuvenilepersons,theprocedureshallbesuchaswilltake accountoftheirageandthedesirabilityofpromotingtheirrehabilitation. 5.Everyoneconvictedofacrimeshallhavetherighttohisconvictionand sentencebeingreviewedbyahighertribunalaccordingtolaw. 6.Whenapersonhasbyafinaldecisionbeenconvictedofacriminal offenceandwhensubsequentlyhisconvictionhasbeenreversedorhehas beenpardonedonthegroundthatanewornewlydiscoveredfactshows conclusivelythattherehasbeenamiscarriageofjustice,thepersonwho hassufferedpunishmentasaresultofsuchconvictionshallbe compensatedaccordingtolaw,unlessitisprovedthatthenondisclosure oftheunknownfactintimeiswhollyorpartlyattributabletohim. 7.Nooneshallbeliabletobetriedorpunishedagainforanoffencefor whichhehasalreadybeenfinallyconvictedoracquittedinaccordance withthelawandpenalprocedureofeachcountry. Article15 1.Nooneshallbeheldguiltyofanycriminaloffenceonaccountofany actoromissionwhichdidnotconstituteacriminaloffence,undernational orinternationallaw,atthetimewhenitwascommitted.Norshalla heavierpenaltybeimposedthantheonethatwasapplicableatthetime whenthecriminaloffencewascommitted.If,subsequenttothe commissionoftheoffence,provisionismadebylawfortheimpositionof thelighterpenalty,theoffendershallbenefitthereby. 2.Nothinginthisarticleshallprejudicethetrialandpunishmentofany personforanyactoromissionwhich,atthetimewhenitwascommitted, wascriminalaccordingtothegeneralprinciplesoflawrecognizedbythe communityofnations.

Article16 Everyoneshallhavetherighttorecognitioneverywhereasaperson beforethelaw. Article17 1.Nooneshallbesubjectedtoarbitraryorunlawfulinterferencewithhis privacy,family,homeorcorrespondence,nortounlawfulattacksonhis honourandreputation. 2.Everyonehastherighttotheprotectionofthelawagainstsuch interferenceorattacks. Article18 1.Everyoneshallhavetherighttofreedomofthought,conscienceand religion.Thisrightshallincludefreedomtohaveortoadoptareligionor beliefofhischoice,andfreedom,eitherindividuallyorincommunitywith othersandinpublicorprivate,tomanifesthisreligionorbeliefinworship, observance,practiceandteaching. 2.Nooneshallbesubjecttocoercionwhichwouldimpairhisfreedomto haveortoadoptareligionorbeliefofhischoice. 3.Freedomtomanifestone'sreligionorbeliefsmaybesubjectonlyto suchlimitationsasareprescribedbylawandarenecessarytoprotect publicsafety,order,health,ormoralsorthefundamentalrightsand freedomsofothers. 4.TheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenantundertaketohaverespect forthelibertyofparentsand,whenapplicable,legalguardianstoensure thereligiousandmoraleducationoftheirchildreninconformitywiththeir ownconvictions. Article19

1.Everyoneshallhavetherighttoholdopinionswithoutinterference. 2.Everyoneshallhavetherighttofreedomofexpression;thisrightshall includefreedomtoseek,receiveandimpartinformationandideasofall kinds,regardlessoffrontiers,eitherorally,inwritingorinprint,inthe formofart,orthroughanyothermediaofhischoice. 3.Theexerciseoftherightsprovidedforinparagraph2ofthisarticle carrieswithitspecialdutiesandresponsibilities.Itmaythereforebe subjecttocertainrestrictions,buttheseshallonlybesuchasareprovided bylawandarenecessary: (a)Forrespectoftherightsorreputationsofothers; (b)Fortheprotectionofnationalsecurityorofpublicorder(ordrepublic), orofpublichealthormorals. Article20 1.Anypropagandaforwarshallbeprohibitedbylaw. 2.Anyadvocacyofnational,racialorreligioushatredthatconstitutes incitementtodiscrimination,hostilityorviolenceshallbeprohibitedby law. Article21 Therightofpeacefulassemblyshallberecognized.Norestrictionsmaybe placedontheexerciseofthisrightotherthanthoseimposedinconformity withthelawandwhicharenecessaryinademocraticsocietyinthe interestsofnationalsecurityorpublicsafety,publicorder(ordrepublic), theprotectionofpublichealthormoralsortheprotectionoftherights andfreedomsofothers. Article22

1.Everyoneshallhavetherighttofreedomofassociationwithothers, includingtherighttoformandjointradeunionsfortheprotectionofhis interests. 2.Norestrictionsmaybeplacedontheexerciseofthisrightotherthan thosewhichareprescribedbylawandwhicharenecessaryina democraticsocietyintheinterestsofnationalsecurityorpublicsafety, publicorder(ordrepublic),theprotectionofpublichealthormoralsor theprotectionoftherightsandfreedomsofothers.Thisarticleshallnot preventtheimpositionoflawfulrestrictionsonmembersofthearmed forcesandofthepoliceintheirexerciseofthisright. 3.NothinginthisarticleshallauthorizeStatesPartiestotheInternational LabourOrganisationConventionof1948concerningFreedomof AssociationandProtectionoftheRighttoOrganizetotakelegislative measureswhichwouldprejudice,ortoapplythelawinsuchamanneras toprejudice,theguaranteesprovidedforinthatConvention. Article23 1.Thefamilyisthenaturalandfundamentalgroupunitofsocietyandis entitledtoprotectionbysocietyandtheState. 2.Therightofmenandwomenofmarriageableagetomarryandtofound afamilyshallberecognized. 3.Nomarriageshallbeenteredintowithoutthefreeandfullconsentof theintendingspouses. 4.StatesPartiestothepresentCovenantshalltakeappropriatestepsto ensureequalityofrightsandresponsibilitiesofspousesastomarriage, duringmarriageandatitsdissolution.Inthecaseofdissolution,provision shallbemadeforthenecessaryprotectionofanychildren. Article24

1.Everychildshallhave,withoutanydiscriminationastorace,colour,sex, language,religion,nationalorsocialorigin,propertyorbirth,therightto suchmeasuresofprotectionasarerequiredbyhisstatusasaminor,on thepartofhisfamily,societyandtheState. 2.Everychildshallberegisteredimmediatelyafterbirthandshallhavea name. 3.Everychildhastherighttoacquireanationality. Article25 Everycitizenshallhavetherightandtheopportunity,withoutanyofthe distinctionsmentionedinarticle2andwithoutunreasonablerestrictions: (a)Totakepartintheconductofpublicaffairs,directlyorthroughfreely chosenrepresentatives; (b)Tovoteandtobeelectedatgenuineperiodicelectionswhichshallbe byuniversalandequalsuffrageandshallbeheldbysecretballot, guaranteeingthefreeexpressionofthewilloftheelectors; (c)Tohaveaccess,ongeneraltermsofequality,topublicserviceinhis country. Article26 Allpersonsareequalbeforethelawandareentitledwithoutany discriminationtotheequalprotectionofthelaw.Inthisrespect,thelaw shallprohibitanydiscriminationandguaranteetoallpersonsequaland effectiveprotectionagainstdiscriminationonanygroundsuchasrace, colour,sex,language,religion,politicalorotheropinion,nationalorsocial origin,property,birthorotherstatus. Article27

InthoseStatesinwhichethnic,religiousorlinguisticminoritiesexist, personsbelongingtosuchminoritiesshallnotbedeniedtheright,in communitywiththeothermembersoftheirgroup,toenjoytheirown culture,toprofessandpractisetheirownreligion,ortousetheirown language. PARTIV Article28 1.ThereshallbeestablishedaHumanRightsCommittee(hereafter referredtointhepresentCovenantastheCommittee).Itshallconsistof eighteenmembersandshallcarryoutthefunctionshereinafterprovided. 2.TheCommitteeshallbecomposedofnationalsoftheStatesPartiesto thepresentCovenantwhoshallbepersonsofhighmoralcharacterand recognizedcompetenceinthefieldofhumanrights,considerationbeing giventotheusefulnessoftheparticipationofsomepersonshavinglegal experience. 3.ThemembersoftheCommitteeshallbeelectedandshallserveintheir personalcapacity. Article29 1.ThemembersoftheCommitteeshallbeelectedbysecretballotfroma listofpersonspossessingthequalificationsprescribedinarticle28and nominatedforthepurposebytheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenant. 2.EachStatePartytothepresentCovenantmaynominatenotmorethan twopersons.ThesepersonsshallbenationalsofthenominatingState. 3.Apersonshallbeeligibleforrenomination. Article30

1.Theinitialelectionshallbeheldnolaterthansixmonthsafterthedate oftheentryintoforceofthepresentCovenant. 2.AtleastfourmonthsbeforethedateofeachelectiontotheCommittee, otherthananelectiontofillavacancydeclaredinaccordancewitharticle 34,theSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshalladdressawritten invitationtotheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenanttosubmittheir nominationsformembershipoftheCommitteewithinthreemonths. 3.TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallpreparealistin alphabeticalorderofallthepersonsthusnominated,withanindicationof theStatesPartieswhichhavenominatedthem,andshallsubmitittothe StatesPartiestothepresentCovenantnolaterthanonemonthbeforethe dateofeachelection. 4.ElectionsofthemembersoftheCommitteeshallbeheldatameeting oftheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenantconvenedbytheSecretary GeneraloftheUnitedNationsattheHeadquartersoftheUnitedNations. Atthatmeeting,forwhichtwothirdsoftheStatesPartiestothepresent Covenantshallconstituteaquorum,thepersonselectedtothe Committeeshallbethosenomineeswhoobtainthelargestnumberof votesandanabsolutemajorityofthevotesoftherepresentativesof StatesPartiespresentandvoting. Article31 1.TheCommitteemaynotincludemorethanonenationalofthesame State. 2.IntheelectionoftheCommittee,considerationshallbegivento equitablegeographicaldistributionofmembershipandtothe representationofthedifferentformsofcivilizationandoftheprincipal legalsystems. Article32

1.ThemembersoftheCommitteeshallbeelectedforatermoffour years.Theyshallbeeligibleforreelectionifrenominated.However,the termsofnineofthememberselectedatthefirstelectionshallexpireat theendoftwoyears;immediatelyafterthefirstelection,thenamesof theseninemembersshallbechosenbylotbytheChairmanofthe meetingreferredtoinarticle30,paragraph4. 2.Electionsattheexpiryofofficeshallbeheldinaccordancewiththe precedingarticlesofthispartofthepresentCovenant. Article33 1.If,intheunanimousopinionoftheothermembers,amemberofthe Committeehasceasedtocarryouthisfunctionsforanycauseotherthan absenceofatemporarycharacter,theChairmanoftheCommitteeshall notifytheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNations,whoshallthendeclare theseatofthatmembertobevacant. 2.Intheeventofthedeathortheresignationofamemberofthe Committee,theChairmanshallimmediatelynotifytheSecretaryGeneral oftheUnitedNations,whoshalldeclaretheseatvacantfromthedateof deathorthedateonwhichtheresignationtakeseffect. Article34 1.Whenavacancyisdeclaredinaccordancewitharticle33andifthe termofofficeofthemembertobereplaceddoesnotexpirewithinsix monthsofthedeclarationofthevacancy,theSecretaryGeneralofthe UnitedNationsshallnotifyeachoftheStatesPartiestothepresent Covenant,whichmaywithintwomonthssubmitnominationsin accordancewitharticle29forthepurposeoffillingthevacancy. 2.TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallpreparealistin alphabeticalorderofthepersonsthusnominatedandshallsubmititto theStatesPartiestothepresentCovenant.Theelectiontofillthevacancy shallthentakeplaceinaccordancewiththerelevantprovisionsofthis

partofthepresentCovenant. 3.AmemberoftheCommitteeelectedtofillavacancydeclaredin accordancewitharticle33shallholdofficefortheremainderoftheterm ofthememberwhovacatedtheseatontheCommitteeunderthe provisionsofthatarticle. Article35 ThemembersoftheCommitteeshall,withtheapprovaloftheGeneral AssemblyoftheUnitedNations,receiveemolumentsfromUnitedNations resourcesonsuchtermsandconditionsastheGeneralAssemblymay decide,havingregardtotheimportanceoftheCommittee's responsibilities. Article36 TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallprovidethenecessary staffandfacilitiesfortheeffectiveperformanceofthefunctionsofthe CommitteeunderthepresentCovenant. Article37 1.TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallconvenetheinitial meetingoftheCommitteeattheHeadquartersoftheUnitedNations. 2.Afteritsinitialmeeting,theCommitteeshallmeetatsuchtimesasshall beprovidedinitsrulesofprocedure. 3.TheCommitteeshallnormallymeetattheHeadquartersoftheUnited NationsorattheUnitedNationsOfficeatGeneva. Article38 EverymemberoftheCommitteeshall,beforetakinguphisduties,makea solemndeclarationinopencommitteethathewillperformhisfunctions

impartiallyandconscientiously. Article39 1.TheCommitteeshallelectitsofficersforatermoftwoyears.Theymay bereelected. 2.TheCommitteeshallestablishitsownrulesofprocedure,butthese rulesshallprovide,interalia,that: (a)Twelvemembersshallconstituteaquorum; (b)DecisionsoftheCommitteeshallbemadebyamajorityvoteofthe memberspresent. Article40 1.TheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenantundertaketosubmitreports onthemeasurestheyhaveadoptedwhichgiveeffecttotherights recognizedhereinandontheprogressmadeintheenjoymentofthose rights:(a)WithinoneyearoftheentryintoforceofthepresentCovenant fortheStatesPartiesconcerned; (b)ThereafterwhenevertheCommitteesorequests. 2.AllreportsshallbesubmittedtotheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnited Nations,whoshalltransmitthemtotheCommitteeforconsideration. Reportsshallindicatethefactorsanddifficulties,ifany,affectingthe implementationofthepresentCovenant. 3.TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsmay,afterconsultation withtheCommittee,transmittothespecializedagenciesconcerned copiesofsuchpartsofthereportsasmayfallwithintheirfieldof competence. 4.TheCommitteeshallstudythereportssubmittedbytheStatesParties

tothepresentCovenant.Itshalltransmititsreports,andsuchgeneral commentsasitmayconsiderappropriate,totheStatesParties.The CommitteemayalsotransmittotheEconomicandSocialCouncilthese commentsalongwiththecopiesofthereportsithasreceivedfromStates PartiestothepresentCovenant. 5.TheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenantmaysubmittothe Committeeobservationsonanycommentsthatmaybemadein accordancewithparagraph4ofthisarticle. Article41 1.AStatePartytothepresentCovenantmayatanytimedeclareunder thisarticlethatitrecognizesthecompetenceoftheCommitteetoreceive andconsidercommunicationstotheeffectthataStatePartyclaimsthat anotherStatePartyisnotfulfillingitsobligationsunderthepresent Covenant.Communicationsunderthisarticlemaybereceivedand consideredonlyifsubmittedbyaStatePartywhichhasmadea declarationrecognizinginregardtoitselfthecompetenceofthe Committee.NocommunicationshallbereceivedbytheCommitteeifit concernsaStatePartywhichhasnotmadesuchadeclaration. Communicationsreceivedunderthisarticleshallbedealtwithin accordancewiththefollowingprocedure: (a)IfaStatePartytothepresentCovenantconsidersthatanotherState PartyisnotgivingeffecttotheprovisionsofthepresentCovenant,itmay, bywrittencommunication,bringthemattertotheattentionofthatState Party.Withinthreemonthsafterthereceiptofthecommunicationthe receivingStateshallaffordtheStatewhichsentthecommunicationan explanation,oranyotherstatementinwritingclarifyingthematterwhich shouldinclude,totheextentpossibleandpertinent,referenceto domesticproceduresandremediestaken,pending,oravailableinthe matter; (b)IfthematterisnotadjustedtothesatisfactionofbothStatesParties concernedwithinsixmonthsafterthereceiptbythereceivingStateofthe

initialcommunication,eitherStateshallhavetherighttoreferthematter totheCommittee,bynoticegiventotheCommitteeandtotheother State; (c)TheCommitteeshalldealwithamatterreferredtoitonlyafterithas ascertainedthatallavailabledomesticremedieshavebeeninvokedand exhaustedinthematter,inconformitywiththegenerallyrecognized principlesofinternationallaw.Thisshallnotbetherulewherethe applicationoftheremediesisunreasonablyprolonged; (d)TheCommitteeshallholdclosedmeetingswhenexamining communicationsunderthisarticle; (e)Subjecttotheprovisionsofsubparagraph(c),theCommitteeshall makeavailableitsgoodofficestotheStatesPartiesconcernedwithaview toafriendlysolutionofthematteronthebasisofrespectforhuman rightsandfundamentalfreedomsasrecognizedinthepresentCovenant; (f)Inanymatterreferredtoit,theCommitteemaycallupontheStates Partiesconcerned,referredtoinsubparagraph(b),tosupplyanyrelevant information; (g)TheStatesPartiesconcerned,referredtoinsubparagraph(b),shall havetherighttoberepresentedwhenthematterisbeingconsideredin theCommitteeandtomakesubmissionsorallyand/orinwriting; (h)TheCommitteeshall,withintwelvemonthsafterthedateofreceiptof noticeundersubparagraph(b),submitareport: (i)Ifasolutionwithinthetermsofsubparagraph(e)isreached,the Committeeshallconfineitsreporttoabriefstatementofthefactsandof thesolutionreached; (ii)Ifasolutionwithinthetermsofsubparagraph(e)isnotreached,the Committeeshallconfineitsreporttoabriefstatementofthefacts;the writtensubmissionsandrecordoftheoralsubmissionsmadebytheStates

Partiesconcernedshallbeattachedtothereport.Ineverymatter,the reportshallbecommunicatedtotheStatesPartiesconcerned. 2.TheprovisionsofthisarticleshallcomeintoforcewhentenStates PartiestothepresentCovenanthavemadedeclarationsunderparagraphI ofthisarticle.SuchdeclarationsshallbedepositedbytheStatesParties withtheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNations,whoshalltransmit copiesthereoftotheotherStatesParties.Adeclarationmaybe withdrawnatanytimebynotificationtotheSecretaryGeneral.Sucha withdrawalshallnotprejudicetheconsiderationofanymatterwhichis thesubjectofacommunicationalreadytransmittedunderthisarticle;no furthercommunicationbyanyStatePartyshallbereceivedafterthe notificationofwithdrawalofthedeclarationhasbeenreceivedbythe SecretaryGeneral,unlesstheStatePartyconcernedhasmadeanew declaration. Article42 1. (a)IfamatterreferredtotheCommitteeinaccordancewitharticle41is notresolvedtothesatisfactionoftheStatesPartiesconcerned,the Committeemay,withthepriorconsentoftheStatesPartiesconcerned, appointanadhocConciliationCommission(hereinafterreferredtoasthe Commission).ThegoodofficesoftheCommissionshallbemadeavailable totheStatesPartiesconcernedwithaviewtoanamicablesolutionofthe matteronthebasisofrespectforthepresentCovenant; (b)TheCommissionshallconsistoffivepersonsacceptabletotheStates Partiesconcerned.IftheStatesPartiesconcernedfailtoreachagreement withinthreemonthsonallorpartofthecompositionoftheCommission, themembersoftheCommissionconcerningwhomnoagreementhas beenreachedshallbeelectedbysecretballotbyatwothirdsmajority voteoftheCommitteefromamongitsmembers. 2.ThemembersoftheCommissionshallserveintheirpersonalcapacity.

TheyshallnotbenationalsoftheStatesPartiesconcerned,orofaState notPartytothepresentCovenant,orofaStatePartywhichhasnotmade adeclarationunderarticle41. 3.TheCommissionshallelectitsownChairmanandadoptitsownrulesof procedure. 4.ThemeetingsoftheCommissionshallnormallybeheldatthe HeadquartersoftheUnitedNationsorattheUnitedNationsOfficeat Geneva.However,theymaybeheldatsuchotherconvenientplacesas theCommissionmaydetermineinconsultationwiththeSecretary GeneraloftheUnitedNationsandtheStatesPartiesconcerned. 5.Thesecretariatprovidedinaccordancewitharticle36shallalsoservice thecommissionsappointedunderthisarticle. 6.TheinformationreceivedandcollatedbytheCommitteeshallbemade availabletotheCommissionandtheCommissionmaycallupontheStates Partiesconcernedtosupplyanyotherrelevantinformation. 7.WhentheCommissionhasfullyconsideredthematter,butinanyevent notlaterthantwelvemonthsafterhavingbeenseizedofthematter,it shallsubmittotheChairmanoftheCommitteeareportfor communicationtotheStatesPartiesconcerned: (a)IftheCommissionisunabletocompleteitsconsiderationofthematter withintwelvemonths,itshallconfineitsreporttoabriefstatementofthe statusofitsconsiderationofthematter; (b)Ifanamicablesolutiontothematterontiebasisofrespectforhuman rightsasrecognizedinthepresentCovenantisreached,theCommission shallconfineitsreporttoabriefstatementofthefactsandofthesolution reached; (c)Ifasolutionwithinthetermsofsubparagraph(b)isnotreached,the Commission'sreportshallembodyitsfindingsonallquestionsoffact

relevanttotheissuesbetweentheStatesPartiesconcerned,anditsviews onthepossibilitiesofanamicablesolutionofthematter.Thisreportshall alsocontainthewrittensubmissionsandarecordoftheoralsubmissions madebytheStatesPartiesconcerned; (d)IftheCommission'sreportissubmittedundersubparagraph(c),the StatesPartiesconcernedshall,withinthreemonthsofthereceiptofthe report,notifytheChairmanoftheCommitteewhetherornottheyaccept thecontentsofthereportoftheCommission. 8.Theprovisionsofthisarticlearewithoutprejudicetothe responsibilitiesoftheCommitteeunderarticle41. 9.TheStatesPartiesconcernedshallshareequallyalltheexpensesofthe membersoftheCommissioninaccordancewithestimatestobeprovided bytheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNations. 10.TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallbeempoweredto paytheexpensesofthemembersoftheCommission,ifnecessary,before reimbursementbytheStatesPartiesconcerned,inaccordancewith paragraph9ofthisarticle. Article43 ThemembersoftheCommittee,andoftheadhocconciliation commissionswhichmaybeappointedunderarticle42,shallbeentitledto thefacilities,privilegesandimmunitiesofexpertsonmissionforthe UnitedNationsaslaiddownintherelevantsectionsoftheConventionon thePrivilegesandImmunitiesoftheUnitedNations. Article44 TheprovisionsfortheimplementationofthepresentCovenantshallapply withoutprejudicetotheproceduresprescribedinthefieldofhuman rightsbyorundertheconstituentinstrumentsandtheconventionsofthe UnitedNationsandofthespecializedagenciesandshallnotpreventthe

StatesPartiestothepresentCovenantfromhavingrecoursetoother proceduresforsettlingadisputeinaccordancewithgeneralorspecial internationalagreementsinforcebetweenthem. Article45 TheCommitteeshallsubmittotheGeneralAssemblyoftheUnited Nations,throughtheEconomicandSocialCouncil,anannualreportonits activities. PARTV Article46 NothinginthepresentCovenantshallbeinterpretedasimpairingthe provisionsoftheCharteroftheUnitedNationsandoftheconstitutionsof thespecializedagencieswhichdefinetherespectiveresponsibilitiesofthe variousorgansoftheUnitedNationsandofthespecializedagenciesin regardtothemattersdealtwithinthepresentCovenant. Article47 NothinginthepresentCovenantshallbeinterpretedasimpairingthe inherentrightofallpeoplestoenjoyandutilizefullyandfreelytheir naturalwealthandresources. PARTVI Article48 1.ThepresentCovenantisopenforsignaturebyanyStateMemberofthe UnitedNationsormemberofanyofitsspecializedagencies,byanyState PartytotheStatuteoftheInternationalCourtofJustice,andbyanyother StatewhichhasbeeninvitedbytheGeneralAssemblyoftheUnited NationstobecomeaPartytothepresentCovenant.

2.ThepresentCovenantissubjecttoratification.Instrumentsof ratificationshallbedepositedwiththeSecretaryGeneraloftheUnited Nations. 3.ThepresentCovenantshallbeopentoaccessionbyanyStatereferred toinparagraph1ofthisarticle. 4.Accessionshallbeeffectedbythedepositofaninstrumentofaccession withtheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNations. 5.TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallinformallStates whichhavesignedthisCovenantoraccededtoitofthedepositofeach instrumentofratificationoraccession. Article49 1.ThepresentCovenantshallenterintoforcethreemonthsafterthedate ofthedepositwiththeSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsofthe thirtyfifthinstrumentofratificationorinstrumentofaccession. 2.ForeachStateratifyingthepresentCovenantoraccedingtoitafterthe depositofthethirtyfifthinstrumentofratificationorinstrumentof accession,thepresentCovenantshallenterintoforcethreemonthsafter thedateofthedepositofitsowninstrumentofratificationorinstrument ofaccession. Article50 TheprovisionsofthepresentCovenantshallextendtoallpartsoffederal Stateswithoutanylimitationsorexceptions. Article51 1.AnyStatePartytothepresentCovenantmayproposeanamendment andfileitwiththeSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNations.The SecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallthereuponcommunicateany

proposedamendmentstotheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenantwith arequestthattheynotifyhimwhethertheyfavouraconferenceofStates Partiesforthepurposeofconsideringandvotingupontheproposals.In theeventthatatleastonethirdoftheStatesPartiesfavourssucha conference,theSecretaryGeneralshallconvenetheconferenceunderthe auspicesoftheUnitedNations.Anyamendmentadoptedbyamajorityof theStatesPartiespresentandvotingattheconferenceshallbesubmitted totheGeneralAssemblyoftheUnitedNationsforapproval. 2.Amendmentsshallcomeintoforcewhentheyhavebeenapprovedby theGeneralAssemblyoftheUnitedNationsandacceptedbyatwothirds majorityoftheStatesPartiestothepresentCovenantinaccordancewith theirrespectiveconstitutionalprocesses.3.Whenamendmentscomeinto force,theyshallbebindingonthoseStatesPartieswhichhaveaccepted them,otherStatesPartiesstillbeingboundbytheprovisionsofthe presentCovenantandanyearlieramendmentwhichtheyhaveaccepted. Article52 1.Irrespectiveofthenotificationsmadeunderarticle48,paragraph5,the SecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshallinformallStatesreferredto inparagraphIofthesamearticleofthefollowingparticulars: (a)Signatures,ratificationsandaccessionsunderarticle48; (b)ThedateoftheentryintoforceofthepresentCovenantunderarticle 49andthedateoftheentryintoforceofanyamendmentsunderarticle 51. Article53 1.ThepresentCovenant,ofwhichtheChinese,English,French,Russian andSpanishtextsareequallyauthentic,shallbedepositedinthearchives oftheUnitedNations. 2.TheSecretaryGeneraloftheUnitedNationsshalltransmitcertified

copiesofthepresentCovenanttoallStatesreferredtoinarticle48.