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Home Machine_Parts_Index Spring Index Helical Spring Design Introduction.... Nomenclature.... Spring Index .... Spring Rate.... Spring Stress Values.... Compression Spring Formula.... Compression Spring End Designs .... Extension Springs.... Rectangular Section Springs.... Conical Helical Springs....

INT RODUCT ION A helical spring is a spiral wound wire with a constant coil diameter and uniform pitch. The most common form of helical spring is the compression spring but tension springs are also widely used. . Helical springs are generally made from round wire... it is comparatively rare for springs to be made from square or rectangular sections. The strength of the steel used is one of the most important criteria to consider in designing springs. Most helical springs are mass produced by specialists organisations. It is not recommended that springs are made specifically for applications if off-the-shelf springs can be obtained to the job. Note: Excelcals has produced a set of excel based calculations which contain much of the content found on this page. Excelcalcs - Helical springs

T ension Springs Compression Springs

Nomenc lature C = Spring Index D/d d = w ire diameter (m) D = Spring diameter = (Di+Do)/2 (m) Di = Spring inside diameter (m) Do = Spring outside diameter (m) Dil = Spring inside diameter (loaded ) (m) E = Young's Modulus (N/m2) F = Axial Force (N) Fi = Initial Axial Force (N) (close coiled tension spring) G = Modulus of Rigidity (N/m2) K d = Traverse Shear Factor = (C + 0,5)/C K W = Wahl Factor = (4C-1)/(4C-4)+ (0,615/C) L = length (m)

L 0 = Free Length (m) L s = Solid Length (m) n t = Total number of coils n = Number of active coils p = pitch (m) y = distance from neutral axis to outer fibre of w ire (m)

τ = shear stress (N/m2) τ i = initial spring stress (N/m2) τ max = Max shear stress (N/m2) θ = Deflection (radians) δ = linear deflection (mm)

Reference Webpage Spring Materials Compression Springs. For most helical springs C is between 3 and 12 Spring Rate Generally springs are designed to have a deflection proportional to the applied load (or torque -for torsion springs). .Note: metres (m) have been shown as the units of length in all of the variables above for consistency. However the stress levels are related to the duty and material condition (ref to relevant Code/ standard). to maintain equilibrium of forces.. the wire is transmits a pure shear load F and also to a torque of Fr.. Rate (N/ mm) = F(N) / δ e(deflection=mm) Spring Stress Values For General purpose springs a maximum stress value of 40% of the steel tensile stress may be used.. In most practical calculations milli-metres will be more convenient. Spring Index The spring index (C) for helical springs in a measure of coil curvature .Formulae a) Stress A typical compression spring is shown below Consider a compression spring under an axial force F.. The "Spring Rate" is the Load per unit deflection. If a section through a single wire is taken it can be seen that.

16 10 1. l = π Dn. The formula for maximum shear stress now becomes..11 14 1.1 16 1. A curvature correction factor has been determined ( attributed to A. The force deflection relationship is most conventiently obtained using Castigliano's theorem. A table relating KW to C is provided below C Kw 3 1. . Referring to notes on strain energy Strain Energy Replacing T= FD/ 2.13 12 1.M.31 6 1.12 13 1.09 b) Deflection The spring axial deflection is obtained as follows..25 7 1.. This factor includes the traverse shear distribution factor K d.5)/ C.Wahl). Which is stated as . A = π d2 / 4 The formula becomes... For the helical spring the strain energy includes that due to shear and that due to torsion.. W hen forc es ac t on elastic systems subjec t to small displac ements.14 11 1. the displac ement c orresponding to any forc e c ollinear with the forc e is equal to the partial deriv ativ e to the total strain energy with respec t to that forc e. This (Wahl) factor K w is shown as follows.The stress in the wire due to the applied load = This equation is simplified by using a traverse shear distribution factor K d = (C+0.18 9 1.21 8 1.58 4 1.1 15 1.4 5 1. The above equation now becomes. The curvature of the helical spring actually results in higher shear stresses on the inner surfaces of the spring than indicated by the formula above.

Each end design can be associated with any end design.. The table below shows some equations affected by the end designs. An important design consideration for helical extensions springs is the shape of the ends which transfers the load to the the spring body.... Note: The results from these equations is not necessarily integers and the equations are not accurate. Term End Coils (n e ) Total Coils (n t ) Free Length (L 0 ) Solid Length (L s ) Pitch(p ) 0 n pn+d d(n t +1) (L 0-d)/n Plain 1 n+1 p(n+1) dn t L 0/(n +1) Plain and Ground 2 n+2 pn +3d d(n t +1 (L 0-3d)/n Closed Closed and Ground 2 n+2 pn +2d dn t (L 0-2d)/n Helic al Extension Springs The formulae provided for the compression springs generally also apply to extension springs. These must be designed to transfer the load with minimum local stress concentration values caused by sharp bends. In practice the term (1 + 0.. The plain ends are not desirable for springs which are highly loaded or for precise duties....5/ C2) which approximates to 1 can be ignored c) Spring Rate The spring rate = Axial Force / Axial deflection In practice the term (C2 / (C2 + 0.. Substituting the spring index C for D/ d The formula becomes. The figures below show some end designs. The third design C) design has relatively low stress concentration factors.5)) which approximates to 1 can be ignored Compression Spring End Designs The figure below shows various end designs with different handing..Using Castiglianos theorem to find the total strain energy.. . The springmaking process involves a degree of variation.

This results in the spring having a property of an initial tension which must be exceeded before any deflection can take place. The equations for tension springs with initial tension are provided below Helic al Compression Springs (Rec tangular W ire) .. This relationship is illustrated in the figure below > The initial tension load can be calculated from the formula. there is no initial tension and the relevant equations are identical to those for the spring under compression as identified above. T i = π τ i d 3/ ( 8 D) Best range of of Initial Stress (τ i) for a spring related to the Spring Index C = (D/ d) Best Initial Tension Stress range = τ i (N/mm 2 ) 140 120 110 95 90 80 70 60 55 45 40 35 30 25 205 185 165 150 140 125 110 100 90 85 75 65 60 55 C = D/d 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 If the coils in a tension spring are not tightly wound.. When the load exceeds the initial tension the spring behaves according the the formulae above..Extension Spring Initial T ension An Extension spring is sometimes tightly wound such that it is prestressed with an initial stress τ i .

0 2.0 1.399 Conic al Helic al Compression Springs These are helical springs with coils progressively change in diameter to give increasing stiffness with increasing load.18 1.41 0.0 1.335 4.Spring Rate and Stress Rate (N/mm) = K 2 G b t 3/ (n D 3) D = Mean Diameter of spring(mm) b = Largest section dimension(mm) t = Smallest Section dimension(mm) n = Number of Active turns F = Axial Force on Spring K 1 = Shape Factor (see table) K 2 = Shape Factor (see table) K W = Wahl Factor (see table) C = Spring Index = D/ (radial dimension = b or t) b/t K1 K2 1.94 0.67 0.87 0.0 1.391 10.0 1. A major user of conical springs is the upholstery industry for beds and settees.317 Stress (N/mm 2) = K W .272 2.0 1.K 1 F D /( b t 2 ) 3.09 0.0 2.292 2.385 6.16 0.60 0.63 0.25 1.5 1. D1 = Smaller Diameter D2 = Larger Diameter .5 2.04 0.75 2.77 0. This type of spring has the advantage that its compressed height can be relatively small.381 8.

.Information on Design. 6. 3. Fa = allowable force (N).. 4. Links to Spring Design 1... 5.. Excelcalcs .τ = allowable shear stress (N/ m2) Stiffness of Spring... Materials etc (Imperial) and a catalog Earthlink.Good simple comprehensive information Lee Springs .Anti-Vibration Mountings Acxess Springs .Allowable Force on Spring...Helical springs .Spring Supplier + useful technical Information Springmasters ...How to Make Springs ......A excel based Spreadsheet Calculation tool tpcdayton . 2.. 7...Information on Design.Spring Supplier + comprehensive range of springs with sizes and ratings T his P a g e is b e ing d e v e lo p e d Home Machine_Parts_Index Spring Index Send Comments to Roy Beardmore Last Updated 23/ 02/ 2011 . Materials etc (Imperial) Harris Springs .