The Philosophy of Everything

21st December, 2006

by Bibhas Acharya Abstract
The Philosophy of Everything is a Theory of Everything (TOE). It is my first academic paper following a five-year heuristic research on nature. The theory is developed upon a set of assumptions based on which I have tried to explain concepts such as the universe, its creation and end; black holes; gravity; light and life-processes.

1. Introduction
It was in the winter of year 2001 that I, then a thirteen-year-old, promised myself to embark on an intellectual quest to the centre of the universe. Tired of asking myself where and why I exist, and such questions baffling my mind, I wanted then, more than ever, to know. I was fascinated by the vastness of the world around, and as though a cowboy trying to break a wild horse, I wanted to conquer its glory. As a kid, I felt overwhelmed when I pondered over my existence. Analogous to the fact that my house is in Kathmandu and Kathmandu is in Nepal, the universe had to be somewhere. So, I desperately wanted to figure out its location. Many-a-times, I thought of the possibility of the Sun and its planets as being "parts of atoms" from an entirely different world. I imagined myself as an atomic-level being of another world infinitely bigger than ours. Maybe we could be a part of an atom in a mountain or perhaps be a part of another living being too. Amidst these weird feelings, I usually took a moment to look around and assess such possibilities. With a gasp, I tried to soothe myself, for the thoughts that followed seemed bewildering. The past five years has been a phenomenal experience. My brain has worked much like a mobile laboratory helping me in my never-ending research to sample the environment. I have not only read but also looked around and tried to study nature. All these direct as well as indirect observations have been an input for my research. In addition, the physics courses that I took in the past as part of my school curriculum have, no doubt, also been helpful. The textbooks and their author's viewpoints have led me to a more systematic approach in my research. I was just into my first year of heuristic research that an ingenious hunch paved way for the first few steps to my answer. In an attempt to play with the idea of black-holes and their behavior, I figured out, though not overnight, that if I imagined our universe as composed of two elementary entities with an ever-present tendency to unite, I would be able to explain almost anything. In the pages to follow, I shall talk to you about the analysis, the thought process, the subsequent findings and how they help predict the truth. Organization of this paper Section 2 discusses the assumptions. Sections 3,4 and 5 present analysis and conclusions reached based on this set of assumptions.

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2. Assumptions
The Philosophy of Everything like any other philosophies is largely a set of claims and analyses. In course of writing the theory, I have made several assumptions which have been described in this chapter. Assumptions to this paper are like rules to a game. The theory is insufficient without them and, as you may notice later, it will rely heavily on them to gain both momentum and credibility. Following are the main assumptions for the theory: Assumption 1: Any universe is built out of fundamental entities called elementary particles. Elementary particles are the building blocks of a universe. They are a fundamental form of existence and any object in the universe is built out of them. Assumption 2: Any universe is composed of limited types of elementary particles, each of which is unique to the universe that contains it. Any universe is composed of at least two or more types of elementary particles. Just as a house is built from certain types of building materials like wood, bricks, cement, and gravel, a universe too is built out of many types of elementary particles. For instance, a "Universe 1" may be composed of two types of elementary particles while another '"Universe 2" may be composed of five, six or even ten types of elementary particles. Having said that every universe contains certain type of elementary particles, it has to be noted that each type of elementary particles is unique to the universe that contains it. Therefore, a "Type H" particle from "Universe 5" is found in no other universes. Similarly, a "Type J" particle from "Universe 11" is found in no other universes. Assumption 3: An omni-directional, omni-present force exists between elementary particles in a universe. Certain magnitude of omni-directional and far-reaching force exists between every elementary particle in a universe. Therefore, two kinds of elementary particles "Type A" and "Type B" of the same universe will experience a pull from each other. Not just this, each of those particles will also experience a force from another like particle. For example, a "Type A" particle will experience a force from another "Type A" particle and a "Type B" particle will also experience force from another "Type B" particle. The magnitude of inter-particulate forces1 will vary with the type of elementary particles and the universe that contains it. For example, the strength of force between a "Type A" particle and a "Type B" will differ from the magnitude of force between a "Type B" particle and another "Type B" particle. In addition, assuming that a general index2 of inter-particulate forces can be computed for different universes, the value will vary with every universe. Therefore, the average strength of inter-particular forces in a "Universe 3" will differ from that in another universe, for example, "Universe 4." The inter-particulate forces are far-reaching. No matter where in the universe the elementary particles are situated, the field of forces travels the whole universe and is therefore omni-present as far as that universe is concerned. Hence, it is possible for a "Type C" particle in one corner of the universe to experience a pull from a "Type G" particle located in another corner of the same universe. Assumption 4: Inter-particulate forces are vectors. The inter-particulate forces are vectors. For example, imagine three "Type B" particles placed side-byside and in a row. Assuming that the magnitude of force between two "Type B" particles is λ, the total

1 2

Forces between two particles Indexed to our universe

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force experienced by a particle at the end of the row is 2 λ. Similarly, the total force experienced by a particle at the centre of the row is zero (the force from the other two particles cancels out each other.) Assumption 5: In any universe, an elementary particle possesses a tendency to unite with another elementary particle. In any universe, there is a strong inclination among the particles to unite with one another. Infact, the inter-particulate forces that exist between them is also a result of this inclination towards physical unification. Usually, the particles try to make surface-to-surface contact in the process. Assumption 6: The field of forces around all elementary particles in a universe is similar. The field of force that envelops all type of elementary particles in a universe is always similar. For example, the type of field around a "Type A" particle is same as that of a "Type B" particle. However, this rule applies only to particles in the same universe. If for example, when we compare two elementary particles "Type A" and "Type X" from two different universes, then the field of forces around them will be different. Assumption 7: When two different types of elementary particles coalesce in a one-to-one ratio, a new particle is formed. With reference to Assumptions 3 and 5, elementary particles possess a tendency to unite with other particles in the same universe. Thanks to the force that emerges as a consequence of their inclination towards uniting, in course of time the particles get to make surface-to-surface contact with one another. If a given particle unites with a like particle then the property of the conglomeration remains the same. For example, if two "Type A" elementary particles unite, the particles still retain their former identity. However, if two unlike particles unite, for example, a "Type A" and a "Type B," the unification results in a new type of particle, for example "Type C". Assumption 8: A reaction force exists between two uniting like particles at the point of contact. When two like particles unite, a temporary reaction force emerges between them at the time of contact. The repulsion consequently forces the particles to move away from one another. Now, with the contact no-longer existing, an attractive inter-particulate force re-emerges between them. Assumption 9: In any universe, two particles can interact with one another only if a force exists between them. Two particles in the same universe detect each other only because a certain magnitude of force exists between them. If the force were to be absent, a particle of "Type A" would go unnoticed to another nearby particle "Type B." Assumption 10: In any universe, all objects are built out of elementary particles and therefore inherit all of their properties. With reference to my first assumption, it may be noted that every object in a universe is composed of particular types of elementary particles. Having said this, I reckon it wouldn’t be unfair to assume that objects built out of those elementary particles would inherit many, if not all, of their properties. For example, as stated in the third and fifth assumptions, elementary particles in the same universe have an inclination towards unification with an omni-present, omni-directional force involved within them. Therefore, any object built out of those particles should also have a tendency to unite and have an omni-directional and omni-present force acting between them. Likewise, "inter-object" forces themselves should also be vectors. Furthermore, an object should be able to detect other objects only if forces exist between them.

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3. The Philosophy of our Universe
Our universe is composed of two elementary particles called "Matter" and "Ante-Matter3." Matter is what makes up everything around us. The trees, the mountains, the buildings, the human body-everything is composed of matter. The properties of ante-matter will be defined and discussed in the paragraphs to follow. In line with assumptions made in the section two, matter and ante-matter have all the necessary properties that elementary particles in any other universe would possess. In particular, they have a tendency to unite with each other that generates an omni-directional, omni-present force within them. They combine to form new particles and share a similar field of forces. Likewise, their inter-particulate forces are also vectors. The unification of matter and ante-matter creates a new type of particle called "lobule."4 Since any particle other than matter and ante-matter is not a part of our universe5, lobule too isn't and cannot be a part of our universe. Therefore the lobule, leaving our universe behind, traverses to a different universe. For the sake of clarity, from this point on, I will call our universe the "Matteral" universe and the one to which lobule travels, the "Lobulal" universe. The Lobulal universe, the one to which a lobule travels is actually a universe whose one of the many elementary particles is a lobule. That is, just like matters and ante-matters in our universe, lobules in the Lobulal universe are an elementary particle, a fundamental entity. Although it cannot be said for certain, the Lobulal universe too should contain other elementary particles beside lobules, for example, ante-lobules. If an ante-lobule and a lobule happen to unite, yet another particle should emerge that like the lobule will travel to a new universe of which it is an elementary particle. Throughout this paper I will talk about particles transiting between two or more universes. But, what does it mean to be doing so? How does a particle actually travel between two universes? To understand this, take matter and ante-matter for instance. When they fuse, they form a lobule. Since matter cannot exert pull on anything other than ante-matter6, it cannot detect the presence of other particles, including a lobule. Consequently, the moment a lobule is created in our universe, any matter or anti-matter stops detecting it. To a matter nearby, the uniting matter and ante-matter will seem to disappear all of a sudden. Life of a Universe A universe is an "outer universe" or "mother universe" to another universe is to mean that the elementary particles of the latter combine to form one of the elementary particles of the former. For example, matter and ante-matter of the Matteral universe combine to form the lobule of the Lobulal universe. Thus, Lobulal universe is an "outer universe" or a "mother universe" to our universe. Similarly, a universe is an "inner universe" to another universe if one of the elementary particles of the latter is composed of the elementary particles of the former. For example, Lobules of the Lobulal universe is composed of matter and ante-matter from the Matteral universe. Therefore, our universe is an "inner universe" to the Lobulal universe. A universe takes birth when certain physical circumstances in an outer universe forces one of its elementary particles to split into two or more types of particles which repel each other. In this process the particles thus formed enter a new universe leaving the mother universe behind. Assuming that similar physical circumstances continue to prevail in the mother universe, the elementary particles in the inner universe too continue to repel each other. However, as the conditions in the mother universe get "better"7 or any physical circumstances cease to exist, the particles in the inner universe begin to attract each another again. As a result, a tendency to reunite emerges. Slowly, the elementary entities fuse with one another and return to the outer universe or their mother universe.
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Not to be confused with "Anti-matter" By assumption 7 5 By assumption 2 6 Assumptions 6, 9 7 The process of disappearance of splitting force the universe

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Thus, a universe undergoes two major phases in its lifetime. The first-phase continues until the abnormal circumstances in the mother universe cease to exist. From then on, the second-phase takes over and continues until all elementary particles have re-united and thus, evacuated their universe. I theorise that our universe too was created in the same fashion. Due to unknown causes in the Lobulal universe, the lobules were forced to split into matter and ante-matter. As long as any unnatural circumstances8 prevailed in the outer universe, matters continued to repel ante-matters; consequently, matters continued to be separated from the ante-matters. However with the inter-particulate forces between like particles retained, the matters continued to unite with one another to form conglomerations. Similarly, ante-matters too united with one another to form conglomerations. When the situation in the Lobulal universe changed, or perhaps improved, matter again started to attract antematter so as to reunite and return to the Lobulal universe. The Matteral universe is now in its second phase of life. At this moment, the condition in the Lobulal universe has changed and therefore, even as you read this paper, matter is attracting ante-matter and vice-versa. With the course of time, more matter will unite with more ante-matter to result in tremendous amount of lobule formation. These lobules will return to their respective mother universe and the Matteral universe will slowly empty itself. I started out early in this chapter with a perspective that lobules are a product of the unification of matter and ante-matter. However, it is the lobules that first produce matter and ante-matter, and so the entire phenomenon of lobule formation has to be perceived from a reverse direction. After all, it is only in the second-phase in our universe's life that the unification of matter and ante-matter re-creates a lobule.

Ante-matter and the Black Hole Phenomenon Modern scientists consider black holes as remnants of dead stars that were at least three times bigger than the present-day sun. However, the theory I am putting forward rejects such a hypothesis regardless of the fact that such claims have been a matter of general acceptance among the scientists. The reason behind this strong assertion arises from the fact that black-hole behaviors share a great deal of congruency with the projected behavior of ante-matters from this theory. The black-hole phenomenon can be explained using this theory. A black hole is a cluster of ante-matter. When a bulk of matter approaches a black hole and finally touches the so called "Event Horizon," bits of matter closer to the black hole comes in contact with the ante-matter towards the face of the black hole. As soon as the two elementary particles fuse, they turn into a lobule and return to the Lobulal universe. As more matter attain close proximity with the black hole and touch the "event horizon," more lobules are created. To an observer outside, the matter will seem to be entering the black hole. In actuality however, the matter just fuses with the ante-matter, turns into a lobule and transits to the Lobulal universe. To illustrate my theory, black hole phenomenon can be compared to what I call the "Heated Pan Model". Take for an instance that you have an intensely heated steel pan held with the base of the pan facing up. Now assume that in a dim light you start to pour water on it. Given that the pan is very hot, the water should immediately vaporize as soon as it touches the pan. To any observer unaware that the pan is heated, it may seem to him that the water actually enters the pan. Due to dim light, vapour released is invisible and the observer is led to make false conclusions. As in the case of black holes, what is observed here is far from being the truth. Therefore, matter never enters a black hole. As more matter approaches the black hole, more of the ante-particles in it get consumed. Consequently, the black hole shrinks in size until all matters are consumed by the ante-matters. Then, with a small puff, the black hole disappears.

Abnormal conditions that would otherwise be absent, for example, abrupt change in pressure, surge in temperatures and so on.

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4. The Philosophy of celestial and life processes
Although both phases in a universe's life are important, the second-phase is far more eventful than the first. While in the first-phase, elementary particles continuously repel each other, in the second-phase the very particles (or objects they form) develop a tendency to reunite. A sense of disequilibrium emerges in them and this gives rise to sophisticated celestial activities and life-processes. Gravity Contrary to what assumption eight9 may hint, particles in an object manage to stay intact. Referring to assumption four, the total attractive forces experienced by a particle is the vector sum of forces from every individual particle in the object. However, the only repulsive force1 acting on the particle comes from the few other particles that are in physical contact with it. Therefore, the total attractive force on a particle in any object is always greater than the repulsive force acting on it. Attractions easily surpass the repulsion, and like particles are able to hold on to each other, and thus form an object. Gravitational pull from any object, big or small, is the result of vector addition of inter-particular forces. Take for instance a planet that contains certain number of elementary particles. For an object lying on its surface, the total force experienced is the sum of all the inter-particulate forces from particles inside the planet. Although the magnitudes of individual forces are negligible, the addition results in tremendous amount of force acting on the object called "gravity." This concept is applicable to stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae and any other celestial body in our universe. Light Light is an array of free elementary particles. They are particles that have escaped from the bounds of a conglomeration and freely wander the space in search of other elementary particles. Although any particle in a universe can detect forces from other particles, particles escaped as light are particularly swift at responding to such attractions. When any light is radiated from a source, the "lightmatter" instantaneously feels the field of force from a particle in the universe. Since it is not bound to any system, the light immediately travels towards the object in a straight line. Take for example that a source of light is situated in point "X" of a universe. Suppose that that a particle is situated in a point "Y" in the same universe. Then, the light released from the source will travel in a straight line towards the particle. When the light nears the particle and collides with it, a momentary repulsive force emerges at the point of contact and so the light rebounds. Assuming now that there is another particle in point "Z" of the universe, the reflected light will begin to travel to that particle. As the previous paragraph hints, light only travels to places where there are elementary particles/objects. Take for instance a universe that contains only two small objects one of which is a source of light. Now, given that the source begins to emit light, the light will direct itself to the matter. Assume further that we are able to enter that universe and see the two objects from different views. We will see that all the light radiated from the source will travel to the other object. Unlike our conventional understanding, it will not spread around evenly; the rays will not scatter in all directions. The evolution of celestial and life processes Following the birth of our universe, matter and ante-matter emerged and began to repel each other. Ante-matters united with other ante-matters to form dormant black-holes; and, as matters moved away from them, they too conglomerated into huge objects. Consequently, celestial bodies scattered in space to form galaxies with gigantic black holes at their centre. As the second-phase in our universe's life took over, matter immediately developed a tendency to unite with ante-matter. Therefore, any nascent matter transformed into light and drained via black holes.

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A reaction force exists between two uniting like particles at the point of contact

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Other objects near by too collapsed into a black hole. But, a huge percentage of matter conglomerations remained. When the second-phase in our universe began, a gravitational force emerged in the remaining conglomerations. Inside them, while matters in contact repelled each other, rest of the matters attracted them. Consequently, with every matter trying to exert an attractive force on other matters except the ones in contact, they got bound to the conglomerations they belonged to. This incapacitated them to respond to attractive forces from particles elsewhere. Therefore, increasingly unstable and desperate to break free, they were compelled to device methods to escape. So, the matter in sun used light and the matter in earth used life as a means to escape. At the beginning of life, the earth consisted of minute matter conglomerations such as gases, dust and macroscopic conglomerations such as rocks. It was a barren planet. Slowly however, matter started to couple with other matter and formed microscopic living beings. These objects could move around and perform actions allowing the other wise stationary matters to make interactions with each other. With time, the basic life-forms evolved into highly sophisticated beings that could make tremendous amount of interactions with matter near or far. Starting with minute organism, the matters teamed up to produce beings that could walk around, touch each other and so on.

5. The General Philosophy
Until now, we have talked a lot about universes and the objects they contain. We have used these concepts to describe our universe and universal processes. We have taken our discussion from elementary particles and their properties to objects they make up and the universes that sustain them. However, we have yet to answer few important questions. The first, and probably the most important, question is: Where do universes exist? To answer this, it is essential to introduce a new term- the "world." The world is an endless stretch of volume that contains universes. It can be imagined as a carton box with many universes packed into it. If every universe is a set of unique objects, the world is the union of all those sets of objects. Otherwise put, if the world is one big collection of objects and particles, every universe is its sub-set. Another question yet to be answered is: How do many universes fit into one single world? To be able to answer this question, we must have to understand the universe from an entirely different perspective. The universe, as we like to think, is an endless stretch of darkness that contains galaxies, nebulas, stars and other heavenly bodies. If the reality were to be a function with two variables-- the universe and the objects it contains-- our perception would lead us to assuming the universe as an independent variable and the objects a dependent variable. After all, the universe around us seems to contain those objects and it seems as if the objects inside have taken refuge in the vastness of the gigantic universe. Therefore, we define an object in terms of the universe it exists in. But again, what seems is far from being the truth. Think of the world as a big cartoon box with five green and five red colored marbles unevenly scattered in it. Assume for a moment that all ten balls have a detection capacity and that each of the balls can only detect balls of the same color. If we were able to see through the detection systems of each ball, the universe around those balls would only consist of balls of the same color. Therefore, the universe around a red ball would consist of itself and the other four red balls. Similarly, the universe around a green ball would consist of itself and other green balls. Assuming further that one of the green balls is painted red, the rest four green balls would stop detecting the ball but the five red balls would begin detecting it. As a consequence, the universe around the newly painted ball would now consist of the five red balls that were previously non-existent to it. By painting the green ball red, the universe around the ball changes and therefore it traverses from the "green universe" to the "red universe." A universe is an object specific concept. Like the carton box, the world contains infinite types of elementary particles. However, since none of the particles can detect every other particle in the world due to the absence of inter-particulate force between them, they can only feel or detect a relatively

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small number of types of particle. Hence, the universe around a certain particles only consists of particles that it can detect. One point that I feel needs clarification here is that of universes and the way they are pointed out. Many of you may ask that if universes are object-specific perception, how is it that univereses can be given a name? My answer is: particles that have inter-particulate forces between them are only able to see each other. Hence, a "Type A" particle in one universe will detect the same types and numbers of particles that another "Type A" particle will detect. Since the universe around both particles are common, we are able to point out different universes. For example, the universe around me and my brother is the same. If he can detect the presence of stars in the night sky, I too can do the same. So, the universe that we share is the same. Thus, we are able to call our common universe the Matteral Universe.

Note
This copy is a first draft of "The Philosophy of Everything" and is a "work-in-progress" document, not a "finished job." For this reason, I have decided not given any conclusions at the end. Please take this work in this spirit. I wish to model the concpet mathematically in the future when I have enough mathematical knowledge.

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