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CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

Designing and Installing Exterior Vapor Distribution Systems

Propane Education & Research Council 1140 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 1075, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 452-8975 | Fax: (202) 452-9054 PRC#

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Designing and Installing Exterior Vapor Distribution Systems


Designing and Installing Exterior Vapor Distribution Systems was developed by the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and many others as part of the industrys commitment to promote the safe and efficient use of propane gas as a preferred energy resource. This course provides an overview of key concepts and strategies for field personnel and will aid in preparing for NPGAs CETP certification. Designing and Installing Exterior Vapor Distribution Systems is an essential tool for ensuring employee safety and continuing success.

Course Objectives

Properly determine an effective system load. Identify factors affecting selection of a properly-sized container. Select and install an appropriate container for a vapor distribution system. Identify requirements for establishing a container location. Identify how to properly select, size, and install pipe and tubing for a vapor distribution system. Explain how to analyze and prevent corrosion. Identify the steps to sizing, selecting, and installing regulators. Describe how to properly select and install a vapor meter. Discuss primary special installations that correspond with a vapor distribution system.

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INTRODUCTION

NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER CONCERNING LIABILITY


The Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) is a non-profit 501(c)6 trade organization authorized by the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 (PERA), Public Law 104-284. PERC was created to enhance consumer and employee safety and training, to provide for research and development of clean and efficient propane utilization equipment, and to inform and educate the public about safety and other issues associated with the use of propane. PERC is governed by a 21 member Board of Directors appointed by the National Propane Gas Association (NPGA) and the Gas Processors Association (GPA). PERC program beneficiaries include propane retail marketers, producers, transporters and agricultural cooperatives, as well as representatives of allied service and supply industries (industry members). The recommendations, standards, or recommended practices, as reflected in this document, were developed by independent consultants retained by PERC. While PERC administers the process of obtaining the information, it does not independently test or verify the accuracy of the information or methods used to collect the data that supports the conclusions or recommendations reflected in this document. PERC, NPGA, GPA and the industry members disclaim any liability for any personal injury, property damage, business losses or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use, or reliance on this document, or any information, apparatus, method, process, or similar item disclosed in this document. This disclaimer of liability shall apply even if such loss or damage results, in whole or in part, from any acts or omissions of or by any negligence on the part of PERC, NPGA, GPA or industry members or any persons who contributed to the development of the information contained in this document. PERC, NPGA, GPA and industry members make no warranty or guaranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published in this document. Text and code references found in this document are based on the 2012 edition of NFPA 54: National Fuel Gas Code and the 2011 edition of NFPA 58: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. The procedures and information in this document are intended to implement the standards set forth in the documents referenced with capabilities of the personnel and equipment available. It does not create new standards or criteria for compliance. The order of steps in any procedure may or may not be of importance. This material is not sold nor is it a product of any consulting or engineering activity. Users of this document should consult the law of their individual jurisdictions for codes, standards and legal requirements applicable to them. This document is not intended nor should it be construed to (1) set forth policies or procedures which are the general custom or practice in the propane industry; (2) to establish the legal standards of care owed by propane distributors to their customers; or (3) to prevent the user from using different methods to implement applicable codes, standards or legal requirements. By disseminating or publishing this document, PERC is not undertaking to render any professional or other service to or on behalf of any person or entity. PERC, NPGA, GPA and the industry members are not undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to any third party. Anyone reading or using this document should rely on his or her own judgment or, as appropriate, should seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any and all circumstances.

Propane Education & Research Council


1140 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 1075 Washington, DC 20036 http://www.propanecouncil.org | http://www.propanesafety.com

2012 Propane Education & Research Council. All Rights Reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission.

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INTRODUCTION

TABLE OF CONTENTS
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK, ...........................................................XI MODULE 1. INTRODUCTION TO DESIGNING VAPOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS............................................................. 1
Welcome, 1

LESSON 3. SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE CONTAINER, 35


Introduction, 35 DOT Cylinders, 36 Container Sizing: DOT Cylinders, 37 ASME Tanks, 38 Container Sizing: Aboveground ASME Tanks, 39 Container Sizing: Underground ASME Tanks, 40 Container Sizing: Mounded Underground ASME Tanks, 41 Check for Understanding, 42 Learning Activity: Select the Appropriate Container, 43

LESSON 1. COURSE OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES, 3


Safety Mission, 3 Who Should Take This Course?, 4 Course Purpose, 5 Course Objectives, 6 Course Format, 7 Course Resources and References: Codes, 8 Course Resources and References: Handbooks, 9

LESSON 4. ESTABLISHING CONTAINER LOCATION, 45


Introduction, 45 Factors Affecting Location of Containers, 46 NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: All Containers Filled On Site, 47 NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: DOT Cylinders, 48 NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: Aboveground ASME Tanks, 50 NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: Underground ASME Tanks, 51 Learning Activity: container distance requirements, 52 Ensuring Access for Delivery, 53 Type of Container, 54 Verifying Underground Utilities, 55 Special Location Considerations, 56 Factors Affecting Location of Containers: Customer Preferences, 57 Learning Activity: Establish Appropriate Container Location, 58

MODULE 2. DESIGNING VAPOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: CONTAINER AND LINES.............................................................. 11


Introduction, 11

LESSON 1. DETERMINING EFFECTIVE SYSTEM LOAD, 13


Introduction, 13 Total Gas Demand, 14 Customer Gas Appliance User Profile, 15 Determining Total Gas Demand, 16 Check for Understanding, 17 Effective System Load, 18 Determining Effective System Load, 19 Learning Activity: Calculate Effective System Load, 20 Total Gas Demand vs. Effective System Load, 21

LESSON 2. FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF A PROPERLY-SIZED CONTAINER, 23


Introduction, 23 Overview of Factors Affecting Container Sizing, 24 Vaporization and Container Sizing, 25 Vaporization Rate Factors: Wetted Surface Area , 26 Vaporization Rate Factors: Temperature, 27 Vaporization Rate Factors: Humidity, 28 Vaporization Charts and Tables, 29 Reading Vaporization Charts, 30 Container Installation: Aboveground vs. Underground, 31 Customer and Marketer Considerations, 32 Other Considerations, 33 Check for Understanding, 34

LESSON 5. SELECTING AND SIZING PIPE AND TUBING, 59


Introduction, 59 Overview of Pipe and Tubing Materials, 60 Steel and Wrought Iron Pipes: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms, 61 Steel and Wrought Iron Pipes: Categories and Installation Considerations, 62 Copper Tubing: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms, 63 Copper Tubing: Categories, 64 Copper Tubing Installation Considerations, 65 PE Pipe and Tubing: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms, 66

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INTRODUCTION

PE Pipe and Tubing: Categories and Installation Considerations, 67 CSST: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms, 68 Sizing Pipe and Tubing Between First- and Second-Stage Regulators, 69 Sizing Pipe and Tubing for Multiple Second-Stage Regulators, 71 Learning Activity: Select the Appropriate Piping and Tubing Size, 72 Lesson 6. Corrosion Analysis and Prevention Introduction, 73 Basics of Corrosion , 74 Types of Corrosion, 75 Atmospheric Corrosion, 76 Soil Corrosion, 77 General and Galvanic Corrosion, 78 Crevice Corrosion, 79 Pitting, 80 Check for Understanding, 81 Corrosion Prevention Methods, 82 Paint and Protective Coatings, 83 Cathodic Protection Systems, 84 Sacrificial Anodes, 85 Impressed Current Systems , 86 Gas Piping Protection, 87 Electrically Insulating Fittings, 88 Learning Activity: Corrosion Analysis and Prevention, 89 Module Summary , 90

Regulator Vent, 114 Causes of Regulator Freeze-up, 115 Preventing Regulator Freeze-up, 116 Check for Understanding, 117 Factors for Selecting Regulators, 118 Inlet Pressure, Outlet Pressure, and Total Gas Demand, 119 Overpressure Protection, 120 Regulator Performance Curves, 121 Designing the Second-Stage Regulator System, 122 Factors in Determining the Number of Second-Stage Regulators, 123 Learning Activity: Selecting Multiple Second-stage Regulators, 124 Pressure Requirements, 125 Checking Your Second-Stage Regulator Selection, 126 Selecting First-Stage Regulators, 127 Selecting 2-psi regulators, 128 Selecting Regulators: LP-Gas Code, 129 Selecting Regulators: General Considerations, 130 Check for Understanding, 131

LESSON 2. VAPOR METERS


Introduction, 133 Vapor Meter Operation, 134 Propane Capacities of Vapor Meters, 135 Pressure Factors, 136 Sizing a Vapor Meter, 137 Meter Indexes , 139 Other Meter Accessories, 140 Other Vapor Meter Issues, 141 Module Summary, 142

MODULE 2 QUIZ, 91 MODULE 3. DESIGNING VAPOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: REGULATORS AND METERS....................................................... 95
Introduction, 95

MODULE 3 QUIZ........................................................................ 143 MODULE 4. PREPARING SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR ............................................................................. 145 TRANSPORT.
Introduction, 145

LESSON 1. REGULATOR SIZING AND SELECTION, 97


Introduction, 97 Purpose of Regulators, 98 Regulator Components, 99 LA Identify regulator components, 101 Types of Regulators, 102 Single-Stage Regulators, 103 First- and Second-Stage Regulators, 104 High-Pressure Regulators, 105 Integral 2-Stage Regulators, 106 Regulators for 2-psi Systems, 107 Regulator Operations, 109 Satisfying Gas Demand, 110 Adjusting Outlet Pressure, 112 Relieving Excess Pressure, 113

LESSON 1: VERIFYING CONTAINER CONDITION, 147


Introduction, 147 DOT Cylinder Inspection, 148 Step 1. Check the DOT Cylinder Manufacturer or Requalification Date, 149 Important DOT Requalification Terms, 150 Step 2. Determine the Overall Fitness of the DOT Cylinder, 151 Step 2. Determine the Overall Fitness of the DOT Cylinder, continued, 152 Step 3. Identify Required DOT Cylinder Markings, 153 Step 4. Identify Required DOT Cylinder Labels, 154 Learning Activity: Inspecting DOT Cylinders, 155 ASME Tank Inspection, 156 Step 1. Verify Amount of Propane in the ASME Tank , 157 Step 2. Check Condition of the ASME Tank Coating, 158

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Step 3. Check Valves and Fittings, 159 Step 4. Check Lugs and Supports for ASME Tank Inspection, 159 Step 5: Check Data Plate Markings for ASME Tank Inspection, 160 Perform a Leak Test, 161 Odorant Verification, 162 Check for Understanding, 163

Exterior Site Assessment: Other Considerations, 201 Check for Understanding, 202

LESSON 2. INSTALLING ABOVEGROUND CONTAINERS, 203


Introduction, 203 General Safety Precautions, 204 Installing DOT Cylinders and Vertical ASME Tanks, 205 Introduction to Multiple Cylinder Installation, 207 Types of Changeover Regulators, 208 Selecting and Using Pigtails, 209 Automatic Regulator Installation, 210 Manual Regulator Installation, 211 Thread-Sealing Compounds, 212 Check for Understanding, 213 Assembling a Manifold System for Automatic Changeover Service, 214 Assembling Manifold System for Manual Changeover Service, 215 Assembling Manifold System for Stationary Cylinders, 216 Installing ASME Tanks, 218 Check for Understanding, 221 Manifolded ASME Tanks, 222 Installing Manifolded ASME Tanks, 223 Fabricating and Installing Manifold Piping, 225

LESSON 2. LOADING CONTAINERS FOR TRANSPORTATION AND INSTALLATION, 165


Introduction, 165 DOT Requirements for ASME Tank Transportation: Less than 5%, 166 DOT Requirements for ASME Tank Transportation: Over 5%, 167 DOT Requirements for ASME Tank Transportation, 168 DOT Requirements for Cylinder Transportation, 169 DOT Requirements for Vehicle Documentation, 170 DOT Requirements for Vehicle Documentation, continued, 171 NFPA Requirements for Vehicle Safety Equipment, 172 Check for Understanding, 173 ASME Tank and DOT Cylinder Service Vehicles, 174 DOT Cylinder Loading Accessories: Cylinder Dollies, 175 DOT Cylinder Loading Accessories: Cylinder Dollies, continued, 176 DOT Cylinder Loading Accessories: Lift Gates, 177 Loading and Securing DOT Cylinders, 178 Loading Tanks Using Truck-Mounted Cranes: Pre-Loading Tasks, 179 Loading Tanks Using Truck-Mounted Cranes, 180 Safe and compliant container loading practices, 183 Loading Tanks Using Tank Setting Trailers: Types, 184 Loading Tanks Using Tank Setting Trailers: Inspection, 185 Loading Tanks Using Tank Setting Trailers, 186 Safety Considerations for Tank Setting Trailers, 187 Assembling Job Tools and Materials, 188 Transporting MOT, 189 Transportation Safety Responsibilities, 190 Learning Activity: Safely loading cdvs, 191 Module Summary, 192

LESSON 3. INSTALLING UNDERGROUND ASME TANKS, 229


Introduction, 229 Code Requirements for Underground Tank Installation, 230 Step 1. Verify the Tank Location, 231 Step 2. Determine the Size of the Hole, 232 Step 3. Digging the Hole, 233 Step 4. Prepare the Excavation Base, 234 Check for Understanding, 235 Step 5. Install the Anodes, 236 Step 6. Unload and Place the Tank, 238 Step 7. Finish Installing the Anodes, 240 Step 8. Prepare the Tank for Service, 241 Step 9. Backfill the Excavation, 243 Manifolding Underground ASME Tanks, 245 Installing Manifolded Underground ASME Tanks, 246

MODULE 4 QUIZ, 193 MODULE 5. INSTALLING CONTAINERS..................................... 195


Introduction 195

LESSON 4. TESTING, TROUBLESHOOTING, AND RETROFITTING CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS


Introduction, 249 Testing the Cathodic Protection System, 250 Testing the Cathodic Protection System, Continued, 252 Troubleshooting, 253 Retrofitting, 255 Retrofitting an Existing Tank, 256 Module Summary, 259

LESSON 1. PRE-INSTALLATION ACTIVITIES, 197


Introduction, 197 Pre-Installation Review and Verification, 198 Spotting and Parking Delivery Vehicle, 199 Exterior Site Assessment: Underground Utilities, 200

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MODULE 5 QUIZ........................................................................ 261 MODULE 6. INSTALLING LINES................................................. 263


INTRODUCTION, 263

LESSON 1. INSTALLING VAPOR DELIVERY LINES, 265


Introduction, 265 NFPA 58 Requirements for Piping Installation, 266 Aboveground Lines, 267 NFPA 58 Requirements for Aboveground Lines, 268 Installing Underground Lines, 269 Step 1. Dig a Trench, 270 Steps 2 and 3. Insert Pipe or Tubing in the Trench and Plug or Cap Lines, 271 Step 4. Testing Outside Lines for Leakage, 272 Step 4. Testing Outside Lines for Leakage, Step-by-Step, 273 Step 5. Backfill the Trench, 275 Check for Understanding, 276

Laying Steel Piping, 307 Check for Understanding, 308 Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing , 309 Installing CSST: Precautions, 310 Module Summary, 311

MODULE 6 QUIZ, 313 MODULE 7. INSTALLING REGULATORS AND METERS.............. 315


INTRODUCTION, 315

LESSON 1. INSTALLING REGULATORS, 317


Introduction, 317 Code Requirements, 318 Code Requirements for Single- and 2-stage Systems, 319 Code Requirements for First-Stage and High-Pressure Regulators, 320 Code Requirements: Installation, Location, and Remote Venting, 321 Check for Understanding, 322 Regulator Installation Accessories: Pigtail Connector, 323 Regulator Installation Accessories: Vent Extension, 324 Installing First-Stage Regulators, 325 Installing Integral 2-Stage Regulators, 326 Second-Stage Regulator Installation: A Closer Look, 327 Installing Second-Stage Regulators, 328 Installing 2 psi Service Regulator Systems, 330 Inspecting and Protecting Regulators, 331 Learning Activity: Installing Regulators, 332

LESSON 2. INSTALLING VAPOR PE DISTRIBUTION LINES, 277


Introduction, 277 PE Pipe and Tubing, 278 Joining PE Pipe and Tubing, 279 Mechanical Fittings, 280 Special Tools, 282 Laying PE Pipe, 283 Installing Tracer Wire, 284 Attaching the PE Piping , 285 Attaching the PE Piping to the Mechanical Fittings, 286 Check for Understanding, 287

LESSON 2. INSTALLING VAPOR METERS


Introduction, 333 Protecting Meters Against Physical Damage, 334 Selecting Meter Location, 335 Installing Meters at Propane Containers, 336 Installing Meters at Service Entrances, 337 Preparing and Mounting the Meter for Service, 338 Check for Understanding, 339 Installing the Meter, 340 Interior Site Assessment, 342 Recommended Safety Checklist , 343 Module Summary, 345

LESSON 3. INSTALLING VAPOR DELIVERY LINES: COPPER, 289


Introduction, 289 Copper Tubing, 290 Laying Copper Tubing, 291 Joining Copper Tubing, 292 Flared Tube Connectors, 293 Step-by-step: Creating a Flare Connection, 294

LESSON 4. INSTALLING VAPOR DELIVERY LINES: METAL AND CSST......................................................................................... 297


Introduction, 297 Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe, 298 Steel Pipe Fittings, 299 Types of Steel Pipe Fittings, 300 Cutting and Threading Tools, 302 Measuring Steel Pipe, 303 STEP-BY-STEP: Cutting Steel Pipe, 304 STEP-BY-STEP: Threading Steel Pipe, 305 STEP-BY-STEP: Assembling Threaded Pipe Connections, 306

MODULE 7 QUIZ........................................................................ 347 MODULE 8. OTHER INSTALLATIONS......................................... 349


Introduction, 349

LESSON 1. SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS, 351


Introduction, 351 Overview, 352 Learning Activity: Special Installations, 353

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LESSON 2. CONTAINER-TO-CONTAINER TRANSFER OF LIQUID PROPANE, 355


Introduction, 355 Pre-Transfer Review, 356 Evacuation Safety Precautions, 357 Steps for Transferring Propane, 358 Step 1: Determine the Amount of Propane to be Transferred, 359 Step 2: Prepare the Evacuation Site, 360 Step 3: Inspect and Connect Pressurized Hoses and Assemblies, 365 Step 4: Evacuate Liquid Propane, 367 Step 5: Bleed Down and Disconnect Liquid Transfer Hoses, 369 DOT Container Evacuation, 373 Check for Understanding, 374 Module Summary, 375

Post Event Actions, 413 Module Summary, 414

MODULE 10 QUIZ, 415 CETP PRE-CERTIFICATION REVIEW.......................................... 417 CHECK YOUR WORK................................................................. 427 GLOSSARY................................................................................ 435 RESOURCES.............................................................................. 441

MODULE 8 QUIZ, 377 MODULE 9. SYSTEM TESTS...................................................... 379


Introduction, 379

LESSON 1. SYSTEM TESTS, 381


Introduction, 381 System Tests, 382 Test for Leakage and Pressure Test, 383 Leak Check and Leak Test, 384 Flow and Lock-up Tests, 385 Module Summary, 387

MODULE 9 QUIZ, 389 MODULE 10. SAFETY INFORMATION........................................ 391


Introduction, 391

LESSON 1. CUSTOMER SAFETY, 393


Introduction, 393 Propane Safety Brochures, 394 Decals, 398 Shutting Off Propane Flow: Demonstration, 399 Emergency Numbers, 400 Importance of Good Documentation, 401 Check for Understanding, 404 Introduction, 405 What is an Uncontrolled Release of Propane?, 406 Who is an Emergency Responder?, 407 What to Do In the Event of an Emergency, 408 Evacuate the Affected Area , 409 Be Aware of Your Surroundings, 410 Call for Help, 411 When Help Arrives, 412

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How To Use This Book


Each module is organized into lessons and pages that cover key topics. You will also find:

Checks for Understanding


These mini-quizzes provide a chance for you to periodically check your knowledge. Answers and helpful feedback are found in the Check Your Work section in the back of the book.

End of Module Quizzes


Your instructor may ask you to take this quiz as a pre-assessment, or you may take it once you have completed a module to help better prepare you for your CETP certification.

Learning Activities, Case Studies, and Discoveries


These have been provided to give you the opportunity to become more active in your learning. Answers and helpful feedback can be found in the Check Your Work section in the back of the book.

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Designing and Installing Exterior Vapor Distribution Systems

MODULE i
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MODULE 1

Module 1. Introduction to Designing Vapor Distribution Systems


WELCOME
Welcome to Designing and Installing Exterior Vapor Distribution Systems, which focuses primarily on designing and installing the exterior portions of a vapor distribution system for both residential and small commercial markets. This course has been developed in partnership with the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and other industry experts to promote the safe and efficient use of propane as a preferred energy resource. The propane industry is committed to providing the highest level of safety and service to its customers, employees, and the entire propane community. Safety is at the heart of our commitment, and high-quality training is an essential tool for ensuring your safety and continuing success.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

Module 1. Introduction to Designing Vapor Distribution Systems

MODULE 1
CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

Lesson 1. Course Overview and Objectives


MODULE 1

SAFETY MISSION
Safety is an industry-wide responsibility that extends to everyone who handles propane. The more you know about dispensing, storing, and using propane the more you help reduce the risk of accidents. Each of us in the propane industry can contribute to a shared mission by doing all we can to increase public confidence in the safety and value of propane.

Safety Goals To fully achieve this safety mission, the propane industry has established five critical goals:

Reduce accidents and incidents. Improve safety awareness. Increase consumer confidence. Strengthen propane employees skills and knowledge. Improve regulatory compliance.

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Module 1. Introduction to Designing Vapor Distribution Systems

WHO SHOULD TAKE THIS COURSE?


MODULE 1
Since safety and reliability are everyones business, employees throughout the propane industry will find this training useful, and perhaps even life saving. This course is designed to train:

Installation and service personnel. Sales personnel. Managers and supervisors.

The information, learning activities, and quizzes are designed to help you safely install appliances and interior vapor distribution systems. However all personnel in the propane industry will gain a basic overview of key concepts and safety strategies for working with propane systems.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

Lesson 1. Course Overview and Objectives

COURSE PURPOSE
MODULE 1
The purpose of this course is to provide current information, practices, and procedures to safely and efficiently design and install exterior components for residential and small commercial propane vapor distribution systems. This course is designed to be both a learning resource and a career development tool. Additionally, this course will help prepare you for NPGAs CETP certification.

Talk with your supervisor to learn about which certification program your company offers or visit the NPGA website: www.npga.org, to learn more about CETP certification.

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Module 1. Introduction to Designing Vapor Distribution Systems

COURSE OBJECTIVES
MODULE 1
After completing this course, you will be able to:

Properly determine an effective system load. Identify factors affecting selection of a properly-sized container. Select and install an appropriate container for a vapor distribution system. Identify requirements for establishing a container location. Identify how to properly select, size, and install pipe and tubing for a vapor distribution system. Explain how to analyze and prevent corrosion. Identify the steps to sizing, selecting, and installing regulators. Describe how to properly select and install a vapor meter. Discuss primary special installations that correspond with a vapor distribution system.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

Lesson 1. Course Overview and Objectives

COURSE FORMAT
MODULE 1
Designing and Installing Exterior Vapor Distribution Systems is divided into nine modules, each with one or more lessons. Each module includes:

Up-to-date information, procedures, and regulations; effective as of the date of publication. Interactive learning activities to apply your knowledge. Questions to check for understanding. An end-of-module quiz.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

Module 1. Introduction to Designing Vapor Distribution Systems

COURSE RESOURCES AND REFERENCES: CODES


Many agencies of the federal government play major roles in developing regulations, codes, and standards to ensure the safe transportation, storage, handling, and use of propane, including:

MODULE 1

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)

Each of these organizations develops regulations, codes, or standards referenced throughout this course. Here are the two most common references used in these lessons:

NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code: This publication provides standards for the installation of fuel gas piping systems, appliances, equipment, and related accessories. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): This government resource contains all of the federal rules and regulations that apply to the propane industry. This course references various federal regulations, including those developed by the DOT governing the construction of cylinders and the safe transportation of propane.

Always check with your supervisor to determine all of the safety codes that apply to your job responsibilities. As a general rule, it is important that you follow the manufacturers instructions when installing and using products.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

Lesson 1. Course Overview and Objectives

COURSE RESOURCES AND REFERENCES: HANDBOOKS


The NFPA 54 code handbook helps explain codes within the industry and provides commentary that brings the legalistic language of the code to life. The handbook can be used to help company managers, supervisors, and you apply code requirements on the job. The references to NFPA 54 and other codes and standards, are included in this training to:

MODULE 1

Increase your awareness of these important resources. Provide a general overview of how these codes and standards govern your work. Show you how these codes and standards relate to concepts presented in the training. Provide background for you to better understand rules and regulations at your place of work. Familiarize you with codes that can be used as resources during your certification test.

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Module 1. Introduction to Designing Vapor Distribution Systems

MODULE 1
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MODULE 2

Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines


INTRODUCTION
Designing and installing a vapor distribution system involves many different elements. In this module, you will learn how to analyze these elements in order to successfully select and size all containers, pipes, and tubes for a system. You will also learn about corrosion analysis and prevention.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be to:

Determine the effective system load for a vapor distribution system. Identify the proper selection and size of containers, pipes, and tubes for a vapor distribution system. Identify proper container locations. Explain how to analyze and prevent corrosion upon installing a vapor distribution system.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

MODULE 2
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Lesson 1. Determining Effective System Load


MODULE 2

Introduction
When designing vapor distribution systems you will need to select and size the equipment for your customers propane vapor distribution system. To properly select and size the equipment you will need to determine total gas demand and calculate the effective system load, commonly referred to as actual load.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Determine the total gas demand of present and future propane-fueled appliances. Calculate the effective system load of a propane vapor distribution system.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Total Gas Demand


MODULE 2
Total gas demand, also called total connected load, is the sum of the rated Btu/hr input for each propane-fueled appliance connected to the vapor distribution system. In other words, total gas demand is the amount of gas that would be used if the customer turned on all propane-fueled appliances at the same time and kept them operating for one hour.

Total gas demand is calculated to ensure:


Proper sizing of regulators and distribution lines. Proper sizing of containers.

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Lesson 1. Determining Effective System Load

15

Customer Gas Appliance User Profile


MODULE 2
A Customer Gas Appliance Use Profile form can be used to gather and document the necessary data when establishing total gas demand. While this form may vary from company to company, the format is generally the same:

Front of form: The front of the form documents the type of installation and information about the customers planned use of current and future appliances. Back of form: The back of the form captures the customers propane-fueled appliance Btu/hr input ratings.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Determining Total Gas Demand


MODULE 2
To determine total gas demand:

1. Locate the propane-fueled appliances currently installed in


the customers home. You should also ask your customer if appliances will be added in the future inside or outside the home, as these will need to be considered when determining total gas demand.

2. Determine the Btu/hr input ratings of all appliances currently


served by the propane system and all appliances that may be added in the future. To do this, locate the data plates on the customers current appliances, and document the Btu/hr input ratings on the Customer Gas Appliance Use Profile form. If the input ratings are not indicated on an appliance, or an appliance is not yet installed, refer to your company policy or contact your supervisor for input rating information. You can estimate the amount of propane an appliance demands using a reference table like the one provided in NFPA 54. Reference tables provide approximate gas input for typical appliances and can be used for estimating the total gas demand of future appliances.

3. Take the Btu/hr input ratings for all existing and future
appliances and add them together. The sum is the total gas demand.

See Resources for more information about NFPAs input rating table.

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Lesson 1. Determining Effective System Load

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 2
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 427.

Total gas demand is calculated to ensure the proper sizing of regulators and distribution lines and that the container is sized properly.
True

False

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Effective System Load


MODULE 2
Even though total gas demand can be used to properly size regulators, distribution lines, and containers, total gas demand does not occur under day to day operations. Your customers probably will not use all of their appliances simultaneously at full capacity for extended periods of time. Effective system load is used to determine the amount of propane required to operate appliances at a reduced demand and assumes the customers appliances:

Operate at full demand only during typical operating cycles (for example, during a clothes drying cycle, or when cooking). Do not operate simultaneously.

This type of demand is a more realistic measure of actual usage and therefore requires a smaller container than total gas demand would require.

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Lesson 1. Determining Effective System Load

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Determining Effective System Load


MODULE 2
To determine effective system load:

1. Refer to the Btu/hr input rating for each appliance


documented on the Customer Gas Appliance Use Profile form.

2. Determine the average load factor for each appliance.


This is a number that represents typical usage for a specific appliance. Check with your supervisor to obtain a table with these load factors.

3. Multiply the Btu/hr input rating for each appliance by its


corresponding average system load factor. The result is the effective load for each appliance.

4. Add the effective load number for each propane-fueled


appliance to calculate the total effective system load.

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Learning Activity: Calculate Effective System Load

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Check your work on page 427.

Lesson 1. Determining Effective System Load

21

Total Gas Demand vs. Effective System Load


Total gas demand is the amount of propane required to allow all appliances to operate at full capacity. Although this is used to size regulators and distribution lines, selecting a container based on this level of demand would require a much larger container than what is needed under routine operation. Effective system load is the amount of gas required to operate the appliances at a normal level of demand. Selecting a container based on this level of demand would require a smaller container than a total gas demand. The demand for propane is an important factor in selecting the proper container, but there are other factors to consider. Selecting the appropriate size and type of container will be the focus of our next few lessons.

MODULE 2

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

MODULE 2
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Lesson 2. Factors Affecting Selection of a Properly-Sized Container


Introduction
When selecting and sizing a container, you must ensure that the container is large enough to supply the required system demand under the most severe conditions anticipated for the installation location. The ability to make safe, efficient, and reliable deliveries must also be considered. This lesson provides an overview of the factors affecting the selection of a properly-sized container. The most critical issues are:

MODULE 2

The customers propane demand. Container vaporization or withdrawal rate and the impact of weather and environmental conditions. Whether a tank will be aboveground or underground.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify factors that need to be considered when sizing a propane container. Explain how these factors affect the sizing of a propane container.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Overview of Factors Affecting Container Sizing


MODULE 2
A number of factors affect sizing a propane container. In the previous lesson, you learned about total gas demand and effective system load. An accurate customer use profile is important to estimate the actual or effective load in the container sizing and selection process.

Other important factors which will be discussed in detail in this lesson include:
Vaporization Rate Factors: When a container is sized for vapor service, the goal is to ensure that the vaporization rate of the container is greater than the demand for propane. The factors affecting vaporization include wetted surface area of the container, liquid level in the container, temperature and humidity surrounding the container, and whether the container is aboveground or underground.

Type of Container Selected: When selecting and sizing a container, it is important to determine whether it will be installed aboveground or underground. For example, soil temperature and frost penetration must be considered when selecting an underground tank.

Customer and Marketer Considerations: Customer considerations, such as aboveground or underground container installation, and marketer considerations, such as delivery schedules and operating policies, also affect the sizing of containers.

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Vaporization and Container Sizing


MODULE 2
The vaporization rate of a container is the amount of vapor that a container can produce during a period of operation.

When a container is sized for vapor service, the goal is to ensure the vaporization rate of the container is greater than the demand for propane. For propane appliances to function properly, vaporization must occur at a rate that will adequately deliver propane to meet appliance demand requirements.

To learn more about vaporization, please refer to the Basic Principles and Practices of Propane course.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Vaporization Rate Factors: Wetted Surface Area


MODULE 2
The wetted surface area of a container affects its vaporization rate. The wetted surface is the portion of the interior wall of the container that is in contact with liquid propane. The heat required to vaporize liquid is transferred through the walls of the container. The greater the wetted surface area of the container, the more vapor it is capable of producing, thereby increasing its vaporization rate. As propane vapor is withdrawn from the container, the liquid level drops. This means that the volume of liquid that can accept the heat transfer is decreased. In turn, as the heat transfer to the liquid propane decreases, the vaporization rate of the container decreases.
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Vaporization Rate Factors: Temperature


MODULE 2
The temperature surrounding the container is one of the most important factors affecting its vaporization rate. When sizing a container, it is important to determine the most severe weather conditions under which the container must operate.

Vaporization rate is high in hot weather because higher temperatures surrounding the container create more heat that is transferred to the stored liquid propane.

Low outside temperatures reduce the containers vaporization capacity. When the temperature of the liquid is lower, more heat from the wetted surface area is required to bring the temperature of the liquid propane to its boiling point. Therefore, when determining container size, the temperature used for tank sizing should be the lowest temperature anticipated for that installations location.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Vaporization Rate Factors: Humidity


MODULE 2
If the air is moist due to humidity, and the walls of the container become cold due to demand for gas, moisture may condense on the exterior surface of the container and freeze. As ice builds on the container, it may become more insulated. This results in the container absorbing less heat, which decreases its vaporization rate. When the humidity is lower, the container can absorb more heat because there is less moisture insulating it. You should consult with an engineer or tank manufacturer for assistance in calculating vaporization capacity in areas with expected high humidity especially in colder climates. Typically, additional containers or larger ones will be necessary to supply adequate vaporization capacity in these situations.
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Vaporization Charts and Tables


MODULE 2
Vaporization charts provide vaporization rates for containers and are useful in sizing containers. These charts are available from equipment suppliers and are based on the engineering principles of heat transfer for various container sizes under different temperature conditions. Many vaporization charts do not factor humidity in their capacity ratings. It is important that you take the time to examine the assumptions and conditions that apply to each vaporization chart. These assumptions are applied to approximate the gas system demand. Some of the charts use a continuous demand estimate, while others use an intermittent demand estimate. A third approach, similar to intermittent demand, applies sizing factors for the various appliances of the system.

When sizing ASME tanks, many service technicians and installation planners also use the rule of thumb method for estimating the vaporization capacity. This method uses ASME tank dimensions, liquid level, and a constant value for each 10% of liquid to estimate the vaporization capacity of a given tank size at 0 F.

ASME stands for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

For cylinder installations, a different rule of thumb method can be used for estimating the number of cylinders required in an installation based on vaporization rates. See Resources for more information on these rule of thumb methods.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Reading Vaporization Charts


MODULE 2
To properly-size containers, follow these steps to read a vaporization chart.

1. Select the applicable section on the chart based on the


lowest tank pressure and the minimum percentage the tank would get down to.

2. Select the appropriate temperature column based on the


lowest temperature for the operating season of the tank.

3. Read down the temperature column to find the Btu/hr rating


equal to or greater than the effective system load.

4. Read across the table to the Tank Capacity column to


identify the required container size.

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Container Installation: Aboveground vs. Underground


MODULE 2
When selecting and sizing a container, it is important to determine if it will be installed aboveground or underground.

Aboveground Containers
Containers that are installed aboveground are sized based on whether they are horizontal or vertical. With a vertical container, only one end and the vertical sides of the container are a part of the wetted surface. With a horizontal container, both ends of the container are part of the wetted surface. Because the wetted surface area affects vaporization, different sizing methods are used for vertical and horizontal containers. DOT cylinders can only be installed aboveground, whereas ASME tanks can be installed above or underground depending on their design.

Underground Tanks
Tanks installed underground are sized differently than containers installed aboveground. The frost penetration depth affects how deep the tank is buried underground; the surrounding soil temperature is dependent on the buried depth of the tank. These factors affect vaporization and, in turn, tank sizing. Frost penetration depth in the soil is important to consider when selecting underground tanks. Underground tanks should not be used in a location where it is likely that a frost line will develop on the tank surface where propane vaporization occurs. Check with your local office of the National Weather Service (NWS) for details on frost line measurements in your area.

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Customer and Marketer Considerations


MODULE 2
Customer preferences and marketer delivery schedules also play a part in selecting and sizing a container. For example, a customer preference may be to install a container so it is not visible within a particular line of sight. In this case, an underground ASME tank installation might be an acceptable selection. From the propane marketers perspective, an efficient and reliable delivery schedule for the installation is critical. Proper tank sizing is important to prevent customer propane outages while maintaining planned delivery routes and schedules. To accommodate delivery schedules, it is common in container sizing to apply a constant (that is, a percentage multiplier) called a K Factor. This factor represents the lowest percentage of liquid that your company allows in the container before refilling it. Higher K Factors represent higher minimum fill levels. For more information about methods and considerations for proper tank sizing, see your company policy. See Resources for more information about K Factors.

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Other Considerations
MODULE 2
Some other considerations also affect the selection and sizing of containers. The Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) can invoke local requirements that restrict container selection, such as limits on the number of gallons or pounds of propane stored, or requirements that all storage containers be either aboveground or underground. Check with your supervisor to determine if any such restrictions exist for your customers installation. Access to the site, prevailing or potential weather conditions, and the design and layout of the site all play a role in the selection and sizing of tanks. If on-site filling is the mode of propane delivery, the bobtails delivery hose and nozzle must be able to safely reach the containers fill valve; otherwise, cylinder exchange may be required. Youve already learned some factors that affect vaporization rates. You must also consider:

Temperature, humidity, and the presence or absence, depth and density of snow cover. Geographical area and flood zones. Underground services, utilities, and terrain conditions (such as rocky soil and steep elevations).

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Check for Understanding


MODULE 2
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 427.

Which of the following is not a factor affecting the sizing of a propane container?
Customer propane load

Vaporization rate of container

Container manufacturer/brand

Type of container

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Lesson 3. Selecting the Appropriate Container


MODULE 2

Introduction
In the last lesson, you learned about the various factors affecting propane storage container sizing. In this lesson, you will learn about U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) cylinders and ASME tanks, and the criteria you should use to select the appropriate container based on the factors affecting its sizing.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Select the appropriate container type for a vapor distribution system. Determine the appropriate container size based on the vapor distribution system demand and container vaporization rates.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

DOT Cylinders
MODULE 2
When used for residential or small commercial installations, DOT cylinders typically range from 100 lb to 420 lb propane capacity and are usually vertical cylinders. DOT cylinders are only installed aboveground and can never be buried.

Exchange Cylinders
Exchange cylinders typically have a propane capacity of 100 lb and in rare cases 150 lb. They are generally used for low to medium Btu/hr applications such as space heaters, water heaters, clothes dryers, or gas logs. Exchange cylinders are typically installed in pairs, with one being the supply cylinder and the other a reserve cylinder. The two cylinders normally have an automatic changeover regulator between them that switches the propane supply to the reserve cylinder when pressure in the supply cylinder is low, indicating the cylinder is near empty.

Stationary Cylinders
Stationary cylinders are the largest type of DOT cylinder used in commercial and residential applications and are available in 100 lb, 200 lb, 300 lb, and 420 lb capacities. They are commonly used for higher Btu/hr demands for heating, cooking, water heating, and clothes drying. Stationary cylinders are filled on site from a bulk propane delivery vehicle.

Please review Basic Principles and Practices of Propane for further details on this topic.

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Container Sizing: DOT Cylinders


MODULE 2
Cylinders are sized based on their vaporization rates. The vaporization rate of a cylinder is the amount of vapor that a cylinder can produce during a period of operation. Each cylinder has four different vaporization rates: two ratings for summer and two for winter.

Steps for Sizing a DOT Cylinder Using a Vaporization Chart

1. Select the column in the vaporization


chart that represents the prevailing air temperature where the cylinder will be installed.

2. Read down the column until you locate


a Btu/hr rating that is equal to or greater than the effective system load you have calculated.

3. Read straight across to the far left


column and select the cylinder listed.

If more than one cylinder is needed to meet the effective load of the appliances, additional cylinders of the similar type and size can be manifolded together.

To learn more about this topic, please review the lesson Factors Affecting Selection of a Properly Sized Container. Check with your supervisor to obtain a vaporization chart.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

ASME Tanks
MODULE 2
ASME tanks are typically horizontal containers and can be installed aboveground or underground. ASME tanks are categorized by the amount of water they hold. Typical sizes for residential and small commercial customers range from 60 to 1,000 gallons water capacity. Some ASME tanks are designed to be installed in a vertical position, usually because of space requirements. NOTE: ASME vertical tanks can have a similar shape to DOT 420 cylinders so check all markings before selecting and installing the tank. Remember, different codes may apply to DOT cylinders and ASME tanks.

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Lesson 3. Selecting the Appropriate Container

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Container Sizing: Aboveground ASME Tanks


MODULE 2
Before determining the container size for aboveground ASME tanks, you need to:

Determine the effective system load. Consider the prevailing air temperature under which the tank will operate.

Steps for Sizing an Aboveground ASME Tank Using a Vaporization Chart

1. Select the appropriate temperature


column based on the lowest temperature for the operating season of the tank.

2. Read down the temperature column


to locate the Btu/hr rating that is equal to or greater than the effective system load of the application.

3. Read across the table to the Tank


Capacity column to identify the required tank size.

If the tanks listed in the table do not provide the vaporization rate required to meet the effective system load, consider:

Manifolding two or more tanks together. Installing an underground tank so that the winter vaporization rate will increase.

NOTE: The vaporization charts for vertical ASME tanks will differ from equivalent-sized horizontal tanks and, because of their structural design, will be different from DOT cylinders with equivalent capacities. For details on vaporization charts, contact your supervisor or see your company policy.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Container Sizing: Underground ASME Tanks


MODULE 2
Sizing underground ASME tanks is slightly different than sizing aboveground ASME tanks. Because underground tanks are not exposed to the ambient air temperature and humidity, the two deciding factors for sizing underground tanks are:

The effective demand of all existing and anticipated future gas appliances. The maximum anticipated soil frost penetration depth.

Based on this information, you can select the proper size and number of tanks for the application. The chart lists the vaporization capacities of underground ASME tanks at various soil frost penetration depths.

Steps for Sizing an Underground ASME Tank Using a Vaporization Chart

1. Read down the column for soil


frost line depths until you find the maximum anticipated frost penetration depth for the installation location.

2. Read across the table to the right


until you find the Btu/hr rating that is equal to or greater than the effective demand.

3. Read up the column to determine the


tank size.

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Container Sizing: Mounded Underground ASME Tanks


MODULE 2
A mounded underground tank is installed higher than a fully buried underground tank and is covered with fill soil, forming a raised mound above the soil grade level. This method of installing an underground tank meets the landscaping needs of many customers in areas where deeper excavation is prohibitively expensive or impractical. The effective vaporization rate for a mounded tank is less than that of a fully buried underground tank because of the shortened distance from the liquid fuel to the soil frost penetration depth. When sizing a tank for a mounded installation, you must use vaporization rate charts that are specifically developed for mounded underground tanks to account for the lower vaporization rate.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Check for Understanding


MODULE 2
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 427.

Which type of tank is less susceptible to changes in ambient temperature?


Aboveground ASME tank(s)

Underground ASME tank(s)

Stationary DOT cylinder(s)

Exchange DOT cylinder(s)

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Learning Activity: Select the Appropriate Container

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Check your work on page page 427.

LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Lesson 4. Establishing Container Location


Introduction
Once you have selected the type and size of container for a customer, the next step is to determine its location. This lesson will provide an overview of the factors affecting the location of a container at a customer site.

MODULE 2

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58 code spacing requirements for container placement. List other requirements and factors that must be considered when selecting the location of containers.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Factors Affecting Location of Containers


MODULE 2
Heres an overview of factors affecting container locations.

NFPA and Local Code Safety and Distance Requirements: All container spacing and location requirements must meet the NFPA 58 and local code safety and distance requirements. Access for Delivery: If a container will be filled on site, you need to ensure that it is located close enough to the driveway or access road so the liquid hose of a delivery truck can refill the container at the customers location. Type of Container: The type and size of container can affect distance code requirements. The container must be located in a place that is accessible and can be requalified when required. Underground Utilities: It is important to have the location marked for underground utilities before excavation. This will allow you to find an appropriate location for placement of the container. Special Location Considerations: Additional considerations such as installation near bodies of water, flood zones, and maximum snow depth need to be considered wherever applicable. Customer Preferences: The customer may have a preference as to where they want the container to be placed. Their preferences should be accommodated, but the final container location must meet NFPA 58 and local code safety and distance requirements.

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NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: All Containers Filled On Site


MODULE 2
NFPA 58 states that all containers installed and filled at a customer location must be located:

At least 10 ft in any direction from loose or piled combustible materials, weeds, and long dry grass.

At least 20 ft in any direction from an aboveground tank of combustible or flammable liquid.

NFPA 30 defines a tank as a stationary vessel that holds 60 gallons or more of a combustible or flammable liquid. This distance does not apply if the LP-gas container is 125 gallons or less and the tank that contains combustible or flammable liquid is 660 gallons or less.

Flammable liquids have a flashpoint of less than100 F. Gasoline, methanol, and ethyl mercaptan are examples of flammable liquids. Combustible liquids have a flashpoint between 100 F and 200 F. Kerosene, diesel, and fuel oil are examples of combustible liquids. For commercial structures that store hydrogen or oxygen, see your supervisor for storage distances between propane and oxygen or hydrogen. All containers filled on site at the point of use must be positioned so that the filling connection, the relief valve discharge, and the fixed maximum liquid level gauge vent discharge are situated at least 10 ft from:

Any exterior source of ignition such as window air conditioners or pool heaters. An opening into direct-vent appliances. Mechanical ventilation air intakes.

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NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: DOT Cylinders


MODULE 2
DOT Cylinder Distance Requirements

500 gallons or less: If the total water capacity of all DOT cylinders in an installation is 500 gallons or less, then the cylinders may be placed next to a building.

501 gallons or more: If the combined total water capacity of all cylinders is 501 gallons or more, then the cylinders must be placed 25 ft or further from a building.

Banks of Cylinders: If you have several banks of cylinders, there must be at least 25 ft of separation distance from each other.

Note that cylinders are rated in pounds, but the code refers to gallons water capacity. For example, a 420 lb DOT cylinder is stamped at 1,000 w.c. in pounds and holds about 100 gallons of propane. Bank of cylinders refers to more than one grouping of cylinders manifiolded together.

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DOT Cylinder Relief Valve Distance Requirements

MODULE 2

DOT exchange cylinders that are not filled at a customer site must be located so the relief valve discharge is a minimum of 5 ft in any direction from exterior sources of ignition, openings into direct-vent appliances, and mechanical ventilation air intakes.

The relief valve discharge on any DOT cylinder must be placed at least 3 ft horizontally from any building opening that is located below the level of discharge.

DOT cylinders cannot be installed underneath any building or structure unless the space is open to the atmosphere for 50% or more of its perimeter. At least half of the perimeter of the structure in which the cylinder is installed must be open entirely to the atmosphere. An open window on two closed sides of a structure normally would not provide the required 50% opening.

Examples of building openings are: dryer exhaust termination, kitchen exhaust termination, other mechanical exhaust vent terminations, and doors.

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NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: Aboveground ASME Tanks


MODULE 2
Tank Size Minimum Distance Requirements
Aboveground tanks with less than 125 gallons water capacity: May be placed next to a building and must be at least 5 ft horizontally from any building opening that is below the level of discharge.
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Aboveground ASME tanks must be positioned so that the relief valve discharge is located at least 5 ft horizontally from any opening in the building below the level of discharge.

Tanks between 125 and 500 gallons water capacity: Must be located a minimum of 10 ft from any building or property line that can be built upon.

Tanks between 501 and 2,000 gallons water capacity: Must be located a minimum of 25 ft from a building or property line that can be built upon.

A single aboveground ASME tank up to 1,200 gallons water capacity: Can be placed a minimum of 10 ft from buildings or property lines that can be built upon, as long as there is no other container installation of 125 gallons water capacity or more within 25 ft. In addition, tanks between 251 and 2,000 gallons water capacity must be at least 3 ft from each other. This distance is measured from shell to shell, which is the distance between any portion of the outside shells of each tank.

NOTE: All parts of an aboveground ASME tank must be separated by a minimum of 6 ft vertically from overhead electrical power lines that are more than 600 volts.

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NFPA Spacing and Location Requirements: Underground ASME Tanks


MODULE 2
Underground ASME tanks must be positioned so that the filling connection, relief valve discharge, and the fixed maximum liquid level gauge are located at least 10 ft horizontally from any opening in the building below the level of discharge. Underground ASME tanks must be 10 ft from sources of ignition, openings into directvent appliances, or mechanical ventilation air intakes.

Tank Size Minimum Distance Requirements


All underground tanks up to 2,000 gallons water capacity: Must be located a minimum of 10 ft from any building or property line that can be built upon. Multiple tanks between 251 and 2,000 gallons water capacity: Must be separated at least 3 ft from each other. This distance is measured from shell to shell.

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Learning Activity: container distance requirements


Check your work on page 427.

LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Ensuring Access for Delivery


MODULE 2
If a container is going to be filled on site, the liquid hose of a delivery truck must be able to access it. You must consider delivery hose length and where the bobtail truck will park to fill a container when you determine viable container locations. The liquid delivery hoses on most bulk delivery trucks are 75 to 150 ft long. And most trucks will park in a driveway or on an access road when filling a container. For exchange cylinder installations, verify that you can access any selected location with a hand cart or cylinder dolly. The container location must not impede emergency vehicle access to a structure.

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Type of Container
MODULE 2
The type of container can affect its location based on distance requirements and access for delivery. It can also impact location in other ways. For example, DOT containers installed in a stationary application also need to be accessible for periodic requalification, whereas ASME containers do not have this requalification requirement. Code restrictions for a multiple DOT cylinder installation differ from those for an ASME tank: five 100 gallon DOT cylinders can be installed directly against a structure, but a single 500 gallon ASME tank must be installed 10 ft from a structure.

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Verifying Underground Utilities


MODULE 2
You should verify underground utility locations before establishing a container location. All states have a One Call utility locating service with a toll free number, 811. You must notify this service at least 24-72 hours before beginning an installation if it involves digging. Each utility company or its agent (such as a locating company) will mark underground pipes or cables using flags, stakes, paint, or chalk with colors in accordance with the American Public Works Association (APWA) Uniform Color Code. The standard colors are:

Red - electric lines Yellow - gas or oil lines, or other dangerous material lines Orange - telecommunications and cable lines Blue - water systems Green - sewer lines

The new nationwide One Call number is 811. You must call this number before you start digging. For more details, please visit their website at http://www. call811.com.
Additional ground marking colors include:

White - proposed excavation or construction boundaries Pink - temporary survey markings Purple - reclaimed water and irrigation systems

NOTE: In most cases, the One Call service will not locate customer-owned lines on the property. If a utility is not a part of the One Call system, it must be contacted separately for location service. This may also apply to utilities- owned by a town or a county. You should also contact the owner or customer to find out if there are other buried lines.

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Special Location Considerations


MODULE 2
Bodies of Water
For installations within federal flood zone areas or near creeks, streams, rivers, drainage ditches, or other bodies of water, always check state and local codes for distance requirements and special installation instructions. For example, concrete foundations and tie downs may be required. According to NFPA, the container must be securely anchored in these installations. If possible, avoid placing a container in an area where high water levels could cause it to tip over or float away. If the container is placed in an area that could be subjected to high water levels, the container must be properly anchored. A number of manufacturers offer different anchoring systems that can be used to secure propane containers. See your company policy for the procedures used in your area.

Snow Accumulation
In locations where the established maximum snow depth is greater than the height of an aboveground container (excluding the dome cover), the container must be installed in a way that will prevent its movement as a result of snow accumulation. A stake or some other marking that is taller than the average snow cover depth (up to a height of 15 ft) must also be installed.

Future Building Plans


Check with your customer to determine if there are any known or planned changes to the buildings on the property or the property itself that could affect the selection of the container location.

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Factors Affecting Location of Containers: Customer Preferences


In order to obtain the most accurate information for container and regulator locations, a visit to the customers site to assess the layout is often necessary. You can assess the layout of a site when you are determining the total gas demand and effective system load. Consider drawing a simple sketch of the customers property on a worksheet. This sketch can help you document items such as sources of ignition, building openings, property lines, and other buildings. Ask your customer if they have a preference for the container location. Let your customer know that you will try to accommodate their preferences, but that ultimately the container location must meet NFPA and local code safety and distance requirements. Restrictions may exist in some areas with respect to the installation of particular types of containers. For example, some localities could restrict the installation of underground tank installations, while others might not permit aboveground tanks or cylinders to be installed or be visible to the public. NOTE: To determine local code safety and distance requirements, consult your state and local codes or check with your supervisor or company policy.

MODULE 2

Certified Employee Training Program

Learning Activity: Establish Appropriate Container Location

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Check your work on page 428.

59

Lesson 5. Selecting and Sizing Pipe and Tubing


MODULE 2

Introduction
After youve established the container location, you need to select appropriate pipe and tubing for the outside lines. In this lesson, you will learn how to select appropriate materials for pipe and tubing fittings, and to properly size the outside distribution lines for a customer installation.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify factors that must be considered when selecting appropriate pipe and tubing materials for exterior propane vapor distribution systems. Explain how to determine the appropriate size for exterior vapor distribution lines.

To learn about the fundamental features and uses of pipe and tubing fittings for propane vapor distribution systems, review Module 8, Lesson 4 from the Basic Principles and Practices of Propane course.

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Module 2. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Container and Lines

Overview of Pipe and Tubing Materials


MODULE 2
To select pipe and tubing for an installation, you must be familiar with different types of pipe and tubing materials, their characteristics, service applications, limitations, and special considerations.

There are four basic types of materials used for pipe and tubing in propane vapor distribution systems:

Steel and Wrought Iron are approved for use indoors and outdoors, aboveground and underground. If used outdoors or underground, this type of material must be protected from corrosion.

Copper is also approved for use indoors and outdoors, aboveground and underground. Copper is a very versatile product, but different types of copper are used for specific applications.

Polyethylene (PE) is approved for use outdoors in underground service only. PE tubing can become degraded if exposed to sunlight for a period of time.

Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST) is approved for use indoors and aboveground outdoors. It may be used underground if encased in a non-metallic, sealed conduit. CSST manufacturing varies for the intended application, so consult the manufacturers instructions for specific guidance.

NOTE: Refer to your company policy or the AHJ regarding requirements for, or restrictions on, the types of pipe and tubing that can be installed at a customer location.

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Steel and Wrought Iron Pipes: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms


MODULE 2
Characteristics
Steel, wrought iron, black iron, galvanized iron, and wrought steel pipes are simply steel pipes produced under different manufacturing specifications. The maximum working pressure for steel and wrought iron is 125 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). They are durable, widely available, and highly puncture-resistant. They can be used for installation in the exterior and interior sections of the vapor distribution piping system.

Connection Mechanisms
Threaded fittings are the most common method used to join steel and wrought iron pipes in residential and small commercial installations. Steel, malleable iron, and ductile iron fittings can be used. Do not use cast iron fittings.

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Steel and Wrought Iron Pipes: Categories and Installation Considerations


MODULE 2
Categories
Steel pipes are commonly categorized by their wall thickness, also called schedule. The higher the schedule number, the thicker the wall pipe.

Schedule 40 pipes can be used in vapor service at operating pressures up to 125 psig, and are suitable for residential and small commercial applications. Schedule 80 pipes can be used at operating pressures over 125 psig, including lines subject to propane container vapor pressure.

Installation Considerations
Steel pipes that are part of an exterior vapor distribution system may require corrosion protection, as warranted by soil conditions. In aboveground installations, steel piping typically consists of galvanized steel or piping that has had a protective paint applied. In underground installations, steel piping typically is protected from corrosion by wrapping, applying a protective coating, or by implementing cathodic protection.

Cathodic protection will be covered in detail in the lesson, Corrosion Analysis and Protection.

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Copper Tubing: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms


MODULE 2
Characteristics
Copper tubing is a highly flexible material and is often used as the buried distribution line that connects the first- and secondstage (or 2 pounds per square inch (psi) service) regulators. The maximum working pressure for copper tubing is 350 psig. Its flexibility facilitates installation, provided that proper bending equipment and methods are used to prevent kinking, denting, or reducing the tubings inside diameter. These conditions can restrict flow or weaken points in the tubing, and lead to leaks and system failures. Copper tubing is relatively simple to install in small vapor distribution systems.

Connection Mechanisms
Copper tubing is commonly joined by:

Flaring (with brass fittings) Brazing. Copper tubing may be brazed using filler material with a melting point exceeding 1,000 F.

NFPA 58 does not specify any particular type of fitting for joining copper tubing, only that the fittings meet minimum pressure ratings.

Experience has shown that thin wall flare nuts and compression fittings are prone to failure from splitting in cold climates. For this reason, many marketers use forged fittings. NFPA 58 requires welding and brazing to be in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section IX requires a person performing these operations to be qualified by completing a qualification test involving submission and evaluation of welding and brazing samples.

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Copper Tubing: Categories


MODULE 2
Copper tubing is available with a flexible, yellow PE coating for improved corrosion resistance. The yellow coating also clearly identifies the tubing as a gas line. Copper tubing is available as hard-drawn tubing and soft seamless water tubing.

Hard-Drawn Copper Tubing


Seldom used for propane distribution lines, hard drawn copper is rigid, requires fewer supports, and should not be bent. It should be joined by brazing.

Soft Seamless Copper Tubing


There are two types of soft seamless copper tubing used for vapor distribution system installations: water tubing and refrigeration tubing.

Water tubing: This type of copper tubing is sized by its inside diameter and available in two wall thicknesses:

Type L (standard thickness) is the most common and is approved for both liquid and vapor lines. Type K (heavy thickness) has greater wall thickness than type L and is used for liquid and high pressure vapor lines.

Refrigeration tubing: This type of copper tubing is sized by its outside diameter. Refrigeration tubing is approved for both liquid and vapor lines, and is usually charged with nitrogen gas to keep it clean and dry until it is used. See Resources for a chart comparing the sizes of water tubing and refrigeration tubing.

A third type of water tubing, Type M, has less wall thickness than types K & L and is NEVER approved for use with LP-gas.

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Copper Tubing Installation Considerations


MODULE 2
Copper tubing should be installed in locations where it is not likely to be disturbed. The inside of the tubing will become coated with a thin layer of material that is produced by exposure to propane odorant. If copper tubing is disturbed, this material could break free and move downstream, potentially causing malfunctions in pressure regulators and gas controls.

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PE Pipe and Tubing: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms


MODULE 2
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Characteristics
PE pipe and tubing are made of a thermoplastic material, and are only used underground since it can become degraded if exposed to sunlight. PE is used to route vapor at a reduced pressure from the first-stage regulator to the second-stage regulator at the service entrance to a building or an outdoor appliance. The maximum working pressure for PE is 30 psig.

Connection Mechanisms
PE pipe can be joined using manufacturer-prescribed procedures, which include the use of heat fusion, or manufacturerrecommended mechanical fittings. Technicians installing PE pipe and fittings must be qualified by the manufacturer, the supplier, or a trainer who has been qualified by the manufacturer.

Heat fusion can include butt fusion welding, socket fusion welding, and electro fusion welding.

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PE Pipe and Tubing: Categories and Installation Considerations


MODULE 2
Categories
PE pipe and tubing are sized as:

Iron Pipe Size (IPS): This pipe has approximately the same physical diameter as an iron pipe. Copper Tube Size (CTS): This tubing has approximately the same physical diameter as copper tubing.

Installation Considerations
When installing PE pipe and tubing, NFPA 58 requires that an electrically continuous corrosion-resistant tracer wire or tape be placed in the trench above and along the path of the underground line to help locate the line after it is buried. This tracer wire cannot be in direct contact with the PE pipe. The wire must be at least American Wire Gauge (AWG) 14.

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CSST: Characteristics and Connection Mechanisms


MODULE 2
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Characteristics
CSST is durable, highly flexible, and covered with a plastic sheath. The protective plastic jacketing should be kept in place as much as practical to protect the tubing from corrosion. CSST is typically installed indoors, but some manufacturers also produce CSST for outdoor underground use. All exposed portions or stainless steel installed outdoors must be wrapped with pipe wrap tape. The maximum working pressure for CSST is 5 psig.

Sizing
Sizing CSST involves use of an Equivalent Hydraulic Diameter (EHD) factor which is a measure of how different tubing sizes affect the flow of propane through the tube. The higher the EHD value, the greater the gas capacity of the tubing. CSST sizing also depends on the number of bends in the tubing. Always consult the manufacturers specification for the EHD and number of bends in the CSST tubing you are using.

Connection Mechanisms
Some CSST joints are metal-to-metal seals and are made with manufacturer-specified brass fittings. Note that different manufacturers products cannot be joined together. Technicians installing CSST must be qualified by the manufacturer, supplier, or a trainer who has been qualified by the manufacturer. When CSST is installed underground or through concrete, it must be routed in a non-metallic, watertight conduit. The inside diameter of the conduit must be at least " larger than the outside diameter of the CSST. No mechanical joints are permitted within the conduit. All exposed portions of stainless steel installed outdoors must be wrapped with pipe wrap tape.

Lesson 5. Selecting and Sizing Pipe and Tubing

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Sizing Pipe and Tubing Between Firstand Second-Stage Regulators


Follow this procedure to properly size the line between the first- and second-stage regulators. This procedure also applies when a 2 psi service regulator is used instead of a secondstage regulator.

MODULE 2

1. Select the type of pipe or tubing material based on


criteria presented earlier in this lesson.

2. Measure the length of line required from the outlet of


the first-stage regulator to the inlet of the second-stage regulator. For PE tubing, add 1 ft for snaking the tubing in the trench.

3. Calculate the total gas demand for the appliances that


will be served by this line, including the anticipated future demand.

4. Select the appropriate sizing table in NFPA 58 based on


the type of pipe or tubing material selected. Remember that the first-stage tables assume a working pressure of 10 psig with an allowance for a 1 psig pressure drop.

5. Use the pipe or tubing table to determine the appropriate


line size.

Find the corresponding line length in the table. If the exact length is not shown, use the next highest length in the table. Read across the table, starting from the left, to find the first Btu/hr amount that exceeds the total gas demand. Move vertically up the column to the top of the table to locate the appropriate line size.

To size the line means to select the proper diameter of pipe or tubing that will be used in the vapor piping system. It does not refer to line length. Laying tubing in a manner that gradually drifts back and forth across the trench to account for the high expansion and contraction rates of PE.

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NFPA 58 requires that metal pipe and tubing buried underground be installed as follows:

MODULE 2

A minimum of 12" of ground cover over the piping. This minimum is increased to 18" inches if external damage to the pipe or tubing is likely to result from vehicle traffic, construction equipment, or storage of heavy materials. If the 12" minimum cannot be maintained, the piping needs to be bridged or shielded, or installed in conduit. If piping is installed under driveways, roads, or streets, appropriate actions should be taken to protect the piping and tubing from possible vehicle damage.

NOTE: Check local laws regarding the requirement to add warning signs for piping systems that run under a public right of way.

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Sizing Pipe and Tubing for Multiple Second-Stage Regulators


MODULE 2
Multiple Second-Stage Regulators
When sizing pipe and tubing for multiple second-stage regulators, the line from the first-stage regulator to the second-stage regulator must be sized based on the total Btu/hr demand beyond any and all second-stage regulators.

You should consider the following:

The first-stage regulator must be located at the container. When a first-stage line branches into two or more lines at some distance from the regulator outlet, the total Btu/ hr load of the line from the regulator outlet to the point where the lines split must be calculated. The line up to the split must be able to meet the total gas demand. The pressure drop along the lines must also be calculated. Keeping a map or diagram of the lines in the customer file is highly recommended in order to help locate them in the future.

NOTE: NFPA 58 requires that all LP-gas vapor piping systems downstream of the first-stage regulator be sized so that all appliances operate within their manufacturers specifications. Systems must also be sized using specifically-designated tables that are provided in NFPA 58 or by engineering methods.

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Learning Activity: Select the Appropriate Piping and Tubing Size

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Check your work on page 428.

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Lesson 6. Corrosion Analysis and Prevention


MODULE 2

INTRODUCTION
Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal due to an electrochemical reaction with the environment surrounding it. Corrosion of propane storage containers and vapor distribution piping can be a significant problem. However, the corrosion process can be controlled by using different preventive protection procedures. This lesson will provide an overview of corrosion and preventive corrosion methods. Specific procedures for installing corrosion protection will be taught later in the course.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:


Explain the causes of corrosion. Explain how corrosion affects propane containers and metal vapor distribution lines. Identify different types of corrosion and prevention methods. Explain the different procedures used to protect containers and metal vapor distribution lines from corrosion.

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Basics of Corrosion
MODULE 2
Causes of Corrosion
The primary factors affecting the rate or extent of corrosion are:

The type of metal. The environment in which the metal is exposed.

Corrosion and the Vapor Distribution System


For propane vapor distribution systems, corrosion commonly occurs on the exterior surfaces of metal components. If propane unintentionally contains certain contaminants, such as ammonia or water, they can cause corrosion of the internal surface of steel or copper.

Preventing Corrosion
Methods commonly used to protect propane containers and metallic piping from the effects of corrosion include the use of:

Paints and protective coatings, including wrapping materials. Cathodic protection systems (for underground tanks and piping). Electrically insulating fittings.

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Types of Corrosion
MODULE 2
A number of factors cause corrosion of metals. The broad categories of corrosion types and factors are listed here, and will be covered in more detail later in this lesson.

Atmospheric Corrosion
Atmospheric corrosion occurs on metal surfaces due to humidity and oxygen in the air. Contaminants in the air, such as sulfur and salts, can accelerate the corrosion process.

Soil Corrosion
Soil can also be a significant source of corrosion for underground tank installations and piping installations. The nature of the soil and certain other environmental factors, such as water content and aeration, affect the rate of corrosion. Soil is most corrosive when it has a high moisture content, high electrical conductivity, high acidity and high levels of dissolved salts.

Aeration in this sense refers to exposing soil to air.

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Atmospheric Corrosion
MODULE 2
Prevention
The most common method of protecting containers, regulators, and metallic piping from atmospheric corrosion is to apply paints and protective coatings. The selection and application of an appropriate paint or coating for aboveground metallic components usually depends on the location and atmosphere of the vapor distribution system. To identify the proper type of paint or coating, consider the atmosphere of the surrounding area. Typically, atmospheres are classified according to the potential severity of corrosion: Industrial atmospheres are more corrosive than rural atmospheres because of sulfur-based contaminants generated by the burning of fuels.
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Causes
Atmospheric corrosion occurs on metal surfaces due to humidity and oxygen in the air. Contaminants in the air, such as sulfur and salts, can accelerate the corrosion process.

Marine atmospheres are found in coastal areas and can be very corrosive. For example, corrosion of unpainted steel on the seacoast can be 400 to 500 times greater than in a desert area due to salts in the air.

Rural atmospheres are the least corrosive due to lower concentrations of contaminants.

In addition, local conditions need to be considered when protecting metallic vapor distribution system components from corrosion. For example, water conditioning units that expel salt water and certain chemicals from swimming pools can accelerate corrosion. NOTE: If you are unfamiliar with the paint and coatings used to protect containers and other metallic vapor distribution system components, check with your supervisor or contact your equipment supplier for more information.

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Soil Corrosion
MODULE 2
Causes
Metal corrosion in soil is affected by the nature of the soil and other environmental factors such as water content and aeration.

Soil texture is the distribution of particles in the soil. Sand, silt, and clay refer to decreasing coarseness of soil texture. Soils with a high proportion of sand have very limited water retention capacity and are generally less corrosive than clays, which have very high water retention capacity. Soil electrical resistivity has historically been used as a broad indicator of a soils corrosiveness. Higher resistivity soils are generally less corrosive than low resistivity soils. However, a high soil resistivity alone will not guarantee the absence of serious corrosion.

Soil with high moisture content, high electrical conductivity, high acidity, and high levels of dissolved salts tend to be the most corrosive.

Prevention
Corrosion protection measures, such as external coatings and cathodic protection, should always be considered for metallic pipe installations.

Corrosion protection: Remember that this course was developed under the 2011 NFPA 58 code. Always refer to the most current code that applies in your state or area.

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General and Galvanic Corrosion


General corrosion, also called uniform corrosion, is characterized by metal loss over the entire surface area of the container or pipe.

MODULE 2
Prevention
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General corrosion can be controlled by the use of paints or protective coatings. Piping that goes through walls should be sleeved or coated to prevent corrosion. In addition, cathodic protection can help prevent corrosion of underground tanks and piping. However, a holiday, which is a breakdown in the protective coating on a piece of equipment, can result in localized corrosion, which then occurs at an accelerated rate. If the coating is not repaired, unobserved corrosion can continue until it penetrates through the wall and causes leakage.

Galvanic Corrosion for Underground Systems


Galvanic corrosion, also called two-metal corrosion, occurs when dissimilar metals (such as steel and copper) are placed in contact with each other. When this happens, the corrosion rate of the less corrosion-resistant metal increases. A steel line, for example, will act as an anode when connected to a copper line, causing the steel to corrode at a faster rate.

An anode is a metal that is oxidized and consumed while giving up its electrons to a cathode.

Prevention
Galvanic corrosion can be eliminated by installing electrically-insulating fittings (such as dielectric unions) at the transition point between the two different metals.

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Crevice Corrosion
MODULE 2
Causes
Crevice corrosion is a localized corrosion that frequently occurs on the underside of cylinders where the foot ring is attached to the bottom head. The area between these two adjacent metal surfaces (the crevice) is wide enough to allow moisture in, but not wide enough to let moisture out at the same rate that it is let in. As a result, the crevice becomes a zone in which corrosion occurs at an accelerated rate. The same action can occur where the legs on an ASME tank attach to the container walls.

Prevention
Crevice corrosion can progress completely unnoticed if the cylinder is not adequately coated (or painted) and visually inspected on a regular basis, such as at each requalification period.

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Pitting
MODULE 2
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Causes
Pitting is a form of extremely localized corrosion that leads to small voids or pock marks in metal. It can be initiated by a small surface defect, such as a rock scratching the surface of the metal, or damage to the protective coating. The products of corrosion, such as rust, often hide pits on a containers metal surface. Once a pit has developed, it will continue to penetrate the wall of the container or pipe unless some form of remedial action is taken to stop the corrosion process.

Prevention
The most effective way to prevent pitting on aboveground or underground containers is to ensure that paints or protective coatings are properly applied. Performing visual inspections of exterior, aboveground vapor distribution system components before a container is filled can help identify early indications of pitting. A similar inspection of the visual portion of an underground tank should also be conducted before filling. All newly installed underground tanks must have cathodic protection systems installed to prevent corrosion, such as pitting.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 2
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 428.

An underground tank installed in an area where the soil has high moisture content and high levels of dissolved salts is less susceptible to corrosion than a tank installed in a hot and dry area where the soil is sandy, with limited water retention capacity.
True

False

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Corrosion Prevention Methods


MODULE 2
As you have learned, corrosion can damage the metallic elements of a vapor distribution system.

The most common ways to prevent corrosion include:

Paint and Protective Coatings


Paint and protective coatings are commonly used to provide the first level of corrosion control for containers and piping. Manufacturers typically apply a protective coat to containers as part of the manufacturing process.

Cathodic Protection Systems


A cathodic protection system provides a second level of corrosion control and protects against corrosion at places where the coating does not protect the underlying steel. Cathodic protection systems control the corrosion of a metal surface by making the metal act as a cathode of an electrochemical cell. This is achieved by placing another more easily corroded metal (an anode) in contact with the metal to be protected.

Electrically Insulating Fittings


Electrically insulating fittings are used when metallic distribution lines are buried and are connected to underground tanks. These fittings prevent the anode from protecting the customers water system, well casing, and electrical system. They prevent electric current from the anode from discharging to a bare copper line. These fittings also eliminate galvanic corrosion between different metals.

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Paint and Protective Coatings


MODULE 2
Paint and protective coatings applied during the manufacturing process protect containers against corrosion. However, because containers can be damaged during transport or installation, additional coatings may need to be applied at the plant or customer location to repair holidays.

Proper Coating Materials and Application Methods


It is important to determine the proper coating materials and application methods used to protect the metallic components of a vapor distribution system. Follow the manufacturers directions for protecting the tank, piping, and coating as they relate to:

Cleaning surfaces: Before applying the coating, all uncoated areas, weld joints, fittings, and areas of damaged coatings must be cleaned of foreign surface materials such as rust, mill scale, dirt, oil, grease, and moisture. Priming and coating materials: Use primers and coating materials specified by the container and pipe manufacturers. Applying coatings: Manufacturer specifications must be followed to ensure that coatings are applied under proper conditions, including correct temperature, thickness, and curing procedures. Handling and storing materials: Pipe and container coating materials are often classified as hazardous materials. They are often flammable. You should consult Manufacturer Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for proper material handling and storage procedures, and to determine if Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is required while mixing, applying, or curing coating materials. Handling coated surfaces: Containers and pipes that are coated for corrosion protection must be stored, lifted, handled, and transported with care to ensure that the coatings are not damaged prior to installation. Inspecting and repairing holidays: Even when careful handling methods are used, protective coatings often become damaged. Thorough inspection and repair of holidays helps increase a coatings ability to provide corrosion protection.

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Cathodic Protection Systems


MODULE 2
Cathodic protection systems control the corrosion of the metal surface of a tank by placing another more easily corroded metal (an anode) in contact with the metal of the tank to be protected (which now acts as a cathode). In a cathodic protection system, electrons flow from an external anode along a wire to the steel tank. The electrons supplied by the anode will actually prevent the iron atoms in the steel from oxidizing into rust. These systems provide additional protection to underground tanks. They can also compensate for faults in the protective coating of a tank. For example, faults in the protective coating of a tank could be from defects generated during the coating application or from physical damage to the coating. Two commonly used cathodic protection methods are sacrificial anodes and impressed current systems.

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Sacrificial Anodes
MODULE 2
Sacrificial anodes protect a tank and its metallic piping from corrosion by providing an electrical current to the entire surface area of both components. Burying a sacrificial anode and connecting it to an underground tank creates a potential differential between the anode and the tank. This differential produces an electric current, which provides cathodic protection to the tank and the attached piping. Sacrificial anodes are used in residential and small commercial installations where:

Electrical current requirements to protect the metal tank and piping are low. Steel components are properly coated, wrapped, or protected. Corrosion protection is required by code.

Three common types include: Magnesium alloy anodes: commonly used because they work best in the majority of underground conditions in the United States. Zinc anodes: used to protect underground ASME tanks in coastal areas where salt content in the ground water can increase the potential for corrosion. High potential magnesium anodes: used in dry or sandy areas where it is important for greater voltage and, therefore, more current.
SACRIFICIAL ANODE

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Impressed Current Systems


MODULE 2
Impressed current is another form of cathodic protection. Impressed current systems are meant for large bulk storage tanks, typically greater than 4,000 gallons. These systems may be used to provide cathodic protection where sacrificial anodes cannot provide adequate protection or where severe soil conditions require controlled and measured current input. These systems use a rectifier, which is an electrical device that changes Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC) and generates a higher voltage to provide cathodic protection. These systems carry specific NFPA 58 code requirements for inspection and testing intervals. If an impressed current system is needed, consult your company policy or your supervisor.

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Gas Piping Protection


MODULE 2
Cathodic protection also protects metallic piping as long as it is not electrically isolated. The same anodes used to protect the tank will also protect the piping. Specifically, anodes protect the following kinds of pipes:

Coated steel or black iron gas pipes where a dielectric union is installed at the building or gas utilization equipment.

Coated copper gas pipes where a dielectric union is installed at the building or gas utilization equipment.

Steel or black iron piping used for gas service must be coated if buried underground. Copper tubing and fittings do not have to be coated if buried underground and used as part of a cathodic protection system.

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Electrically Insulating Fittings


MODULE 2
Electrically insulating fittings (dielectric fittings) installed at the building must be used when buried metallic distribution lines are connected to a gas storage tank. Their purpose is to isolate the tank and metallic pipe or tubing from the aboveground portion of piping which enters the building. If not isolated, the anodes may be inadvertently protecting the customers water system, well casing, or the electrical system, reducing the effectiveness of the cathodic protection and shortening anode life. Insulating fittings must also be used to eliminate corrosion between dissimilar metals such as between steel pipe and copper tubing. An insulating fitting may be used between the underground tank and a bare copper line. When using coated copper tubing, the insulating fitting may be placed either at the tank or the regulator. For residential and small commercial installations, commonly used insulating fittings include insulating couplings and dielectric unions.

Dielectric Unions
A dielectric union has a piece of molded nylon or other insulating material that prevents the union end and union face from making electrical contact with the union nut and the other end of the union. Dielectric unions must be installed at the transition from metallic piping or tubing such as copper tubing to steel piping at the building service entrance, often between the pipes and regulator, and may also be used at the tank connection where buried steel distribution lines are used. Dielectric unions are not required for PE distribution lines because of the non-conductive properties of these types of lines.

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LEARNING ACTIVITY: CORROSION ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Chekc your work on page 428.

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Module Summary
MODULE 2
Some important points to remember from this module are:

You need to determine total gas demand and calculate effective system load in order to properly size and select containers, distribution lines, and regulators. When selecting and sizing a container, you must ensure that the container is large enough to supply the required system demand under the most severe conditions anticipated for the installation location. There are two types of propane containers: DOT cylinders and ASME tanks. A variety of factors determine the appropriate container type and size for an installation, including total gas demand, container vaporization rate, and environmental conditions. Several factors affect container location, including code requirements, delivery access, container type, underground utilities, nearby bodies of water, snow depth, and customer preference. To select appropriate pipe and tubing for an installation, you must be familiar with different types of pipe and tubing materials, their characteristics, service applications, and limitations. Corrosion commonly occurs on the exterior surfaces of metal components. The corrosion process can be controlled using different preventive protection methods such as paints and protective coatings, cathodic protection systems (for underground tanks and piping), and electrical insulation.

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Module 2 Quiz
MODULE 2
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

1. There are primarily three steps to determine total gas demand. Which of these steps does NOT belong?
a. Locate the propane-fueled appliances currently installed in the customers home. b. Determine the Btu/hr input ratings of all appliances currently served by the propane system and all appliances that may be added in the future. c. Determine the average load factor for each appliance. d. Take the Btu/hr input ratings for all existing and future appliances and add them together.

2. Effective system load is used to determine the amount of propane required to operate appliances at a reduced demand
and assumes the customers appliances: a. Operate at full demand only during typical operating cycles, for example, during a clothes drying cycle or when cooking. b. Do not operate simultaneously. c. Both a and b. d. None of the above.

3. When determining container size, the temperature used for tank sizing should be the
anticipated for that installations location. a. Highest b. Lowest c. Ambient d. Annual average

________ temperature

4. Frost penetration depth in the soil is important to consider when selecting aboveground tanks.
a. True b. False

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5. When sizing aboveground ASME tanks, you need to determine the effective system load and you must_____.
a. Consider the location of the tank at the customers property. b. Consider the brand of the tank that your customer prefers. c. Consider the most severe conditions under which the tank will operate. d. Keep in mind the presence of combustible materials on the customers property.

MODULE 2

6. The two deciding factors for sizing underground tanks are the effective demand of all existing and anticipated future gas
appliances and ______. a. The maximum anticipated soil frost penetration depth. b. The maximum average annual rainfall in the surrounding area. c. The maximum anticipated temperature in the surrounding area. d. The minimum anticipated temperature in the surrounding area.

7. All containers filled on site must be positioned so that the filling connection, the relief valve discharge, and the fixed
maximum liquid level gauge vent discharge are situated at least 10 ft from all of the following EXCEPT: a. Any exterior source of ignition such as windows, air-conditioners, or pool heaters b. An opening into direct-vent appliances c. Mechanical ventilation air intakes d. Concrete or grassy areas

8. Aboveground tanks with less than ___ gallons water capacity may be placed next to a building and must be at least __
ft horizontally from any building opening that is below the level of discharge. a. 125/ 3 b. 125/ 5 c. 125/ 10 d. None of the above

9. The most common method for joining steel and wrought iron pipes in residential and small commercial installations is:
a. Threaded fittings b. Welding c. Brazing d. Flaring

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10. When sizing pipe and tubing for multiple second-stage regulators, the line from the first-stage regulator to the secondstage regulator must be sized based on the total Btu/hr demand beyond any and all second-stage regulators. a. True b. False

MODULE 2

11. The primary factors affecting the rate or extent of corrosion for propane storage containers and vapor distribution piping
are __________. a. Type of metal and type of paints and protective coatings b. Type of metal and environment in which metal is exposed c. Type of metal and type of electrically insulated fittings d. Water content and aeration/ atmospheric corrosion

12. Soil with ________________ tends to be the most corrosive.


a. High moisture content, high electrical conductivity, low acidity, and low levels of dissolved salts b. Low moisture content, low electrical conductivity, low acidity, and low levels of dissolved salts c. Low moisture content, low electrical conductivity, high acidity, and high levels of dissolved salts d. High moisture content, high electrical conductivity, high acidity, and high levels of dissolved salts

13. Two commonly used cathodic protection methods are____________.


a. Protective coatings and impressed current systems b. Protective coatings and electrically-insulating fittings c. Sacrificial anodes and impressed current systems d. Sacrificial anodes/ and electrically-insulating fittings

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MODULE 3

Module 3. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Regulators and Meters


INTRODUCTION
In this module, you will learn how to successfully select and size regulators and meters within a vapor distribution system.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Identify the appropriate size and selection of regulators and meters. Determine types of regulators based on individual vapor distribution systems.

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Module 3. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Regulators and Meters

MODULE 3
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Lesson 1. Regulator Sizing and Selection


MODULE 3

Introduction
The regulator is the heart of the propane vapor distribution system. It is a mechanical device that reduces a higher inlet pressure to a preset lower outlet pressure and controls the flow of propane to appliances based on operating demand. This lesson provides an overview of the regulator system.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:


Identify the components of a regulator. Identify the purpose of each type of regulator. Explain how a regulator operates. List the factors to consider when selecting a regulator system.

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Purpose of Regulators
MODULE 3
Regulators control the flow of propane in the vapor distribution system and deliver propane vapor through the piping system to the appliances at the required operating (or delivery) pressures.

Regulators:

Compensate for changes in container pressure and demand. Deliver a steady flow of propane to appliances.

A regulator needs to satisfy a downstream gas demand while maintaining the downstream system pressures within acceptable limits.

When gas demand is low, the regulator restricts the flow and the flow rate decreases.

When gas demand increases, the regulator opens and flow increases.

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Regulator Components
MODULE 3
There are seven components common to most regulators. Each component performs a specific job which allows the regulator to function properly.

The lower body contains the regulators inlet and outlet fittings. The inlet connection is female National Pipe Thread (NPT), POL, or inverted flare. The outlet connection is usually female NPT. The lower body can also be used as a mount for attaching the regulator to a stationary surface or mounting bracket.

The upper spring case is frequently referred to as a bonnet. There are two springs in the upper case. A large spring is compressed by an adjusting screw or tab to change the outlet pressure set point; a smaller spring, mounted inside the larger spring, controls the regulators internal relief valve. The bonnet cap on most regulators has a stem that acts as the back stop to ensure that the relief valve will open to prevent overpressure in downstream distribution piping. For the regulator to operate properly, the regulator cap should always be closed tight except for the brief time required for adjustments by a qualified technician. Make sure that a gasket or other sealing method is in place in the cap or bonnet opening if required by the manufacturer.

The diaphragm is flexible and acts as a gas seal between the lower body and upper spring case. It senses the amount of gas in the regulator, allowing more gas to flow as demand increases and less gas when demand decreases. The diaphragm assembly typically has a rigid metal plate which supports the diaphragm and distributes gas pressure evenly over its entire surface. The regulator main spring helps control gas delivery, depending on inlet pressure and gas demand changes. The force applied by the spring determines the outlet pressure of the regulator.
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MODULE 3
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The orifice and plunger seat disc assembly work together with the diaphragm and the main spring to control the amount of gas flow through the regulator. The orifice size determines the maximum gas volume that can flow through the regulator. Larger orifices allow more gas flow. The seat disc is attached to

the diaphragm by a lever assembly. When the seat disc is in full contact with the orifice, it stops gas flow. Whenever changes in demand move the diaphragm, the seat disc moves with it, controlling the gas flow through the orifice. If the seat disc becomes damaged for any reason, it might not seal against the orifice properly. This can cause overpressurization in the downstream piping which, if not relieved by the regulators internal relief valve, can cause damage to the appliance gas controls or possibly cause a leak in the downstream piping system. The internal relief valvea factory set spring and valve assembly mounted in the center of the diaphragm assemblyis designed to relieve some of the excess downstream pressure that might build up. When the relief valve opens, gas is allowed to pass into the upper spring case and out of the regulator through the vent.

In the upper spring case, the vent is an opening to the atmosphere that allows the regulator to breathe. During normal regulator operation, air is drawn in or pushed out of the upper spring case through the vent. Manufacturers usually install a screen in front of the vent opening to help prevent dirt and insects from getting into the bonnet, which could block the vent opening. Most regulators have a drip lip vent, to route water away from the vent and help prevent ice from closing it off.

Note: Check with the manufacturer of the regulator before any repairs are made.

LEARNING ACTIVITY

LA Identify regulator components

Check your work on page 428.

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Types of Regulators
MODULE 3
While all regulators reduce pressure and control flow, applications can be significantly different and require different types of regulators. Regulator selection is based on downstream gas demand and service requirements. To increase efficiency in the system you may decide to use multiple regulators.

There are several types of regulators, including:


Single-stage regulators First-stage regulators Second-stage regulators High-pressure regulators Integral 2-stage regulators Automatic changeover regulators Line-pressure regulators Integral 2-psi service regulators

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Single-Stage Regulators
MODULE 3
Single-stage regulators are designed to reduce the vapor pressure from the container to the required operating pressure of the appliances, usually less than pound per square inch gauge (psig). It is the only regulator in the system between the container and the appliances, and is attached to the service valve of the container. Effective June 30, 1997, NFPA 58 prohibits the installation of single-stage regulators in fixed piping systems except in propane vapor supply systems for small portable appliances and outdoor cooking appliances with input ratings of 100,000 Btu/hr or less. Their installation is prohibited in new or modified fixed piping systems for the following reasons:

In the event of regulator failure, a single-stage system offers no safeguard to control container pressure to the appliances. A two-stage system provides more uniform pressure to the appliances since the second-stage regulator does not have to compensate for widely varying inlet pressures. A two-stage system will also reduce the possibility of regulator freeze-up which is addressed in detail later in this lesson.
Effective June 30, 1997, NFPA 58 prohibits the installation of single-stage regulators in fixed piping systems except in propane vapor supply systems for small portable appliances and outdoor cooking appliances with input ratings of 100,000 Btu/hr or less.

Your companys policies may prohibit supplying propane to any customer with a fixed piping system equipped with a singlestage regulator. Check with your supervisor to determine whether you must change out the single-stage regulator if a customer has this type of installation. All fixed piping systems that serve psig appliance systems are required to use a 2-stage regulator system, an integral 2-stage regulator, or a 2-psi regulator system.

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First- and Second-Stage Regulators


MODULE 3
First-stage regulators reduce the pressure from the container to 10 psig or less. They are designed for vapor service only. The first-stage regulator is commonly installed as close as possible to the vapor service valve on the container. It delivers propane vapor to the second-stage regulator. Second-stage regulators, typically installed at the service entrance of a building, reduce the first-stage regulator outlet pressure to 14" water column (w.c.) or less. Like first-stage regulators, they are also designed for vapor service only.

FIRST-STAGE REGULATOR

SECOND-STAGE REGULATOR

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High-Pressure Regulators
MODULE 3
High-pressure regulators are designed to reduce pressure from the container to a lower pressure. Usually this means any pressure greater than 1 psig. These regulators are occasionally used in residential applications for high Btu/hr demand systems, such as swimming pools and spa heaters, and where there are unusually long buried distribution lines. More typically, they are used in commercial settings where gas demands are very high. Roofing tar heaters and small crop dryers are examples of commercial, propane-fueled equipment that generate very high demand for gas. Some high-pressure regulators are designed for use in vapor service only, while others are designed for use in vapor or liquid service. High-pressure regulators with capacities exceeding 500,000 Btu/hr and equipped with overpressure protection devices may be used in small commercial buildings if the second-stage regulators include integral or separate overpressure protection devices.

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Integral 2-Stage Regulators


MODULE 3
Integral 2-stage regulators, sometimes called twin-stage or piggy back regulators, combine a second-stage regulator with either a high-pressure or first-stage regulator to form a single unit for vapor service. These regulators are always installed at the container and provide the varying Btu demand of the appliances at varying tank pressures. They are typically used in small ASME tank and cylinder installations. An automatic changeover regulator is a special type of integral 2-stage regulator for use with multiple cylinder installations. An automatic changeover regulator allows empty containers to be filled or replaced without interruption of service.
INTEGRAL 2-STAGE REGULATOR

AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER REGULATOR

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Regulators for 2-psi Systems


MODULE 3
A 2-psi service regulator is designed to reduce first-stage regulator outlet pressure to approximately 2 psig. This type of regulator is normally used to reduce interior pipe size, thereby lowering piping costs in a building, since it uses a smaller line and higher pressure. Integral 2-psi service regulators combine a high-pressure regulator and a 2-psi service regulator into a single unit for vapor service. A line-pressure regulator downstream of the 2-psi regulator reduces line pressure down to 14" w.c. or less (typically 11" w.c.) for delivery to appliances. These regulators are designed for vapor service installations inside a building. They are installed just before manifold piping or tubing runs, or immediately upstream of individual appliances. Line-pressure regulators have no integral overpressure protection and they must be installed in accordance with NFPA 54 requirements. 2-PSI SERVICE REGULATOR

INTEGRAL 2-PSI SERVICE REGULATOR

LINE-PRESSURE REGULATOR

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Check your work on page 429.

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Regulator Operations
MODULE 3
When a regulator is operating properly, its components work together to deliver a steady flow of propane to the appliances. Proper flow rate will satisfy the systems downstream gas demand while maintaining the system pressure within acceptable limits. However, the regulator components operate differently depending on various conditions and requirements, including: Satisfying gas demand. Adjusting container pressure to an acceptable outlet pressure. Relieving excess pressure. Regulators breathing ability. Regulator freeze-up.

Lets look at how a regulator operates within the vapor distribution system to satisfy appliance demand for gas.

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Satisfying Gas Demand


MODULE 3
When the service valve on the container is closed:

When the service valve is first opened and no appliances are on:

There is no gas pressure in the vapor distribution system. The regulator spring has forced the diaphragm down, fully opening the regulator orifice.

The diaphragm is forced upward. The orifice is completely closed off, creating a condition called lockup.

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MODULE 3

When an appliance in the system is turned on:

As appliance demand cycles:

Pressure drops in the piping system downstream of the regulator. Pressure under the diaphragm immediately decreases. The diaphragm moves downward, causing the seat assembly to move away from the orifice allowing gas to flow.

The diaphragm moves up and down in response to those changes in demand. The orifice opens and closes, causing the valve disc to supply the proper amount of gas. This, in turn, causes the valve disc to supply the proper amount of gas by automatically opening and closing the orifice. Similarly, the regulator compensates for changes in the inlet pressure from the container.

When an appliance in the system is turned on, the pressure under the diaphragm immediately decreases. The drop in pressure allows the diaphragm to move downward, which lets the seat assembly pull away from the orifice, allowing the flow of gas. As additional appliances are turned on, the demand for propane increases and the seat assembly pulls further away from the orifice allowing more gas to flow.

In summary, when appliance burners are operating, the regulator maintains a steady outlet pressure despite changes in the inlet pressure and appliance demand. This is referred to as the systems flow condition. The second-stage regulator and any other downstream regulators operate in the same manner, except at lower inlet and outlet pressures.

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Adjusting Outlet Pressure


MODULE 3
You may find situations, such as adding or removing an appliance, when its necessary to adjust the outlet pressure on the regulator. On newly installed regulators, the factory setting might also need an adjustment to meet the required delivery pressure to the appliances. The outlet pressure of many regulators can be changed in the field by simply turning the adjusting assembly (also referred to as the adjusting screw) in the bonnet. Turning the adjusting assembly clockwise increases the outlet pressure of the regulator. Conversely, turning the adjusting assembly counterclockwise reduces the outlet pressure of the regulator. NOTE: Do not adjust a regulator until you have been trained how to do so. Training instruction materials are covered in the CETP course Placing Gas Systems and Appliances into Operation. When adjusting a regulator, always install a pressure measuring device, such as a water manometer, in the system to verify the accuracy of the adjusted outlet pressure. Incorrect or inaccurate adjustments can result in appliance burners operating improperly, such as creating a hazard from incomplete combustion. Do not adjust a regulator until you have been trained how to do so.

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Relieving Excess Pressure


MODULE 3
Typically, the final-stage regulator that reduces the gas pressure to the appliance must have a relief valve or shut-off device built into it. The function of the relief valve is to prevent overpressuring the downstream system. The regulator main spring and the smaller relief valve spring hold the diaphragm against the seat of the pressure relief valve. When pressure under the diaphragm exceeds the set pressure of the relief valve, the pressure of both springs is overcome and the diaphragm moves away from the relief valve seat. Propane vapor then escapes into the upper spring case and out through the vent. These built-in relief valves are set by the manufacturer to open within limits specified by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) standards. NOTE: Do not attempt to change the setting of a regulator relief valve. It is engineered to prevent overpressure so the regulator and the vapor distribution system are only exposed to conditions within safe operating limits.

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Regulator Vent
MODULE 3
When the regulator seat assembly disc moves up against the orifice to restrict gas flow, the diaphragm moves upward and the air is expelled through the vent. As the gas load increases, the diaphragm moves downward and the seat assembly disc moves away from the orifice. Air is then pulled in through the vent. During normal system operation, as the diaphragm moves, the vent must allow air to be pushed out from or come into the upper spring case. This diaphragm movement maintains the proper pressure balance so that the regulator can react appropriately to changes in downstream pressure. Also, when overpressure occurs, vapor flows through the relief valve into the upper case and out the vent. After the overpressure is relieved and the propane vapors are vented, the upper case returns to atmospheric pressure. In either case, the process is referred to as breathing. A regulator must be able to breathe to perform properly. So, ensuring the regulator vent is clear is extremely important to the entire propane delivery system and appliance operation.

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Causes of Regulator Freeze-up


MODULE 3
When a regulator freezes up, it ceases to operate due to moisture freezing inside the regulator or on the vent.

Freeze-up can occur for different reasons:

High pressure gas expands as it goes through the regulator orifice, creating a refrigeration effect. If gas demand is high and there is enough moisture in the propane, small water droplets can freeze and block the orifice. This type of freeze-up can occur even when the outside temperature is well above 32 F because of the refrigeration effect. Moisture from the atmosphere can freeze in the upper case area of the regulator. In sub-freezing temperatures, condensation can occur in the upper spring case, restricting movement of the diaphragm due to ice formation. Ice can build up externally on the vent opening and block the regulator from breathing, which prevents proper operation.

Freeze-up can also occur in the pigtail if moisture accumulates.

A pigtail is a flexible length of tubing or hose that connects two or more pieces of equipment (for example a container valve, regulator, torch) together allowing for the flow of vapor or liquid.

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Preventing Regulator Freeze-up


MODULE 3
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These measures prevent regulator freeze-up caused by vent blockage:

Install the regulator with the vent pointed downward. Make sure the regulator vent is pointed downward in all installations, including those where a hood or protective cover is selected. Regulators are designed to drain condensate from the upper spring case when the vent is directed down vertically. If a regulator vent cannot be installed pointing downward, then install a pipeaway adapter that ends pointing downward.

See your supervisor for instructions on how and where the regulator is to be installed to avoid damage caused by falling snow or ice.

Freeze-up caused by moisture laden propane vapor entering a regulator can be prevented by eliminating moisture in the system. This is done by:

Properly preparing a container prior to putting it into service (methanol injection). Properly purging all new containers and lines before putting them into service. Making sure the valves on empty containers are fully closed to prevent moisture from entering. Making sure the supplier is meeting industry specifications.

When installing a first-stage regulator, if possible, install the regulator inlet higher than the service valve outlet so that moisture can drain back into the container. Freeze-up caused when ice forms in the pigtails can be prevented if the pigtail loop is placed upward to prevent moisture from collecting and freezing at the bottom of the loop.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 3
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 429.

When the service valve on the regulator is closed and there is no gas pressure on the system, the ____ has forced the ____ down, fully opening the regulator ____.
orifice, container spring, diaphragm

container spring, diaphragm, orifice

diaphragm, orifice, container spring

container spring, orifice, diaphragm

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Factors for Selecting Regulators


MODULE 3
To select the appropriate regulator, you will need to consider:

Inlet pressure. Outlet pressure. Total gas demand.

All of these factors are charted on a regulator performance curve, and are used with manufacturer appliance specifications to help determine the appropriate regulator.

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Inlet Pressure, Outlet Pressure, and Total Gas Demand


MODULE 3
The inlet pressure for a first-stage regulator is determined by the container pressure and the outlet pressure should be 10 psig or less. A second-stage regulators inlet pressure is determined by the delivered pressure from the first-stage regulator. Make sure the outlet pressure is sufficient to meet the appliance demand based on appliance manufacturers specifications. To meet the total gas demand of all appliances in the system, the regulator must have the correct flow capacity. It must be able to supply gas at the minimum safe operating pressure for the appliances when the inlet pressure is at its minimum level.

Use the ratings in the regulator manufacturer literature to select the appropriate regulator based on the maximum Btu/hr load that it can handle. This rating should be higher than the total gas demand required by the system.

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Overpressure Protection
MODULE 3
The regulator relief valve is designed to prevent excessive pressure from building in the system and damaging the appliances. Excessive pressure, also called overpressure, can result from a failed regulator component, debris under the regulator seat, or blockage of the regulator vent from such things as freezing water. If this were to happen, flames could escape from an appliance combustion chamber and ignite nearby combustibles or otherwise give unsafe and inefficient combustion performance. The relief valve for a single-stage regulator may not be the same as for a second-stage regulator. NFPA 58 outlines in detail the type of relief valve required for each type of regulator. In some cases, a separate overpressure protection device may be installed to provide additional protection. Other systems may require multiple regulators. Consult your company policy concerning when external overprotection devices should be installed. You can also consult your propane equipment supplier or a specific regulator manufacturer for assistance in selecting and sizing regulators and external relief valves.

Although outdoor regulators must be installed and protected so their operation wont be affected by the weather, unusually extreme weather conditions can cause ice buildup that goes beyond mandated testing.

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Regulator Performance Curves


MODULE 3
Regulator performance curves show the capacity of a regulator at different delivery pressures given the factory setting for outlet pressure. Total gas demand is plotted horizontally and the outlet pressure of the regulator is plotted vertically. The curved lines represent various inlet pressures.

To use the performance curve properly:

1. Select the line on the chart that matches your inlet pressure, typically
10 psig for a second-stage regulator.

2. Move left along the appropriate inlet pressure line until it intersects
with the customers total gas demand.

3. Then, move directly left (horizontally) to the vertical axis to determine


the regulators outlet pressure.

Reasons to Properly Size a Regulator with a Performance Curve


For a vapor distribution system to work correctly, a properly sized regulator system must meet the total and expected Btu/hr demand. If the regulator system is not sized correctly, the customers appliances will not operate correctly. Most propane appliances require an input pressure of around 11" w.c., or about lb of pressure. If proper pressure is not maintained, the appliance will starve for fuel, leading to pilot outages, sooting, poor performance, or the appliance not functioning at all. Such problems cause unnecessary service calls.
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Designing the SecondStage Regulator System


There are three factors to consider when designing a secondstage regulator system:

MODULE 3

Piping layout. Appliance demand. Special requirements.

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Factors in Determining the Number of Second-Stage Regulators


MODULE 3
The design and construction of the structure, the location and number of appliances, and the Btu/hr demand of the appliances will affect the piping layout, the size and number of gas piping entry points required, and therefore, the number of second-stage regulators needed.

If only one second-stage regulator is required, the total gas demand can be used for selecting the regulator.

However, if multiple second-stage regulators are needed, the output capacities of the regulators should meet the demands of the appliances they are supplying. In addition, multiple second-stage regulators may be required for appliances that require different inlet pressures.

Some high demand appliances have specific requirements for secondstage regulators. For example, many manufacturers of pool and spa heaters require the second-stage regulator be installed as close as possible to the heater control.

Once you have determined the number of second-stage regulators needed and the propane demand required of each of them, you are now ready to determine the delivery or outlet pressure required for the regulator and the input pressure required from the first-stage regulator to achieve the desired output in Btu/hr.

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Learning Activity: Selecting Multiple Second-stage Regulators

LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Pressure Requirements
MODULE 3
For residential and small commercial applications, the system delivery, or inlet, pressure for appliances is typically 10.5" to 14" w.c. Check the data plate or manufacturers specifications for each appliance to determine the minimum delivery pressure required. The delivery pressure of the first-stage regulators is set at the factory and is typically 10 psig. Since the delivery pressure of most first-stage regulators remains relatively constant year round, its an accepted practice to use the normal outlet pressure of the first-stage regulator as the minimum inlet pressure to a second-stage regulator

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Checking Your Second-Stage Regulator Selection


You will use the manufacturers specifications and performance curves to select the second-stage regulator. If more than one second-stage regulator is required, be sure the same delivery pressure from the first-stage regulator will work for each second-stage regulator. Finally, check your regulator selections to ensure that each one:

MODULE 3

Has the flow capacity to meet the total gas demand of all the appliances connected to the regulator. Is able to supply the gas at the minimum required operating pressure for the appliances. Is able to supply the gas at the minimum required operating pressure when the inlet pressure is at its minimum level.

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Selecting First-Stage Regulators


MODULE 3
After a second-stage regulator has been selected, refer to the manufacturers catalog to select a suitable first-stage regulator. A suitable first-stage regulator will be:

Rated with a capacity in excess of the total gas demand. Designed to supply delivery pressures within the range needed for the second-stage regulator inlet pressures, typically 5 to 10 psig.

If the highest Btu/hr output capacity for a single first-stage regulator is not sufficient to meet total gas demand, two firststage regulators can be used in a parallel installation. NOTE: Do not use a high-pressure regulator designed for commercial or industrial applications in place of a firststage regulator designed for residential or small commercial installations. High-pressure regulators typically have delivery pressure ranges from 12 to 15 psig, but can go as high as 100 psig.

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Selecting 2-psi regulators


MODULE 3
You may decide to select a 2-psi service regulator because you have high demand appliances that require a higher flow rate. You should use a manifold with acceptable piping materials for routing to the line-pressure regulator. Selecting a 2-psi regulator is a straight-forward process similar to selecting second-stage regulators. You should:

Ensure that the first-stage regulator has sufficient Btu/hr capacity to supply all installed and anticipated future appliances. Ensure that suitable line-pressure regulators (upstream of the appliance regulators) are selected and properly located to supply connected appliances with adequate gas volume and pressure. Verify that the 2-psi service regulator for each required service entrance has sufficient Btu/hr capacity to supply all installed and anticipated future appliance demand for the distribution piping served by the 2-psi service regulator.

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Selecting Regulators: LP-Gas Code


MODULE 3
You should also review the LP-Gas Code when selecting regulators. Where the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) has adopted the 1995 or later edition of NFPA 58, two-stage regulation is required on all fixed piping systems that serve psig appliance systems (normally operated at 11" w.c.). According to the Code, single-stage systems that existed prior to 1995 can remain in service with single-stage regulators. However, if modifications to the distribution system are made or the single-stage regulator no longer functions properly, then the existing system must be converted to a 2-stage regulated system. Regulators in two-stage systems that conform to NFPA 58 requirements are designed to limit distribution line pressures downstream of the second-stage or service regulator to no more than 2 psig. The regulator performance requirements are met by relief discharge settings and adequate regulator relief valve and vent capacities. This will ensure that appliance distribution line pressures will not exceed 2 psig with the seat disc removed.

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Selecting Regulators: General Considerations


You must consider performance charts, specifications, and detailed technical information when sizing and selecting the regulators for your system. Also, keep in mind:

MODULE 3

The regulator should be constructed of materials that are compatible with LP-gas service and the external environment, including exposure temperatures. While regulators are sized using minimum inlet pressures to ensure that they can offer full capacity under all circumstances, also consider the maximum inlet and outlet pressure ratings in the selection process.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 3
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 429.

Which of the following is not a factor to consider when selecting a regulator?


Pressure requirements

Manufacturers information

Customer preferences

Total gas demand

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MODULE 3
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133

Lesson 2. Vapor Meters


MODULE 3

Introduction
Vapor meters are used to measure the quantity of propane vapor delivered to a customers appliances. Typically, meters are used when multiple customers receive propane from a common storage tank or when customers are billed on a usage basis rather than a bulk delivery. Both the propane marketer and the customer rely on a meters accuracy, which can only be assured with proper installation and maintenance of the meter. The meter must be installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and in a way that minimizes the potential for damage. Diaphragm vapor meters are used in propane vapor distribution systems for residential and small commercial applications. In this lesson, you will learn about determining vapor meter size and vapor meter accessories.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:


Explain how vapor meters operate. Determine proper vapor meter size for lb and 2-psi systems. Identify propane vapor meter accessories and options. Identify typical meter installations. Explain precautions to be taken while storing and handling meters.

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Vapor Meter Operation


MODULE 3
A vapor meter is typically connected immediately downstream of the second-stage or 2-psi service regulator at the building service entrance. When facing the meter index, the inlet of the meter is on the left side and the outlet is on the right side. Vapor meters have fixed-volume measurement compartments formed by a two-sided diaphragm. A small pressure drop across the meter causes it to cycle so that these compartments alternately fill with gas at the inlet and then empty at the outlet. By counting the number of cycles, the meter provides a measure of gas volume.

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Propane Capacities of Vapor Meters


MODULE 3
The propane capacities of vapor meters are measured in cubic feet per hour (CFH). You will need to convert this measurement to Btu/hr. The formula to convert CFH to Btu/hr is:

CFH x 2,500 Btu/CF = Btu/hr

Example: 80 CFH x 2,500 Btu/CF = 200,000 Btu/hr Typically, the propane capacity ratings of vapor meters range from as little as 80 CFH to more than 6,000 CFH. This corresponds to a range from 200,000 to 15,000,000 Btu/hr. Manufacturers typically rate vapor meter capacity based on the specific gravity of natural gas because vapor meters are more widely used in the natural gas industry. A conversion factor is used to translate the natural gas rating of a vapor meter to a propane meter. This conversion factor, also called the capacity conversion factor, is the ratio of the specific gravities of natural gas and propane measured as a force of gravity (Fg), and is 0.63. The following formula converts the natural gas rating of a vapor meter to a propane meter:

Natural Gas CFH x Fg = Propane CFH

Example: 210 CFH of natural gas x 0.63 = 132 CFH of propane

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Pressure Factors
MODULE 3
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Operating Pressure
Most propane vapor meters are designed to operate with an inlet pressure of 11" w.c. If the inlet pressure is higher or lower than 11" w.c., the meter will not measure the flow of propane vapor accurately. When the inlet pressure is above 11" w.c., more propane vapor will enter the measuring chamber each time it fills. As a result, the meter will measure vapor usage slower than the actual rate of consumption. Conversely, when the inlet pressure is below 11" w.c., less propane vapor will enter the measuring chamber each time it fills. As a result, the meter will measure vapor usage faster than the actual rate of consumption. The operating pressure can be controlled to remain constant by using a 2-stage regulator system, verifying that all distribution lines are properly sized, and ensuring that the second-stage or 2-psi service regulator is located close to the meter inlet.

Pressure Drops in the System


lb Systems: Propane meters are rated in their propane capacity using two maximum pressure drops: " w.c. and 2" w.c. The addition of a 2" w.c. pressure drop in most systems that operate at 11" w.c. could drop appliance pressure below safe operating pressure range. Therefore, when sizing vapor meters for lb systems, select the meter according to its capacity at " w.c. pressure drop. 2-psi Systems: When considering allowable pressure drops for a 2-psi system, a pressure drop of 2" w.c. equals 0.072 psig. This leaves about 1.92 psig available to the distribution lines in this system. In this case, a vapor meters 2" w.c. pressure drop capacity rating can be used when selecting vapor meters for 2-psi systems.

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Sizing a Vapor Meter


MODULE 3
To properly size a vapor meter consider three main factors: total gas demand of the system, normal operating temperature for the installation location, and elevation and pressure where the meter is installed.

Total Gas Demand


Once you have determined the total gas demand for a system, refer to the manufacturers literature to locate meters with propane capacity ratings for 11" w.c. operating pressure and " w.c. pressure drop. Select a meter with a propane capacity greater than the total gas demand.

Temperature Compensation
If the propane vapor temperature is higher than the standard temperature at which the meter was calibrated, the gas expands and becomes less dense. As a result, less gas passes through the measuring chamber each time it fills and empties. This causes the meter to measure vapor usage faster than the actual rate of consumption. If the gas temperature is below the standard temperature, the meter will be slower in measuring vapor usage than the actual rate of consumption. On average, there is a 1% error in accuracy for each 5 F change in temperature. To compensate for gas temperature variations, most manufacturers provide special meters that automatically correct for changes in temperature.

Elevation
Vapor meters are affected by both the gas pressure inside the meter and the atmospheric pressure on the outside. When the meter is installed at higher altitudes, the pressure on the bellows is less and compromises the factory settings, which are based on pressures at sea level. The National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) requires vapor meter readings to be corrected for elevations above sea level.

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CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING


Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your answers on page 429.

MODULE 3

You have determined that the total gas demand for a customer residence is 450,000 Btu/hr and you need to select a vapor meter for installation. Your company has a variety of vapor meters available, but they are all rated based on the specific gravity of natural gas. From the list below, select the appropriate meter for this installation.
180 CFH

100 CFH

200 CFH

300 CFH

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Meter Indexes
MODULE 3
A meter index measures the volume of gas used in cubic feet or cubic meters. There are three basic types of indexes used in propane meters.

Direct Indexes
A direct index displays the volume of propane used. The meter records and displays the volume of propane used during a period of time. This index has a small circular dial and indicator hand, commonly referred to as a proving dial. The proving dial is used when the meter is tested for accuracy. It may also be used to determine if the meter is operating and to check the distribution lines for leaks when it is first put into service.

Circular Indexes
A circular index commonly has four dials that record the volume of gas used. When reading the dials of a circular index, start with the dial furthest to the right and proceed to the left.

Observation Indexes
The observation index is similar to the circular index, but has an oversized proving dial. Observation indexes are used on special test meters designed to check the accuracy of other vapor meters and should not be installed in distribution systems.

DIRECT INDEX METER

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Module 3. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Regulators and Meters

Other Meter Accessories


Remote Volume Pulsers and Automated Meter Reading Equipment
Remote volume pulsers are used for measuring and transmitting meter readings for pipeline systems, and meters that are installed in locations that are remote or difficult to access. The pulsers generate a digital signal that is transmitted to automated meter reading equipment, such as handheld receivers, vehicle receivers and data recorders, or telemetry systems that can be accessed wirelessly or by telephone modems. Pulsers can be installed on the index of some existing meters. However, when selecting new or replacement meters, it is better to select an index with a factoryinstalled unit that meets the requirements of the automated meter reading equipment.

MODULE 3
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Meter Connection Parts


The swivel and the spud connect the meter to the distribution piping. The spud is a male threaded fitting permanently affixed to the meter. The swivel is the piece of pipe that connects the meter to the distribution piping. A washer is used to help the swivel and spud make a gas-tight connection.

Meter Bars
Meter bars are pre-assembled units designed to connect gas meters to supply piping. Their use prevents the transmission of piping stresses to the meter body. When planning an installation, the meter must be plumb and level in all directions. A meter installed in a tilted position could cause an inaccurate measurement of gas volume. To correct this, a meter bar or meter mounting bracket should be used to ensure the meter is properly supported and level in each direction.

Meter Identification Tags


When two or more meters are installed in the same location, NFPA 54 requires that each meter be tagged to indicate the specific customer the meter is serving. The tags should be durable and resistant to exposure, abrasion, and temperatures above 300o F and higher.

A Vapor Meter Specification Worksheet


A vapor meter specification worksheet is used to record the selection and specifications of a vapor meter. See Resources for a sample vapor meter specification worksheet.

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Other Vapor Meter Issues


MODULE 3
Multiple Domestic Manifold Installations
When installing one regulator on a multiple meter manifold, be sure to install a regulator properly sized for the load in order to maintain proper relief capacity. Some companies choose to install a service regulator for each meter.

Storage and Handling of Meters


If a meters calibration setting is inaccurate, or if its internal components are damaged due to rough treatment, a customer may not be charged correctly. Therefore, meters should always be stored, transported, and installed in an upright position. Meters are not fieldserviceable and the seals should not be broken unless you are trained and qualified to do so. Each meter is shipped from the factory with dust caps covering the inlet and outlet openings. These caps should be left in place until installing the meter.

Dustcaps should be left in place until installing the meter.

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Module 3. Designing Vapor Distribution Systems: Regulators and Meters

Module Summary
MODULE 3
Some important points to remember from this module are:

Regulators control the flow of propane in a vapor distribution system and deliver propane vapor to appliances at the required operating (delivery) pressures. While all regulators reduce pressure and control flow, different installations require different types of regulators. You need to consider inlet pressure, outlet pressure, and total gas demand when selecting a regulator. Vapor meters measure the quantity of propane vapor delivered to a customers appliances. A vapor meter is typically connected immediately downstream of the second-stage or 2-psi service regulator at the building service entrance.

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Module 3 Quiz
Directions: Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

MODULE 3

1. Regulator selection is based on ___________________.


a. downstream gas demand and service requirements b. downstream gas demand and regulator components c. downstream gas demand and flow rate d. appliance operating pressure and regulator components

2. When the service valve on the container is closed and there is no gas pressure on the system, the ____ has forced the
____ down, fully opening the regulator ____. a. orifice, regulator spring, diaphragm b. regulator spring, diaphragm, orifice c. diaphragm, orifice, regulator spring d. regulator spring, orifice, diaphragm

3. To prevent regulator freeze-up due to vent blockage caused by ice formation or condensation, the regulator should be
mounted so that the ________ to allow drainage of moisture that forms above the diaphragm. a. vent points upward b. diaphragm points upward c. vent points downward d. regulator points downward

4. For a residential vapor distribution system involving a first- and second-stage regulator, the highest Btu/hr output
capacity for a single first-stage regulator is not sufficient to meet total gas demand of the system. What is the best solution? a. Install a commercial high-pressure regulator b. Install two first-stage regulators in a parallel installation c. Install two second-stage regulators in a parallel installation d. Install two first-stage regulators in series

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Module 3 Quiz

5. Vapor meters have ________ formed by a ______ diaphragm.


a. multi-volume measurement compartments, two-sided b. fixed-volume measurement compartments, one-sided c. fixed-volume measurement compartments, two-sided d. compound-volume measurement compartments, two-sided

MODULE 3

6. When sizing vapor meters for lb systems, select the meter according to its capacity at 2" w.c. pressure drop.
a. True b. False

7. A circular meter index commonly has four dials that record the volume of gas used. When reading the dials of a circular
index, start with the dial ____________. a. furthest to the left and proceed right b. furthest to the right and proceed left c. in the center and proceed outward d. anywhere, because it doesnt matter

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MODULE 4

Module 4. Preparing System Components for Transport


INTRODUCTION
This module focuses on preparing vapor distribution system components for transport. You will learn about Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations regarding transporting and delivering propane-related materials. You will also learn how to visually inspect DOT cylinders and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) tanks, perform leak tests, and locate the presence of odorants in delivered materials.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Explain how to verify container conditions. Identify the procedures for performing a leak test on a container. Identify the procedures for loading containers onto service vehicles. Explain the regulatory requirements for transporting containers.

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MODULE 4
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Lesson 1: Verifying Container Condition


MODULE 4

Introduction
After you have selected and sized the equipment for a propane vapor distribution system, but before you transport it to a customer site, you must verify that the propane storage container is in satisfactory condition. This lesson will address the steps involved in inspecting containers, performing a leak test on a container, and ensuring that an odorant has been added to the propane before delivery.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to explain how to:

Inspect DOT cylinders and ASME tanks to verify their fitness for service. Perform a leak test on a container. Verify odorant is present in propane being delivered to a customer.

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DOT Cylinder Inspection


MODULE 4
Always complete these steps before loading a cylinder on a delivery vehicle:

1. Check the cylinders manufacturing date and


requalification date.

2. Determine the overall fitness of the cylinder by checking


for any obvious defects.

3. Identify required cylinder markings. 4. Identify required cylinder labels.


After you have completed your inspection of the DOT cylinder, be sure to perform a leak test and verify the presence of an odorant, which will be discussed later in this lesson.

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Step 1. Check the DOT Cylinder Manufacturer or Requalification Date


MODULE 4
When inspecting a cylinder, first check the original date of qualification (manufacturing date). If it is 12 years or older, then look for the DOT-required requalification date. All DOT/Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) cylinders used to transport propane must be within the original 12-year date of manufacture (qualification date) or a requalified date of five, seven, or 12 years, depending on the requalification method used. The cylinder must be in good working order. The most recent requalification date is marked on the cylinder and includes:

The month and year of the last requalification. The Requalification Identification Number (RIN). A single letter to indicate the requalification method that was used (unless the hydrostatic test is used).

All cylinders must be requalified before their requalification date. A DOT cylinder that does not have a current requalification date must be removed from service and cannot be refilled until it has been retested or requalified. A cylinder may require requalification before its requalification date if it is damaged or subjected to physical abuse, excessive corrosion, or extreme heat. Aluminum cylinders that have been exposed to fire must be removed from service immediately and cannot be put back in service under any circumstance.

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Important DOT Requalification Terms


MODULE 4
These cylinder conditions are clearly defined by DOT regulations:

Condemn: The cylinder is unserviceable for the continued transportation of hazardous materials in commerce, and may not be restored by repair, rebuilding, requalification, or any other procedure. Cylinders with a series of XXX over the DOT specification number and service pressure or marked with CONDEMNED on the shoulder, top head, or neck are condemned cylinders. They must not be refilled or continued in service. Defect: The cylinder has an imperfection requiring its removal from service. Filled or charged: The cylinder has had a hazardous material introduced into it. Repair: The cylinder has been inspected but cannot be requalified in its current condition. It must be immediately removed from service and repaired or transported for repair. After repair, it can be reinspected and either requalified to return to service or condemned. Rejected: The cylinder cannot be continued in service without repair, rebuilding, and requalification. Requalification: The cylinder requires a complete visual inspection and possibly testing to determine its suitability for continued service.

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Step 2. Determine the Overall Fitness of the DOT Cylinder


DOT requires a visual inspection of the overall physical fitness of each cylinder before it is loaded for transport. Before loading a cylinder look for the following:

MODULE 4

Cracks or leaks. Bulging. Significant denting or gouging. Defective valve or valves. Damage to the cylinder valve protection, or cylinder foot rings. Evidence of physical abuse, fire or heat damage, or excessive rusting or corrosion.

Steel cylinders subjected to fire must be requalified, reconditioned, or repaired. Repairs must be performed by the original manufacturer or a DOT authorized repair facility. Aluminum cylinders subjected to fire must be removed from service permanently.

NOTE: If any of these conditions are found, the cylinder must not be refilled or transported until it has been requalified according to DOT regulations.

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Step 2. Determine the Overall Fitness of the DOT Cylinder, continued


Determining cylinder fitness includes visually inspecting the condition of the cylinder valves and fittings.

MODULE 4

To learn more about this topic, please review the Propane Delivery Operations and Cylinder Delivery course.

Carefully examine the:


Service valve handwheels and stems Filler and relief valves and rain caps Fixed maximum liquid level gauge Cylinder valve protective collars or valve caps and threads Float gauge dial faces and operation of float gauges where included Foot rings and welds

Rain caps are also known as weather caps.


If you determine that a valve or fitting must be replaced, mark the cylinder with a tag or suitable marker and move it to a designated area for valve replacement. If requalification is required, mark this as well and move the cylinder to a proper location. In addition, if the tank is new and not vacuum-sealed by the manufacturer, make sure it is properly purged of air before it is transported to a customer location.

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Step 3. Identify Required DOT Cylinder Markings


MODULE 4
In addition to required labels, every DOT cylinder, regardless of size or application, must have a data plate or permanent cylinder markings on either the shoulder or protective collar. These markings include: Tare weight: The weight in pounds of the empty cylinder including all required valves. Water capacity: The weight in pounds of water needed to completely fill a cylinder. Manufacturer name: The name of the company that built the cylinder. Specification design code: Since propane can be transported and stored in more than one type of DOT cylinder there are several approved DOT and ICC cylinder design codes. These design code markings typically consist of a specification design code and the service pressure. Serial number: Used to identify the manufacturers inspectors report as to material and required test data which is on file with the Bureau of Explosives (BOE). Manufacturer original test date: Indicates the date that the manufacturer inspected the cylinder and determined it was suitable for service. Requalification date: The month and year of requalification test. DT symbol: The figure following DT is the correct length of the dip tube in inches and decimal fractions, which should be used for volume filling this size and type cylinder. Requalification Identification Number (RIN): After 2004, all requalified cylinders must have a unique number marked on them by those companies holding a Requalification Identification Number. See Resources for a DOT cylinder code chart.

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Step 4. Identify Required DOT Cylinder Labels


MODULE 4
Cylinders must be inspected for proper labels. Labels are to be readily visible during transportation, should not obstruct any other required cylinder markings, and must be placed against a background of contrasting color. Shipping Label: DOT requires shipping labels for all cylinders that contain a hazardous material transported. These labels must be readable and include the proper shipping name and hazard class. Look at the image on the left. What is the shipping name for this label? What is the hazard class?

Answer: The shipping name is propane and the hazard class is 2. For more information, consult Basic Principles and Practices of Propane.

Consumer Information/Warning Label: NFPA 58 requires a consumer information label for all portable, refillable propane cylinders of 100 pounds or less that are not filled on site. This label includes information on the potential hazards of propane.

OSHA Warning Label: To help commercial customers meet OSHA requirements, many marketers attach an OSHA warning label to cylinders that will be handled by their customers employees. This label warns employees about the hazardous material stored in the cylinder.

All three of these labels may be combined into a 3-in-1 label. These labels can also be combined into a 4-in-1 label. This label has additional propane marketer identification and emergency contact information for company-owned cylinders that are leased to customers.

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Learning Activity: Inspecting DOT Cylinders

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Check your work on page 430.

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ASME Tank Inspection


MODULE 4
Always complete these five steps before conducting a leak test on an ASME tank:

1. Verify the amount of propane in the tank. 2. Check the condition of the tank coating. 3. Check the condition of valves and fittings. 4. Check the tanks lifting lugs and supports. 5. Check data plate markings.

After you have completed your inspection of the ASME tank, be sure to perform a leak test and verify the presence of odorant, which will be discussed later in this lesson.

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Step 1. Verify Amount of Propane in the ASME Tank


ASME tanks used for LP-gas storage with a water capacity of 125 gallons or greater cannot be transported over a public roadway when filled to more than 5% of their water capacity, except under certain circumstances covered late in this module. If more than 5% liquid propane is present in the tank, it cannot be transported, except under certain circumstances. Refer to your company policy or consult your supervisor. If the tank is new and not vacuum-sealed by the manufacturer, make sure it is properly purged of air before it is transported to a customer location. Older tanks that have been open to the atmosphere must also be purged.

MODULE 4

To learn more about this topic, please review the Propane Delivery Operations and Cylinder Delivery course.

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Step 2. Check Condition of the ASME Tank Coating


Protective coatings are important on both aboveground and underground tank installations to maintain structural integrity and protect against corrosion. On buried tanks, the condition of the coating is especially critical because it is an integral part of the tanks corrosion protection. If the protective coating of a tank is damaged, the coating should be repaired or another tank should be installed. Follow the equipment manufacturers recommendations or consult your company policy for information about protective coating standards. Coating touch-up materials should be transported with the tank to make final corrections to tank coatings as needed at the installation site.

MODULE 4

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Step 3. Check Valves and Fittings


MODULE 4
Check the condition of each tank valve and fitting. Ensure that rain caps are in place on the filler, relief, and vapor equalizing valves. Verify that the metal plug or cap is in place and sealed on the liquid withdrawal valve.

Step 4. Check Lugs and Supports for ASME Tank Inspection


Check the tanks lifting lugs and supports to ensure they are intact, firmly attached, and free of defects such as cracks or corrosion that could cause a weakened condition.

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Step 5: Check Data Plate Markings for ASME Tank Inspection


MODULE 4
Verify that the ASME data plate markings or certification stampings in the tank head or shell are legible and that the tank is properly marked and labeled for transportation. Proper shipping labels or placards must be placed on any propane tank. If ASME markings or stampings are not legible, refer to your company policy. The following markings are required for stationary ASME containers:

Service for which the container is designed. You must verify that the container is designed for propane. Name and address of container supplier or trade name of container. Water capacity of container in pounds or U.S. gallons. You must verify that you are getting the proper container. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) in pounds per square inch (psi). You must verify that the container is usable for propane. The following statement: This container shall not contain a product that has a vapor pressure in excess of ___psig at 100 F. Outside surface area in square feet. Year of manufacture. Shell thickness and head thickness: Shell thickness is the thickness of the wall of an ASME container. Head thickness is the thickness of the end portion that is welded to the main body of the tank. OL (overall length), OD (outside diameter), HD (head design). Manufacturers serial number. This number is used to properly identify the container to be serviced. ASME Code Symbol. Minimum design metal temperature, measured in F at MAWP psi. This is to make sure the container is usable for propane. Type of construction: W for welded. Degree of radiography RT. This means the manufacturer has performed Radiography Testing.

This list is in accordance with 2011 NFPA 58. Remember that older tanks built under previous codes may have been built under different marking requirements.

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Perform a Leak Test


MODULE 4
After completing a visual inspection of either a DOT cylinder or ASME tank, you must test for leaks on the container, valves, and fittings. To test for leaks:

1. Select A Leak Checking Device


The most common method for searching for a leak is by using an appropriate leak detector solution. However, some marketers use an electronic gas detector.

2. Choose an Appropriate Place in the Plant to Perform the Inspection


Once you have the container you intend to install, locate it where the entire container surface, valves, and fittings can be examined.

3. Pressurize the Container


More than likely the container you will install has been in service and contains some product. If not, the container needs to be charged with some liquid propane so that you have sufficient pressure to conduct your leak check. New containers or those left open to the atmosphere should be pressurized, or purged, according to your company policy.

4. Use a Leak Detector to Test for Leaks


Test for leaks at the following points:

All seams and welds, including the foot ring connections on DOT cylinders. All connections, threaded and flanged, in which valves, gauges, or plugs are installed. All valves.

Also look for signs of oil building up around welds and valve installation points as this is a sign of a leak. If you have a leak, mark the leak, put the cylinder in a safe area, and check your company policy for evacuating, repairing, or discarding the container.

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Odorant Verification
MODULE 4
Before you transport a propane container to a customer site, you should verify the presence of an odorant. You can do this by performing a sniff test. This is the most widely used method to check whether an odorant has been added to the propane and is performed by smelling the propane. Propane that has been odorized smells like rotten eggs, a skunks spray, or a dead animal.

Always take the following precautions when performing the sniff test:

Protect yourself by wearing appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Only vent a small amount of propane. Close the vent before you sniff. If venting liquid, only sniff after propane liquid has vaporized.

NOTE: Make sure you know your company policies and procedures for performing a sniff test. Contact your supervisor if you suspect propane is not properly odorized. See Resources for alternate methods to verify propane odorization.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 4
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 430.

Since ASME tanks have many welds and openings for valves and gauges, you should select random samples of the welds and connections for leak testing.
True

False

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MODULE 4
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165

Lesson 2. Loading Containers for Transportation and Installation


Introduction
After verifying that the container you selected for installation is in satisfactory condition for service, you can load it onto a service vehicle. This lesson covers procedures for loading containers on service vehicles and the applicable regulatory requirements for transporting containers.

MODULE 4

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Explain applicable DOT hazardous materials regulations for transporting DOT cylinders and ASME tanks. Identify the types of vehicles and equipment used for the delivery of DOT cylinders and ASME tanks. Explain how to properly load and secure DOT cylinders and ASME tanks onto service vehicles. Identify additional job tools and materials necessary for container installation. Explain pre-departure and in-transit responsibilities to safely transport DOT cylinders and ASME tanks.

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DOT Requirements for ASME Tank Transportation: Less than 5%


MODULE 4
DOT regulations classify ASME containers with a capacity greater than 120 gallons as bulk containers. ASME tanks filled to 5% of their capacity or less may be transported under the following conditions:

Each container must be constructed and marked as required by the ASME code. Must be equipped with safety devices as required by NFPA 58. Must be secured to the vehicle to prevent movement.

5% MAXIMUM LIQUID LEVEL

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DOT Requirements for ASME Tank Transportation: Over 5%


MODULE 4
ASME tanks with water capacities 126 to 500 G.W.C. filled to more than 5% may be transported one-way only from the consumers premises to the nearest bulk plant facility under the following conditions:

Each container must be constructed and marked as required by the ASME code. Must not exceed the containers maximum permitted filling density. Prior to loading the container must be inspected for leaks, corroded or abraded areas, dents, distortions, weld defects, or other condition that may render the container unsafe for transportation. A record of the inspection must be legibly signed and dated by the trained and qualified person conducting the inspection. The person signing the record must certify the container has been inspected and has no defect that would render it unsafe for transportation.

OVER 5% LIQUID LEVEL AND 126 - 500 G.W.C

The record must include the date of inspection; the inspectors contact phone number, the container serial number, container size, estimated amount of propane, and the origin and destination of the shipment. The completed record must be retained by the container owner for two years. Only one container may be transported on the vehicle in this manner. When loading, the container must be lifted by using slings completely wrapped around the container and lifting lugs may not be used to lift the container. The lifting slings must be rated to handle the total weight of the container and the propane in the container. Slings must meet ASME code requirements and be visually inspected prior to each use. Any sling showing evidence of tears, fraying, or other signs of excessive wear may not be used.

The storage container is within the vehicle frame, secured against movement, and no weight is placed on the supporting legs during transport. Tow trailers used to transport tanks in this manner must be equipped with rear end protection. ASME tanks of less than 125 gallons water capacity may be transported with propane in compliance with DOT filling density requirements.

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DOT Requirements for ASME Tank Transportation


MODULE 4
When transporting ASME tanks containing liquid or vapor propane:

Tanks with water capacities between 125 and 999 gallons must be labeled on both sides using either flammable gas labels or LP-gas placards.

Tanks with water capacities between 1,000 and 5,000 gallons, must be labeled on both sides and both ends using either flammable gas labels or LP-gas placards.

Any tank not permanently attached to the vehicle must be secured to prevent movement during transportation. We will review specific measures for properly positioning and securing ASME tanks later in this lesson.

Flammable gas labels are sometimes called 4" x 4" shipping labels.

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DOT Requirements for Cylinder Transportation


DOT regulations classify cylinders as non-bulk containers or packaging.

MODULE 4

When transporting cylinders containing propane:

Placard holders should be located on the front, back, and both sides of the cylinder service vehicle. If the cylinders have a gross aggregate weight of 1,001 lb or more, you must display the appropriate placard in each holder.

In addition to the placarding requirements, each cylinder must be marked with the proper shipping name, propane or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and the United Nations (UN) identification number UN1075. Any cylinder not permanently attached to the vehicle must be secured to prevent movement during transportation. Specific measures for properly positioning and securing DOT cylinders will be reviewed later in this lesson.

Any cylinder not permanently attached to the vehicle must be secured to prevent movement during transportation.

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DOT Requirements for Vehicle Documentation


If you are transporting cylinders or tanks containing propane, you must carry shipping papers, a hazmat certificate of registration, and emergency response information.

MODULE 4

Shipping Papers
Shipping papers must be available for authorities in the event of an accident or an inspection. They must be within immediate reach inside the vehicle when driving with a lap safety belt in place, in a holder mounted on the inside of the drivers side door, or visible to someone entering the cab. Shipping papers must contain the hazard identification information as it applies to the cargo of the service vehicle, including:

Proper shipping name. UN identification number/proper shipping number. Hazard class division. Indication that the shipment is noncorrosive. The total quantity of hazardous materials, by mass or volume, including an indication of the applicable unit of measurement.

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DOT Requirements for Vehicle Documentation, continued


Hazmat Certificate of Registration
All drivers or companies transporting hazardous materials are required to register with DOT, and must carry either:

MODULE 4

A current copy of the Hazmat Certificate of Registration. Another document bearing DOT Hazmat Registration Number. For example, sometimes this information is included on permanent shipping papers.

Emergency Response Information


You must also carry emergency response information in your service vehicle. This information must be readily available for emergency responders, enforcement authorities, and company personnel. At a minimum, the emergency response information must include:

Description of the hazardous material. Immediate precautions to take in the event of an incident. Risks of fire or explosion and immediate methods for handling small and large fires. Initial methods for handling spills or leaks in the absence of fire. Immediate hazards to health and preliminary first aid measures. Emergency response telephone numbers.

This information must either be on the shipping papers or kept with the shipping papers. Additional information on DOT regulations, including further details regarding placards and vehicle documents is available in the CETP training program in the Propane Delivery Operations and Cylinder Delivery book.

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NFPA Requirements for Vehicle Safety Equipment


NFPA 58 requires that vehicles transporting propane containers must have at least one approved portable fire extinguisher. The fire extinguisher must have a minimum capacity of 18 lb dry chemical with a B:C rating. An 18 lb ABC extinguisher is also acceptable. The fire extinguisher must be mounted on the vehicle in an accessible location. It must be visually inspected monthly. If the extinguisher is damaged, does not indicate proper pressure, has missing parts, or is past due for an annual inspection, it should be tagged, removed from the truck, and replaced with a serviceable extinguisher before the vehicle is operated. Use of chock blocks may be required on your service vehicle. NOTE: Consult your company policy for more information about the use of chock blocks.

MODULE 4

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 4
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 430.

According to DOT requirements, which of the following containers cannot be transported on public roadways to the customer site?
Stationary DOT 420 lb cylinder filled to 80% capacity

A 500 gallon ASME tank containing 10 gallons of liquid propane

A 1,000 gallon ASME tank containing 100 gallons of liquid propane

An empty container, either ASME tank or DOT cylinder

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Module 4. Preparing System Components for Transport

ASME Tank and DOT Cylinder Service Vehicles


MODULE 4
Service/installation trucks, crane trucks, and tank setting trailers are the three most common types of container service vehicles. Lets take a closer look at each.

Service/Installation Trucks
Service/installation trucks are equipped with a utility body, and may have a lift gate for handling cylinders, cylinder dollies, smaller ASME tanks, or tank dollies. Typically they have a flat deck service bed of steel or wood, and fitted with pockets and rails for use with tank securing devices. These pockets may also be used with removable stake panels or cylinder racks. Some service beds combine stake panels and permanently attached racks to allow for cylinder and ASME tank transportation and handling.

Crane Trucks
Crane trucks are straight trucks with a crane attached. They are used mainly to install ASME tanks at residential and small commercial customer locations, but can also be used for stationary cylinder installations.

Tank Setting Trailers


Tank setting trailers have lifting mechanisms and are towed by a vehicle, usually a pickup or service truck. They are used to install ASME tanks at residential and small commercial customer locations. You must be properly trained to use these vehicles. Contact your supervisor or refer to your company policy for more information.

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DOT Cylinder Loading Accessories: Cylinder Dollies


A cylinder dolly, or hand truck, is used to load cylinders onto the service or installation vehicle at the plant and to move cylinders at the customers site. A dolly is essential equipment for safe cylinder delivery and may prevent back injuries associated with lifting heavy objects.

There are two types of cylinder dollies:

Exchange Cylinder Dolly: is suitable for moving exchange cylinders with up to 100 lb propane capacity.

Stationary Cylinder Dolly: can move large stationary cylinders when a truck-mounted crane is unavailable or impractical. It typically has heavy foot ring lifting points, securing straps and ratchet binders, and lockable tilting levers capable of handling heavy loads. It also has larger, heavier wheels than exchange cylinder dollies and may have a rear-stabilizing pivot wheel. It can be equipped with a gasoline engine for propulsion.

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DOT Cylinder Loading Accessories: Cylinder Dollies, continued


Precautions

MODULE 4

Use caution when moving cylinders with a dolly. Dropping or tipping over the cylinder can damage valves, releasing pressurized and flammable gas. Use the appropriate type of dolly. Secure the cylinder on the dolly so it is stable during movement. Always wear PPE to avoid contact with liquid propane and prevent freeze burns. When using the trucks lift gate, make sure it is large enough and properly rated to hold the dolly so it doesnt roll off when loading and unloading cylinders. This is especially important if your vehicle is parked on an uneven surface. Secure the cylinder dolly to prevent it from moving during transportation. Store the dolly in a readily-accessible location on the vehicle.

NOTE: When using a motorized dolly, remember to follow the manufacturers instructions to avoid hurting yourself or the equipment.

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DOT Cylinder Loading Accessories: Lift Gates


Lift gates are often used to raise and lower cylinders on and off the service/installation vehicle. They vary in size and lifting capacity, and may be either electric/hydraulic or cableoperated. The lift gate platform may fold or be a single piece.

MODULE 4

Precautions
There are some precautions that you want to be aware of when operating lift gates:

Never ride, or let others ride, on the lift gate. Keep your hands off the lift gate when raising and lowering it. Keep your feet clear of the lift gate landing area.

Before delivery, inspect the lift gate for:


Low reservoir levels or hydraulic fluid leaks. Excessively worn or damaged hydraulic hoses or fittings. Pivot point bearing lubrication. Excessive corrosion on mounting bolts, cylinder mounts, travel arms, or lift gate pieces. Frayed or loose cables or cable-attaching mechanisms. Cracked or broken welds. Misaligned arms or other travel components. Loose or damaged electrical wiring.

If you notice any of these signs, report it to your supervisor. Refer to your company policy and follow the specific manufacturers instructions when using a lift gate.

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Loading and Securing DOT Cylinders


MODULE 4
Follow the manufacturers instructions and these steps to load and secure DOT cylinders on a vehicle:

1. Park your vehicle at the dock or on level ground before moving


the dolly and cylinder onto the lift gate.

2. Before operating the lift gate:

Center the load on the lift gate to help prevent it from tilting or falling. Ensure everyone is in a safe location before operating the control levers or switches. Do not try to catch a load if it falls.

3. Use the lift gate to load cylinders on the service vehicle so their
weight is evenly distributed. Keep in mind:

An ideal load places most of the weight on the front and rear axles with both side-to-side and front-to-back distribution. An unbalanced load is extremely dangerous; it could cause poor handling due to insufficient ground contact. It could even cause the truck to overturn.

4. Position the cylinders on the vehicle so that each cylinders


pressure relief valve is in direct communication with the vapor space at all times. The cylinders must be secured in this position by chains and chain binders or cargo straps and binders so that they cannot shift, fall, or be ejected from the vehicle.

Protecting DOT Cylinder Valves and Fittings


You should protect cylinder valves during transportation by attaching metal caps or a collar.

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Loading Tanks Using Truck-Mounted Cranes: Pre-Loading Tasks


You are responsible for all phases of loading, unloading, and installing tanks. You must take precautions to protect the people and property involved. When two or more people are involved in an operation, you should assign individual responsibilities and agree to a communication method before beginning to load, unload, or install a tank to ensure a safe and efficient operation. Always observe safety precautions. Before loading the tank onto a service vehicle, discuss how you will conduct the operation with everyone involved. These are good points to cover:

MODULE 4

Only designated personnel may operate a truckmounted crane. What are safe working procedures? Who should use PPE? Any special tank handling requirements?

Truck-mounted crane operators should:

Read and follow the manufacturers instructions for inspecting, maintaining, and operating the crane. Know the cranes maximum lifting capacity.

Per DOT, a designated person is an individual who has been selected or assigned by the employer as being qualified to operate a truck crane.

NOTE: You and anyone working with you should always follow the manufacturers requirements for operating this equipment.

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Loading Tanks Using Truck-Mounted Cranes


MODULE 4
After the pre-job planning, follow these steps so the ASME tank can be lifted and positioned safely onto the truck bed, within safe working limits of the crane.

1. Park the crane truck on level ground. Set the parking brakes.

2. Extend the outriggers and lock them into position. Outriggers


should be adjusted to level the crane structure in accordance with manufacturers operating instructions. Crane outriggers are used to prevent damage to the truck chassis and maintain stability.

3. Visually inspect the crane.

Inspect the lifting hook and swivel to ensure that they are not damaged and make sure the safely latches are in place. Also check for locking pins or set screws to secure the hook and swivel. Inspect the chains and hooks of the lifting bridle or slings. They should be in good condition and have proper load ratings to handle the tank.

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4. If the tank contains more than 5% liquid, the tanks lifting lugs or
eyes should not be used. Instead, use slings that have adequate load ratings and secure them under the bottom of the tank to make the lift.

MODULE 4

5. Select and inspect the slings.

Slings must be selected in accordance with their intended use based on the size and type of load, and the environmental conditions of the workplace. The different types of slings include chains, wire rope cables, and fabric web strap-type slings. Visually inspect all slings before use to ensure their effectiveness. When inspecting alloy steel chain slings, pay special attention to any stretching, wear in excess of allowances made by the manufacturer, and nicks and gouges. These signs indicate that the sling may be unsafe and should be removed from service. Wire rope slings, fabric rope, and web slings cannot be used if they show signs of wear and tear or damage.

6. Determine how you will use the crane to lift the tank, how you will
arrange the sling(s), and if you require additional slings or other equipment for the load. Slings should have load ratings well in excess of the weight of the tank and its contents. If slings are not arranged to lift vertically, the load capacity of the sling decreases as the sling angle moves from vertical to horizontal. Under DOT regulations, lifting slings must be rated to handle the weight of the container and lading when loading tanks between 125 and 500 gallons with more than 5% liquid.

7. Attach the slings, and determine the path of the tank lift and travel.
Attach guide ropes as needed.

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8. Connect the lifting hook to the sling or tank. Then, carefully lift the
tank off the ground. Slowly rotate and position the tank so it can be lowered onto the truck bed. Do not leave the tank suspended by a crane boom or lift. Never stand or walk beneath the lifted tank.

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9. With the boom still connected to the sling or tank, secure the tank
to the truck bed with tie-down straps or chains, to meet federal requirements.

DOT transportation regulations require tanks with more than 5% liquid must rest in cradles or saddles so that supporting legs will not have any weight placed on them during transportation. Container bracing must conform to DOT requirements. Straps or chains used as tie-downs must be rated to exceed the maximum load being transported and comply with DOT requirements. Tanks must not extend beyond the sides or rear of the vehicle.

10. Remove all slings and guide ropes, then secure them to the truck. 11. Return the crane to the original position and lock it in place,
according to the manufacturers instructions.

See Resources for more information on wear and tear of wire rope slings, fabric rope, and web slings.

Safe and compliant container loading practices


LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Loading Tanks Using Tank Setting Trailers: Types


Tank setting trailers are towed behind vehicles. They have an opening that allows an ASME tank to be lifted above the trailer chassis, and then lowered onto support crossmembers attached to the trailer chassis. Follow manufacturers instructions regarding the use of all equipment.

MODULE 4

Their designs can vary in the following ways:

Lifting mechanisms: May use chain hoists that move along an I-beam at the top of the lifting superstructure, a crank-type cable hoist, or an electrical, motorpowered hydraulic cable winch or hydraulic cylinders. The lifting superstructure is basically a heavy-duty steel A-frame secured to the trailer chassis. Braking systems: Most tank setting trailers have electric/hydraulic brakes or coupler-activated hydraulic brakes. Bunk Securing Methods: You can secure bunks to the trailer frame with clevis pins, clips, locking channel fittings, or a combination of these devices.

On electric/hydraulic brake systems, the electrical current flows when the towing vehicles brake lights are activated. Proper operation of the brake lights is critical to the operation of the trailer braking system, along with proper electrical connection to the towing vehicle. On coupler-activated hydraulic systems, proper lubrication and movement of the trailer tonguemounted hydraulic cylinder levers is critical to proper braking system operation. Bunk: Removable tank support cross-members that connect to the trailer chassis.

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Loading Tanks Using Tank Setting Trailers: Inspection


Before using a tank setting trailer, you should examine each trailer component to verify it is in working order. The trailer should always be in safe operating condition in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. If you are towing a trailer on public roadways, then DOT regulations require a pre-trip inspection. You should inspect these parts of the trailer:

MODULE 4

Hydraulic System Electrical System Mechanical Components Mounting Hardware Fluid Level in Brake Master Cylinder Reservoir Lights Reflectors Bunks Safety Breakaway Mechanism Safety Chains Rims and Tires Placard Holder If you are towing a trailer on public roadways, then DOT regulations require a pre-trip inspection.

Contact your supervisor or consult your company policy to determine if you must inspect additional tank setting trailer components before using a tank setting trailer.

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Loading Tanks Using Tank Setting Trailers


MODULE 4
To load the tank safely onto the tank setting trailer:

1. Remove the tank bunks (support


cross-members).

2. Position the trailer around the tank.

3. Lift the tank high enough to allow


the bunks to be secured to the trailer frame.

4. Install the bunks according to the


trailers manufacturer instructions, and be sure they are secured as directed. If lock pins or clips are required, verify that they are in place.

5. Lower the tank onto the bunks.

6. Use cargo straps or chains and


binders to secure the tank in at least two places.

7. Conduct a walk-around inspection


to verify that the trailer is ready to be transported.

NOTE: Always follow the manufacturers instructions for loading and using a tank setting trailer.

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Safety Considerations for Tank Setting Trailers


In addition to the manufacturers instructions and companyspecific procedures, you should follow these safety precautions when loading tanks on tank setting trailers:

MODULE 4

Do not use a tank setting trailer that has any mechanical or structural defect, including defective lifting or tank-securing components, until repairs or replacement service work has been done. Ensure the towing hitch is rated to carry the load of the trailer. Ensure the trailer tongue weight does not overload the towing vehicle hitch. If too much weight is carried on the rear axle of the towing vehicle, it can cause loss of steering control, fishtailing, or unstable braking. Ensure the trailer hitch is secured and locked on the towing vehicles towing hitch before lifting the tank. Check the condition of the trailers lifting equipment before attaching or lifting a tank. Do not place hands, arms, or any other body part beneath a suspended tank. Secure any loose tools, slings, or chains in a toolbox on the trailer or towing vehicle before transporting the tank, or after setting a tank and returning to the bulk plant.
Ensure the towing hitch is rated to carry the load of the trailer.

Check the condition of the trailers lifting equipment before attaching or lifting a tank.

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Assembling Job Tools and Materials


MODULE 4
After you have successfully loaded the ASME tank, you need to review the work order provided by your company to verify it is complete and accurate for the required installation. Follow your company policy and use the work order form they provide. Use the work order to assemble the components needed for the installation. Some of the components will already be on your vehicle. You are responsible for making sure your vehicle is re-stocked with the components you use regularly, such as fittings and regulators. The container and piping should be selected and loaded on a job-by-job basis.

All materials and supplies needed for installation at the customer site are considered cargo and must be secured under DOT regulations, including:

Piping Regulators Valves Meters Fittings Masonry foundation blocks Chock blocks Dollies Materials of Trade (MOT)

Remember! All vehicles transporting portable containers must be equipped with one or more fire extinguishers with a minimum capacity of 18 lb of dry chemical with a B:C rating. Gravel and rocks often catch in the feet of tanks, and are lifted with the tank onto the truck bed. Be sure to clean out any loose debris on a tank prior to loading.

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Transporting MOT
MODULE 4
You may transport small amounts of hazardous materials for use at an installation site; for example, paint, paint thinner, methanol, or wasp spray. Limited quantities of flammable liquids and other hazardous materials may be transported as MOT without placards, shipping papers, or emergency response information.

DOT regulations define MOT as hazardous materials that are carried on a motor vehicle to:

Protect the driver or passengers. Support the operation of the motor vehicle. Directly support the business.

Hazardous MOT must be secured in approved containers in external vehicle toolboxes, secured in racks, or placed in protected areas on the bed or cargo area of a service truck. You cannot transport MOT in the cab of a service vehicle, or in any unprotected area where the container cannot be secured. See Resources for more information about transporting flammable liquids as MOT.

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Transportation Safety Responsibilities


MODULE 4
After safely loading the container for delivery, remember you are also responsible for the service vehicle itself and for safely transporting the container. Your responsibilities as a driver include:

Complying with DOT licensing and driving requirements. Conducting pre-trip inspections on your vehicle. Ensuring required maintenance is performed on your vehicle. Driving defensively.

Before leaving the plant, you must ensure placards are properly attached to the vehicle, and are visible, and in good condition.

Detailed information on these and other related topics are included in the CETP training program Propane Delivery Operations and Cylinder Delivery.

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Learning Activity: Safely loading cdvs

LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Module Summary
MODULE 4
Some important points to remember from this module are:

Before loading a cylinder on a delivery vehicle, you must:


Check the cylinder manufacturer or requalification date. Determine the overall fitness of the cylinder; identify required cylinder markings. Perform a leak test. Perform a sniff test to verify the presence of odorant.

There are different methods for loading DOT cylinders and ASME tanks onto delivery vehicles, and specific guidelines apply to loading each type of container. Follow manufacturers instructions and adhere to company policies when loading propane storage containers for transportation. After loading the container you are responsible for the service vehicle itself and for safely transporting the container. When transporting cylinders or tanks containing propane, you must carry shipping papers, a hazmat certificate of registration, and emergency response information.

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Module 4 Quiz
MODULE 4
Directions: Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

1. If you want to find the most recent requalification date of a DOT cylinder that had previously been visually inspected, look
for: a. The date imprinted along the top of the container b. The month and year card with the most recent date hole-punched c. The month and year followed by the letter E d. Documentation that must always accompany the container

2. All of the following are examples of physical defects that would disallow a container to be refilled EXCEPT:
a. Bulging b. Discoloration along the container wall c. Cracks d. Damage to the cylinder foot rings

3. ASME tanks used for LP-gas storage that have a water capacity of 125 gallons or greater cannot be transported over a
public roadway when filled to more than ______ of their water capacity. a. 20% b. 15% c. 10% d. 5%

4. The steps to performing a leak test are as follows: Step 1: Select a leak checking device; Step 2: Choose an appropriate
place in the plant to perform the inspection; Step 3: ________; Step 4: Use a leak detector to test for leaks. What is step 3? a. Pressurize the container b. Notify supervisor of potentially unsafe containers c. Connect a vapor hose to the container d. Spray fluid on valve and look for bubbles

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5. DOT regulations classify ASME containers with a capacity greater than ____ gallons as bulk containers.
a. 75 b. 50 c. 125 d. 120

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6. If you are transporting cylinders or tanks containing propane, you must carry _______.
a. Shipping papers, placard holders, and emergency response information b. Shipping papers, a hazmat certificate of registration, and emergency response information c. Shipping papers, a hazmat certificate of registration, and a cylinder dolly d. Towing hitch, a hazmat certificate of registration, and emergency response information

7. Which of the following procedures for loading and securing propane cylinders on a vehicle is NOT correct?
a. Park your vehicle at the dock or on the level ground before moving the dolly and cylinder onto the lift gate b. Take precautions before operating the lift gate, including centering the load on the lift gate to help prevent it from tilting or falling c. Use the lift gate to load cylinders on the service vehicle so most of the weight is on the front axle with side-to-side distribution d. Load and position the cylinders on the vehicle so that each cylinders pressure relief valve is in direct communication with the vapor space at all times and secure them in this position

8. Not all materials and supplies needed for installation at the customer site are considered cargo; only non-perishable
materials must be secured under DOT regulations. a. True b. False

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MODULE 5

Module 5. Installing Containers


INTRODUCTION
Now that you have successfully transported your materials, you will learn how to install certain exterior components of a vapor distribution system using both aboveground containers and underground ASME tanks. This module will also provide instruction on pre- and post-installation procedures.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Identify the procedures for installing aboveground containers and underground ASME tanks. Identify pre- and post-installation procedures. Describe the procedures for testing and trouble-shooting a cathodic protection installation.

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Module 5. Installing Containers

MODULE 5
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Lesson 1. Pre-Installation Activities


MODULE 5

Introduction
When you arrive at a site to install the exterior components of a vapor distribution system, review the work order and any other information you have related to the installation before you begin. This review will help ensure a safe and reliable installation. This lesson addresses pre-installation activities that you must complete before installing the exterior components of a vapor distribution system. After completing this lesson, you will be able to explain the activities you must perform and the factors you must consider before installing the exterior components of a vapor distribution system. The CETP course Placing Vapor Distribution Systems and Appliances in Operation provides specific requirements and methods for conducting the interior site assessment, including testing and verification procedures.

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Pre-Installation Review and Verification


MODULE 5
Before unloading the container and any equipment you should:

Greet the customer and review the work order to confirm it is consistent with the customers request and needs. Verify with the customer that there are no known or planned changes to the buildings on the property or to the property itself that could affect the container or regulator location. Such changes may include adding central air conditioning, building modifications, or installing childrens play equipment. Verify with the customer that the vehicular traffic will not be operating near the tank. Verify the total gas demand, including any planned future appliance installations, to confirm that the selected equipment and the sizing are correct for the installation.

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Spotting and Parking Delivery Vehicle


MODULE 5
Now you must choose a location to unload the container and other materials. This location should be on the customers property, should not obstruct traffic, and should be in a safe and secure work area. When parking the delivery vehicle, find an area that is as level as possible so that you dont create an unsafe environment and your vehicle doesnt get stuck.

You should also take into account the:


Type and size of delivery vehicle. Type and size of container. Method used to unload the container. Layout of the customers site, including accessibility to the selected container location. Existence of septic systems, sprinkler systems, and drainage pipes that could be damaged.

After positioning the vehicle:


Set the parking brake. Follow your company policy on the use of chock blocks, which help prevent the vehicle from rolling forward or backward.

Check the immediate area for any potential safety hazards, such as overhead power lines and other obstructions.

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Exterior Site Assessment: Underground Utilities


If the installation will require excavation for underground tanks or lines, you must first verify the location of underground utilities and systems. Before excavating, you must check the following:

MODULE 5

To review the details on presence and location of underground utilities, refer to the Establishing Container Location lesson in the Designing Vapor Delivery Systems module of this course.

Confirm the locations of underground utilities. Verify that the local one-call service has been contacted and that underground utilities have been identified. Confirm the locations of customer-owned underground systems. Ask your customer if there are any other underground systems on the premises. These systems may include a sprinkler system, septic system, or electric lines for any reason. The one-call service or the local utility that was called to identify and mark lines will typically not locate lines or underground systems on the property that are owned by the customer, like the propane gas lines. Ensure that the buried tank or piping will not interfere with pre-installed utilities or systems. Conduct a walk-around inspection of the customers property to verify that you can install the tank and piping as planned taking into consideration any underground utilities and other systems.

NOTE: Follow your company policy regarding verifying and documenting customer-owned underground lines and systems.

The nationwide One Call number is 811. You must call this number before you start digging. For more details, please visit their website at http://www.call811. com.

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Exterior Site Assessment: Other Considerations


There are several other site factors you need to consider before installing exterior components of a vapor distribution system.

MODULE 5

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) spacing requirements Physical damage from vehicles High water levels or flooding Maximum snow depth Damage to regulator from falling snow or ice Access to bulk trucks and cylinder dollies

To review the details on spacing requirements, please refer to the Establishing Container Location lesson in the Designing Vapor Delivery Systems module of this course.

If you need to change the proposed container location, explain the reason and proposed changes to your customer before proceeding. The container location must comply with all state and local requirements.

Consider access to bulk trucks and cylinder dollies when making your exterior site assessment.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 5
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 431.

Which of the following is not a factor in the pre-installation activities for an aboveground container?
Physical damage from vehicles

Low water level in the ground

NFPA spacing requirements

Maximum snow depth

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Lesson 2. Installing Aboveground Containers


Introduction
After completing the pre-installation reviews and verifications, you are ready to install the containers. In this lesson, you will learn techniques for installing aboveground containers.

MODULE 5

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Explain general safety precautions for installing containers. Explain how to install DOT cylinders, including multiple exchange cylinders and stationary cylinder manifold systems. Explain how to install aboveground ASME tanks, including multiple tanks in a manifold system. Identify components and accessories used for container installation.

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General Safety Precautions


MODULE 5
You must take safety precautions when installing containers. If an installation requires you to drive across a customers lawn to unload a container, verify that the ground is firm and stable and that your path will not cross over a septic tank or other underground system that could be damaged by your vehicle. Wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) according to your company policy.

When using electrical tools you should:

Use three-wire (grounded) or double-insulated electrical tools as prescribed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Use three-wire electrical extension cords with proper ground lugs and a grounded power supply. Never place any electrical tools or extension cords in water puddles.

Only authorized and properly trained personnel should assist during installation. Make sure everyone knows who is in command. Do not ask for or accept assistance from a customer when installing a propane storage container. Do not allow the customer or any children or pets to be in the immediate work area during installation. Explain the possibility of injury and politely ask them to stay away from the installation area. Do not leave equipment and tools unattended. Return all tools and equipment to the service truck and secure them according to your company policy. In addition to these safety precautions, consult state and local codes, as well as your company procedures, for additional safety precautions.
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Use three-wire electrical extension cords with proper ground lugs and a grounded power supply.

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Installing DOT Cylinders and Vertical ASME Tanks


MODULE 5 1. Verify the Cylinder Location. Verify the selected cylinder location
meets NFPA 58 requirements for distance from property lines, buildings, and combustibles. Check that underground utility lines, identified by markings, do not interfere with planned cylinder and line locations. NOTE: Safety requirements always overrule a customers cylinder location preference. If another location cannot be found that meets all distance requirements, politely explain to the customer the reasons for the location.

2. Prepare the Area. Make sure the area to set the cylinder base on
is level and firm. Sand or other non-combustible material may be needed to ensure a level foundation.

3. Set and Level the Foundation. Place masonry blocks or other


approved block on the base material. Ensure the blocks are firmly seated by standing on the center of each block and forcing it into the base material. Use a carpenters level to check the level of the block foundation from end-to-end, side-to-side, and diagonally. If the foundation is not level, remove the blocks and make adjustments to the grade as necessary with coarse sand or other material that meets code. Reinstall the blocks on the base, and recheck the level. Repeat as needed until the blocks and the foundation are level.

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4. Unload and Install the Cylinder. Lower the vehicles lift gate and
remove all tie-down straps or chains from the cylinder and cylinder dolly. Use the dolly and lift gate to carefully unload each cylinder from the truck. Do not remove the protective service valve collar until the cylinder is in place. Inspect the paint or protective coating on the cylinder to ensure that it was not damaged during transport. Touch up any damaged areas on the paint or protective coating. If you are only installing one cylinder, place it upright in the center of the foundation. If you are installing two cylinders, place them both on the foundation at least 2" to 3" apart for service access and maintenance. Repeat this procedure until all cylinders have been installed.

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If applicable, remove the protective cap from the neck of all cylinders. Ensure that all cylinder service valves are closed tightly. Verify that all caps or plugs are installed in valves as appropriate.

5. Check the Cylinder Stability and Position. Ensure the cylinder


is stable by verifying that it rests squarely and firmly on the foundation blocks. The cylinder, cylinder foot ring, and bottom head should not touch the soil near the foundation blocks. Certain soils may corrode these components. Make sure your worksite is clean before you leave.

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Introduction to Multiple Cylinder Installation


MODULE 5
Some installations have vapor distribution system load requirements that exceed the vaporization capacity of a single propane cylinder. Other installations may have delivery schedules that require more than one cylinder. In these instances, exchange or stationary multiple cylinder systems may be installed.

Exchange
In an exchange system, two cylinders are connected to a changeover regulator. However, only one cylinder supplies propane at any time. When one cylinder is almost empty, the regulator must be manually changed or it may be of the type that automatically switches to the reserve (full) cylinder. The cylinder that is almost empty is then replaced with a new full one. Exchange cylinder installations are often used at residences in rural areas, especially in locations that would be impractical or impossible for a bobtail truck to access.

Stationary
In a stationary system, two or more cylinders are connected to a standard regulator. Unlike an exchange system, all cylinders in a stationary system supply propane simultaneously. When the cylinders are almost empty, they are refilled with propane from a bulk truck. Stationary cylinder installations are often used at small commercial locations, such as a pizza shop or coin-operated laundromat, which usually require more propane than a typical residence. You can use either DOT cylinders or ASME tanks in a multiple container installation but be aware they have very different code requirements, which will be discussed later in this lesson.

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Types of Changeover Regulators


MODULE 5
When installing multiple cylinder systems, there are two different regulators that can be used: automatic or manual.

Automatic
When the vapor pressure in the supply cylinder drops below a level adequate to supply propane to the appliances, the automatic changeover regulator switches to the reserve (full) cylinder automatically and does not interrupt the supply to appliances. The arrow on the regulator pointer knob initially points to the cylinder in service. When the empty cylinder indicator appears, the arrow then points to the empty cylinder. The pointer knobs arrow is reset by the cylinder delivery person. Because this regulator incorporates a check valve, it allows empty containers to be filled or replaced without interrupting the customers service. Normally, this regulator is connected to two cylinders or two banks of cylinders.

Manual
A manual regulator, typically an integral 2-stage regulator, serves installations with small effective system loads or where the use of propane is infrequent. To manually switch from one propane container to another, either:

Open the exchange cylinder service valve on the reserve cylinder and close the exchange cylinder service valve on the empty cylinder. Or, if a connecting T-block is used, move the change over knob on the T-block valve away from the empty cylinder and toward the reserve cylinder.

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Selecting and Using Pigtails


MODULE 5
A pigtail is a flexible metallic connector often used to connect a regulator to the service valve on a container. Pigtails may be fabricated from copper tubing, fabric or stainless steel reinforced rubber hose, or stainless steel mesh. NFPA 58 and Underwriters Laboratories standard 569 restrict the length of flexible connectors, including pigtails, to 60". Large diameter (3/8" o.d.) copper pigtails are often referred to as hogtails. Pigtail connectors are used with first-stage, integral two-stage, and high-pressure regulators. The preferred pigtail installation is a loop configuration. Without the pigtail loop, the vapor distribution piping would be too rigid and more susceptible to leaks from a gradual or sudden shifting of the ground, piping, container, or service line. When installing a pigtail, make sure that the pigtail loop and regulator inlet are higher than the service valve. This limits the flow of any moisture in the propane through the regulator and allows it to drain back into the container.

There are three types of connections for pigtails that are available in lengths up to 60":

POL by POL " National Pipe Thread (NPT) by POL " inverted flare by POL

The pigtail you select for an installation depends on the type of connection at the inlets of the regulator and the length required. Allow enough extra length in each pigtail to include a loop in the tubing. Verify the compatibility of fittings prior to connecting pigtails.

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Automatic Regulator Installation


MODULE 5
Exchange service installations that use two or more cylinders are typically designed for automatic changeover service. The materials used to connect the cylinders to the automatic changeover regulator depend on the overall capacity of the system. For systems consisting of four or six cylinders, assemble a manifold using T-block fittings and pigtails. One of the benefits of this type of arrangement is that additional cylinders can be connected to the assembly by adding additional T-blocks and pigtails.

For systems consisting of four or six cylinders, assemble a manifold using T-block fittings and pigtails.

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Manual Regulator Installation


MODULE 5
T-blocks are used to connect cylinders to an integral 2-stage regulator using a pigtail. The most important factor affecting the choice of T-blocks is whether the cylinder changeover system is manual or automatic.

T-Checks
The simplest way to install a manual changeover system is by using a T-check and two pigtails. A T-check is a T-block with a built-in floating check valve. When the service valve of the empty cylinder is closed, the pressure in the reserve cylinder forces the check valve to shut. This allows the empty cylinder to be replaced without interrupting service to the appliances or discharging propane from the reserve cylinder.

Manual Changeover Valve


Another way to connect the regulator and cylinders is by using a manual changeover valve. The changeover valve is a T-fitting with a built-in valve that allows the empty cylinder to be replaced without interrupting service to appliances or discharging propane from the reserve cylinder. When the supply cylinder is empty, the customer manually rotates the valve to the reserve cylinder. An arrow on the valve handle indicates the cylinder in use. NOTE: Do not rely on the physical appearance of T-blocks and T-checks to distinguish one from the other. Instead, verify manufacturer numbers from specification catalogs to be sure you use the required T connection.

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Thread-Sealing Compounds
MODULE 5
When selecting materials for a pipe manifold, such as nipples, shutoff valves, and Ts, always select a thread-sealing compound approved for propane service. Before assembling a threaded pipe connection, apply the compound to all male threads after the leading two threads. This helps ensure the manifold will be gastight. Always remove any excess thread-sealing compound with a clean rag before assembling the pipe joint. Do not apply thread-sealing compound to the seats of fittings that make soft metal-to-metal sealing joints. For example, do not apply thread-sealing compound to:

POL fittings. The center coupling mating surface of ground-joint pipe unions. The copper tubing inside, outside, or inverted flare connections.

The contours of these joint materials and the o-rings or gaskets in flanges create a gas tight seal. Applying thread-sealing compound to these contours could interfere with that gas-tight sealing. If compound enters a pipe, it could flow with gas to regulators or other equipment and potentially cause critical equipment to malfunction.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 5
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 431.

In an automatic changeover system, which component automatically switches the supply of propane vapor from the supply cylinder to the reserve cylinder when the pressure in the supply cylinder drops to a low level?
Pigtail

Container

Regulator

Pressure gauge

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Assembling a Manifold System for Automatic Changeover Service


MODULE 5
The typical procedure for connecting two DOT exchange cylinders to an automatic changeover regulator is:

1. Create loops in the tubing of each pigtail.

2. Connect each pigtail to the inlets of the


automatic changeover regulator.

3. Connect the other ends of the pigtails to each of


the cylinder service valves.

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Assembling Manifold System for Manual Changeover Service


MODULE 5
The typical procedure for connecting two DOT exchange cylinders in a manual changeover system is:

1. Create loops in the tubing of each pigtail.

2. Connect each pigtail to a T-check.

3. Connect the T-check to the integral 2-stage


regulator.

4. Connect the other ends of the pigtails to each of


the cylinder service valves.

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Assembling Manifold System for Stationary Cylinders


MODULE 5
The procedure for connecting stationary cylinders in a manifold system will vary based on numerous factors, for example, the size and spacing of the containers and the regulators used.

1. Open the lids of all four


cylinders.

2. Create loops in the tubing


of each pigtail.

3. Connect one of the pigtails to the


first cylinders service valve.

4. Connect a T-block to the


second cylinders service valve.

5. Connect the pigtail from the first


cylinder to the T-block on the second cylinder.

7. Connect the T-block on the fourth


cylinder to the regulator inlet using the fourth pigtail.

6. Repeat the process of


connecting a pigtail and T-block for the third and fourth cylinders.

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Check your work on page 431.

LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Installing ASME Tanks


MODULE 5
In general, there are seven steps to install an ASME tank.

1. Verify Tank Location


Locate the tank location markers and verify it meets NFPA 58 requirements for distance from property lines, overhead electric lines, important buildings, and combustibles. Check all utility markings to ensure they will not interfere with planned tank and line locations. NOTE: Safety requirements always overrule a customers tank location preference. If another location cannot be found that meets all distance requirements, politely explain to the customer the reasons for the location.

2. Prepare the Area


Make sure the area the tank will be set on is level and firm. Sand or other base material may be needed to help make the area level. NOTE: In some locations, fire safety codes require that the tank be bolted or strapped to a poured concrete foundation, especially for tanks in designated flood plains and seismic areas. If necessary, install mounting or tie-down bolts, or a U-shaped reinforcing bar when you pour the foundations. Check your company procedures and local codes for details.

Defining a building as important is at the discretion of the AHJ. Some reasons a building might be labeled as important include human occupancy, value of the contents inside the building, replacement value of the building, and the effect of the building on fire control activities by emergency responders.

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3. Set and Level the Foundation


Place the masonry blocks on the base. Ensure the blocks are firmly seated by standing on the center of each block and forcing it into the non-combustible base material. Use a carpenters level to check that block foundations are level from end-to-end, side-to-side, and diagonally. For both single and multi-tank installations, the foundations must be level and at the same height or elevation so the tank will be level when installed. If the foundation is not level, remove the blocks and fill the hole with coarse sand as necessary.

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Reinstall the blocks on the base, and recheck the level. The tank or blocks may need adjustment after filling due to the ground settling after the fill. Repeat as needed until the blocks and the foundation are level. The foundation should be installed so that the bottom of the tank is approximately 6" above the ground. The foundation must provide enough access to clean and paint the underside of the tank. Check your state and local codes for exact clearance requirements between the ground and the bottom of the tank.

4. Unload and Install the Tank


If a truck with a crane is used to transport the tank, position the truck within the limits of the crane. Follow OSHA codes and your company policy for using chock blocks and set the emergency brake before you unload the tank. Set and lock the outriggers in place. Use appropriate chains or slings to lift the tank. If using a tank-setting trailer, position it carefully so the mounting feet of the tank are directly above the appropriate blocks. Remove the tie-down straps and load bunks from the trailer. Following the manufacturers instructions, use the crane or trailer winch to slowly lower the tank onto the foundation. Disconnect and store any lifting slings, jacks, and related accessories. If more than one tank will be installed, repeat the procedure until all tanks are set and installed.

Tanks are generally brought to the site with less than 5% or less liquid. If for some reason you need to handle or remove a tank with more than 5% liquid, do not use the lifting lugs or eyes. Instead, use slings that have adequate load ratings and secure them under the bottom of the tank to make the lift.

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5. Check the Tank Stability and Position


Ensure the tank is stable by verifying that each tank leg rests squarely and firmly on the foundation blocks.

MODULE 5
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6. Install Required Barriers or Markings


If vehicle traffic can be expected near the tank, you should also install appropriate protection for the tank, such as crash barriers. If the established maximum snow depth is greater than the height of the aboveground tank, install anchors or restraints to prevent tank movement due to snow accumulation. Also install markings to identify the tank location in deep snow.

7. Prepare the Tank for Service


Remove any tape from gauge faces, dust caps, and chains. Install the rain cap on the relief valve. Attach any required warning or instruction decals to the container as required by local codes or authority. If valves require dust caps, ensure they are installed. If you notice any scratches on the tank, touch them up according to your company policy. When you have finished installing the tank, carefully return the crane or winch to the stored position according to the manufacturers instructions. If a truck transported the tank, carefully return the outriggers to the stored position. If the tank installation involved a saddle trailer, properly store the tie-down straps and load bunks on the trailer. Make sure your worksite is clean before you leave. Remove, turn, or cover the vehicle placards if all containers were unloaded.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 5
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 431.

As long as each foundation block is level, the blocks supporting each leg of the tank can be at different heights or elevations relative to each other.
True

False

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Manifolded ASME Tanks


MODULE 5
If the vapor distribution system load requirements exceed the vaporization capacity of a single propane storage tank or additional storage is preferred, you will need to manifold multiple ASME tanks. A manifold tank installation has a higher vaporization capacity than a single tank of equal size and is able to meet vapor distribution load requirements the single tank cannot. In this type of installation, you have to construct a supply manifold to connect multiple containers to the inlet of the regulator. The components needed for manifold tank installations can vary and are determined by the specific type, capacity and number of first-stage regulators used, and whether the firststage regulators are in a parallel or series layout.

PARALLEL LAYOUT

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Installing Manifolded ASME Tanks


MODULE 5
In general, the procedures for installing manifolded ASME tanks are the same as the procedures for installing a single tank. There are, however, some notable differences.

Step 1. Verify Tank Location


Manifolded ASME tanks above 250 gallons water capacity must be installed at least 3 ft between each tank. If all manifolded tanks are 500 gallons or less, they must be installed at least 10 ft from the nearest important building or buildable property line. If the aggregate capacity of all tanks in the manifolded installation is 501 gallons or greater, they must be installed at least 25 ft from buildings and property lines.

Step 2. Set and Level the Foundations


If tanks are connected in the liquid space, tanks of different diameters must be installed so the 80% levels of all the tanks are even. If the tanks are connected only in the vapor space, the diameters of the individual tanks are not important.

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A manifolded tank installation has two additional steps that a single ASME tank installation does not have.

Step 3. Install a regulator support post.


Install a post that can adequately support a regulator and piping.

MODULE 5
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Step 4. Make a manifold connection.


Assemble manifold piping to connect the tanks to each other, and then to the regulator. Manifold piping may be steel piping or copper tubing. These materials and the steps for making a manifold connection are explained on the next page. Regardless of the piping or tubing used, adequate support for the manifold must be provided to prevent ongoing stress on the regulator or the container vapor service valves. Manifold piping must be installed higher than the outlets of the container vapor service valves so any liquid that condenses in the piping can drain back into the tanks instead of accumulating in the regulators. Make loops in the tubing to provide flexibility. Avoid sags in piping to prevent traps where liquid can accumulate. Although not required by NFPA 58, some marketers install isolation valves between the tanks and at the inlet to the regulator. This allows individual containers to be shut off and isolated for maintenance and provides a single valve for shutting off the gas in case of emergency. NFPA 58 does not require excess flow valves in the valve outlets if the containers already have POL outlet vapor service valves. If there are any valves other than the POL outlet valve installed in the container, an excess flow valve must be installed in the container opening. Separate regulators installed at each tank are not recommended for manifolded tank installations. One purpose of manifolded tanks is to increase vaporization. Separate regulators would prevent increased vaporization.

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Fabricating and Installing Manifold Piping


MODULE 5
There are two types of metal commonly used for fabricating manifold piping: steel and copper.

Steel manifold piping


Manifold piping may be schedule 80 steel piping using forged steel fittings. Thoroughly clean thread cutting oil from pipe threads using a suitable solvent, such as automotive brake cleaner. Use pipe thread sealant tape or compound approved for use with liquefied petroleum gas. Never use pipe thread sealant tape or compound on male flare or POL fittings. Connect steel pipe manifolds to containers using brass NPT x Female POL adapters and either 1/4" o.d. pigtails (or 3/8" o.d hogtails). Install a forged steel ground joint union before and after the regulator to allow the regulator to be removed for maintenance.

Copper tubing manifold piping


Fabricate copper manifold piping using type K or L soft copper tubing. Copper manifold piping uses brass fittings and heavy duty forged brass flare nuts. Use a pipe thread compound approved for use with liquefied petroleum gas or pipe thread sealant tape on male pipe threads of NPT to flare adapters only. Never use pipe thread compound or pipe thread sealant tape on male flare or POL fittings. Connect copper manifolds to containers using brass Male Flare X Male POL adapters installed in the outlets of the POL service valves.

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LEARNING ACTIVITY

LEARNING ACTIVITY

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MODULE 5
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Lesson 3. Installing Underground ASME Tanks


MODULE 5

Introduction
This lesson will address how to install underground ASME tanks. Underground ASME tanks contain specific features so they can be buried or mounded.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify NFPA 58 requirements for installing underground ASME tanks. Explain how to install underground ASME tanks. Explain how to install and test the cathodic protection system for underground ASME tanks. Explain how to manifold multiple underground ASME tanks.

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Code Requirements for Underground Tank Installation


In addition to the distance and separation requirements covered in the lesson on selecting and sizing containers, NFPA 58 specifies these other requirements for installing underground ASME tanks:

MODULE 5

If the nameplate on the tank will be covered when buried, the information contained on the nameplate must be duplicated and installed on an adjacent pipe or on a structure in a clearly visible location. Connections to underground ASME tanks must be within a covered dome or housing. The vents from any pressure relief device, including regulator vents, must extend above the normal maximum water table. Where flood zones and high water tables could cause flotation of the tanks, they must be securely anchored. In areas with no vehicle traffic, underground containers must be installed at least 6" below grade. In areas where vehicle traffic is expected, the container must be a type designated for underground service only and be installed at least 18" below grade, or, the container must be protected from damage due to vehicle traffic.

Refer to the Selecting the Appropriate Container lesson in the Designing Vapor Delivery Systems: Containers and Lines module in this course for more details.
NOTE: Under special circumstances, NFPA 58 permits reduced spacing for underground tanks. Check with your supervisor for additional information regarding these special provisions.

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Step 1. Verify the Tank Location


MODULE 5
The first step to installing an underground ASME tank is to determine its location. You need to consider these factors:

Underground Utilities
Verify that the local one-call service has been contacted and that underground utilities have been identified as applicable. Ask your customer if there are other underground systems on the premises, such as a sprinkler system, septic system, or electric lines for ornamental lighting. Before excavating, check any utility markings to ensure that they do not cross the planned tank and line locations.

The nationwide One Call number is 811. You must call this number before you start digging. For more details, visit their website at http://www.call811.com.

Code Requirements
When determining a tank location, ensure that it meets the code requirements for:

Distance from property lines. Distance from building and ignition sources. Distance from vehicular traffic.

Soil Stability
It is also important to determine the stability of the soil when selecting a tank location. Soil with high water content or containing mostly sand, gravel, or some other mixture, could be unstable and possibly a safety hazard during the excavation and tank setting steps.

Other Requirements
When determining an underground ASME tank location, always consider the distance from low lying areas where water may collect.

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Step 2. Determine the Size of the Hole


MODULE 5
After finalizing the tank installation location, determine the size of the hole required for the tank. One way to determine the size of the hole is to:

1. Measure the width, length, and


height of the tank.

2. Add 12" to the measured width


and length of the tank.

3. Add 6" to the measured height of


the tank. This is to allow space for a 6" base at the bottom.

4. Add another 6" to 18" to the measured height, depending on the amount
of protective ground cover needed above the tank. Ensure the final finished grade provides at least 6" of coverage if it will not be subjected to vehicle traffic. If the final finished grade will be subjected to vehicle traffic, ensure it provides at least 18" of coverage. If the finished grade will be subjected to weight greater than just a vehicle (for example, a delivery truck and its cargo), then the depth of coverage may need to be more than 18".

For multiple tank installations, remember to include the required separation distances between the tanks and adequate space for crane or hoist access at the ends or sides of the tanks. NOTE: Check with your supervisor for any additional depth or cover requirements (for example, concrete slabs) that could be established by the local authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

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Step 3. Digging the Hole


MODULE 5
After determining the size of the hole and marking its length and width, begin the excavation. Use a shovel to carefully remove sod from the excavation area and set it aside before digging the hole. You will put the sod back after you install the tank and backfill the hole.

Follow these safety precautions to ensure that no potential cave-ins occur during or after digging.

If a hole or excavation is deeper than 60", OSHA requires that you either slope the walls or shore them with plywood. OSHA does not require support for the walls of an excavation or hole that is 60" deep or less. You should wear proper safety glasses, work gloves, and safety shoes or boots when digging a hole to protect your eyes, hands, and feet. In addition, you should wear head protection if there will be equipment overhead, such as truck-mounted cranes. Do not park vehicles and heavy equipment, or stockpile any material, closer than 2 ft from the edge of an excavation or hole.

With your excavation site complete, you are now ready to prepare the base.

If a hole or excavation is deeper than 60, OSHA requires that you either slope the walls or shore them with plywood.

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Step 4. Prepare the Excavation Base


MODULE 5
Before you place the tank in the hole, you must establish a proper base to ensure that the tank is set on a level surface. To prepare the base, use sand or other materials that are free of rocks and abrasives in the bottom of the hole and firmly tamp it down. Use a carpenters level to ensure the sand bottom is leveled. NOTE: In federally designated flood plains, areas with high water tables, or areas with drainage problems, you may need to pour a reinforced concrete slab in the bottom of the hole. The slab should be at least 3" to 6" thick and must contain at least four eye bolts or rebar loops to tie the tank to the slab. Check local codes and your company policy for the correct tools, materials, and procedures.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 5
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 432.

According to NFPA 58, if any underground tank isnt protected from damage due to vehicle traffic, then how many inches below grade must an underground tank be where vehicle traffic is expected to cross the location of the tank?
16

15

18

12

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Step 5. Install the Anodes


MODULE 5
After preparing the excavation base, you will have to install one or more anodes, which will be used as part of a cathodic protection system to protect the propane tank from corrosion. The most common place to install anodes for a cathodic protection system is below the bedding of the tank. In this case, you must install anodes before you place the tank in the excavation hole. Anodes can also be placed in several areas around the tank. The number of anodes needed is determined by the size of the tank, the type of anode used, and the soil condition. If the piping system also requires cathodic protection, it must be considered when choosing the size and number of anodes. Follow your company policy when determining the size and the number of anodes required.

To install anodes below the tank:

1. Dig holes for the anodes.

When installing one anode, dig a hole at the center of the base so the tank can be placed on top. When installing two anodes, you can dig holes next to where the feet of the tank will be. Alternately, you can place the anodes on opposite sides of the tank, at opposite ends of the tank, or at opposite diagonal corners of the tank. For installations with a concrete base, dig the holes for your anodes directly next to the slab, and at opposite sides or opposite ends of the tank. You will likely need two anodes for these installations to provide adequate cathodic protection.

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2. Remove the outer shipping package but not the cloth bag
that holds the anode and moisture absorbing material. Wet each anode with an acceptable amount of water to ensure electrical conductivity. You can wet the anode by soaking it in a bucket of water before you place it in the hole, or pouring water over it after youve put it in the hole. Ensure anodes are wet and that the water soaks in. This procedure ensures moisture retention and good soil contact for anodes, and helps the anodes distribute current more evenly.

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3. Unwind the wire from each anode and temporarily anchor

it to the top of the excavation with a rock or clod of dirt. Do not let anodes come into contact with the tank, as this would neutralize the current.

4. Cover the anodes with dirt.

Once you complete these steps, you are ready to unload the tank and place it in the hole.

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Step 6. Unload and Place the Tank


MODULE 5
When you bring the tank onto the customers property, be extremely careful positioning the vehicle. Keep the equipment wheels and outriggers away from the edge of the excavation to avoid soil shearing, caving-in the hole, or tipping the vehicle.

To place the tank in the excavation, follow these guidelines:

1. If a truck with a crane is used to transport the tank,


position the truck within the limits of the crane.

2. It is a good idea to chock the wheels and set the


emergency brake. Follow OSHA codes and your company policy regarding chock block use.

3. Set and lock the outriggers in place.

4. Use appropriate chains or slings to lift the tank. Before


lowering the tank in the hole, check the entire tanks protective coating for holidays, voids, or damage that could expose the metal surface. Carefully touch up all areas where the coating has been damaged or metal is exposed. Use the specific tank manufacturer-approved touch-up material. Follow the tank manufacturers instructions for drying time. Check with your supervisor if you have any questions about coating repairs.

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MODULE 5

5. Lower the tank into the excavation. Operate the crane


or winch according to the manufacturers instructions.

6. Once the tank is seated on the foundation, carefully


attempt to rock the tank back and forth to ensure that it is stable and level.

7. Disconnect and store lifting slings, jacks, and other


tank setting equipment.

8. Return the winch or crane to its stored position.

9. Return the outriggers to their travel position.

10. Properly store the tie-down straps, chock blocks,


cribbing, and other handling equipment.
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Step 7. Finish Installing the Anodes


MODULE 5
After anodes are buried and the tank is in place, run the anode wire to the connecting lug on the tank or the tank lead wire. Make this connection to the tank lug in accordance with the tank manufacturers instructions. Remember that the number of anodes needed is determined by the size of the tank, the type of anode used, and soil condition. When metallic pipe like steel or copper is used, electrical isolation becomes critical. Bare copper lines must be isolated from the steel of the tank to prevent anodes from having to supply more electrical current than necessary to protect the tank. The tank must also be electrically isolated from the rest of the structure being served so the cathodic protection does not extend beyond the piping into the structure. A dielectric union can provide the necessary electrical isolation. Locate the dielectric union at the tank if bare copper lines are used. Locate the dielectric union at the second-stage regulator(s) if coated iron or steel pipe is used, allowing the anode(s) to protect the iron or steel line from corrosion as well as the tank. The location of the dielectric union is not critical when coated copper pipe is used. For older tanks, you can use other methods to connect anodes to the tank, such as cadwelds and conductive adhesives. Refer to the retrofitting section of this course for more information on older tanks and other methods of attaching anodes.

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Step 8. Prepare the Tank for Service


MODULE 5
Before backfilling the excavation, complete the following steps to prepare the tank for service:

1. Install the pigtail, first-stage regulator, and regulator


vent pipe-away as necessary, as well as buried distribution line connections, and (if applicable) the dielectric union.

2. Connect the buried distribution line to the regulator


outlet. NOTE: If the tank installation includes a new underground vapor distribution line, the line must undergo a test for leakage.

3. Verify that all anode wires are properly connected and


secure.

4. Inspect the containers coating again for damage


that may have occurred during tank installation. Recoat any damaged areas of the tank.

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MODULE 5 5. Verify that the regulators vent or vent extension


terminates above the anticipated water line and that the regulators adjustment closure cap is tight.

6. When installing an underground tank in federally


designated flood plains or areas with high water tables, take precautions to ensure that the tank cannot float from its location due to high water.

If you have poured a concrete slab in the excavation, secure the tank to the ground anchors with metal straps. If a concrete slab was not poured, check with your supervisor to determine the procedures that your company requires for floodplains and high water tables.

If you are manifolding multiple tanks, there are additional steps. These will be discussed later in this lesson. After you have completed all steps, you are ready to backfill the excavation site.

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Step 9. Backfill the Excavation


MODULE 5
Before you begin, examine the backfill soil, checking for clumping, rocks and gravel and sift out as much as possible before backfilling. Rocks and gravel can damage the tank and its coating. Clumpy soils can cause air pockets which can reduce the effectiveness of cathodic protection and cause settling and potential damage to the tank and its components.

When backfilling, be careful not to scratch the surface of the tank. You should:

1. Use a shovel to hand-backfill the area around the


distribution line and anode wires.

2. Backfill approximately 12" of dirt or sand all around


the tank, then tamp the dirt or sand.

3. Repeat the backfilling and tamping process until you


have filled the hole. Be especially careful backfilling and tamping above the distribution line to avoid damaging it. Ensure the line is properly supported by backfill. There should be no air pockets anywhere in the backfill.

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MODULE 5 4. Fill in the area around the dome so the soil is graded
down and away from the dome cover. It is extremely important that the top of the multivalve be higher than the finished grade after landscaping. This way, when the dome collects water, the multivalve components will not be affected by the water. This is especially important in areas where water could be subjected to freezing temperatures. In areas with high water tables, it may be necessary to raise the tank fittings above the water level and mound the backfill over the tank. Installing plastic drain piping that leads away from the dome, and surrounding the dome area with coarse rock to provide drainage will also prevent water from accumulating in the underground tank dome. NFPA 58 requires anyone involved in construction or excavation near an underground tank to determine the location of the tank and piping, and protect them against damage from vehicles.

5. Replace the sod that you removed at the start of the


excavation. With the excavation site filled, you are now ready to complete the last installation step, testing the cathodic protection system, which will be discussed in the next lesson. As soon as practical, fill the tank to allow for proper settling and to avoid any flotation that may occur from water penetrating the loose backfill.

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Manifolding Underground ASME Tanks


MODULE 5
If the vapor distribution system load requirements exceed the vaporization capacity of a single propane storage tank, you will need to manifold multiple ASME tanks. Manifold tank installations have a higher vaporization capacity than tanks of equal size. These installations are able to meet vapor distribution load requirements that a single tank cannot. In this type of installation, you have to construct a supply manifold to connect multiple containers to the inlet of the regulator. The components needed for manifold tank installations can vary and are determined by the specific type, capacity and number of first-stage regulators used, and whether the firststage regulators are in a parallel or series layout.

Manifolding underground ASME tanks is similar to manifolding aboveground tanks, with these additional considerations:

The regulator must be protected from the soil. You must bury the regulator so the soil is not touching it. Sometimes a separate housing is used to protect a regulator from soil, although the regulator can also be mounted inside the dome of one of the tanks. The regulator must be protected from water which can cause internal corrosion, improper delivery pressure, and the potential for total regulator failure if the water freezes. If water could get into the regulator vent, you should install a regulator vent pipe-away assembly. The vent pipe-away is a U-shaped adapter installed at the highest point available at the top of the dome. It prevents ground or surface water from entering the regulator, and the U-shape helps create an air trap. This assembly should terminate above the anticipated water level, pointing downward to prevent water from entering the regulator.

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Installing Manifolded Underground ASME Tanks


MODULE 5
Underground tanks must be manifolded after they have been prepared for service but before the hole is backfilled.

Follow these steps to manifold multiple underground ASME tanks:

1. Determine the method you will use to protect the


first-stage regulator, and then install the regulator. Possible methods may include:

2. Determine the type of tubing you want to use. Then,


attach the tubing to the tanks. Ensure that the tubing is long enough to allow for a loop at both the tank and T ends of each connector.

An open-bottom water meter or valve box. A poured-in-place concrete vault with a loosefitting manhole cover. Installation inside the dome of one of the tanks.

No matter what method is used, ensure the tank has adequate drainage. If water accumulates under the tank, water could enter the regulator vent and could freeze. Adequate drainage will also reduce the potential for water to buoy the tank, causing it to rise or shift.

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MODULE 5

3. In the housing for the regulator, connect the tubing


to each end of a T connection.

4. Connect the T to the regulator using Schedule 80


pipe nipples and a union.

5. Install the regulator vent extension to prevent water


from entering the regulators bonnet. The regulator vent extension must be long enough to extend above grade and must have a protective screen.

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Module 5. Installing Containers

MODULE 5
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Lesson 4. Testing, Troubleshooting, and Retrofitting Cathodic Protection Systems


INTRODUCTION
Now that you have installed the underground ASME tank and the cathodic protection system, you will need to test the anodes and document the test results. Your company policy may also require you to test the cathodic protection system beyond the code requirements as part of its ongoing inspection protocol, so be sure to check with your supervisor. There will be times when your test results will be incomplete or unsatisfactory. When this happens, you will need to troubleshoot and possibly retrofit the installation with equipment to correct the problem uncovered by the test.

MODULE 5

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify the procedure for testing a cathodic protection system. Identify the steps to troubleshoot a cathodic protection installation. Describe retrofitting for corrosion protection and when it should be used.

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Testing the Cathodic Protection System


MODULE 5
A cathodic protection system on a newly installed underground propane container must be tested at the time of installation. The only exception to this testing requirement is if climatic conditions prohibit the test at the time of installation. In that case, the test must be conducted within 180 days after the installation of the system. This testing is extremely important because it determines the level of corrosion protection on the system. A system with insufficient cathodic protection might corrode and have a shorter life than one with adequate cathodic protection. Testing the cathodic protection system can be done by checking the tank-to-soil potential, which is a measurement of the voltage or stored energy surrounding the tank and its piping. There are several testing methods that may be used according to NFPA 58. However, the following steps only specify one method. This method measures a cathodic protection system producing a voltage of -0.85 volts or more negative, with reference to a saturated copper-copper sulfate half cell.

Follow these steps to measure tank-to-soil potential.

The voltage can be measured with voltmeter and a copper sulfate electrode. Verify the electrode and other testing equpment has been properly maintained according to the manufacturers instructions.

1. Verify the ground is moist to ensure electrical conductivity


where you are going to take the readings. If it is not, pour enough water on the ground to moisten the area where the readings will be conducted.

2. Set the voltmeter to the 2-volt or 20-volt DC scale.

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3. Connect the voltmeter to the tank with the positive lead


connected to the multivalve or anode wire and the negative lead connected to the copper sulfate electrode. Do not connect to the dome since you need good metal-to-metal contact to get an accurate reading.

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4. Take a position above the side of the tank, stick the tip of the
electrode into the moist ground, and take a reading. Record the data according to your company policy. The voltage reading on a protected tank should be -0.85 volts or greater; in this instance, greater means a higher negative number such as -0.90. If the voltage reading is low or close to the voltage of steel (-0.50 volts), there is likely a problem with the cathodic protection system. The anode may not be connected to the tank properly, or the electrode may not be making good contact with the soil. Its also possible that the number, size, or quality of anodes is insufficient. Check all possible causes, make corrections, and retest until readings are acceptable.

5. Repeat the process on the opposite side of the dome, and


then at both ends of the tank. All readings should be -0.85 volts or greater. Since a single reading would not detect an area of low protection it is important to take and record four tank-to-soil potential readings around the tank to get a complete picture of the cathodic protection level.

It is possible to record a good reading above -0.85 volts on one end or one side of a tank and have a bad reading below -0.85 volts on the opposite end or opposite side of a tank. When this happens, the areas of the tank that have readings above -0.85 volts are protected while an area with a reading below -0.85 volts is not protected and could still suffer corrosion damage.

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Testing the Cathodic Protection System, Continued


For continued verification of the effectiveness of the cathodic protection system after the initial installation and testing, additional testing is required by code as follows:

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12 to 18 months after the initial test And then, upon successful verification and in consideration of the previous test results, periodic follow-up testing shall be performed at intervals not to exceed 36 months.

If the system fails the test it must be repaired as soon as practical unless climatic conditions prohibit this action, in which case the repair must be made not more than 180 days thereafter. Once the repairs have been made, the testing schedule must start again as if the system was a newly installed container. All tests results must be documented and the results of the two most recent tests must be retained. Check your company policy or with your supervisor for specific requirements for testing and documentation of the test results.

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Troubleshooting
MODULE 5
In a previous lesson, you learned that corrosion protection is accomplished through sacrificial anodes connected to and buried with the tank. You must perform periodic tank-to-soil tests to determine if anodes are working properly. When a reading at an installation is zero volts, there is a problem and you will need to troubleshoot. Answering these questions will guide you when troubleshooting. If you answer no to any of these questions, then you will need to solve that particular problem before continuing to troubleshoot.

Is the voltmeter on? Is the battery good? Have you taken off the rubber boot on the copper sulfate electrode? Have you set the voltmeter switch to the lowest DC volt scale? Have you connected the negative lead wire to the copper sulfate electrode? Have you connected the positive lead wire to the multivalve or anode wire securely? Does your copper sulfate electrode have a blue liquid in it? Have you set the electrode firmly on the ground? Have you poured a sufficient amount of water on the ground if the ground is dry? Are your lead wires and their connections good?

If everything you have checked aboveground is satisfactory, and the meter reading is still below -0.85 volts, use this second checklist of questions to continue troubleshooting. Not all of these checklist items will be a problem at the same time. If you answer no to any of these questions, then solve the problem before continuing to troubleshoot. Consult company policy on how to specifically fix these issues.

The blue liquid is copper sulfate crystals with distilled water.

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Troubleshooting, CONTINUED
MODULE 5

If the tank is connected to the structure with copper tubing or a steel service pipe, is there a dielectric or insulating union in the piping system? Is the coating on the tank intact and not peeling in the dome? Is there electrical continuity between the multivalve or anode wire and the pipe into the building? Check this using the ohms-resistance setting and a jumper wire between the multivalve or anode wire and the pipe at the building. A reading less than 20 ohms indicates there is continuity between the tank and the building. Is the anode wire securely connected to the tank and not the metal dome?

Electrical continuity is a means for an uninterrupted flow of an electrical current to occur.


If everything that you can see checks out, the ground is moist, and your readings are still below -0.85 volts, perform the following steps:

1. Take an anode out of its protective plastic bag or box,


lay it on the ground next to the tank, pour water on the anode, and let the water ow onto the ground.

2. Using a 12" jumper wire with alligator clips on each


end, connect one end to the multivalve and the other end to an anode wire. The voltage readings on the tank should start to increase in the direction of -0.85 volts. If the voltage readings do not change, you could disconnect a copper service line at the rst-stage regulator inside the dome. If the tank-tosoil voltage readings immediately jump above -0.85 volts, you need to install a dielectric union inside the dome. If the voltage increases slowly, you will need to retrot the tank by adding a new anode.

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Retrofitting
MODULE 5
When testing determines that installed anodes do not provide sufficient voltage to cathodically protect that system, one or more anodes may need to be added. This process is called retrofitting.

Retrofitting may also be required:


For an existing installation that never had any anodes. Immediately after a system is installed and backfilled, if the anodes that were originally installed do not provide sufficient voltage. After anodes deteriorate and lose their charge, which will happen over time. Different factors, including soil conditions, drive the rate of anode deterioration. In salty or brackish environments where zinc anodes are required. Consult with your vendor for proper selection when retrofitting these environments.

Determine if the piping system requires cathodic protection. If so, you must consider protecting the piping system when choosing the size and number of anodes. For details on how to retrofit an installation, refer to the PERC Cathodic Protection Manual. Before excavating, call your Local One-Call Service (811) to identify underground utilities and prevent damaging structures.

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Retrofitting an Existing Tank


MODULE 5
Before you do any digging to retrofit an existing tank, refer to your companys policy, or call the national 811 hotline or your Local One-Call Service to prevent damaging underground structures. Perform these steps to retrofit an existing tank. You will need a shovel, a portable electric drill, and a rubber grommet or a short length of vinyl tubing to proceed.

Step 1: Verify there are no sprinkler lines, low voltage electric wires, propane service lines, or other ownerinstalled flower bulbs or wires where you plan to dig.

Step 2: With a shovel, cut out a plug of grass ve feet from the side of the dome and set it aside.

Step 3: Dig a vertical hole at least 3 ft deep. If this isnt possible, you may have to lay the anode down horizontally. In dry environments, the anode may work better if it is laid horizontally in a ditch 18" deep where a sprinkler or rain water will wet the anode. If the tank is in a desert environment, set a PVC pipe in the hole above the anode so that water can be poured into the pipe to wet the anode.
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Step 4: Place the anode in the hole and pour water on it.

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Step 5: Touch the anode wire to the multivalve while taking a tank potential reading. The reading should be above -0.85 volts. If it is, continue with the installation. If the reading is not good, refer to the troubleshooting list presented earlier in this lesson.

Step 6: With the shovel, wedge the grass apart from the anode to the dome, and push the wire down below the grass into the dirt.

Step 7: With a portable electric drill, drill a hole through the dome and insert a rubber grommet or short length of vinyl tubing in the hole. Then, push the wire through the hole into the dome.

Step 8: Connect the wire to the tank at the stud under the multivalve, or to the riser pipe using a band clamp. Any secure, waterproof connection between the anode wire and the riser pipe or multivalve will cause the tank potential readings to shift to the protected level of -0.85 volts or greater.

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MODULE 5
Step 9: Fill the anode hole with the dirt removed during digging and use the shovel handle to tamp the dirt around and on top of the anode. This lls in the voids between the anode and the hole you dug. If you dont do this, there will be a gap between the anode and the hole that the current cannot ow across. This will reduce the amount of current your anode creates, and cause the readings to be lower than what is possible. Replace the plug of grass on top of the anode hole and push the separated grass back together where the anode wire was run. Step 10: Once you have completed these steps, test the soil again. Remember to take four readings, one on each side of the tank and on each end, with a healthy reading being any voltage equal to or greater than -0.85 volts. In the unlikely event that one anode does not increase the readings to a protected level of -0.85 volts or greater all around the tank, install a second anode on the opposite side of the tank. Once you complete the installation, follow your companys policy and local codes to document your work for future reference. If after following all these procedures your reading still does not increase to -0.85 volts or greater, it is possible the container is too corroded and may need to be removed from service. Check with your supervisor for company policy regarding these guidelines.
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Module Summary
MODULE 5
Some important points to remember from this module are:

Before you unload a container, you should verify total gas demand, determine where you will unload the container, and perform an exterior site assessment. Following these steps will help ensure a safe installation. The steps for installing DOT cylinders and ASME tanks aboveground are similar; however, there are some key differences. You must be familiar with the procedures for installing each type of container. If the vapor distribution system load requirements exceed the vaporization capacity of a single propane storage tank, or if additional storage is preferred, you will need to manifold multiple ASME tanks. For underground ASME tanks, you may have to install one or more anodes to provide cathodic protection to the tanks. When you install a cathodic protection system with an underground ASME tank, you need to test the anodes to verify they are providing adequate protection against corrosion. Follow-up testing is also required by code to verify continued protection of the underground steel tank.

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MODULE 5

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Module 5 Quiz
Directions: Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

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1. Which of the following must be performed before excavating underground tanks and piping?
a. Confirm the locations of underground utilities b. Confirm the locations of customer-owned underground systems c. Ensure that the buried tank or piping will not interfere with pre-installed utilities or systems d. All of the above

2. During an aboveground container installation, when using electrical tools you should:
a. Use three-wire (grounded) or double-insulated electrical tools b. Use custom coil electrical extension cords c. Use three-wire electrical extension cords with proper ground lugs and a grounded power supply d. Both a and c

3. Which of the following is used to keep the vapor distribution piping from being too rigid and more susceptible to leaks
from a gradual or sudden shifting of the ground, piping, container, or service line? a. T-blocks b. Manual changeover valve c. Thread-sealing compound d. Pigtail loop

4. The most important factor affecting the choice of T-blocks is whether the cylinder changeover system is manual or
automatic. a. True b. False

5. When determining a tank location, ensure that it meets the code requirements for:
a. Distance from property lines and distance from building and ignition sources b. Distance from property lines and distance from fire hydrants c. Distance from municipal lines and distance from building and ignition sources d. Distance from property lines and distance from water sources

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Module 5 Quiz

6. During which step in installing underground ASME tanks would you establish a proper base to ensure that the tank is set
on a level surface? a. Step 2. Determine the size of the hole b. Step 3. Digging the hole c. Step 4. Prepare the excavation base d. Step 5. Install the anodes

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7. In order to place the tank into service, all of the following must be completed EXCEPT:
a. Verifying the anode wires are properly connected and secure b. Installing the pigtail, first-stage regulator, and regulator vent pipe-away as necessary c. Connecting the buried distribution line to the regulator outlet d. Verifying that the regulators vent or vent extension terminates below the anticipated water line

8. Underground tanks must be manifolded before they are prepared for service.
a. True b. False

9. Testing the cathodic protection system can be done by checking the _____________.
a. Soil content b. Tank-to-soil potential c. Anode reading d. None of the above

10. Retrofitting is necessary when ________.


a. Testing determines that installed anodes do not provide sufficient voltage to cathodically protect that system b. Testing determines that installed anodes provide sufficient voltage to cathodically protect that system c. Testing determines that frost permeation is a high risk to cathodically protected that system d. Testing determines that installed anodes provide just enough voltage to cathodically protect that system

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MODULE 6

Module 6. Installing Lines


INTRODUCTION
After installing an above or underground container, you will need to install the exterior lines of the vapor distribution system. This module provides guidance for installing the exterior lines of a 2-stage regulated vapor distribution system.

Objective
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Identify code requirements and common practices followed when working with pipe and tubing. Explain techniques and procedures used for installing pipe and tubing between a container and the second-stage regulator.

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Module 6. Installing Lines

MODULE 6
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Lesson 1. Installing Vapor Delivery Lines


MODULE 6

Introduction
After installing an aboveground or underground container, you will install the exterior lines of the vapor distribution system. This lesson provides guidance for installing the exterior lines of a 2-stage regulated vapor distribution system. After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify code requirements and common practices followed when working with pipe and tubing. Explain techniques and procedures used for installing pipe and tubing between a container and the secondstage regulator.

2-stage regulated systems refer to those with two separate regulators as well as those with an integral type regulator.

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Module 6. Installing Lines

NFPA 58 Requirements for Piping Installation


NFPA 58 has general requirements for installing pipe, tubing, and fittings in propane vapor distribution systems, whether the system is aboveground or underground:

MODULE 6

Piping must be run as directly as possible from one point to another, with as few fittings as practical. Piping systems, including the interconnection of permanently installed containers, must compensate for expansion, contraction, jarring, vibration, and settling. Where condensation of propane vapor can occur, piping must be sloped back to the container. If that cannot be done, some other means for re-vaporizing the condensate must be provided. Although flexible metallic connectors are permitted in vapor distribution systems, nonmetallic pipe, tubing, or hose are never permitted for permanently interconnecting containers. Vapor distribution system piping can never be used as a grounding electrode.

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Aboveground Lines
MODULE 6
Vapor delivery lines that run from a container to a building are normally installed underground. However, there may be instances where you are not required to bury a line. For example, you may use an exterior aboveground line when a cylinder is installed right next to a building. In these situations, you can use steel pipe, copper tubing, or approved Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST) for aboveground vapor distribution lines. The steps for assembling aboveground sections of exterior piping are similar to those for assembling similar types of underground pipe and tubing. These steps are discussed in detail later in this lesson.

Steel pipe, copper tubing, or approved CSST can be used for aboveground vapor distribution lines.

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NFPA 58 Requirements for Aboveground Lines


NFPA 58 has these general requirements for installing aboveground lines:

MODULE 6

You cannot use polyethylene (PE) pipe, tubing, and fittings in aboveground line installations. Aboveground piping must be supported and protected against physical damage from vehicles. You should install piping so there are no sags. If the pipe is not supported properly, it could fail. Salts and other substances in the ground and in concrete can corrode piping. Make sure the portion of aboveground piping in contact with a support structure or corrosion-causing substance is protected against corrosion.

NOTE: NFPA 58 does not specify how aboveground lines should be supported or protected, so check your company policy or with your supervisor for company-specific requirements.

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Installing Underground Lines


MODULE 6
There are five basic steps for installing underground lines. These requirements apply regardless of the size or type of lines you are installing:

1. Dig a trench. 2. Insert pipe or tubing in the trench. 3. Plug or cap lines. 4. Test for leakage in the exterior installed line and document results. 5. Backfill the trench.

Specific installation instructions for different types of pipe and tubing are addressed in detail later in this course.

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Step 1. Dig a Trench


MODULE 6
When installing underground lines, start by digging a trench. Follow these procedures and precautions when digging. Verify that one-call service has been contacted at the 811 number and that underground utilities have been identified as applicable. Ask your customer if there are other underground systems on the premises. These systems may include a sprinkler system, septic system, or electric lines for ornamental lighting. Before excavating, check any utility markings to ensure that they do not cross the planned tank and line locations. Certain jurisdictions may require installing warning signs to indicate that an underground line runs beneath a public right of way. Ensure that the piping is in a location that is not subject to excessive stress, especially if there is heavy traffic or if soil conditions are or may become unstable. The bottom of the trench should be relatively level and free from rocks or dirt clods. NFPA 58 requires that piping have a minimum of 12" of cover. The piping depth must be at least 18" if damage from external forces, such as vehicle traffic, is likely. If at least 12" of cover is not possible, the pipe or tubing must be installed in conduit or be bridged or shielded. NFPA 58 requires that piping have a minimum of 12 of cover.

If at least 12 of cover is not possible, the pipe or tubing must be installed in conduit or be bridged or shielded.

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Steps 2 and 3. Insert Pipe or Tubing in the Trench and Plug or Cap Lines
Step 2. Insert Pipe or Tubing in the Trench
Piping assembly techniques vary depending upon the type of pipe or tubing used. We will discuss the specific procedures for each later in this course. Make sure the pipe lies flat in the trench and is supported by well-compacted soil, with no rocks or other materials under it. The piping must be long enough to connect the first-stage regulator to the second-stage regulator.

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Step 3. Plug or Cap Lines


Plug or cap open lines before testing outside lines for leakage.

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Step 4. Testing Outside Lines for Leakage


MODULE 6
Before you bury outside lines, it is important to test them for leakage and document the results. NFPA 58 does not identify the type of test for leakage to perform, so we will review some common methods. NFPA 58 specifies the following minimum requirements for testing outside lines for leakage:

You must conduct this test at pressures no less than the operating pressure. You must not use an open flame.

The underground distribution line typically operates at 10 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). A test pressure must be equal to at least the normal operating pressure of the line. Local codes or company procedures may require test criteria in excess of these values. NOTE: This course describes one method to perform a test for leakage. Other methods include utilizing leak detection solution, using a combustible gas detector, or using a combustible gas indicator. Check state and local codes for other test for leakage requirements.

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Step 4. Testing Outside Lines for Leakage, Step-by-STep


MODULE 6
Testing outside lines for leakage checks the integrity of the exterior line only up to the second-stage regulator, 2 pounds per square inch (psi) service regulator, or gas meter. This lesson assumes that the first-stage regulator has been installed.

There are many ways to test for leakage. Heres one example.

1. Verify that the service valve at the


propane storage container is closed.

2. Install a test block gauge between


the container service valve and the first-stage regulator.

3. Pressurize the distribution line by


slowly opening the service valve on the container.

4. Read the container pressure


on the block gauge.

5. Close the service valve on the


tank.

6. Reduce the pressure reading on the


gauge by approximately 10 psig.

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MODULE 6 7. Observe the test block gauge for


either a rise in pressure or a drop in pressure. If there is a rise, the service valve is leaking. If there is a drop, there is a leak in the system.

8. Allow the piping system to remain


pressurized without showing an increase or decrease in the reading on the gauge. Refer to your company policy for specific guidance.

9. Document the test according to


your company policy.

Note that the service valve must be repaired or replaced according to this test for leakage method. You can still conduct a test for leakage using other methods, but dont forget to repair or replace the defective valve.

If the pressure increases, propane may be leaking into the system from a container service valve. Verify that the service valve is fully closed and restart the test for leakage. If you observe another pressure increase, the container service valve must be repaired or replaced to complete a valid test for leakage. Do not repair or replace a service valve unless you have been trained to do so. If the pressure decreases, there is a leak in the piping. After the source of the leak is located and repaired, the test for leakage must be restarted and continued until no change in pressure is observed. You must determine that the vapor distribution system is gastight in accordance with your company policy.

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Step 5. Backfill the Trench


MODULE 6
After you test the outside lines for leakage and determine the piping is leak free, you can backfill the trench. However, if PE piping and tubing is installed, you will also need to install tracer wire during this step. PE pipe and tubing and installation of tracer wire will be discussed later in this course. Before you begin, check the backfill soil for rocks and gravel, which can damage the lines, and remove unwanted material. When backfilling, be careful not to damage the line. You should use a shovel to hand backfill the area around the distribution line. Work the soil to reduce the possibility of air pockets. Air pockets can reduce the effectiveness of cathodic protection for iron or steel pipe and can cause settling and potential damage to plastic or copper lines.

You should use a shovel to carefully hand backfill the area around the distribution line.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 6
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 432.

Which of the following is not true of aboveground pipe and tubing installation?
PE pipe, tubing, and fittings can be used in aboveground line installations

Aboveground piping must be protected against physical damage by vehicles The portion of aboveground piping in contact with a support or corrosion-causing substance must be protected against corrosion Aboveground piping should be installed so there are no sags

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Lesson 2. Installing Vapor PE Distribution Lines


MODULE 6

Introduction
The previous lesson addressed the basic steps for installing exterior lines. This lesson provides guidance for installing PE piping for a two-stage regulated vapor distribution system. After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify code requirements and common practices when working with PE pipe and tubing. Explain techniques and procedures to install pipe and tubing between the container and the second-stage regulator.

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PE Pipe and Tubing


MODULE 6
Now that weve discussed the basic steps for installing vapor delivery lines, lets look at some of the specific pipe and tubing materials involved with this process. PE is a thermoplastic material approved for use in vapor distribution systems. When using PE for propane service, it must be clearly marked with ASTM D 2513. Ultraviolet light in sunlight damages PE pipe and tubing. Therefore, PE can only be used for underground vapor service or must be encased in an approved flexible conduit for use in risers at the tank or structure according to NFPA 58. The maximum service pressure can only be 30 psig because of the potential for reliquefaction of propane vapor in cold weather. Before installing PE pipe or tubing, carefully inspect it for cuts, gouges, deep scratches, and other defects.

D 2513 is an ASTM code that refers to the standard specification for thermoplastic gas pressure pipe, tubing, and fittings.

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Joining PE Pipe and Tubing


MODULE 6
Mechanical fittings are used to join PE pipes in most residential and small commercial installations, including jurisdictional pipeline distribution systems covered by 49 CFR 191 and 192. These fittings are available in many styles. PE can also be joined using heat fusion. Heat fusion is required when installing PE pipes more than 2" in diameter, which typically does not occur in residential and small commercial installations. You must install appropriate fittings and be trained according to the manufacturers specifications. If you are performing this work on a jurisdictional pipeline system, you must be qualified under the Operator Qualification requirements in 49 CFR. See Resources for information on heat fusion techniques and procedures. Now lets look at two commonly used mechanical fittings.

MECHANICAL FITTING

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Mechanical Fittings
MODULE 6
Two common mechanical fittings are the stab and the barbed types. Always follow manufacturer-specific instructions when connecting these fittings.

Stab-Type Fitting
A stab-type fitting is a specially designed mechanical fitting that:

Uses specially designed components including an elastomer seal (such as an O-ring) and a gripping device to create pressure sealing and provide pull-out resistance. And is designed so that the greater the pull, the firmer the lock and tighter the seal in the joint.

These fittings are available in sizes from " Copper Tube Sizing (CTS) through 2" Iron Pipe Size (IPS) and must also comply with ASTM D2513, which specifies sealing and full restraint against pull-out requirements.

D 2513 is an ASTM code that refers to the standard specification for thermoplastic gas pressure pipe, tubing, and fittings.

How to Connect These Fittings


Stab-type fittings have self-contained stiffeners. To use this fitting correctly:

1. Ensure you have the


correct fitting for the tubing you have selected.

2. Prepare the tubing ends

3. Use a suitable marker to


mark the stab depth on the pipe.

using a chamfering tool.

4. Stab the tubing to the


depth prescribed for the fitting being used.

Always follow the manufacturers instructions.

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Barbed Fitting
A barbed fitting is another method for mechanically joining PE pipe and tubing and is used in combination with pressed-on exterior compression sleeves. You insert the barbed fitting into the ends of the sections of pipe or tubing to be joined.

MODULE 6

How to Connect These Fittings


When using this joining method, you must:

Use the correct barbed insert or spigot and compression sleeves for the pipe and tubing sizes. Use the appropriate installation tools according to the size of the pipe or tubing.

Always follow the manufacturers instructions.

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Special Tools
MODULE 6
Two special tools are required when working with PE piping: a plastic pipe cutting shear and a chamfering tool.

Cutting Shear
There are different types of shears used, but they all basically involve opening the jaws of the shear around the pipe and then squeezing the handles to cut. Be sure you use the appropriate size cutter for the pipe you are cutting. Be careful to cut the pipe and not flatten it.

Chamfering Tool
A chamfering tool is used to bevel the end of PE pipe in preparation for attaching it to a service head adapter or fitting. Follow the manufacturers instructions when using this tool. Make sure you use a chamfering tool that matches the fitting. Some fittings require chamfering on the outside of the tubing, and some on the inside. Some require no chamfering at all.

Note: Cut the pipe square and remove all burrs and cuttings. You may remove burrs with a chamfering tool, reamer, sharp knife, or fine tooth file. A miter box or a cold ring clamp can help ensure square cut ends.

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Laying PE Pipe
MODULE 6
PE pipe has specific installation requirements. These requirements are based on the physical properties of plastic and the effect of environmental conditions during and after installation.

If PE pipe is not encased in a gastight metal pipe, it must be traced with a continuous electricallyconductive tracer wire or metallic tape. Where PE pipe is not buried at either the container or the second-stage regulator, it must be encased in an approved anodeless riser because PE cannot be exposed to sunlight for extended periods of time. PE piping must be joined so that all connections are covered with soil; PE pipe and fittings cannot be exposed in the dome of an underground tank. If PE pipe is not encased in a gastight metal pipe, it must be traced with a continuous electrically-conductive tracer wire or metallic tape.

PE pipe needs to be continuously supported. Ensure that the trench is relatively level and free of rocks and other materials that may damage the pipe or tubing. When you install PE pipe, carefully lower the required length into the trench. Do not subject it to undue stress. Do not drag it over rocks or other abrasive material. Changes in temperature will cause PE pipe to expand and contract, which is normal. Allow for these changes by snaking the piping from one side of the trench to the other.

Snake PE piping to allow for changes in temperature, which causes the pipe to expand and contract.

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Installing Tracer Wire


MODULE 6
Because PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices, you must install a tracer wire. Tracer wire should not make contact with PE piping. To ensure this, first backfill about 6" of soil over the piping. Then install the tracer wire. The buffer between PE piping and tracer wire helps protect the piping from stray electrical currents or a lightning strike. Either of these events could damage the piping and possibly cause a leak. The tracer wire or tape must emerge from the ground at the anodeless riser or service head adapter to facilitate line tracing, marking, and repairs. Once the tracer wire is in place, you can complete the backfill operation. Note: Because you must provide some backfill before installing the tracer wire, conduct a test for leakage on the underground piping before you install the tracer wire.

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Attaching the PE Piping


MODULE 6
You must connect PE piping through an anodeless riser where PE piping:

Emerges from the ground. Connects to a container. Connects to a second-stage regulator at the service entrance to a building. Connects to an outdoor appliance.

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Attaching the PE Piping to the Mechanical Fittings


MODULE 6
Follow these steps to attach PE piping to the mechanical fitting:

1. Cut the PE piping with cutting


shears or other approved cutting device so that the cut end of the pipe is square.

2. Wipe the cut pipe with a clean dry


cloth. Inspect the last several inches of the PE piping for damage. If the pipe is damaged, cut it again to remove the damaged area.

3. Use a chamfering tool to achieve


a proper outer diameter (OD) chamfer. This type of chamfer permits the PE piping to be completely stabbed without affecting the internal seals.

4. Use a soft felt tip pen, crayon,


or grease pencil to mark the stab depth as indicated on the package instructions. The stab depth is the approximate distance from the edge of the fusion bead to the end of the fitting body.

5. Stab the PE piping into the fitting so


that the stab depth mark is visible:

The PE piping must bottom out in the fitting.

Within 1/8" of moisture seal on 1/2" CTS and 1" CTS sizes. Within 1/4" on all other sizes through 1 " CTS. Approximately 3/8" on 1-1/4" IPS and 2" IPS sizes.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 6
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 432.

Tracer wire should not be installed in contact with PE piping.


True

False

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MODULE 6
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Lesson 3. Installing Vapor Delivery Lines: Copper


MODULE 6

Introduction
You have already learned the basic steps to installing exterior lines. This lesson provides guidance for installing copper piping for a two-stage regulated vapor distribution system. After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Explain techniques and procedures used for installing copper pipe and tubing.

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Copper Tubing
MODULE 6
There are two types of soft seamless copper tubing commonly used for vapor distribution system installations: water tubing and refrigeration tubing.

Water tubing is sized by inside diameter (ID) and is commonly available in two types:

Type L is the most common and is approved for both liquid and vapor lines. Type K has greater wall thickness than Type L and is often used for liquid and high-pressure vapor lines.
COPPER TUBING

Refrigeration tubing, also known as Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (ACR) tubing, is sized by outside diameter (OD). Refrigeration tubing is approved for both liquid and vapor lines. Refrigeration tubing is usually charged with nitrogen gas to keep it clean and dry until it is used.

Copper tubing is flexible, but when installed aboveground it must be properly supported by clamps and suitable brackets. Copper tubing should be plugged or capped after cutting to help maintain its dryness and cleanliness.

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Laying Copper Tubing


MODULE 6
Buried copper tubing should be run or installed as directly as is practical from one point to another with as few fittings as possible, to reduce the potential for leaks at the joints. To avoid kinks, carefully unroll the coiled copper tubing. Do not create kinks or flat spots in the tubing, which could cause flow restrictions and weak spots. Weak spots could ultimately cause leaks. After you unroll the section, cut the desired length before you correct minor bends in the tubing. You can straighten short lengths of tubing by repeatedly rolling the tubing on a flat surface while pressing down on the tubing with the palms of your hands. You can straighten longer sections of tubing by carefully bending the tubing with your hands. Two tools commonly used to protect copper tubing from kinks and flat spots during bending are the spring-type bender and the lever-type bender.

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Joining Copper Tubing


MODULE 6
Flared fittings and brazing are two ways to join copper tubing to various exterior components of the vapor distribution system. In addition, there are applications where a threaded brass pipe fitting may be brazed to copper tubing, especially rigid tubing, to make the transition from copper to steel pipe. This lesson focuses on using flared fittings, the most common method to join copper tubing in residential and small commercial installations.

Brazing is a process of heating filler material to join two pieces of metal. Copper tubing may be brazed using filler material that has a melting point exceeding 1,000 F.

See the Resources section for more information on brazing.

Tools
You will use a tubing cutter and a flaring tool to join soft copper tubing.

Tubing Cutter: A wheel-type tubing cutter is typically used. This cutter usually has built-in reamer blades that remove burrs and bevel the leading edge of a flare.

Flaring Tool: A flaring tool consists of a die block and a flaring cone. A flare is formed by clamping the tubing into the correctly-sized hole in the die block and driving the cone into the end of the tubing with a screw mechanism.

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Flared Tube Connectors


MODULE 6
Use a flaring tool to create flared connections. Flared lines are then coupled with brass flare fittings. There are several common brass fittings.

Forged flare nuts attach the end of tubing to any external flare fitting.

Flare elbows connect two sections of flared tubing at right angles and are useful when tubing cannot be bent to fit the installation.

Flare T-fittings connect three sections of flared tubing.

Flare by male pipe thread connectors connect flared tubing to a female pipe fitting.

Flare by female pipe thread connectors connect flared tubing to a male pipe fitting.

Flare unions connect two sections of flared tubing end-toend.

Flare caps seal off unused flare fitting openings.

Flare plugs seal off an unused flare fitting opening or nut.

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Step-by-steP: Creating a Flare Connection

LEARNING ACTIVITY

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Check your work on page 432.

LEARNING ACTIVITY

297

Lesson 4. Installing Vapor Delivery Lines: Metal and CSST


Introduction
You have already learned the basic steps to installing exterior vapor lines. This lesson provides guidance for installing metal, including steel and wrought iron, and CSST piping for a 2-stage regulated vapor distribution system. After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

MODULE 6

Explain techniques and procedures used for installing metal pipe and tubing. Explain techniques and procedures used for installing CSST pipe and tubing.

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Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe


MODULE 6
NFPA 58 specifies three types of steel piping that can be used for propane vapor distribution systems:

Black iron Galvanized steel Wrought iron


BLACK IRON PIPE

Cast iron cannot be used in vapor distribution system piping. The mechanical properties of cast iron is not compatible for use with propane distribution systems.

GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE

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Steel Pipe Fittings


MODULE 6
Steel pipe or wrought iron pipe used in residential and small commercial vapor distribution systems are typically joined using threaded pipe and pipe fittings. Pipe fittings are the components used in making turns or connecting sections of piping systems. Threads on the outside of a pipe or fitting are called male threads. Male threads are cut on a pipe with a tool called a die. Threads on the inside of a fitting are called female threads. Female threads are cut with a tool called a tap. In propane piping systems, only steel and malleable iron fittings are used with steel pipe or wrought iron pipe. You cannot use cast iron fittings.

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Types of Steel Pipe Fittings


MODULE 6
These are the most common threaded pipe fittings:

Nipple - A nipple is a short piece of pipe used between other fittings that are closely spaced. It eliminates the difficulty of using a vise to thread short pieces of pipe.

Pipe Elbow - A pipe elbow typically provides a 45 or 90 turn in the piping, and thus has two openings; some have female threads at each opening while others have male and female openings called street elbows.

Street Elbow - A street elbow is designed to connect two separate pieces of pipe or tubing and allows for a decrease or increase in size while making a 90 turn.

Pipe Tee - A pipe tee provides a branch connection in the piping, and has three openings, each with a female thread.

Pipe Cap - A pipe cap is used to close the end of a pipe and connects to a male thread.

Straight Coupling - A straight coupling has two openings, each with a female thread, and joins two pipes of the same size. A thread protector must not be used to join pipe as the female threads are continuous with no separation in the center.

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MODULE 6

Reducing Coupling - A reducing coupling has two openings, each with a female thread, and joins two pipes of different sizes.

Pipe Plug - A pipe plug is a solid fitting with male threads used to close a female threaded opening in another fitting.

Union - A union permits quick connection and disconnection of a vapor distribution line. It provides a way to readily open a piping system to replace fittings and other devices that control the flow of propane vapor.

You should store and handle pipe and fittings in a way that prevents rust and thread damage. Do not use pipe and fittings with stripped, chipped, corroded, or defective threads.

NOTE: Check your state and local codes regarding the use of certain fittings, such as bushings or close nipples.

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Cutting and Threading Tools


MODULE 6
Four tools are typically used to cut and thread steel pipe:

Pipe vise - A pipe vise holds pipe during cutting and threading.

Pipe cutter - A pipe cutter cuts steel pipe and is identified by the number of cutting wheels. The two typical types of pipe cutters are single wheel cutters and four wheel cutters.

Pipe reamer - A pipe reamer removes metal burrs from the inside pipe wall.

Pipe threading tool - A pipe threading tool consists of two parts: a die and a stock. The die cuts the male threads. The stock holds the die in position and provides a guide opening, through which the pipe must pass before it reaches the die, keeping the stock and die aligned with the pipe so the threads are cut straight.

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Measuring Steel Pipe


MODULE 6
You must allow for pipe fittings when measuring and cutting steel pipe. Lets discuss some of the terms and concepts associated with measuring steel pipe. Fitting Allowance: (is) the distance from the end of the pipe to the center opening of the fitting.

Some pipe fittings are standardized; you only need to measure to the center of the fitting when using fittings with standardized allowances. Valves and fittings, such as unions and couplings, are not standardized; when using these fittings, the correct fitting allowance is determined by subtracting the length of the pipe threads screwed into the fitting from the actual length of the fitting.

Make-Up: The distance a standard male pipe thread will screw into the female pipe thread. Average Distances for Make-Up and Fitting Allowance: The average distances for the make-up and fitting allowance of most common sizes of pipe fittings are shown in the corresponding table. End-to-End Measurement: The length of a piece of pipe with no fittings. End-to-Center Measurement: The distance between one end of the pipe and the center of the opening of the fitting attached to the other end. Center-to-Center Measurement: The distance between the centers of the openings of two fittings connected to opposite ends of a piece of pipe.

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STEP-BY-STEP: Cutting Steel Pipe

LEARNING ACTIVITY

STEP-BY-STEP: Threading Steel Pipe

LEARNING ACTIVITY

STEP-BY-STEP: Assembling Threaded Pipe Connections


LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Laying Steel Piping


MODULE 6
When installing steel piping, you should follow the same general piping installation procedures we just covered. With steel piping, it is especially important to protect against corrosion. You should apply paint or a coating, including wrapping, to protect aboveground steel piping against corrosion from the atmosphere and the surrounding environment. You should also protect underground piping against corrosion. Common approved methods for protecting underground piping against corrosion include encasing and sealing the piping, applying a coating to the piping, using a wrapping, or installing a cathodic protection system. To prevent corrosion, do not allow uncoated piping or unwrapped fittings to make contact with soil.

You should apply paint or a coating, including wrapping, to protect aboveground steel piping against corrosion from the atmosphere and the surrounding environment.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 6
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 432.

The fitting allowance is the distance from the end of the pipe to the center opening of the fitting.
True

False

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Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing


MODULE 6
CSST is durable, highly flexible, and widely available. CSST is typically shipped and handled in 150 ft and 250 ft coils. Although CSST is usually installed indoors, there are manufacturers who produce CSST for outdoor, underground use. When using CSST outdoors, it should be listed for outdoor, underground use. NFPA 58 states that CSST used in outdoor service can only be subject to vapor pressure not greater than 5 psig. CSST distribution lines can be used outdoors for special applications such as in-slab installations and outdoor appliance connections. If installed in a slab, the CSST line must be installed in a conduit. Also, lines installed outdoors must be protected from exposure, such as in a conduit. Technicians who install CSST must be trained and qualified by the CSST manufacturer, supplier, or a trainer qualified by the manufacturer.

CSST IN-SLAB INSTALLATION

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Installing CSST: Precautions


MODULE 6
Different CSST manufacturers provide different installation instructions. These instructions are not interchangeable and they can differ significantly. Always follow the specific manufacturer instructions for each brand of CSST.

Here are general guidelines for installing all CSST:


Ensure any exposed CSST is not damaged during installation. Store all tubing, fittings, and hardware in a clean, dry location prior to installation. Temporarily plug or tape the open ends of tubing closed before installation to keep dust, dirt, and other foreign material out. Protect tubing from contact with sharp objects. Avoid tight bends, kinks, twists, or excessive stretching, as these can stress the tubing and fittings and could cause leakage. When connecting CSST, use wrenches that are properly sized for the CSST nut and terminating fitting flats. This will help ensure gastight seals, protect the tubing from twisting, and avoid rounding off fitting wrench flats. Properly support tubing with pipe straps, bands, or hangers suitable for the tubing size and weight and in accordance with manufacturers recommendations. Avoid using components from flexible piping systems, other than those specified as part of the CSST manufacturers system as this could cause poor system performance, bodily injury, or property damage.

For outdoor installations, the external plastic jacketing of CSST should remain intact as much as possible. Use a pipe wrap tape to cover exposed portions of the stainless steel tubing. This will help prevent corrosion. If any corrosive material, such as a masonry cleaning solution, makes contact with the plastic covering during installation, it should be thoroughly rinsed as prescribed by the CSST manufacturer. For installing CSST underground, under concrete, or encased in concrete, enclose the tubing in a non-metallic conduit at least " larger than the tubing. Seal the ends to keep out water. Keep the protective plastic jacketing in place to protect the tubing from corrosive threats. Note: Always follow the manufacturers instructions when installing CSST.

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Module Summary
MODULE 6
Some important points to remember from this module are:

There are five basic steps for installing underground lines: dig a trench; insert pipe or tubing in the trench; plug or cap lines; test for leakage in the exterior installed line and document results; and backfill the trench. This module described four types of exterior vapor distribution lines: polyethylene (PE); copper; metal (including black iron, galvanized steel, and wrought iron); and corrugated stainless steel tubing (CSST). Different types of lines are used in different environments. Ultraviolet light in sunlight damages PE pipe and tubing. Therefore, PE can only be used for underground vapor service or must be encased in an approved flexible conduit. PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices. PE pipe and tubing must be installed with tracer wire. Copper tubing is flexible, but when installed aboveground it must be properly supported by clamps and suitable brackets. Copper tubing should be plugged or capped after cutting to help keep it clean and dry. Steel piping should be protected against corrosion. Paints, coatings, and wrappings help protect aboveground steel piping against corrosion from the atmosphere and the surrounding environment. Cathodic protection systems help protect underground steel piping. Technicians who install CSST must be trained and qualified by the CSST manufacturer, supplier, or a trainer qualified by the manufacturer.

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MODULE 6

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MODULE 6. INSTALLING LINES

Module 6 Quiz

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Module 6 Quiz
MODULE 6
Directions: Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

1. According to NFPA 58 requirements, which of the following is a requirement for piping installation?
a. Vapor distribution system piping can never be used as a grounding electrode b. Flexible metallic connectors are not permitted in vapor distribution systems c. Piping must be run as directly as possible from one point to another, with as many fittings as practical d. Where condensation of water vapor can occur, piping must be sloped away from the container

2. According to NFPA 58 requirements for aboveground lines, you can use polyethylene (PE) pipe, tubing, and fittings in
aboveground line installations. a. True b. False

3. Mechanical fittings are used to join PE pipes in most residential and small commercial installations. PE can also be
joined using ____. a. Stab-type fittings b. Barbed fittings c. Heat fusion d. Electro-fusion

4. Do you need to install tracer wire with PE pipe and tubing?


a. No. Even though PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices, if you were to install tracer wire it would have to contact the PE piping in some way, which could damage the piping and possibly cause a leak b. No. PE pipe and tubing are conductive and can be found by pipe-locating devices c. Yes, because PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices d. Yes. PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices; therefore you must never install a tracer wire

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Lesson 4. Installing Vapor Delivery Lines: Metal and CSST

5. There are two types of soft seamless copper tubing commonly used for vapor distribution system installations: water
tubing and refrigeration tubing. Water tubing is sized by inside diameter (ID) and is commonly available in which type? a. Type L b. Type K c. Type M d. Both a and b

MODULE 6

6. Should you use pipe thread-sealing compounds on the seats of brass flare fittings?
a. No. Flared copper connections are highly corrosive and need to be sealed frequently; therefore pipe thread-sealing compounds would not work properly on the seats of brass flare fittings b. No. Flared copper connections are metal-to-metal seals that may not seat and seal properly if you use thread-sealing compounds c. Yes. Pipe thread-sealing compounds are always used on the seats of brass flare fittings d. None of the above

7. NFPA 58 specifies that the following types of steel piping can be used for propane vapor distribution systems:
a. Cast iron, black iron, or wrought iron b. Black iron, galvanized steel, or cast iron c. Red iron, galvanized steel, or wrought iron d. Black iron, galvanized steel, or wrought iron

8. When installing CSST, which precaution is true?


a. Do not worry about exposed CSST that is damaged during construction b. Keep the protective plastic jacketing in place to protect the tubing from corrosive threats c. For outdoor installations, do not worry if the external plastic jacketing of CSST does not remain intact d. Store all tubing, fittings, and hardware in a clean, damp location prior to installation

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MODULE 7

Module 7. Installing Regulators and Meters


INTRODUCTION
Once the exterior lines of a vapor distribution system are in, the regulators and vapor meters must then be installed. This module will outline the procedures for installing both regulators and vapor meters.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Identify the procedures and precautions for installing regulators and vapor meters. Identify and explain the role of accessories required for regulator installation. Explain methods for storing and handling vapor meters. Identify locations for vapor meter installation.

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Module 7. Installing Regulators and Meters

MODULE 7
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Lesson 1. Installing Regulators


MODULE 7

Introduction
This lesson provides typical installation guidelines for exterior regulators in residential and small commercial systems. When installing a regulator, always make sure you:

Understand the requirements of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58. Have read, understand, and are able to follow the manufacturers instructions.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:


Identify code requirements for installing regulators. Identify and explain the role of accessories required for regulator installation. List the steps to install regulators up to the service entrance of a structure in the vapor distribution system. Identify components needing inspection and protection during and after regulator installation.

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Code Requirements
MODULE 7
Personnel who install exterior propane vapor distribution system components must be familiar with NFPA 58 requirements related to regulator installations. Check with your supervisor to determine the edition (published year) that applies to your location, as these requirements can vary among different editions.

Now lets look more closely at the requirements for:


Single- and 2-stage systems. First-stage and high-pressure regulators. Installation and location.

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Code Requirements for Singleand 2-stage Systems


The 1995 and later editions of NFPA 58 require 2-stage regulation for all fixed piping systems that serve psig appliance systems. Single-stage systems installed prior to June 30, 1997, can remain in service. However, if the single-stage regulator no longer functions properly, then the existing system must be converted to a 2-stage regulator system, an integral 2-stage regulator system, or 2-psi regulator system. Conversion to a 2-psi regulator may require installation of a line pressure regulator inside the building, upstream of any appliances requiring psi inlet pressure. Installation must be in accordance with NFPA 54. Check with your supervisor to determine if your company prohibits supplying propane to a customer who has a singlestage regulator in their propane vapor distribution fixed piping system.

MODULE 7

If a single-stage regulator no longer functions properly, then the existing system must be converted to a 2-stage regulator system, an integral 2-stage regulator system, or 2-psi regulator system.

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Code Requirements for First-Stage and High-Pressure Regulators


High-pressure and first-stage regulators used in residential and small commercial settings must be installed outside of buildings. A first-stage regulator is equipped with an internal relief valve. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) issues standards that limit the outlet pressures of the first stage regulator to 10 psig or less. If a high-pressure regulator is needed because of higher BTU capacity, then either a separate relief valve must be utilized downstream or a first-stage regulator must be installed upstream of each second-stage regulator to meet the overpressure protection requirements of the code. Consult with the regulator or relief valve manufacturer for sizing requirements. Installation of these regulators must meet code requirements for how they are connected to the container and the sequence of the regulators The first-stage or high-pressure regulator is connected to the vapor service valve. The regulator can be attached to a container bracket or connected to the service valve by a pigtail. For a manifolded stationery container installation, the firststage regulator must be attached to interconnecting piping.

MODULE 7

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Code Requirements: Installation, Location, and Remote Venting


MODULE 7
Installation
Regulators must be installed so that weather and debris do not affect their operation. For example, do not install regulators where snow and ice could slide off the roof and strike the regulator. This illustration shows one product that can protect a regulator as an example, but this course does not endorse any particular product or method of installation. There are no specific code requirements about how to protect the regulator so consult the AHJ or company policy. When local building codes require roof designs of 125 pounds per square foot (psf) or greater in areas of heavy snowfall, verify regulators are protected from physical damage by snow, ice, or other conditions.

Location
The point of discharge from the pressure relief valve on a regulator must be:

No less than 3 ft horizontally from any building opening below the point of discharge. No less than 5 ft in any direction away from any source of ignition, opening into direct vented appliances, or mechanical ventilation air intakes.

Remote Venting
If you are unable to meet these requirements, vent piping can be attached to the regulator so that the vent can discharge the required distances from building openings or sources of ignition. This is called remote venting. Remote vent piping is usually plastic, but can be metal. Vent piping must meet UL standards. A vent extension cannot be narrower than a regulator vent. The circumference of the piping and termination point must be at least as large as the regulator vent to carry the discharge of the regulator vent. You will need to install the correct vent fitting at the end of the extension. There are different techniques for installing remote venting. Consult your company policy or your supervisor for specific guidance.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 7
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 432. The 1995 and later editions of NFPA 58 require 2-stage regulation for all fixed piping systems that serve psig appliance systems. True

False

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Regulator Installation Accessories: Pigtail Connector


Before installation, select the accessories and materials you will need to assemble and install the regulator. These materials may include a tank hood, fittings, connectors, and other manufacturer-specified parts. Always inspect your connectors and fittings to ensure they are in good condition. Lets review common accessories.

MODULE 7

Pigtail Connector
A pigtail is a flexible metallic connector often used to connect a regulator to the service valve on a container. Pigtail connectors are used with first-stage, integral 2-stage, and high-pressure regulators. The preferred installation of the pigtail is a loop configuration. Without the pigtail loop, the vapor distribution piping would be too rigid and therefore more susceptible to leaks in the event of a gradual or sudden shifting of the ground, piping, container, or service line. When installing a pigtail, make sure that the pigtail loop and regulator inlet is higher than the service valve. This limits the flow of moisture that might be present in the propane in the regulator and allows it to drain back into the container.

When installing a pigtail, make sure that the pigtail loop and regulator inlet is higher than the service valve.

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Regulator Installation Accessories: Vent Extension


A vent extension is used for protecting regulators installed on underground tanks. It helps to prevent water from entering the regulators bonnet where the area around the underground tank is subject to collecting water during heavy rains. The vent extension allows the regulator to properly breathe, if it becomes submerged in water. It should be long enough to extend above-grade and must be pointed downward and have a protective screen.

MODULE 7

Vent extensions are installed on:


Underground first-stage regulators. Underground high-pressure regulators. Second-stage regulators installed inside buildings. Second-stage regulators installed outside of buildings that do not meet specific code requirements to openings into a building, to a source of ignition and the potential for vent being obstructed by snow or ice.

NOTE: Before installing a regulator and possible vent extension, you should always read and follow the manufacturers instructions.

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Installing First-Stage Regulators


MODULE 7
First-stage regulators are commonly installed on ASME containers and should be located as close as possible to the vapor service valve.

Follow these steps to install a first-stage regulator:

1. Prepare a pigtail, hogtail, or other


fittings and install into the inlet of the regulator.

2. Make sure the regulators vent


screen is in place and that the bonnet cap is properly tightened. Install a vent extension for underground tanks if needed.

3. Install and carefully tighten the


appropriate regulator outlet fitting. Ensure all connections are tight and that they are not binding, crossthreaded, or out of alignment.

4. Connect the regulator to the service


valve on the container, making sure the vent is pointed downward to help keep debris and moisture from entering the regulator. If it is possible to do so, make a loop in the pigtail connection. Be sure the container hood is properly installed to protect the regulator.

On an underground tank, install the regulator after the tank is in the ground to avoid damage during the container installation. If a vent extension has been installed, ensure it is positioned so that it is above-grade and at the highest point available at the installation site.

5. Connect the piping to the outlet of


the regulator.

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Installing Integral 2-Stage Regulators


MODULE 7
Integral 2-stage regulators are usually installed on DOT cylinders or smaller ASME tanks, which are typically located next to a structure and are filled on site or in the case of a DOT cylinder, may be exchanged.

Follow these steps to install an integral 2-stage regulator:

1. Prepare a pigtail, hogtail, or other


fittings and install into the inlet of the regulator.

2. Ensure the regulators vent


screen is in place, facing down, and that the bonnet cap is sealed and properly tightened.

3. Ensure all connections are tight


and that they are not binding, cross-threaded, or out of alignment.

When installing a pigtail, make sure that the pigtail loop and regulator inlet is higher than the service valve.

4. Plug the outlet of the regulator


with the appropriate fitting.

5. After the cylinders are in place,


connect the regulator using the pigtail to the service valve on the cylinder.

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Second-Stage Regulator Installation: A Closer Look


Second-stage regulators are typically used on systems with ASME tanks. They are installed away from the tank near an outside wall of a building at the service entrance riser, or near a propane appliance, such as an outdoor pool heater. Second-stage regulators have pipe thread connections at their inlets and outlets. They are available in back-mount, side-mount, 90 angle body, or straight-through piping configurations. When installing any of these configurations, the regulator vent outlet should be facing down. The inlet can be in any position. The piping layout for some vapor distribution systems may require more than one second-stage regulator to provide service to propane appliances in locations that cannot share common piping runs. NOTE: When second-stage regulators are installed inside a structure, they must be vented to the outside atmosphere to prevent propane vapor from being released inside, which could cause an explosion and possibly a fire. Vent lines must not have a smaller diameter than the regulator vent opening. Vent lines must also be constructed of material approved for indoor piping. The same distance requirements apply to these vent terminations as apply to vents of regulators: 5 ft from sources of ignition and 3 ft from building openings at or below the level of the vent.

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Installing Second-Stage Regulators


MODULE 7
Follow these steps to install a second-stage regulator:

1. Prepare and install the necessary fittings, and insert them into the inlets of

the regulator. Use a thread sealing compound, but do not apply it to the two leading threads of pipe nipples. You should wipe any excess compound off the threads.

2. Ensure the regulators vent screen is in place, and that the bonnet cap is
properly tightened.

3. Plug the outlet of the regulator using the appropriate fitting.

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4. Attach the regulator to the top of the riser or other piping materials. When

connecting the piping, it is important to ensure the pipe is cleaned of thread burrs and that thread-sealing compound material is not introduced into the regulator body.

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5. Make sure the vent is pointing downward to keep debris and moisture from
entering the regulator.

NOTE: Some propane marketers install a shutoff valve immediately upstream of the second-stage regulator inlet. This is not required by NFPA 58. Check with the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) or building codes to determine if a shutoff valve should be installed at the second-stage or integral regulator. Also, make sure you understand your companys policy for installing shut-off valves.

Remember this course describes how to install a vapor distribution system up to the outlet of the regulator. You will learn how to install piping downstream and connecting to the regulator in the course on Placing Vapor Distribution Systems and Appliances into Operation.

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Installing 2 psi Service Regulator Systems


MODULE 7
The installation of 2 psi service regulators is almost identical to the installation of second-stage regulators. However, 2 psi service regulators must be installed in combination with downstream line-pressure regulators that reduce appliance input pressure to approximately 11" water column (w.c.).

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Inspecting and Protecting Regulators


MODULE 7
Several regulator components require careful inspection, protection, and consideration during installation.

Regulator Vent: A screen protects the vent and helps keep out spiders, wasps and other pests. However, you or your customer should periodically check the vent and clear blockages as needed. The vent must also be protected against accumulation of sleet, snow, ice, mud, or ground water.

Regulator Bonnet Cap: The bonnet cap must be in place and tight to keep out water.

Protection from the Environment: If a regulator installed outdoors could be affected by weather, the regulator must be protected. Follow your company policy for protecting regulators.

Heat Sources: Regulators should not be installed near intense heat sources. Internal components, such as the diaphragm, can be damaged by exposure to high temperatures.

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Learning Activity: Installing Regulators

Check your work on page 433.

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Lesson 2. Installing Vapor Meters


MODULE 7

INTRODUCTION
Vapor meters are precision measuring devices that require special care before and during installation. In this lesson, you will learn about selecting appropriate installation locations for vapor meters and the procedures and precautions involved when installing them.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:


Explain methods for storing and handling vapor meters. Identify locations for vapor meter installation. Explain procedures and precautions to follow when installing vapor meters.

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Protecting Meters Against Physical Damage


You should handle and install propane vapor meters with care to ensure their accuracy and long service life. Meters should always be shipped, stored, and installed in an upright position. Each meter is shipped from the factory with dust caps covering the inlet and outlet openings. You should leave these caps in place until you are ready to place the meter into service. When removing a meter from service, you should reinstall dust caps to prevent dirt and other contaminants from entering the meter.

MODULE 7

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Selecting Meter Location


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NFPA 54 requires that meters be located:

Where they are not subjected to damage, such as adjacent to a driveway, under a fire escape, in public passages, in coal bins, or where they will be subject to excessive corrosion or vibration. Where they are not subjected to extreme temperatures, sudden extreme temperature changes, or temperatures beyond those recommended by the manufacturer. In ventilated spaces readily accessible for examination, reading, replacement, or maintenance.

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Module 7. Installing Regulators and Meters

Installing Meters at Propane Containers


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In some instances, you can install the vapor meter near the ASME tank or DOT cylinder. The meter must be immediately downstream from the outlet of the integral 2-stage or 2 psi service regulator. The meter is typically installed on a post adjacent to the tank or cylinder. NOTE: Installation and testing of vapor distribution lines downstream of the meter will be covered in the CETP course Placing Vapor Distribution Systems and Appliances into Operation.

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Installing Meters at Service Entrances


MODULE 7
In distribution lines that use independent 2-stage regulation, select a meter location as close as possible to the outlet of the second-stage or 2 psi service regulator to help maintain accurate readings.

Two meter mounting methods are typically used in these cases:

On a Building Wall
Mount the vapor meter and regulator on a building wall by attaching the meter to a bracket on the wall immediately downstream from the regulator outlet. To provide solid support for the meter, use suitable fasteners such as lag screws, masonry anchors, and inserts, or molly bolts, to attach the meter bracket to a structures exterior wall.

Freestanding
If a regulator is at the end of a riser, you can install the meter without a bracket. In this type of freestanding installation, a standard or utility-style meter is connected to and supported by the distribution lines. NOTE: Use a freestanding installation only if the distribution line is assembled from rigid pipe. If an installation uses tubing for the distribution lines, the weight of a freestanding meter will cause the lines to sag which could damage the tubing or meter, and cause a leak.

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Preparing and Mounting the Meter for Service


After you select a meter location, follow common industry practices to provide safe and reliable vapor meter service.

MODULE 7

Post-mounted and wall-mounted meters should be approximately 12" off the ground for ease of reading and maintenance. Freestanding meters should be installed on the riser so that the bottom of the meter is completely off the ground to help prevent corrosion. Do not install meters where they will be subjected to water or ice damage, such as in locations where snowfall occurs; snow and ice could slide off the roof and strike the meter. You can protect the meter by building a protective hood around it, but there must be a way to read it. For meter accuracy, avoid locations near heat sources. such as a heat pump, air conditioner, appliance vent termination, or clothes dryer exhaust. Constant inlet pressure is important for meter accuracy. Existing systems that use a single-stage regulator cannot provide a constant pressure to the meter. When installing a vapor meter, it is important to install a 2-stage regulator to be sure the meter can receive a constant inlet pressure. Ensure that the meter has a vapor measuring capacity that exceeds total gas appliance demand. State and local codes may require that the meter have a temperature compensated meter. Contact your supervisor or check your company policy to determine if a temperature compensated meter needs to be installed.

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Check for Understanding


MODULE 7
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 433.

It is appropriate to install a vapor meter right below a dryer exhaust on a building wall.
True

False

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Module 7. Installing Regulators and Meters

Installing the Meter


MODULE 7
To prepare the meter for installation:

1. Remove the plugs or caps from the meter inlet.

2. Install any required fittings or nipples into the meter inlet


for making the piping connections. To avoid damaging the meter:

Use an appropriate thread-sealing compound on male pipe threads after the two leading threads. Use a rag to remove excess compound before making the connection handtight. Always turn fittings and nipples into the meter; do not hold the fitting and turn the meter. Turning the meter could damage the threads in the meter inlet or outlet, and could affect the accuracy of the meter. When installing a steel pipe nipple, use a properly-sized wrench on the meter boss to prevent warping or distorting the case.

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3. Once the fittings or nipples have been installed, be sure to


recap or plug the meter inlet to prevent moisture, dirt, and debris from entering and damaging the meter.

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4. If necessary, install any required connection fittings on the


riser or distribution line of the meter, such as swivel adaptors, an in-line shutoff, or a nipple and union from the regulator outlet.

5. Install all mounting hardware.

6. Mount the meter so it is plumb and level in all directions.


A meter installed in a tilted position may cause inaccurate measuring of gas volume. Use a meter bar or meter mounting bracket to ensure the meter is properly supported and level in each direction.

The meter is now ready to be connected to the piping downstream of the meter.

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Module 7. Installing Regulators and Meters

Interior Site Assessment


MODULE 7
After the interior distribution system is installed, inspected for NFPA 54 code requirements, and is ready to be placed into operation, the meter or regulator will have to be connected to the interior system. This assessment will be conducted before the connections are made between the exterior and interior portions of the system, subsequent to the installation of the container, piping, and regulators.

You must consider the safe and leak-free operation of the total system and make certain:

No obvious code violations are present with the interior vapor distribution system installation. No visible gas lines are damaged. Exposed venting is installed per code. Sufficient combustion air is provided where appliances are located in a closet or in an enclosed area. Any other deficiency that would prevent the proper operation of the system has been repaired.

The CETP course Placing Vapor Distribution Systems and Appliances into Operation provides specific requirements and methods for connecting the interior system to the meter or regulator and conducting the interior site assessment, including testing and verification procedures. Refer to your company policy for specific guidance regarding the interior site assessment and any required documentation.

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Recommended Safety Checklist


MODULE 7
Before you leave the site, be sure to look over your installation, make sure it was done and cleaned up properly. Ask yourself these questions before leaving the site:

Have I installed the proper size, type, and pressure rating container? Is the container installed at the proper distance from buildings, property lines, sources of ignition, and other containers? Is the container level and installed on a solid and noncombustible foundation? Have I adequately secured the container against high water, wind, earthquake, and other potential hazards as required by the local jurisdiction? Is the container properly protected from weather, snow, power lines, traffic, and other structures? Is the container properly labeled per local, OSHA, and DOT requirements, including company name and vitals? Is the data plate attached and readable? Is the container in good condition, free of corrosion and leaks? Are DOT specification containers re-qualified and marked? Have I installed the correct piping with the proper material and working pressure? Is the piping installed at the minimum depth or deeper? Is the piping protected, including corrosion protection, tracer wire, and dielectric union as needed? Does the piping have the proper connections? Have I capped open ends of the piping for incomplete systems? Does the piping go under a right of way? Did I install the correct regulator in accordance with code requirements?

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Module 7. Installing Regulators and Meters

Is the regulator mounted properly and in the correct position? Is the regulator vent at least 5 ft from sources of ignition? Did I plug the regulator if the system is incomplete? Did I install the correct meter in accordance with code requirements? Did I test the system for leakage? Did I comply with all company policies and federal, state, and local codes? If the system will not be immediately placed in operation, did I shut off the gas supply? Did I clear my tools and personal belongings? Did I clear away materials and fulfilled any landscape requirements? Have I provided all the required paperwork to the customer per your company policy? Have I trained the customer on how to recognize gas leaks and what to do if one exists? Have I demonstrated what actions to take in the event of a gas leak, including turning off the gas supply at the tank, getting everyone out of the house and instructed them to stay out until the service company or local authority allows them to go back inside? Have I allowed the customer to smell propane? Have I provided the customer with warning materials? Have I obtained the proper signatures required by your company policy?

MODULE 7

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Module Summary
MODULE 7
Some important points to remember from this module are:

2-stage regulation is now required for all fixed piping systems that serve psig appliance systems. High-pressure and first-stage regulators used in residential and small commercial settings must be installed outside of buildings. Vapor meters are precision measuring devices that require special care before and during installation. Handling and installing them with care will help ensure their accuracy and long service life. Select a location to install a vapor meter that will allow for its safe and reliable operation and service.

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Module 7. Installing Regulators and Meters

MODULE 7
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Module 7 Quiz
Directions: Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

MODULE 7

1. Which of these choices is correct when installing a regulator?


a. The point of discharge from the pressure relief valve on a regulator must be no less than 3 ft in any direction away from any source of ignition, opening into direct vented appliances, or mechanical ventilation air intakes. b. The point of discharge from the pressure relief valve on a regulator must be no less than 5 ft horizontally from any building opening below the point of discharge. c. The point of discharge from the pressure relief valve on a regulator must be no less than 3 ft horizontally from any building opening below the point of discharge. d. None of the above.

2. Pigtail connectors are used with ____________ regulators.


a. First-stage, b. First-stage, c. First-stage, d. First-stage, integral 2-stage, and automatic changeover high-pressure, and adjustable high-pressure second-stage, and high-pressure integral 2-stage, and high-pressure

3. All piping layouts for vapor distribution systems require more than one second-stage regulator.
a. True b. False

4. Which of these statements about selecting a meter location is NOT correct?


a. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located in ventilated spaces readily accessible for examination, reading, replacement, or maintenance. b. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located where they are not subjected to extreme temperatures, sudden extreme temperature changes, or temperatures beyond those recommended by the manufacturer. c. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located at least 3 ft from sources of ignition, not including air conditioning compressors, heat pumps, and electric meters. d. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located where they are not subjected to damage, such as adjacent to a driveway, under a fire escape, in public passages, in coal bins, or where they will be subject to excessive corrosion or vibration.

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Module 7 Quiz

5. When installing meters at service entrances, two meter-mounting methods are typically used in distribution lines that
use independent 2-stage regulation. How can these meters be mounted? a. On a building wall or post-mounted b. On a building wall or freestanding c. Post-mounted or freestanding d. None of the above

MODULE 7

6. After the interior distribution system is installed, inspected for NFPA 54 code requirements, and is ready to be placed into
operation, the meter or regulator will have to be connected to the interior system. This assessment will be conducted after the connections are made between the exterior and interior portions of the system, subsequent to the installation of the container, piping, and regulators. a. True b. False

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MODULE 8

Module 8. Other Installations


INTRODUCTION
In this module you will learn about special installations and tank-to-tank transfer of propane.

Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to:


Identify examples and safety factors to consider when performing a special installation. Identify procedures for transferring liquid propane between stationary containers using a portable compressor or a portable liquid pump. Identify evacuation safety precautions when conducting a container-to-container transfer.

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Module 8. Other Installations

MODULE 8
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Lesson 1. Special Installations


MODULE 8

Introduction
So far, this course has addressed the factors you should consider when designing typical vapor delivery systems in residential and small commercial installations. Now, lets look at what to consider when designing special installations. This lesson provides examples of special installations and important safety issues and factors to consider before, during, and after a special installation.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:


Identify examples of special installations. Identify factors to consider for special installations. Explain safety considerations for special installations.

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Overview
MODULE 8
Special installations may serve recreational, residential, commercial, agricultural, or other applications. They may be indoor or outdoor, seasonal or year-round, and could involve total demand that is larger or smaller than a typical residential or small commercial installation. Special installations often have unique requirements, so you should thoroughly understand the demands and limitations of each type of equipment. Take the time to read and understand manufacturers instructions and follow any unique type of safety procedures that may apply to a special installation you ae designing. Because special installations can have large propane demands, you need to be aware of proper pipe sizing and pressure requirements. NFPA 54 & 58 codes apply to piping, hoses, fittings, distance, and location requirements. Also, installation and testing requirements must conform to NFPA, state, and local codes.

Consult your supervisor or company policy to determine if your company supports special installations, and if so, for specific guidance before you proceed.
The next page provides examples of just some of the many types of special installations. Understand that this list is not complete, and some installations may require special equipment, tools, and additional training. Never attempt an installation that you are not trained to perform.

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Learning Activity: Special Installations

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Temporary Heat / Construction Sites


These installations provide heat to structures that are under construction during cold weather. Temporary or temp heat installations may be moved from place to place within a work site and could be exposed to damage from heavy equipment. They must comply with safety regulations set forth by NFPA and OSHA. Remember all relevant codes still apply on construction sites, such as protection from vehicles, safe distances from sources of ignition, and protection of hoses and lines. Some additional NFPA 58 codes for temp heat installations include:

The maximum length of time for most temporary installations is 12 months. Contact AHJ for any questions concerning the project and its schedule. Installations exceeding 4,000 gallons require AHJ approval which could include a fire safety analysis and other requirements.

Seasonal Camps
Some installations, such as campsites and vacation properties, are used seasonally instead of year round. These installations are sometimes in rural locations, where propane may be the only practical or available source of energy. In these instances, propane can be used to provide heat for cooking and warmth, and to provide power and light. All common propane safety practices must be followed.

Outdoor Living Equipment


Propane grills, fire pits, mosquito traps, illuminating appliances, and patio heaters are examples of outdoor living equipment. This type of equipment frequently works with a 20 lb cylinder; however, this equipment may also be connected to a gas line. You and your customer should read and follow the manufacturers instructions for this type of equipment.

LEARNING ACTIVITY

Small Crop / Grain Dryers


Some farmers install propane-fueled dryers in storage facilities to dry grain and other crops. Grain must be sent through the dryer to meet moisture requirements before it can be transported. This type of installation, like a temp heat installation, could be exposed to many potential hazards. For example, the dryer or propane system could be damaged by farm machinery, through exposure to agricultural chemicals, or by large mowers. Temporary piping systems in these installations are very susceptible to these types of hazards. Some of these installations run off of liquid propane and/or propane vapor.

Kilns
A kiln can be used to fire or cook pottery or other clay objects. Kiln installations, like temp heat installations, must conform to local building codes. Any unlisted equipment not equipped with 100% safety shutoff valves must be approved by the AHJ.

Generators
Propane can be used to fuel certain types of generators that provide electricity. They are most often used during an emergency, such as a hurricane, tornado, or other situation where electricity may be unavailable for an extended period. The design and installation of a propane-fueled generator is similar to a typical residential installation; however, the National Electric Code (NEC) has additional rules that apply to this type of generator.

Railroad Switch Heaters


Railroad switch heaters play a key role in keeping freight and passenger trains operational in cold weather. They prevent the track switching systems from freezing. Switch heaters are normally installed close to the rail tracks and are usually controlled by a railroad company. The switch heating system can be exposed to frequent vibration, projectiles shot from track road beds, and vandalism.

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Lesson 2. Container-to-Container Transfer of Liquid Propane


Introduction
According to DOT regulations, ASME containers with water capacities of 125 gallons or greater and containing more than 5% liquid propane must not be transported on public roadways, except in special cases.

MODULE 8

Containers of 125 500 gallon water capacity may be transported over public roads from a customer location to the propane marketers bulk storage location. Check your company policy.
Therefore, if such a container is to be relocated, the excess liquid propane must be removed using the container-to-container or container-to-cargo tank, liquid transfer process. Liquid transfer between containers may also be necessary when exchanging containers for maintenance or other reasons. Always check local codes and regulations before transferring liquid between containers. Container-to-container liquid transfer is a complicated and potentially hazardous process and you must understand how to perform it safely. This lesson will explain step-by-step how to safely perform container-to-container liquid transfer between stationary containers using either a portable compressor or a portable liquid pump. Evacuating DOT containers involves different procedures than evacuating ASME containers and will be addressed later in this lesson.

After completing this lesson you will be able to:

Identify procedures for transferring liquid propane between stationary containers using a portable compressor or a portable liquid pump. Identify evacuation safety precautions when conducting a container-to-container transfer.

Portable compressors create a differential vapor pressure between two containers which allows propane liquid to flow from one container to another. Portable liquid pumps use mechanical means to move propane liquid from one container to another.

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Pre-Transfer Review
MODULE 8
As an example, we will demonstrate a container-to-container liquid transfer using a 500 gallon ASME container starting at a level of 50% and a stationary ASME 1,000 gallon container starting at a level of 5%.

Before transferring any propane from one container to another, always make sure that:

Liquid will be evacuated from stationary containers (aboveground or underground). A liquid transfer valve and its adapter are installed so that propane will be withdrawn through a liquid withdrawal valve installed in the container. The receiving containers have adequate capacity to receive the liquid from the container being evacuated.

In this lesson the word evacuated refers to the removal of liquid from an ASME aboveground or underground container, so that it can be properly transferred.

NOTE: These procedures are based on NFPA 58 provisions and common industry practice. Check state and local regulations and your company policies, for any additional guidelines, methods, or equipment requirements. There are a number of companies that manufacture liquid withdrawal valves, so be sure to follow the manufacturers operating and maintenance instructions for the specific evacuation equipment you use. NOTE: Be sure to wear personal protective equipment (PPE), including hand and eye protection, while performing these procedures.

LIQUID TRANSFER VALVE AND ADAPTER

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Evacuation Safety Precautions


MODULE 8
Evacuating propane through a liquid evacuation valve is a potentially dangerous operation. Propane is a flammable gas and exposure to liquid propane can result in severe freeze burns.

Use these precautions during evacuation:

Wear appropriate PPE and use proper transfer procedures according to the equipment manufacturers instructions and your company policy. Be thoroughly familiar with ASME container construction, valves, and all other evacuation equipment used. Verify all hoses are designed and listed for use with liquid propane. They must be marked 1,750 psig bursting pressure, and to the maximum psig working pressure. Follow your company procedures to inspect all hoses to be used during the transfer process. Do not use any hoses if they are found to be defective. Remove sources of ignition within 25 ft of the point of transfer, which is where hoses connect to the container filler valve and the liquid withdrawal valve. Keep at least one recently inspected fire extinguisher with a minimum capacity of 18 lb dry chemical and B:C rating within easy reach during the entire operation.

Refer to NFPA 58 for other requirements related to liquid transfer. NOTE: An individual qualified by his or her employer to perform this operation must be present during the entire evacuation procedure.

Sources of ignition like smoking, open flame, portable electrical tools, and extension lights capable of igniting propane must be at least 25 ft (7.6 m) away from a point of transfer while transfer operations are in progress. Metal cutting, grinding, oxygenfuel gas cutting, brazing, soldering, or welding must not be performed within 35 ft (10.7 m) of a point of transfer while transfer operations are in progress.

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Steps for Transferring Propane


MODULE 8
Follow these steps when conducting a container-to-container transfer of liquid propane using a portable compressor or a liquid pump.

1. Determine the amount of propane to transfer. 2. Prepare the evacuation site. 3. Inspect and connect pressurized hoses and assemblies. 4. Evacuate liquid propane. 5. Bleed down and disconnect hoses.
Now, lets learn each step in detail.

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Step 1: Determine the Amount of Propane to be Transferred


MODULE 8
It is critical to prevent overfilling the receiving container. Follow these guidelines to ensure the container that will receive the evacuated propane is large enough to handle the amount of propane in the ASME container to be evacuated. These guidelines will prevent overfilling the receiving container. You should NOT rely on float gauges or fixed liquid level gauges on a container being evacuated to indicate the amount of propane in that container. If defective, the gauges could give an inaccurate reading. This creates a hazard if the actual amount of propane to be evacuated is more than the receiving container can handle.

1. Look at the data plate on the container to be evacuated to


verify its capacity. Look at the data plate and the fixed liquid level gauge on the receiving container to verify its capacity and the amount of propane (if any) currently in the container. The receiving container must have adequate capacity to accept the amount of propane from the container to be evacuated.

2. Add the current volume of propane in the container to be


evacuated to the volume of propane (if any) in the receiving container. This equals the total amount of liquid propane that will need to be stored in the receiving container. The total amount must NOT exceed the maximum permitted filling level of the receiving container.

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Step 2: Prepare the Evacuation Site


MODULE 8
NOTE: This is a serious activity that can potentially lead to an uncontrolled release of propane, so take extreme care when performing this procedure. Before beginning, make sure you know your company policy in case emergency actions are required.

Follow these steps to prepare the evacuation area.

1. Position the ASME containers.

2. Place the compressor or portable liquid pump at least 10


ft from the container to be evacuated and the receiving container. The maximum distance between the compressor and the containers will depend on the length of the hoses.

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3. Using an approved thread-sealing compound, install a


machined liquid withdrawal adapter onto the inlet of the liquid transfer valve. Inspect the machined unloading adapter o-ring or nylon seal or washer for damage. If defective, it must be replaced before using.

MODULE 8

4. Carefully and slowly loosen the plug or cap from the liquid
withdrawal valve. Be extremely cautious when loosening the cap. Take extreme care to loosen and remove just the plug or cap, not the entire withdrawal valve. Never loosen the plug or cap more than one turn. WARNING: Extreme care should be taken to ensure the plug or cap does not come out of the liquid withdrawal valve or that the entire liquid withdrawal valve does not come out of the container. If it does, contact your supervisor immediately for instructions on how to proceed and follow your company policy for taking emergency actions such as evacuating the area and calling emergency responders.

If propane liquid stops escaping from the weep hole, it is safe to continue removing the plug or cap. Remember that there are different manufacturers of liquid withdrawal valves, so please follow their instructions as well as your company policy. WARNING: If the valve is NOT working properly, propane will continue to spray out after loosening the plug or cap. If propane continues to escape, STOP! Immediately retighten the plug or cap.

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5. With the transfer valve in the open position, quickly and


completely thread the machined adapter attached to the transfer valve into the outlet of the liquid withdrawal valve on the container to be evacuated. This should be done swiftly and the adapter tightened using the appropriate tools.

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NOTE: Contact with liquid propane will result in serious freeze burns. Direct the valve outlet away from yourself.

As you tighten the adapter into the liquid evacuation valve, it will begin to open the liquid withdrawal valve and liquid propane will begin to leak out. Act swiftly to screw the valve and adapter assembly all the way in, tighten it, and immediately close it. The excess flow valve should shut which should stop the flow of liquid propane from escaping as the valve is being screwed in. Be sure to follow all manufacturers instructions when installing the transfer valve.

Using a full port ball valve attached to the machined adapter will direct the spray of liquid vertically and may assist in slugging the internal excess flow valve when removing the transfer valve and machined adapter from the liquid withdrawal valve.

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363

6. Make sure all valves in the liquid transfer line are closed.
Listen for an audible click to signal that the liquid withdrawal valve has opened and is ready for liquid withdrawal.

MODULE 8

7. Lay out the liquid transfer hose. To prevent debris or water


from entering, keep hoses plugged or capped when not in use.

NOTE: Liquid transfer hoses should be equipped with shutoff valves at each end. If two valves are used, a hydrostatic relief valve must be installed in one of the valves.

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MODULE 8
Some marketers use a sight flow glass in the liquid transfer hose to determine if liquid is flowing. Some marketers install a 0-300 psi gauge in each container service valve. These gauges can be used to monitor the vapor pressure in each of the containers during the transfer process.
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365

Step 3: Inspect and Connect Pressurized Hoses and Assemblies


MODULE 8

If Using a Portable Compressor: 1. Connect one end of the liquid transfer hose to the
outlet of the transfer valve and the other end to the fill connection on the receiving container.

If Using a Portable Liquid Pump: 1. Connect one liquid transfer hose to the outlet of
the transfer valve and the other end to the liquid pump inlet. For best pump operation, the liquid inlet to the pump should come from the bottom of the container if possible. Connect the other liquid transfer hose between the pump outlet and the filler valve of the receiving container.

2. Connect a vapor hose between the discharge


side of the compressor and the vapor equalizing valve (or purging adapter) on the container to be evacuated. Connect another vapor hose between the suction side of the compressor and the vapor equalizing connection on the receiving container.

2. Connect a vapor hose between the vapor-return


connection on the container being evacuated and the vapor-return connection on the receiving container.

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Module 8. Other Installations

After the Pump or Compressor is Connected:

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3. Slowly open the transfer valve in the evacuating container to


pressurize the liquid supply line.

4. Slowly open each valve downstream and check that all


connections are leak-free using liquid leak test solution or another appropriate method.

5. Finally, close all valves in the line and make repairs if


necessary.

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Step 4: Evacuate Liquid Propane


MODULE 8
Remember to always read and follow the manufacturers operating instructions before using a portable compressor or portable liquid pump. Make sure the compressor or pump is in good working condition. Verify the engine and compressor has the correct amount of oil and that any drive belts have appropriate guards and are set to the proper tension.

1. Turn on the portable compressor or portable liquid pump to


begin evacuating propane.

Portable compressors create a pressure differential causing product to move between the two containers. When running the portable compressor, be sure to monitor the pressure in the ASME container being evacuated to avoid over-pressurization. For example, if the excess flow valve in the liquid evacuation valve closes and stops the flow of liquid during the procedure, the compressor must be shut down or excess pressure will build in the stationary container which could cause the relief valve to open. Liquid pumps operate by drawing liquid from the container to be evacuated and pushing it into the receiving container. Vapor lock and cavitation may occur, particularly in warm weather or when liquid withdrawal valves are located on top of the evacuating container . These conditions will result in slow transfer of liquid and excessive pump noise. If you experience these conditions, consult your supervisor.

2. Observe the liquid level gauges on both containers. As


product transfers between the containers, the liquid level gauge should be decreasing on the evacuating container and increasing on the receiving container. If liquid propane stops flowing during the process, it could be that the internal liquid evacuation excess flow valve has exceeded its flow capacity and must be reopened. To do this, shut off the compressor if it is running, close the liquid evacuation valve and the liquid hose end valve, and wait for an audible click. The click you hear is the excess flow valve reopening after having slugged closed. Most ASME containers up to 1,000 gallon water capacity have a liquid withdrawal valve that is rated at 19.5 gallons per minute.

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3. Be careful not to overfill the receiving container. Periodically


open and close the fixed liquid level gauge to ensure the receiving container is not filled to more than 80%. If liquid comes out, stop the liquid transfer.

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4. When the liquid levels in the evacuating container reach


the desired level or the flow of propane stops, turn off the compressor or portable liquid pump and close all valves.

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Step 5: Bleed Down and Disconnect Liquid Transfer Hoses


MODULE 8
During this step, you may bleed off into the atmosphere any liquid propane trapped in the liquid hose or you may return to the bulk plant or other safe area and bleed it off there where it may be safer to do so. Liquid propane may also be trapped in liquid pumps. Make certain the liquid hose has an appropriate hydrostatic relief valve installed between the hose end valves. Use precautions when evacuating the trapped liquid propane. Make sure there are no iginiton sources in the area.

1. Bleed down according to company policy and disconnect the


liquid transfer hose connections at the transfer valve and at the receiving container fill connection.

2. Ensure the excess flow valve closes.

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Module 8. Other Installations

Quickly open the transfer valve and allow propane to flow through until the internal excess flow check valve in the liquid evacuation valve slugs. You must leave the transfer valve in the open position to prevent the excess flow valve from reopening. If the internal excess flow valve fails to close (and the liquid continues to escape), you must fully close the transfer valve and must not remove it until the system is depressurized and the problem is resolved. Contact your supervisor for instructions on what actions to take. Removing the transfer valve when the excess flow valve fails to slug will result in an uncontrolled release of propane.

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Once the excess flow valve closes, do not close the transfer valve until it has been removed from the liquid withdrawal valve. If the valve is closed after it has slugged, the excess flow valve may re-open allowing full product flow through the valve. NOTE: The excess flow valve may not close when the container pressure is 35 psig or less.

3. Remove the transfer valve from the ASME container being


evacuated. Ensure you have the plug or cap readily available for the liquid withdrawal valve and the nylon washer or o-ring is in good condition and in place. Remove the transfer valve and clean any dirt or debris from the opening. Reinstall the plug or cap into the liquid withdrawal valve being careful not to over tighten.

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4. Bleed down and disconnect the vapor hose from the ASME
container either at the vapor equalizing valve or the transfer adapter.

MODULE 8

5. If applicable remove the transfer adapter from the vapor


service valve. Install any dust caps on the hoses or stationary valves.

6. Bleed down and disconnect the vapor hose from the receiving
container. Install any dust caps on the hose or the vapor connection on the receiving container.

7. Bleed down and disconnect the hose from the compressor.

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Module 8. Other Installations

8. Remove any pressure gauges installed as well as any other


components used during the evacuation process.

MODULE 8 9. Store all equipment.


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373

DOT Container Evacuation


MODULE 8
Although container-to-container evacuation is typically performed between ASME containers, sometimes evacuating DOT containers is necessary, such as an overfill or defective container situation. These procedures are primarily intended for the larger, permanently-installed DOT containers with 150 to 420 pounds water capacity, but may also be used for smaller sized tanks. Because DOT containers are designed to be transported filled to their allowable maximum capacity, special procedures including inverting the container may be necessary for evacuating liquid. Setting up a flare stack and burning off the contents of a container may be a more practical solution, particularly in an emergency situation

There are some differences between DOT containers and ASME tanks that impact evacuation procedures, such as:

DOT containers may be transported filled to their legal limit. DOT containers are not usually equipped with liquid evacuation valves. Not all DOT containers are equipped with vapor return fittings. Not all DOT containers are equipped with float gauges.

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Module 8. Other Installations

Check for Understanding


MODULE 8
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 434.

Before installing the transfer valve, you should carefully and slowly loosen the plug or cap from the liquid withdrawal valve. Never loosen the plug or cap more than one turn. If you see that propane continues to spew from the weep hole in the side of the cap or plug, the first thing you should do is:
Spin the plug or cap off and allow the excess flow valve to slug

Continue with evacuation operations

Leave the valve unplugged and contact your supervisor

Immediately tighten the plug or cap securely and inform your supervisor of the problem

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Module Summary
MODULE 8
Here are some key points to remember:

In addition to residential and small commercial vapor distribution systems, there are different types of special installations. Special installations may serve recreational, residential, commercial, agricultural, or other applications. They may be indoors or outdoors, seasonal or year-round, and could involve total demand that is larger or smaller than a typical residential or small commercial installation. Special installations often have unique requirements. You must thoroughly understand the demands and limitations of each type of equipment before conducting a special installation. Container-to-container liquid propane transfer is complicated and potentially hazardous.

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Module 8. Other Installations

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377

Module 8 Quiz
MODULE 8
Directions: Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

1. The maximum length of time for most temporary heat/construction installations is ____ months.
a. 6 b. 8 c. 12 d. 18

2. Propane grills, fire pits, mosquito traps, illuminating appliances, and patio heaters are all examples of _________.
a. Outdoor living equipment b. Indoor appliances c. Temporary heat d. Both a and b

3. When transferring liquid propane from container-to-container; be sure to remove sources of ignition within ___ ft of the
point of transfer, which is the location where hoses connect to the container filler valve and the liquid withdrawal valve. a. 15 b. 20 c. 10 d. None of the above

4. Which step for transferring propane does not belong?


a. Determine the amount of propane to transfer b. Prepare the evacuation site c. Connect the piping to the outlet of the regulator d. Evacuate liquid propane

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Module 8. Other Installations

5. There are some differences between DOT containers and ASME tanks that impact evacuation procedures. Which one
does NOT belong? a. DOT containers may be transported filled to their legal limit b. DOT containers are usually equipped with liquid evacuation valves c. Not all DOT containers are equipped with vapor return fittings d. Not all DOT containers are equipped with float gauges

MODULE 8

6. The same basic procedures and safety warnings that apply to container-to-container evacuation of ASME tanks apply to
DOT containers. a. True b. False

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MODULE 9

Module 9. System Tests


INTRODUCTION
In this module you will learn about system tests and what to look for to ensure a customers piping system is leak free and operating effectively. This requires a trained technician to perform a series of checks and tests before the system can be started safely.

Objectives
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Recognize the different system tests. State when each check or test should be performed.

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Module 9. System Tests

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381

Lesson 1. System Tests


MODULE 9

Introduction
As a propane professional, one of the most important things you do is help keep customers safe.
One way to do this is by making sure a customers piping system is leak free and operating effectively. You have learned how to install the exterior components of a vapor distribution system. However, once installation is completed, the system is still not ready to be placed into service. A series of checks and tests must be performed by a trained technician before the system can be safely started. Consult your company policy for guidance whenever you perform any test or check of the vapor distribution system. Earlier in this course, you learned how to perform the test for leakage on newly installed exterior piping according to NFPA 58. This lesson provides an overview of the checks and tests required when installing a complete vapor distribution system (exterior and interior) or when restoring operation to existing systems. The CETP course Placing Vapor Distribution Systems and Appliances into Operation provides the training for each test, including specific steps for each procedure.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:


Recognize the different system tests. State when each check or test should be performed.

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Module 9. System Tests

System Tests
MODULE 9
In this lesson we will discuss:

Test for leakage Pressure test Leak check Leak test Flow test Lock-up test

Note: These terms are often confused and misused. There are many reasons for this, including code changes and jargon used in different geographic areas. This course uses industrystandard terminology to describe the various vapor distribution tests. It aligns with federal codes and regulations, and strives to standardize these terms within the propane industry. The plumbing codes in many local jurisdictions may require different test pressures and durations. Local codes may also have licensing requirements for the person performing the installation and testing. You must always be aware of the local jurisdiction requirements when you are installing.

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Test for Leakage and Pressure Test


MODULE 9

Test for Leakage


The test for leakage determines if there are propane leaks in the exterior portion of the piping. It is conducted only on the portion of the exterior piping system governed by NFPA 58 which is from the outlet of the tank vapor service valve to the outlet of the second-stage regulator. One method of testing is to place a pressure gauge before the first-stage regulator and the service valve, and then open the service valve allowing pressure to fill the line. Then, loosen a connection in the line or from a vent valve in the gauge to release a small amount of pressure. The change in pressure will be indicated by the gauge dial. This test must be performed on all newly installed piping between the tank and the final-stage regulator inlet before the trench is covered. Any new gas piping system, including hoses governed by NFPA 58, must be tested and proven to be free of leaks at not less than the normal operating pressure.

Pressure Test
A pressure test is similar to a test for leakage. However, a pressure test checks for leaks in the interior lines of a vapor distribution system governed by NFPA 54. This covers the lines downstream of the outlet of an integral 2-stage regulator, second-stage regulator, or meter. This test applies pressure of not less than 1 times the proposed maximum working pressure of the interior piping, but not less than 3 psig. The test medium shall be air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or an inert gas. It is performed only on newly-installed interior piping systems or on systems repaired or modified as specified by NFPA 54.

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Module 9. System Tests

Leak Check and Leak Test


MODULE 9
Leak Check
A leak check identifies leaks by applying pressure to the portion of the piping covered by NFPA 54. NFPA 54 covers the piping from the outlet of the point of delivery from the supplier to the outlets of the equipment shutoff valves. The point of delivery can be considered to be the propane container, but the current version of the code defines it as the outlet of the final-stage regulator or the gas meter. The requirement for performing a leak check only applies to the portion of the piping covered by NFPA 54. Therefore, many propane marketers check the entire vapor distribution system, including the appliance connectors, the appliance gas controls, and portions of the system covered by NFPA 58. This test is normally conducted using propane and a pressure gauge or water manometer to monitor a pressure change, which would indicate a leak. A leak check is performed when a new or modified gas piping system is placed into service, or when there has been an interruption of service, such as a gas outage, gas leak, or regulator replacement.

Leak Test
A leak test is performed after the test for leakage, pressure test, or leak check if a leak in the system has been identified. A leak test uses a fluid leak detector or an instrument that can detect propane to determine the specific location of a leak. Once located, the leak must be repaired. The system must be checked again after the repair to determine that it is leak free.

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385

Flow and Lock-up Tests


MODULE 9
When gas appliances are operating, gas is supplied to them through the piping system. The regulators in a piping system ensure the delivery pressure of gas flowing to the appliances is not too high or too low. When all of the appliances are shut off, including any pilot lights, pressure will continue to build in the line(s) unless the regulator stops the flow of gas. Flow and lock-up tests are typically performed on vapor distribution systems during start-up to determine if the piping system and regulator(s) are sized correctly for the estimated load. These tests are also performed to determine whether the inlet pressure to an appliance is sufficient and to verify that a regulator will stop gas flow when there is no call for gas by the appliance.

Flow Test
A flow test measures the pressure downstream of the firststage and final-stage regulators when the appliances are operating. It determines if the regulators are supplying the amount of gas the system requires. This test is conducted by temporarily installing a water manometer or pressure gauge in the outlet pressure tap of the first-stage regulator and in the distribution line close to the appliance that is furthest away from the final-stage regulator. The manometer or pressure gauge is used to monitor the delivery pressure at the test location when all appliances are turned on. Refer to your company policy for specific procedures.

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Module 9. System Tests

Lock-up Test
Lock up is the amount of pressure necessary to completely stop the flow of vapor through the first-stage and final-stage regulator inlet orifices, when there is no gas demand. A lock-up test measures the pressure in the lines downstream of the final-stage regulator to ensure that the regulator will shut off the flow of propane when the appliances are not calling for gas. The lockup test is conducted by opening the container service valve and closing all appliance shutoff valves or gas controls. Then the manometer, or pressure gauge, is monitored for any increase in pressure. This continues until the pressure stops rising at or below an acceptable limit. These limits are established by the appliance manufacturer or your company policy. You can tell the regulator has shut off the flow of propane when the pressure stops increasing.

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Module Summary
MODULE 9
You should remember this important point:

After installation of a vapor distribution system is completed and before the system is placed into service, a series of checks and tests must be performed. These must be performed by a trained technician. System tests include test for leakage, pressure test, leak check, leak test, flow test, and lock-up test.

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Module 9 Quiz
MODULE 9
Directions: Lets take moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

1. A pressure test applies pressure of not less than ___ times the proposed maximum working pressure of the interior
piping, but in no case less than ___ psig. a. 2/3 b. 1/2 c. 1/3 d. None of the above

2. The requirement for performing a leak check only applies to the portion of the piping covered by NFPA 54.
a. True b. False

3. A leak test is performed after a leak is identified in a system, and it is performed _____ the test for leakage, pressure
test, or leak check. a. After b. Before c. A leak test is not a kind of system test d. None of the above

4. Flow tests and lock-up tests are typically performed on vapor distribution systems ________ to determine if the piping
system and regulator(s) are sized correctly for the estimated load and are functioning properly. a. During shut down b. Flow tests and lock-up tests are never performed on vapor distribution systems c. During start up d. Both a and c

5. A lock-up test measures the pressure in the lines downstream of the first-stage regulator to ensure that the regulator
will shut off the flow of propane when the appliances are not calling for gas. a. True b. False

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Module 9. System Tests

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MODULE 10

Module 10. Safety Information


INTRODUCTION
In this module you will learn about the various safety messages provided in the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) consumer safety information and how to respond to a propane emergency. After completing this module, you will be able to:

Identify the content in some of the PERC consumer safety materials. Identify what to do if there is an uncontrolled release of propane from stating evacuation procedures to providing appropriate information to 911.

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393

Lesson 1. Customer Safety

MODULE 10

Introduction
Safety brochures and decals can communicate specific warnings about propane and actions that your customer can take, or should avoid, in an actual or suspected propane emergency. Make sure you understand and follow your companys policies regarding communication with your customer or distribution of any safety materials and the application of any decals.

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:

Identify the safety warnings provided in the Propane Education & Research Council consumer safety materials.

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Module 10. Safety Information

Propane Safety Brochures


MODULE 10
The Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) provides consumer safety materials that may be distributed to consumers by individual marketers in accordance with their company policies.

Propane Odorant Smell Simulation


PERC materials include a scratch-and-sniff feature that simulates the smell of propane odorant. This is to help familiarize and remind customers of the smell of propane odorant, which could indicate a propane leak. These materials also cover how a customer should respond to the smell of propane odorant and how to turn off the propane supply at containers.

Carbon Monoxide and Customer Safety


To reduce the risk of carbon monoxide exposure, PERC materials provide facts on carbon monoxide, steps to avoid the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning, and explanations as to what to do if a customer suspects the presence of carbon monoxide in the home or workplace.

Other Safety Information


In addition to this safety information, PERC provides other consumer safety warnings, including other safety brochures, container shutoff valve labels, hazard warning tags, and safety tips for using propane grills. Some marketers also have their own consumer safety materials they may use to provide their customers with propane safety information. Check with your supervisor to verify your companys policy regarding this information.

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LEARNING ACTIVITY

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398

Module 10. Safety Information

Decals
MODULE 10
In addition to the decals and labels that local, state, and federal regulations require, you can place decals on a customers container that provide safety information. One such safetyrelated decal is a container shutoff valve label that warns the customer not to open a service valve that has been turned off for any reason. If your company places a decal on its containers with a 24hour emergency number, point it out to your new customer and encourage them to keep the number inside where they can easily refer to it in a suspected propane emergency.

A container shutoff valve label warns the customer not to open a service valve that has been turned off for any reason.

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399

Shutting Off Propane Flow: Demonstration


MODULE 10
When you establish service to a new customer, show the customer how to shut off the flow of propane. Different installations have different points where the flow of propane may be shut off, for example, the container service valves, manual shutoff valves, and primary shutoff valves. Turning off the gas at the container will immediately stop the flow of gas and thus greatly reduce the potential for fire or explosion. The new customer should also be instructed, in the event of an emergency, not to enter the building or structure until the gas company or emergency personnel state it is safe to do so. It is also a good idea to demonstrate to a new customer what propane smells like. You can do this by having the customer smell the odor of propane by opening the fixed maximum liquid level gauge for a few seconds. This will help them identify the smell of propane in the event there is a leak later on.

Tell your new customer to close all valves, if it is safe to do so, when:

They smell odorant or suspect a leak in or around the building. Flooding is predicted for their area. They should turn off the gas valve at the cylinder or tank before the water rises. Something doesnt look right after a storm. If their tank has shifted position, gas lines are bent, broken or damaged, or they see something else unusual about their system or appliance.

Turning off the gas at the container will stop the flow of propane immediately and greatly reduce the potential for fire or explosion.

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Module 10. Safety Information

Emergency Numbers
MODULE 10
If your new customer suspects a propane leak, the presence of carbon monoxide, or another propane emergency, they should evacuate their home or office. They should call your companys 24-hour emergency telephone number or 911 from another safe location. If a company decal with a 24-hour emergency telephone number is placed on a customer-owned or leased container, point that number out to your new customer as well. If your companys 24-hour emergency telephone number is not on a decal, provide that number when you are reviewing safety precautions with your new customer before you leave.

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401

Importance of Good Documentation


MODULE 10
Documenting the work you perform is a very important step each time you visit a customer location. Be certain to complete any documentation according to your company policy. If you are not sure what is required to be documented, you should contact your supervisor. Some companies require their employees to document any communication they may have with the customer. Other companies may have limited documentation requirements. Some company policies may include documentation that you showed the customer how to turn off the propane supply or that you demonstrated what propane smells like at the container. Other companies may not require this as part of their company policy. It is important to have good documentation upon leaving a customer location. If you document the work you performed at the time you did it according to your companys policy, it should make it more difficult for anyone to suggest otherwise in the event you may be questioned later on.

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LEARNING ACTIVITY

LEARNING ACTIVITY

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Module 10. Safety Information

Check for Understanding


MODULE 10
Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented in this lesson by selecting the questions appropriate response. Check your work on page 434.

Which of the following consumer safety recommendations is included in the PERC consumer safety material if the customer smells gas?
Turn on all light switches.

Open all windows to air out the building.

Leave the area immediately.

All of the above.

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Lesson 2. Uncontrolled Propane Release

MODULE 10

Introduction
Propane is a safe, economical, clean-burning, and versatile fuel when properly used. Its safety record is due in part to the codes and regulations developed by the propane industry and the NFPA. Being properly trained and adhering to your companys policies greatly help prevent propane emergencies. However, you should be prepared for emergency situations that may arise. This lesson identifies steps to take in an uncontrolled propane release. In addition to the information in this lesson, make sure you understand your companys policies regarding emergency response to a propane incident. The PERC publication Propane Emergencies, 3rd Edition was written for emergency responders and has valuable information for propane marketers on coordinating with emergency responders prior to an emergency.

After completing this lesson you will be able to:

Identify what to do if there is an uncontrolled release of propane. Identify how to encourage people to safely evacuate the scene of an emergency. Identify information that must be provided to 911 or other emergency response operators in the event of an emergency.

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Module 10. Safety Information

What is an Uncontrolled Release of Propane?


For purposes of this course, an uncontrolled release of propane is one that cannot be readily shut off. Causes may include an open valve, open or damaged container component, piping failure, or container breach. An uncontrolled release of propane liquid or vapor could lead to an explosion, fire, or other emergency situation. A propane-related emergency can occur anywhere propane is present; for example, at a residence, business, bulk plant, or en route to a location. Never attempt to respond to any emergency unless you have been properly trained and authorized to do so.

MODULE 10

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Lesson 1. Customer Safety

407

Who is an Emergency Responder?


MODULE 10
Emergency response personnel are specially trained to provide resources for fire suppression, rescue, and emergency medical triage, basic first aid, treatment, and transportation. They implement assigned tasks, provide support to specialized units, and help coordinate overall response efforts. Emergency responders include firefighters, HAZMAT crews, and emergency medical technicians. Because emergency responders undergo rigorous, specialized training, they are the only personnel who are qualified to provide leadership in emergency involving propane.

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Module 10. Safety Information

What to Do In the Event of an Emergency


MODULE 10
In the event of a propane emergency, you should always place personal safety first. This means you should:

Evacuate the area immediately. Be aware of your surroundings. Call for help.

Lets examine each of these in detail.

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Lesson 1. Customer Safety

409

Evacuate the Affected Area


MODULE 10
If there is a propane emergency, everyone in the building, or area affected by the emergency, should:

Leave the area immediately. Evacuate to a safe distance from a spill or leak. You should be at least 330 ft away in all directions, and for larger spills 1 mile in all directions. Evacuees should stay upwind of the emergency. Remain calm.

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Module 10. Safety Information

Be Aware of Your Surroundings


MODULE 10
If you have an uncontrolled release of propane, do not enter or re-enter a hazardous environment. When evacuating, if you can, try to:

Identify the source of the leak. Check for sources of ignition and shut them off if you can do so without placing yourself or anyone in danger. Note the wind direction.

This information may be helpful to emergency responders, so safely gather whatever information you can. Also, if you can do so safely, try to collect other technical information, such as the location and type of container involved, the amount of material present, and the location of shutoff valves. Follow your company policy regarding evacuations.

A hazardous environment exists if you can see or smell propane.


Next, call for help from a safe distance and outside of a hazardous environment.

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411

Call for Help


MODULE 10
After you are at a safe distance from the affected area, call 911. You should also notify your supervisor as soon as you can.

When you call 911, be ready to provide the following information:


Your name. Your companys name. The address of the emergency location. Your contact information, such as a cell phone number or a phone number nearby, and any obvious injuries needing immediate attention. A brief summary of the emergency. For example: Is there a leak, and if so where? What kind of container is on site, and what size is it? Is the area densely populated or rural? Has anyone been injured, and if so how many and to what extent?

After you call for help:


Do not endanger yourself or others. Assign someone to meet and direct emergency response units to the scene. Call back from a safe distance if the situation changes before emergency responders arrive. Stay away from any unknown materials, such as unknown chemicals at industrial plants.

NOTE: Remember, any uncontrolled release of propane can be extremely dangerous. If you suspect an emergency, immediately evacuate the area and call for help.

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Module 10. Safety Information

When Help Arrives


MODULE 10
Once the emergency response team arrives, do not interfere. They may ask you about certain physical and chemical properties of propane, and to assess hazards and identify risks. They may ask you to provide other information, such as the location and type of container involved, the amount of material present, and the location of shutoff valves. If you have this information, you should provide it. If not, you should tell them you dont know.

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Post Event Actions


MODULE 10
After an emergency has been resolved, there may be an official investigation. You could be interviewed as part of the investigation. You should support this effort in accordance with your company policy. Many marketers designate spokespersons who are authorized to address the news media. If you are not authorized to speak to news media on behalf of your company, you should refer all media inquires to your company management.

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Module 10. Safety Information

Module Summary
MODULE 10
Here are some important points for you to remember:

Make sure you understand your companys policies on providing and explaining safety information to your customers and be familiar with any safety warning materials your company provides. Make sure your customer is familiar with the odor of propane. Show your customers how to shut off the flow of propane. Customers should also be instructed to evacuate if they suspect a leak and not to enter any structure until the gas company or emergency personnel say it is safe to do so. Propane is a safe, economical, clean-burning, and versatile fuel. However, because it is flammable, emergency situations can and do arise. You should never attempt to respond to any emergency unless you have been properly trained to do so. In the event of an emergency, you should evacuate the area, be aware of your surroundings, and call for help. You should also notify your supervisor as soon as it is safe to do so.

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Module 10 Quiz

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Module 10 Quiz
Directions: Lets take a moment to check how well you understand the information presented. Select the appropriate answer for each of the following questions.

MODULE 10

1. PERC provides customer information and safety warning materials that may be widely used by propane marketers.
Which of the following items are provided by PERC in the customer safety brochure? a. Scratch-and-sniff feature b. Facts about carbon monoxide c. Safety information regarding lighting warning labels, warning tags, and safety tips for using propane grills d. All of the above

2. In addition to the decals and labels that local, state, and federal regulations require, you can place decals on a
customers container that provide safety information. Out of the four decals listed, which safety-related decal is NOT available through PERC? a. ASME container label b. Consumer safety cylinder requalification decal c. Meter re-location and distribution label d. Container shutoff valve label

3. It is important to demonstrate to the customer how to shut off propane flow. When should customers shut off the flow of
propane? a. When they smell odorant or suspect a leak in or around the building b. When flooding is predicted for their area. They should turn off the gas valve at the cylinder or tank before the water rises c. When something doesnt look right after a storm. If their tank has shifted position; gas lines are bent, broken or damaged; or they see something else unusual about their system or appliance d. All of the above

4. You can respond to certain emergencies without training if and only if permission is granted by your supervisor.
a. True b. False

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Module 10. Safety Information

5. In the event of a propane emergency, you should? MODULE 10


a. Always place personal safety first b. Never place personal safety first c. Only place personal safety first if there is no one else around d. None of the above

6. If you have an uncontrolled release, NEVER enter or re-enter a hazardous environment. When you are evacuating, which
task below should you try to do? a. Identify the source of the leak b. Check for sources of ignition and shut them off c. Note the wind direction d. All of the above

7. Many marketers designate spokespersons that are authorized to address the news media. If there has been an
uncontrolled release of propane and you are not authorized to speak to the news media on behalf of your company, how should you interact with the news media? a. Speak if other members of your company are present b. Refer all media inquires to your company management c. Speak anyway, if it is an extremely relevant issue d. None of the above

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CETP Pre-Certification Review


1. Effective system load is used to determine the amount of propane required to operate appliances at a reduced demand
and assumes the customers appliances: a. Operate at full demand only during typical operating cycles, for example, during a clothes drying cycle or when cooking. b. Do not operate simultaneously. c. Both a and b. d. None of the above.

2. Frost penetration depth in the soil is important to consider when selecting aboveground tanks.
a. True b. False

3. The two deciding factors for sizing underground tanks are the effective demand of all existing and anticipated future gas
appliances and ______. a. The maximum anticipated soil frost penetration depth. b. The maximum average annual rainfall in the surrounding area. c. The maximum anticipated temperature in the surrounding area. d. The minimum anticipated temperature in the surrounding area.

4. Aboveground tanks with less than ___ gallons water capacity may be placed next to a building and must be at least __
ft horizontally from any building opening that is below the level of discharge. a. 125/ 3 b. 125/ 5 c. 125/ 10 d. None of the above

5. The primary factors affecting the rate or extent of corrosion for propane storage containers and vapor distribution piping
are __________. a. Type of metal and type of paints and protective coatings b. Type of metal and environment in which metal is exposed c. Type of metal and type of electrically insulated fittings d. Water content and aeration/ atmospheric corrosion
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6. Two commonly used cathodic protection methods are____________.


a. Protective coatings and impressed current systems b. Protective coatings and electrically-insulating fittings c. Sacrificial anodes and impressed current systems d. Sacrificial anodes/ and electrically-insulating fittings

7. Regulator selection is based on ___________________.


a. downstream gas demand and appliance operating pressure b. downstream gas demand and regulator components c. downstream gas demand and flow rate d. appliance operating pressure and regulator components

8. To prevent regulator freeze-up due to vent blockage caused by ice formation or condensation, the regulator should be
mounted so that the ________ to allow drainage of moisture that forms above the diaphragm. a. vent points upward b. diaphragm points upward c. vent points downward d. regulator points downward

9. For a residential vapor distribution system involving a first- and second-stage regulator, the highest Btu/hr output
capacity for a single first-stage regulator is not sufficient to meet total gas demand of the system. What is the best solution? a. Install a commercial high-pressure regulator b. Install two first-stage regulators in a parallel installation c. Install two second-stage regulators in a parallel installation d. Install two first-stage regulators in series

10. When sizing vapor meters for lb systems, select the meter according to its capacity at 2 w.c. pressure drop.
a. True b. False

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11. A circular meter index commonly has four dials that record the volume of gas used. When reading the dials of a circular
index, start with the dial ____________. a. furthest to the left and proceed right b. furthest to the right and proceed left c. in the center and proceed outward d. anywhere, because it doesnt matter

12. All of the following are examples of physical defects that would disallow a container to be refilled EXCEPT:
a. Bulging b. Discoloration along the container wall c. Cracks d. Damage to the cylinder foot rings

13. ASME tanks used for LP-gas storage that have a water capacity of 125 gallons or greater cannot be transported over a
public roadway when filled to more than ______ of their water capacity. a. 20% b. 15% c. 10% d. 5%

14. The steps to performing a leak test are as follows: Step 1: Select a leak checking device; Step 2: Choose an appropriate
place in the plant to perform the inspection; Step 3: ________; Step 4: Use a leak detector to test for leaks. What is step 3? a. Pressurize the container b. Notify supervisor of potentially unsafe containers c. Connect a vapor hose to the container d. Spray fluid on valve and look for bubbles

15. If you are transporting cylinders or tanks containing propane, you must carry _______.
a. Shipping papers, placard holders, and emergency response information b. Shipping papers, a hazmat certificate of registration, and emergency response information c. Shipping papers, a hazmat certificate of registration, and a cylinder dolly d. Towing hitch, a hazmat certificate of registration, and emergency response information

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16. Which of the following procedures for loading and securing propane cylinders on a vehicle is NOT correct?
a. Park your vehicle at the dock or on the level ground before moving the dolly and cylinder onto the lift gate b. Take precautions before operating the lift gate, including centering the load on the lift gate to help prevent it from tilting or falling c. Use the lift gate to load cylinders on the service vehicle so most of the weight is on the front axle with side-to-side distribution d. Load and position the cylinders on the vehicle so that each cylinders pressure relief valve is in direct communication with the vapor space at all times and secure them in this position

17. Not all materials and supplies needed for installation at the customer site are considered cargo; only non-perishable
materials must be secured under DOT regulations. a. True b. False

18. Which of the following must be performed before excavating underground tanks and piping?
a. Confirm the locations of underground utilities b. Confirm the locations of customer-owned underground systems c. Ensure that the buried tank or piping will not interfere with pre-installed utilities or systems d. All of the above

19. The most important factor affecting the choice of T-blocks is whether the cylinder changeover system is manual or
automatic. a. True b. False

20. When determining a tank location, ensure that it meets the code requirements for:
a. Distance from property lines and distance from building and ignition sources b. Distance from property lines and distance from fire hydrants c. Distance from municipal lines and distance from building and ignition sources d. Distance from property lines and distance from water sources

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21. In order to place the tank into service, all of the following must be completed EXCEPT:
a. Verifying the anode wires are properly connected and secure b. Installing the pigtail, first-stage regulator, and regulator vent pipe-away as necessary c. Connecting the buried distribution line to the regulator outlet d. Verifying that the regulators vent or vent extension terminates below the anticipated water line

22. Testing the cathodic protection system can be done by checking the _____________.
a. Soil content b. Tank-to-soil potential c. Anode reading d. None of the above

23. Retrofitting is necessary when ________.


a. Testing determines that installed anodes do not provide sufficient voltage to cathodically protect that system b. Testing determines that installed anodes provide sufficient voltage to cathodically protect that system c. Testing determines that frost permeation is a high risk to cathodically protected that system d. Testing determines that installed anodes provide just enough voltage to cathodically protect that system

24. According to NFPA 58 requirements for aboveground lines, you can use polyethylene (PE) pipe, tubing, and fittings in
aboveground line installations. a. True b. False

25. Mechanical fittings are used to join PE pipes in most residential and small commercial installations. PE can also be
joined using ____. a. Stab-type fittings b. Barbed fittings c. Heat fusion d. Electro-fusion

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26. Do you need to install tracer wire with PE pipe and tubing?
a. No. Even though PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices, if you were to install tracer wire it would have to contact the PE piping in some way, which could damage the piping and possibly cause a leak b. No. PE pipe and tubing are conductive and can be found by pipe-locating devices c. Yes, because PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices d. Yes. PE pipe and tubing are non-conductive and cannot be found by pipe-locating devices; therefore you must never install a tracer wire

27. Should you use pipe thread-sealing compounds on the seats of brass flare fittings?
a. No. Flared copper connections are highly corrosive and need to be sealed frequently; therefore pipe thread-sealing compounds would not work properly on the seats of brass flare fittings b. No. Flared copper connections are metal-to-metal seals that may not seat and seal properly if you use thread-sealing compounds c. Yes. Pipe thread-sealing compounds are always used on the seats of brass flare fittings d. None of the above

28. NFPA 58 specifies that the following types of steel piping can be used for propane vapor distribution systems:
a. Cast iron, black iron, or wrought iron b. Black iron, galvanized steel, or cast iron c. Red iron, galvanized steel, or wrought iron d. Black iron, galvanized steel, or wrought iron

29. When installing CSST, which precaution is true?


a. Do not worry about exposed CSST that is damaged during construction b. Keep the protective plastic jacketing in place to protect the tubing from corrosive threats c. For outdoor installations, do not worry if the external plastic jacketing of CSST does not remain intact d. Store all tubing, fittings, and hardware in a clean, damp location prior to installation

30. Pigtail connectors are used with ____________ regulators.


a. First-stage, b. First-stage, c. First-stage, d. First-stage, integral 2-stage, and automatic changeover high-pressure, and adjustable high-pressure second-stage, and high-pressure integral 2-stage, and high-pressure

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31. All piping layouts for vapor distribution systems require more than one second-stage regulator.
a. True b. False

32. Which of these statements about selecting a meter location is NOT correct?
a. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located in ventilated spaces readily accessible for examination, reading, replacement, or maintenance. b. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located where they are not subjected to extreme temperatures, sudden extreme temperature changes, or temperatures beyond those recommended by the manufacturer. c. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located at least 3 ft from sources of ignition, not including air conditioning compressors, heat pumps, and electric meters. d. NFPA 54 requires that meters be located where they are not subjected to damage, such as adjacent to a driveway, under a fire escape, in public passages, in coal bins, or where they will be subject to excessive corrosion or vibration.

33. When installing meters at service entrances, two meter-mounting methods are typically used in distribution lines that
use independent 2-stage regulation. How can these meters be mounted? a. On a building wall or post-mounted b. On a building wall or freestanding c. Post-mounted or freestanding d. None of the above

34. After the interior distribution system is installed, inspected for NFPA 54 code requirements, and is ready to be placed into
operation, the meter or regulator will have to be connected to the interior system. This assessment will be conducted after the connections are made between the exterior and interior portions of the system, subsequent to the installation of the container, piping, and regulators. a. True b. False

35. The maximum length of time for most temporary heat/construction installations is ____ months.
a. 6 b. 8 c. 12 d. 18

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36. Propane grills, fire pits, mosquito traps, illuminating appliances, and patio heaters are all examples of _________.
a. Outdoor living equipment b. Indoor appliances c. Temporary heat d. Both a and b

37. When transferring liquid propane from container-to-container; be sure to remove sources of ignition within ___ ft of the
point of transfer, which is the location where hoses connect to the container filler valve and the liquid withdrawal valve. a. 15 b. 20 c. 10 d. None of the above

38. Which step for transferring propane does not belong?


a. Determine the amount of propane to transfer b. Prepare the evacuation site c. Connect the piping to the outlet of the regulator d. Evacuate liquid propane

39. There are some differences between DOT containers and ASME tanks that impact evacuation procedures. Which one
does NOT belong? a. DOT containers may be transported filled to their legal limit b. DOT containers are usually equipped with liquid evacuation valves c. Not all DOT containers are equipped with vapor return fittings d. Not all DOT containers are equipped with float gauges

40. A pressure test applies pressure of not less than ___ times the proposed maximum working pressure of the interior
piping, but in no case less than ___ psig. a. 2/3 b. 1/2 c. 1/3 d. None of the above

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41. The requirement for performing a leak check only applies to the portion of the piping covered by NFPA 54.
a. True b. False

42. A leak test is performed after a leak is identified in a system, and it is performed _____ the test for leakage, pressure
test, or leak check. a. After b. Before c. A leak test is not a kind of system test d. None of the above

43. Flow tests and lock-up tests are typically performed on vapor distribution systems ________ to determine if the piping
system and regulator(s) are sized correctly for the estimated load and are functioning properly. a. During shut down b. Flow tests and lock-up tests are never performed on vapor distribution systems c. During start up d. Both a and c

44. A lock-up test measures the pressure in the lines downstream of the first-stage regulator to ensure that the regulator
will shut off the flow of propane when the appliances are not calling for gas. a. True b. False

45. In addition to the decals and labels that local, state, and federal regulations require, you can place decals on a
customers container that provide safety information. Out of the four decals listed, which safety-related decal is NOT available through PERC? a. ASME container label b. Consumer safety cylinder requalification decal c. Meter re-location and distribution label d. Container shutoff valve label

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46. The PERC consumer safety material includes all of the following except:
a. A scratch-and-sniff to help demonstrate propane odorant b. How to turn of the propane supply valve(s) c. The physical properties of propane d. None of the above

47. You can respond to certain emergencies without training if and only if permission is granted by your supervisor.
a. True b. False

48. In the event of a propane emergency, you should?


a. Always place personal safety first b. Never place personal safety first c. Only place personal safety first if there is no one else around d. None of the above

49. If you have an uncontrolled release, NEVER enter or re-enter a hazardous environment. When you are evacuating, which
task below should you try to do? a. Identify the source of the leak b. Check for sources of ignition and shut them off c. Note the wind direction d. All of the above

50. The most common method for joining steel and wrought iron pipes in residential and small commercial installations is:
a. Threaded fittings b. Welding c. Brazing d. Flaring

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Check Your Work


MODULE 2
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding

A. True. Total gas demand is calculated to ensure the proper sizing of regulators and distribution lines and that the
container is sized properly.

Learning Activity: Calculate Effective System Load

Total effective load: 458, 550


Lesson 2: Check for Understanding

C. Container manufacturer/brand. The container manufacturer/brand does not affect its sizing. All other factors do
affect the sizing of the container.

Lesson 3: Check for Understanding

B. Underground ASME tank(s). An underground container would not be impacted as much by ambient temperature.
Learning Activity: Select the Appropriate Container

Residence A: 1,000 gallon aboveground ASME tank Residence B: 200 lb DOT Cylinder Residence C: 1,000 gallon underground ASME tank
Lesson 4: Learning Activity: Container Distance Requirements

1= d (exception: a single tank can be 10 ft away), 2=e, 3=a, 4=b, 5=c

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Learning Activity: Establish Appropriate Container Location

House A: Location A House B: Location A House C: Location A


Lesson 5: Learning Activity: Select the Appropriate Piping and Tubing Size

Answer: 1/2" PE, 1/2" Copper


Lesson 6: Check for Understanding

B. False. Soils with high moisture content and high levels of dissolved salts tend to be more corrosive than soils with a high proportion of sand and limited water retention capacity. This is because soils with a high proportion of sand and limited water retention capacity are more resistive and have lower electrical conductivity.
Learning Activity: Corrosion Analysis and Prevention

Answer: Propane Tank Coating, High Potential Magnesium Anodes, Dielectric Unions MODULE 3
Learning Activity: Identify Regulator Components

From left to right: 1. Diaphragm (d) 2. Internal Relief Valve (b) 3. Orifice & Disk Assembly (c) 4. Vent (a) 5. Upper Spring Case (e) 6. Lower Body (f) 7. Regulator Main Spring (g) 8. Seat Disk (h)

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Learning Activity: Identify Types of Regulators

Description 1: Line-Pressure Regulator Description 2: Automatic Changeover Regulator Description 3: Integral Two-Stage Regulator Description 4: High-Pressure Regulator Description 5: Integral 2-PSI Service Regulator Description 6: First-Stage Regulator Description 7: 2-PSI Service Regulator Description 8: Second-Stage Regulator Description 9: Single-Stage Regulator
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding 1

B. Regulator spring, diaphragm, orifice. When the service valve on the regulator is closed and there is no gas pressure on the system, the regulator spring has forced the diaphragm down, fully opening the regulator orifice.
Learning Activity: Select the Number of Second-Stage Regulators

House A: (1) Regulator B (2) Regulator A House B: (1) Regulator A (2) Regulator A While regulator C will work, there may be a cost factor to consider when selecting a larger, more expensive regulator. Refer to your company policy.
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding 2

C. Customer preferences. Although customer preferences are important, they cannot overrule the other important
requirements such as pressure and total gas demand.

Lesson 2: Check for Understanding

D. 300 CFH. You have determined that the total gas demand for a customer residence is 450,000 Btu/hr and you need to
select a vapor meter for installation. Your company has a variety of vapor meters available, but they are all rated based on the specific gravity of natural gas. The appropriate meter for this installation is 300 CFH.

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MODULE 4
Learning Activity: Inspecting DOT Cylinders

Top row, left to right: Reject, Reject, Reject Bottom row, left to right: Accept, Reject, Reject
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding

B. False. Since ASME tanks have many welds and openings for valves and gauges, you should select every weld and connection for leaks, verifying that the tank is leak free.
Lesson 2: Check for Understanding

C. A 1,000 gallon ASME tank containing 100 gallons of liquid propane. According to DOT requirements, A
1,000 gallon ASME tank containing 100 gallons of liquid propane containers cannot be transported on public roadways to the customer site.

Learning Activity: Safe and Compliant Container Loading Practices

Correct: Boom angle of crane. Incorrect: Slings not attached per regulations DOT infraction on tank being filled more than 5% Outriggers not extended Service tech standing beneath the lifted tank Service tech not wearing hard hat/PPE
Learning Activity: Safely Loading CDVS

DOT violations: Accessories, such as vehicle chocks, should be secured to prevent movement during transport. Cylinder dollies must be secured to prevent sudden movement and potential damage during transport.

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Containers should not be loaded to one side but evenly distributed along the width of the truck bed. An unbalanced load, as seen here, is extremely dangerous; it could cause poor handling due to insufficient ground contact. It could even cause the truck to overturn. Materials of trade, such as paint or insect repellent, should be stowed in a secure compartment during transport. Fire extinguishers need to be fully secured in their mounts to prevent sudden movement and damage during transport. The DOT Hazard Class Placard is displaying the wrong identification number for LP Gas. The correct Hazard Class number is 1075.

MODULE 5
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding

B. Low water level in the ground. Low water level in the ground is not a factor in the pre-installation activities for an
aboveground container.

Lesson 2: Check for Understanding 1

C. Regulator. In an automatic changeover system, the regulator automatically switches the supply of propane vapor from
the supply cylinder to the reserve cylinder when the pressure in the supply cylinder drops to a low level.

Learning Activity: Properly Installing Multiple DOT Cylinders

This installation has the following errors: Pigtails not properly looped. Cylinder not sitting on foundation properly. Foundation not level. Cylinder too close to air conditioner intake. Combustible materials within 10 ft of the cylinder.
Lesson 2: Check for Understanding 2

B. False. For both single and multi-tank installations, the foundations must be level and at the same height or elevation relative to each other so the tank will be level when installed.

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Lesson 3: Check for Understanding

C. 18. According to NFPA 58, if vehicle traffic is expected to cross the location of an underground tank, then the tank must
be at least 18 below grade, or the container must be protected from damage due to vehicle traffic.

MODULE 6
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding

A. PE pipe, tubing, and fittings can be used in aboveground line installations. PE pipe, tubing, and fittings
can not be used in aboveground line installations.

Lesson 2: Check for Understanding

A. True. Tracer wire should not be installed in contact with PE piping to avoid damage from stray electrical currents or
lightning strikes. When installing tracer wire, first backfill a layer of earth about 6 deep above the PE piping, then install the tracer wire.

Lesson 3: Learning Activity: Identify Good Flare Connections

Top left: Reject Top right: Accept Bottom left: Reject Bottom right: Reject
Lesson 4: Check for Understanding

A. True. The fitting allowance is the distance from the end of the pipe to the center opening of the fitting. MODULE 7
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding

A. True. The 1995 and later editions of NFPA 58 require 2-stage regulation for all fixed piping systems that serve psig
appliance systems. Single-stage systems installed prior to June 30, 1997 can remain in service. However, if the single-stage regulator no longer functions properly, then the existing system must be converted to a 2-stage regulated system.

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Learning Activity: Installing Regulators

Incorrect Scene Details: Second-stage regulator should have a regulator protector installed so that it is not damaged from falling ice or snow.

There should be a dielectric union installed to electrically isolate the underground container and prevent the anode from having to supply current to protect everything metal located underground near the building, which would drain the anode too quickly. The pigtail at the first-stage regulator should have an upward loop configuration to prevent water from collecting at the bottom of the loop and freezing.

Second-stage regulators should not be installed within 5 ft of a source of ignition, such as this A/C unit.

The second-stage regulator is installed improperly; the vent should point down so that it is protected from debris.

Lesson 2: Check for Understanding

B. False. For meter accuracy, avoid locations where there is a source of heat. Do not install meters close to sources of heat
such as heat pumps, air conditioners, appliance vent terminations, and dryer exhausts.

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MODULE 8
Lesson 2: Check for Understanding

D. Immediately tighten the plug or cap securely and inform your supervisor of the problem. By
immediately screwing the plug or cap back on, tightening it securely, and informing your supervisor of the problem you will not only stop the excess flow of propane, you will also prevent a potentially dangerous situation from occurring.

MODULE 10
Lesson 1: Check for Understanding

C. Leave the area immediately.

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Glossary
2-PSI SERVICE REGULATOR AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER REGULATOR

This type of regulator has an internal relief valve, and is designed to serve as an intermediate regulator. These regulators supply propane to a manifold (located inside the structure) where piping such as corrugated stainless steel tubing (CSST) is routed to a line regulator supplying approximately 11" water column (w.c.) to appliances throughout the structure.
AMERICA SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS (ASTM)

A regulator designed to connect two cylinders or groups of cylinders, so that one cylinder (or group) is in use at any one time. When the pressure in the cylinder(s) in service drops below a pre-determined limit, the reserve cylinder(s) will deliver vapor to the system.
BELLOWS

A device for delivering pressurized air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location.


BELOW GRADE

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
ANODE

Any structure or portion of a structure located underground or below the surface grade of the surrounding land.
BLOCK GAUGE

Metal that is oxidized and consumed as it corrodes while giving up its electrons to a cathode.
ANODELESS RISER

A pressure gauge that is permanently installed in a brass block, or tifting.


BRIDGE OR SHIELD

A transition assembly where polyethylene (PE) pipe or tubing is installed underground and terminated aboveground outside of a building.
APPLICABLE HUMIDITY SECTION

The column on a container vaporization chart listing the relative humidity expected during a season's maximum vaporization. For example, a high relative humidity would result in frost on a container thereby reducing vaporization capacity.

A way of protecting piping from the elements. The method used depends on the type of pipe you are installing and the elements you are protecting it from. For example, in a residential situation, you might insert the underground pipe or line into a heavily-walled Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe that is subsequently sealed at both ends.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT PER HOUR (BTU/HR)

Standard unit of measurement for measuring energy requirements.


BULK PLANT STORAGE TANK

Large propane storage tanks installed at the bulk plant that typically range in size from 6,000 to 60,000 gallons.

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GLOSSARYBushing

BUSHING

COMBUSTION AIR

A short, externally-threaded connector with a smaller size internal thread.


CADWELD

The amount of air required for propane to burn within its lower and upper flammability limits. Also known as "air for combustion."
CONTINUOUS DEMAND

A type of exothermic weld that uses a brazing process to connect anode wires to tanks or pipes. The weld metal consists of copper oxide flakes and finely ground aluminum starting powder. Anode wires must always be welded to a special welding pad or other non-pressure surface of an ASME tank.
CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM

The Btu/hr requirements of a system that are ongoing and steady.


CRANE BOOM

A system that controls the corrosion of a metal surface by making the metal act as a "cathode" of an electrochemical cell. This is achieved by placing another more easily corrosive metal (an anode) in contact with the metal to be protected. In propane vapor distribution systems, steel is the metal typically protected by this corrosion-control method.
CAVITATION

The component of a crane that lifts and lowers materials both horizontally and vertically. The maximum capacity of a boom is greatest when the boom is nearest to vertical; least when it is nearest to horizontal.
CRANE TRUCKS

Vehicles designed for lifting and transporting propane containers.


CREVICE CORROSION

The formation of vapor bubbles that occurs in an area where flowing liquid falls below its vapor pressure. This occurs in bobtail pumps when the turbulent flow of LP-gas forms bubbles. As the pump spins and moves the liquid propane out of the cargo tank, vapor bubbles are produced. As these vapor bubbles continue to form and collapse, the pump is subjected to pressure changes which cause a hammering effect on internal pump parts and the rotor bearings.
CHAMFERING

Corrosion that occurs in gaps where fluid does not flow in a working environment.
CUSTOMER GAS APPLIANCE USE PROFILE

A form used to list the appliances of a customer in order to determine their total gas demand.
DIAPHRAGM

A flat, flexible, rounded piece of material that responds to fluctuations in regulator outlet pressure.
DIELECTRIC UNION

The process of connecting two surfaces. If the surfaces are at right angles, the chamfer will typically be symmetrical at 45 degrees.
CLOSE NIPPLE

A pipe fitting used to connect two pieces of pipe. It contains a synthetic plastic gasket that stops the flow of an electrical current between the two pieces of pipe.
DRYER EXHAUST TERMINATION

A fitting, typically with male pipe threads at either end, used to join two other fittings.

The outdoor termination of the vent duct of a clothes dryer.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

GLOSSARYElectrical Isolation

437

ELECTRICAL ISOLATION

GALVANIC

A means by which a physical device (gasket, washer, non-conductive material) prevents the flow of an electrical current.
FIRST-STAGE REGULATOR

Pertaining to the current resulting from the coupling of dissimilar electrodes in an electrolyte.
GROSS AGGREGATE WEIGHT

A regulator designed to reduce container pressure to between 5 and 10 pounds per square inch gauge (psig).
FIXED PIPING SYSTEM

The weight of the container empty plus the weight of the actual product in the container.
HARD-DRAWN TUBING

A system that is permanently installed and connected to an LP-gas source and the equipment using the gas. These parts can include the piping, valves, and fittings.
FIXED-VOLUME MEASUREMENT COMPARTMENTS

Rigid copper tubing used in fittings to change direction. Hard drawn tubing is used above ground and is typically joined by brazing.
HEAT FUSION

A component of a vapor meter used to measure a specific amount of propane vapor. Typical residential and small commercial meters have two compartments.
FLARE NUT THREADS

A welding process used to join two different pieces of thermoplastic.


HIGH-PRESSURE REGULATOR

Used in commercial settings where gas demand is very high, and reduces pressure to a range of 12 to 15 psig.
HOLIDAY

Straight machine threads used inside flare nuts and on the flare seal end of male flare fittings. Flare nut threads are not compatible with, and must not be joined to pipe threads.
FLASH POINT

A void in a protective coating that exposes the metal surface of a tank.


HYDROSTATIC TEST

The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to start burning at the surface of the liquid.
FLOW RATE

A type of test used for requalifying cylinders. A date without a letter indicates the cylinder was subjected to a complete water jacket hydrostatic test. The next cylinder requalification must be within 12 years.
IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS

The amount (volume) of vapor moving through a registar in a unit of time, typically measured in cubic feet per hour.
FLUXES

A cathodic protection system used in large structures where an anode is connected to a source of power, or rectifier, to distribute a current.
IN-SLAB INSTALLATIONS

Substances applied to surfaces that are to be joined by soldering or brazing. Fluxes promote the flow of solder and prevent the formation of contaminants.
FROST PENETRATION DEPTH

An installation in which a Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST) line runs through a conduit that is embedded in a concrete slab, such as a patio.
INLET PRESSURE

The depth to which the ground freezes during cold weather.

The pressure of the propane at the regulator inlet.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

438

GLOSSARYIntegral 2-stage Regulator

INTEGRAL 2-STAGE REGULATOR

LOOP CONFIGURATION

Contains a non-adjustable first-stage regulator on the inlet. The second-stage provides 11" water column (w.c.) outlet pressure.
INTEGRAL 2-PSI SERVICE REGULATOR

A way of connecting two containers with a length of soft copper, or pigtail, in a loop shape to provide flexibility.
MANIFOLD

Combines a high-pressure regulator and a 2-psi service regulator into a single unit for vapor service.
INTERMITTENT DEMAND

A piping system that directs the flow of vapor from two or more containers to an appliance(s).
MATERIAL OF TRADE (MOT)

The Btu/hr requirements of a system that last only a short period of time.
K FACTOR

Hazardous materials, as defined by the Department of Transportation (DOT), that are carried on a motor vehicle to protect the driver or passengers, support the operation of the motor vehicle, or directly support the business.
METER BOSS

A factor that represents a constant minimum percent volume of liquid in a container. Used to calculate tank vaporization.
KITCHEN EXHAUST TERMINATION

A device located on the side or top of a vapor meter designed to stabilize the meter using one wrench while a second wrench is used to join the piping to the meter. Also called a "wrenching flat."
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (NIST)

The outdoor termination of a duct from a vent hood used over a kitchen range or cook top.
LEAK CHECK

Leak Check is a test for gas leakage. Immediately after the gas is turned on into a new system or into a system that has been initially restored after an interruption of service, the piping system shall be tested for leakage. See also, the definition for Interruption of Service.
LEAK TEST

A bureau of the federal government that establishes standards for measurement devices for the propane and natural gas industries in its NIST Handbook 44. Formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS).
NFPA 30: FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS CODE

Test performed to determine where a leak is located in a vapor or liquid distribution system through the use of an approved leak-detector solution or gas-detection instrument.
LINE PRESSURE REGULATOR

A regulator designed to reduce 2 - 5 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) inlet pressure to appliance inlet pressure (typically 11" water column).
LOCKUP

Book of code adopted by most states and established by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to provide guidance on the storage, handling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids. The NFPA is charged by OSHA to create and maintain minimum standards and requirements for fire prevention and suppression activities, training, and equipment, as well as other lifesafety codes and standards.
"ONE-CALL" SERVICE

The amount of pressure necessary to completely stop the flow of vapor through the first-stage and final-stage regulator inlet orifices, when there is no gas demand.

A nationwide, federally-mandated number, 811, that provides information on the location of underground utilities. Call this number before digging. For more information, visit their website at http://www.call811. com.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

GLOSSARYOperating Pressure

439

OPERATING PRESSURE

REQUALIFATION IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (RIN)

The pressure in the piping system under normal conditions while the appliances are not operating.
ORIFICE

An opening through which something may pass.


OUTLET PRESSURE

A number assigned by the Department of Transportation (DOT) to locations that requalify cylinders. This number is placed on a cylinder along with the requalification date once a cylinder has been requalified and found to be fit for continued service.
RESISTIVITY

The pressure of a regulator expressed in pounds per square inch gauge (psig) or inch water column (w.c.).
PIGTAIL

A measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of electrical charge.
"RULE OF THUMB"

A length of tubing that connects two or more devices and controls the flow of liquid or vapor. Usually is found between the container service valve and the regulator.
PITTING

A general guideline used to determine container vaporization capacity based on a container's dimensions and liquid percentage.
SECOND-STAGE REGULATOR

A form of extremely localized corrosion that leads to the creation of small holes in metal.
PRESSURE

The average force that vapor places on a piping system typically measured in pounds per square inch gauge (psig) and inch water column (w. c.).
REGULATOR MAIN SPRING

A regulator designed to reduce a regulated inlet pressure (typically 5 to 10 pounds per square inch (psig) to the interior piping system pressure (typically 11" water column (w.c.) or 2 psig).
SINGE-STAGE REGULATOR

The coil spring used to exert pressure on the regulator diaphragm. The tension of the spring determines the outlet pressure of the regulator.
REGULATOR ORIFICE

Reduces vapor pressure from the container to 1 psig or less, and is prohibited by NFPA 58 to be installed in any new or modified fixed piping systems.
SLUGGING

A fixed-sized opening in a regulator that helps control the flow rate of propane.
RELIQUEFACTION

Slugging means the valve will close when the valve flow rate has been exceeded. This may occur when there a significant drop in pressure from one side of the valve to the other as well"
SOFT SEAMLESS WATER TUBING

The changing of propane vapor back into a liquid in a vapor distribution system, usually due to a temperature or pressure change.

Copper tubing that is flexible and can be shaped to go around obstacles. Measured by outside diameter (O.D.).
TEMPERATURE COLUMN

The column on a container vaporization chart listing outdoor temperatures. Vaporization will decrease as temperatures decrease.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

440

GLOSSARYTest for Leakage

TEST FOR LEAKAGE

VAPORIZATION CAPACITY

A test on the exterior portion of a piping system to determine if there are propane leaks. This includes the portion of the piping from the outlet of the tank vapor service valve to the outlet of the second-stage regulator and must be performed on all newly-installed piping.
TEST PRESSURE

The amount of vapor, expressed in Btu/hr, a container is capable of delivering at a given outside temperature and humidity.
VAPORIZATION CHARTS

The required pressure at which a piping system is tested to ensure proper piping integrity or to find leaks in the piping system.
THREAD BURRS

A chart that considers various factors, such as container size and atmospheric temperature, to determine how much propane vapor a container will produce without the vapor pressure going below a critical value (typically 10 pounds per square inch gauge (psig).
VAPORIZATION RATE

Small slivers of metal resulting from cutting threads into piping. These metal pieces can cause a host of installation problems, such as improper seals and regulator orifice blockage.
TIE DOWNS

Vaporization: the process of liquid propane being changed into vapor


VOLTAGE

Straps designed to restrict container movement. Tie downs can be metal, fabric straps, or chains. They attach to eye bolts or other anchoring mechanisms in the concrete foundation.
TRACER WIRE

The rate, expressed in volts, at which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit.
WATER CAPACITY

The maximum amount of water a propane container can hold when completely filled.

An electrically continuous and corrosion-resistant wire, minimum American Wire Gauge (AWG) 14, that is laid directly above underground piping, but not in direct contact with the piping. It is used as a conductor of an electrical signal when an underground pipe locator is used to locate the piping at a later date, preventing the need for excavation.
UNDERWRITERS LABORATORIES

An independent product safety certification organization that tests products and writing standards for safety.
VAPOR LOCK

When liquid propane turns to vapor within a piping system. This can cause overpressurization or excessive pump noise within a liquid pump.
VAPORIZATION

The process of liquid propane changing into a vapor.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

RESOURCESApproximate Gas Input for Typical Appliances

441

Resources
APPROXIMATE GAS INPUT FOR TYPICAL APPLIANCES

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

442

RESOURCESBrazing Copper Tubing

BRAZING COPPER TUBING


Silver brazing is a method to connect copper tubing. When silver brazing, follow these steps:

COMPARISON OF WATER TUBING AND REFRIGERATION TUBING SIZES

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

RESOURCEScomparison of water tubing and Refrigeration Tubing sizes

443

Step 4:

Apply a thin layer of flux to the silver alloy brazing rod. Hold the tip of the torch flame against the fitting until the flux begins to sizzle. Move the flame around to the other side of the fitting to ensure even heat. (When the flux begins to bubble, the connection should be hot enough for brazing.)

Step 5:

Touch the end of the brazing filler to the pipe just below the fitting. If it melts and is drawn into the joint, the pipe is sufficiently hot.

Step 6:

Quickly apply the brazing filler along both seams of the fitting, allowing it to be drawn into the fitting. When correctly brazed, the joint will show a thin bead of silver-colored brazing around each seam.

(Note: Brazing filler will harden in a minute or less if the joint has not been overheated.)

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

444

RESOURCESDOT Cylinder Chart

Step 7:

Allow the joint to cool until the brazing material has a frosty appearance rather than a shiny silver color one. Wipe away any excess material with warm water, a wet cloth, and a brush.

After the joint is completed, do not disturb the tubing until the brazing filler and joint has cooled.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

RESOURCESDOT Cylinder Chart

445

DOT CYLINDER CHART

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

446

RESOURCESK Factor

K FACTOR

K FACTOR RESOURCE K equals a constant for percent volume of liquid in a container


K 100 90 Propane Vaporization Capacity at 0F (in Btu/ hr) D x L x 100 D x L x 90

Percentage of Liquid in Tank 60 50

40 30 20 10

80 70 60 45

D x L x 80 D x L x 70 D x L x 60 D x L x 45

These formulas allow for the temperature of the liquid to refrigerate to -20F (below zero), producing a temperature differential of 20F for the transfer of heat from the air to the tanks wetted surface and then into the liquid. The vapor space area of the vessel is not considered. Its effect is negligible. This K Factor is not the same as, and should not be confused with, the K-factor that is used for delivery scheduling and associated with degrees days (that is, a number used to indicate how fast a tank uses fuel.)

COMPARISON OF WATER TUBING AND REFRIGERATION TUBING SIZES

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

RESOURCESrule of Thumb Guide

447

RULE OF THUMB GUIDE

100lbCylinders
Howmanyarerequired RuleofThumbGuideforInstalling100lbContainers
Forcontinuousdrawswheretemperaturesmayreach0F.Assume thevaporizationrateofa100lbcylinderasapproximately50,000 BTUperhour. TotalLoadinBTU Numberofcylindersperslide: 50,000 Example: Assumetotalload=200,000BTU/hr 200,000 Cylindersperside==4cylindersperside. 50,000

VaporizationRate
100lbPropaneCylinders
lbsPropanein Cylinder MaximumcontinuousdrawinBTUperhouratvarious temperaturesinDegreesF.
0F 20F 40F 60F70F

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

113,000 104,000 90,000 83,000 75,000 64,000 55,000 45,000 36,000 28,000

167,000 152,000 137,000 122,000 109,000 94,000 79,000 66,000 51,000 38,000

214,000 200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 125,000 105,000 85,000 68,000 49,000

277,000 247,000 214,000 199,000 176,000 154,000 131,000 107,000 83,000 60,000

300,000 277,000 236,000 214,000 192,000 167,000 141,000 118,000 92,000 66,000

Thischartshowsthevaporizationrateofcontainersintermsofthe temperatureoftheliquidandthewetsurfaceareaofthecontainer. Whenthetemperatureislower,orwhenthecontainerhaslessliquid init,thevaporizationrateofthecontainerisalowervalue.

ASMEStorageContainers
DeterminingPropaneVaporizationCapacity RuleofThumbGuideforASMELP-Gas StorageContainers
CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

D-Outsidediameterininches

448

105,000 79,000 55,000 40 85,000 66,000 45,000 30 68,000 51,000 36,000 20 of Thumb Guide 49,000 38,000 28,000 10 RESOURCESrule

131,000 107,000 83,000 60,000

141,000 118,000 92,000 66,000

Thischartshowsthevaporizationrateofcontainersintermsofthe temperatureoftheliquidandthewetsurfaceareaofthecontainer. Whenthetemperatureislower,orwhenthecontainerhaslessliquid init,thevaporizationrateofthecontainerisalowervalue.

ASMEStorageContainers
DeterminingPropaneVaporizationCapacity RuleofThumbGuideforASMELP-Gas StorageContainers

L D K
K

D-Outsidediameterininches L-Overalllengthininches K-Constantforpercentvolume ofliquidincontainer

Percentageof ContainerFilled

PropaneVaporizationCapacityat0F(BTU/hr)

60 50 40 30 20 10

100 90 80 70 60 45

DxLx100 DxLx90 DxLx80 DxLx70 DxLx60 DxLx45

Theseformulaeallowforthetemperatureoftheliquidtorefrigerate-20F, belowzero,producingatemperaturedi erentialof20Fforthetransferof heattotheairtotheconainerswettedsurface,andthenintotheliquid. Thevaporspaceareaofthevesselisnotconsidered.Itse ectisnegligible.

VaporizingCapacitiesforOtherAir Temperatures
Multiplytheresultsobtainedwiththeaboveformulae,byoneofthefollowing factorsfortheprevailingairtemperature.
PrevailingAir Temperature Multiplier PrevailingAir Temperature Multiplier

-15F -10F -5F 0F

.25 .50 .75 1.00

+15F +10F +5F 0F

1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00

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50 40 30 20 10

90 80 70 60 45

DxLx90 DxLx80 DxLx70 DxLx60 DxLx45

RESOURCESOdorization

449

Theseformulaeallowforthetemperatureoftheliquidtorefrigerate-20F, belowzero,producingatemperaturedi erentialof20Fforthetransferof heattotheairtotheconainerswettedsurface,andthenintotheliquid. Thevaporspaceareaofthevesselisnotconsidered.Itse ectisnegligible.

VaporizingCapacitiesforOtherAir Temperatures
Multiplytheresultsobtainedwiththeaboveformulae,byoneofthefollowing factorsfortheprevailingairtemperature.
PrevailingAir Temperature Multiplier PrevailingAir Temperature Multiplier

-15F -10F -5F 0F

.25 .50 .75 1.00

+15F +10F +5F 0F

1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00

ODORIZATION
ODORIZATION:ALTERNATEMETHODSTOVERIFYPROPANEODORIZATION
ODOROMETERS

Gasodoranttestinstrumentscalled odorometersareavailablefromgasinstrumentationandtestingequipmentcompaniesforuseinthefi eld toverifythepresenceofodorant.Theyaremostfrequentlyusedbypipelineoperatorstoverifythatgasisodorizedwhensampledalongmains andbranchpipelines.

STAINTUBES

Staintubesprovideasimpletestforthepresenceofethylmercaptan.Someofthesetestsusecolortoindicatethepresenceofethylmercaptan. Besuretofollowmanufacturersinstructions.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

450

RESOURCESProcedures for Joining Polyethelene Piping

PROCEDURES FOR JOINING POLYETHELENE PIPING

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

RESOURCESProcedures for Joining Polyethelene Piping

451

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

452

RESOURCESProcedures for Joining Polyethelene Piping

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

RESOURCESSelecting and Inspecting Lifting Chains and Slings

453

SELECTING AND INSPECTING LIFTING CHAINS AND SLINGS


AccordingtoOSHApublication3072,SlingSafety:

SelectingandInspectingLiftingChainsandSlings

Theoperatormustexerciseintelligence,careandcommonsensewhenselectingandusingslings.[Slings
includeschain,wirerope(cables),andfabricweb(strap-type)slings.]

Slingsmustbeselectedinaccordancewiththeirintendeduse,baseduponthesizeandtypeofload,andthe environmentalconditionsoftheworkplace. Allslingsmustbevisuallyinspectedbeforeusetoensuretheire ectiveness. Wheninspectingalloysteelchainslings,payspecialattentiontoanystretching,wearinexcessof allowancesmadebythemanufacturer,andnicksandgouges.Thesesignsindicatethattheslingmaybe unsafeandtheymustberemovedfromservice.

Wheninspectingwireropeslings,iftenrandomlydistributedwiresinonelay[twistedwirebundle;lay describesthedirectionthewiresandstrandsaretwistedduringtheconstructionofthewirerope]are broken,oriffi vewiresinonestrandofaropelayaredamaged,theslingmustnotbeused.Wireropeslings mustalsoberemovedfromserviceiftheinspectionrevealsanyofthefollowingconditions: 1.Damagedendfi ttings 2.Excessivecorrosion 3.Localizedwear 4.Aone-thirdreductioninouterwirediameter 5.Distortion,kinking,birdcaging,orotherstructuraldamagetothewirerope

Wheninspectingfabricropeorwebslings,theslingmustberemovedfromserviceifanyofthefollowing defectsexist: 1.Acidorcausticburns 2.Meltingorcharringofanypartofthesurface 3.Snags,punctures,tears,orcuts 4.Brokenorwornstitches 5.Wearorelongationexceedingtheamountrecommendedbythemanufacturer 6.Distortionofthefi ttings

Afterinspectingthesling(s),thecraneoperatormustdeterminehowthetankwillbelifted,howthesling(s)

willbearranged,andifadditionalslingsorotherequipmentisneededfortheload.Slingsusedshouldhave loadratingswellinexcessoftheweightofthetankanditscontents.Operatorsmustalwaysbearinmind

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

broken,oriffi vewiresinonestrandofaropelayaredamaged,theslingmustnotbeused.Wireropeslings mustalsoberemovedfromserviceiftheinspectionrevealsanyofthefollowingconditions:

RESOURCESSelecting and Inspecting Lifting Chains and Slings 454 1.Damagedendfi ttings
2.Excessivecorrosion 3.Localizedwear 4.Aone-thirdreductioninouterwirediameter 5.Distortion,kinking,birdcaging,orotherstructuraldamagetothewirerope

Wheninspectingfabricropeorwebslings,theslingmustberemovedfromserviceifanyofthefollowing defectsexist: 1.Acidorcausticburns 2.Meltingorcharringofanypartofthesurface 3.Snags,punctures,tears,orcuts 4.Brokenorwornstitches 5.Wearorelongationexceedingtheamountrecommendedbythemanufacturer 6.Distortionofthefi ttings

Afterinspectingthesling(s),thecraneoperatormustdeterminehowthetankwillbelifted,howthesling(s) willbearranged,andifadditionalslingsorotherequipmentisneededfortheload.Slingsusedshouldhave loadratingswellinexcessoftheweightofthetankanditscontents.Operatorsmustalwaysbearinmind thatifslingsarenotarrangedtoliftverticallyasshownintheillustrationontheleftofFigure5,theload capacityoftheslingdecreasesastheslinganglemovesfromverticaltohorizontal.

Maximum Sling Load Capacity Available with Slings in Vertical Position

Decreasing Sling Load Capacity as Angle Approaches Horizontal Additional Slings May Be Required

TheE ectofSlingAngleonSlingLiftingCapacity

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

RESOURCESTransporting Flammable Liquids as Materials of Trade

455

TRANSPORTING FLAMMABLE LIQUIDSLIQUIDS AS MATERIALS OF TRADE TRANSPORTING FLAMMABLE AS MATERIALS OF TRADE


Materials of Trade are small amounts of certain hazardous materials transported on a motor vehicle for workers to use in direct support of their business. Many utility, construction, plumbing, welding, lawn care, and maintenance companies use common products, such as spray paints, lubricants, or gasoline, that are classified as hazardous materials. However, because of the small quantity of hazardous materials and how they are used, they can be transported as materials of trade. To be transported as a material of trade, the material must meet the materials of trade definition, hazard classification, and quantity guidelines. DOT defines a Material of Trade as a hazardous material that is carried on a motor vehicle:

For the purpose of protecting the health and safety of the motor vehicle operator or passengers (such as insect repellant) For the purpose of supporting the operation or maintenance of a motor vehicle, including its auxiliary equipment (such as engine starting fluid) By a private motor carrier in direct support of a principal business that is other than transportation by motor vehicle (such as lawn care, plumbing, welding, painting).

REQUIREMENTS EXCEPTED FROM When you transport small amounts of these materials under the Materials of Trade exceptions, you are not subject to some of the regulations that apply to the transportation of hazardous materials. If you are only transporting classes and quantities of hazardous materials that qualify for the Materials of Trade exceptions, you do not need placards. These are the regulations you are excepted from. You are not required to have: Shipping papers Placarding Emergency response information Training for any hazardous materials carried as materials of trade Materials of trade may be transported on a motor vehicle with other fully regulated hazardous materials and still qualify for the above exceptions from the regulations. The driver should know which materials are fully regulated and which are materials of trade.

Note: If you are transporting propane, and at the same time carrying materials that qualify for the materials of trade exceptions, you are still responsible for complying with the full Hazardous Materials Regulations for the propane.

CLASSIFICATION REQUIREMENTS To be transported as a material of trade, the material must meet the materials of trade definition, hazard classification, and quantity guidelines.

CLASSIFICATIONS The material must belong to one of the following classifications: Division 2.1 - (Flammable Gas) Division 2.2 - (Non-flammable Gas) Class 3 - (Flammable Liquid) Division 4.1 - (Flammable Solid) Division 4.3, PG II or III - (Dangerous When Wet) Division 5.1 - (Oxidizer) Division 5.2 - (Organic Peroxide) Division 6.1 - (Poison) Class 8 - (Corrosive) Class 9 - (Miscellaneous) ORM-D - (Other Regulated Material)

QUANTITY REQUIREMENTS To be transported as a material of trade, the material must meet the materials of trade definition, hazard classification, and quantity guidelines. Note: Quantity limits for most of the classes/divisions (listed on the previous page) have not been included here, since the hazardous materials in these categories are not used in the propane industry.

QUANTITY LIMITS The following quantity limits apply to Classes 3 and 8. The limits are gross mass or capacity and include the weight of the packaging. Packing Group PG I PG II or III Package Quantity Limits for Classes 3 and 8 Not over 1 pound or 1 pint Not over 66 pounds or 8 gallons

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456

Class 3 - (Flammable Liquid) Division 4.1 - (Flammable Solid) Division 4.3, PG II or III - (Dangerous When Wet) Division 5.1 - (Oxidizer)

Class 8 - (Corrosive) Class 9 - (Miscellaneous) ORM-D - (Other Regulated Material)

RESOURCESTransporting Flammable Liquids as Materials of Trade

QUANTITY REQUIREMENTS To be transported as a material of trade, the material must meet the materials of trade definition, hazard classification, and quantity guidelines. Note: Quantity limits for most of the classes/divisions (listed on the previous page) have not been included here, since the hazardous materials in these categories are not used in the propane industry.

QUANTITY LIMITS The following quantity limits apply to Classes 3 and 8. The limits are gross mass or capacity and include the weight of the packaging. Packing Group PG I PG II or III Package Quantity Limits for Classes 3 and 8 Not over 1 pound or 1 pint Not over 66 pounds or 8 gallons

For Division 2.1 or 2.2, in a cylinder, the gross weight cannot be over 220 pounds. Note: If transporting propane is your principal business, propane cylinders are fully regulated - they would not qualify for the materials of trade exceptions.

PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS The following guidelines must be met for you to use the materials of trade exceptions.Hazardous Materials

liquids and gasesPackagings must be: Leak proof Securely closed Secured to prevent movement Protected against damage Cylinders or other pressure vessels used to transport Division 2.1 (Flammable Gas) or 2.2 (Non-flammable Gas) must conform to the packaging, qualification, maintenance, and use requirements as described in the HMR, except that outer packagings are not required. Manifolding of cylinders is authorized as long as all valves are tightly closed. gasoline must be in metal or plastic packaging and conform to the HMR or OSHA requirements.

PACKAGING

Materials must be packaged in the manufacturers original packaging, or one of equal strength and quality. An outer packaging is not required for cans and bottles that are secured in cages, carts, bins, boxes, or compartments to prevent movement. But, you cannot simply place a can inside a bin - it must be secured to prevent movement.

MARKING REQUIREMENTS

Non-bulk packagings (capacity of 119 gallons or less for liquids), other than cylinders, must be marked with the common name or proper shipping name of the material being carried. DOT specification cylinders must be marked and labeled as required by the HMR.

DRIVER REQUIREMENTS DOT requires that the operator of a motor vehicle containing materials of trade be informed:

Of the presence of the hazardous materials About the requirements of the Materials of Trade exceptions

TOTAL GROSS WEIGHT The total gross weight of all materials of trade carried on one motor vehicle cannot exceed 440 pounds. Because the amount that can be transported is critical - drivers need to know the capacity and weight of containers. This is extremely important, especially if several items are transported at once. EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTS ELIGIBLE FOR THE EXCEPTIONS The following are examples of products that are eligible for materials of trade exceptions if they are carried in the correct amount:Division 2.1 (Flammable gas) - 220 pounds or less and in a DOT-approved cylinder.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM


Acetylene Propane

Division 2.2 (Non-flammable gas) - 220 pounds or less and in a DOT-approved cylinder. Nitrogen Oxygen

MARKING REQUIREMENTS

Non-bulk packagings (capacity of 119 gallons or less for liquids), other than cylinders, must be marked with the common name or proper RESOURCESTransporting Flammable Liquids as Materials of Trade shipping name of the material being carried. DOT specification cylinders must be marked and labeled as required by the HMR.

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DRIVER REQUIREMENTS DOT requires that the operator of a motor vehicle containing materials of trade be informed:

Of the presence of the hazardous materials About the requirements of the Materials of Trade exceptions

TOTAL GROSS WEIGHT The total gross weight of all materials of trade carried on one motor vehicle cannot exceed 440 pounds. Because the amount that can be transported is critical - drivers need to know the capacity and weight of containers. This is extremely important, especially if several items are transported at once. EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTS ELIGIBLE FOR THE EXCEPTIONS The following are examples of products that are eligible for materials of trade exceptions if they are carried in the correct amount:Division 2.1 (Flammable gas) - 220 pounds or less and in a DOT-approved cylinder.

Acetylene Propane

Division 2.2 (Non-flammable gas) - 220 pounds or less and in a DOT-approved cylinder.

Nitrogen Oxygen

Class 3 (Flammable) PG II or III - not over 8 gallons or 66 pounds.


Gasoline PVC cleaner and glue Methanol Paint (lacquer, enamel, stain, shellac solutions, varnish, polish, liquid filler and liquid lacquer base)

Class 3 (Flammable) PG I - not over 1 pound or 1 pint.


Alcohol Paint-related material (paint thinning, drying, removing or reducing compounds)

Division 4.1 (Flammable solid) PG II or III - not over 66 pounds.

Charcoal

ORM-Ds (Consumer commodities) - not over 8 gallons or 66 pounds.

Spray paint

Note: Materials that are self-reactive, poison by inhalation, or hazardous waste cannot qualify for these exceptions. Even though you are not likely to encounter these materials, you must be informed of these requirements.

FAILURE TO FOLLOW THE GUIDELINES If you fail to follow the guidelines for the materials of trade exceptions, you will be in violation of many requirements of the HMR and may be subject to significant fines and penalties.Currently the HMR allow for fines ranging from $250 to $50,000 per day, per violation. Criminal penalties can also be imposed on individuals directly involved with non-compliance.

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

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RESOURCESVapor Meter Specfification Worksheet

VAPOR METER SPECFIFICATION WORKSHEET Vapor Meter Speci cation Worksheet (4.1.1.i.4)
The following example illustrates a worksheet that can be used to record the selection and specications of a vapor meter.
Installation Address: ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Customer Total System Demand _____________________ Btu/hr Manufacturer Fuel Gas CFH @ Btu/hr @ Accessories: _____________________ Model Number __________________ Propane System Pressure 2 PSI 11in. w.c. in. w.c. drop _______________ 2 in. w.c. drop ________________ in. w.c. drop _______________ 2 in. w.c. drop ________________ Index Circular (Clock Dial) Direct (Digital) Volume Pulser Index Units Vapor Cubic Feet Liquid Gallons Liters Support Meter Bar Wall Mounting Bracket ID Tag ________ Customer Tag Number _____________________ Install Date _______/_______/_______

Job No.

Examples of Meter Sets (4.1.1.i.5) General Vapor Meter Installation

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RESOURCESVapor Meter Specfification Worksheet

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Typical Outside Meter Installation

Meter Size : 175 to 425 CFH Main Delivery Pressure: 5 to 20 psig Meter Inlet Pressure: 11 in. w.c. Material List No. Quantity Material 1 1 Meter 2 1 Service Riser Assembly 3 1 Shut-Off Valve 4 1 Service Line 5 1 Regulator with Internal Relief 6 1 Insulating Swivel Other General Pipe and Fittings

Typical Inside Meter Installation


CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM At any point were piping contacts or passes through concrete or masonry grout, the piping should be protected from abrasion and corrosion by the use of a sleeve of suitable material, such as PE pipe.

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2 1 Service Riser Assembly 3 1 Shut-Off Valve 4 1 Service Line 5 1 Regulator with Internal Relief RESOURCESVapor Meter Specfification Worksheet 6 1 Insulating Swivel Other General Pipe and Fittings

Typical Inside Meter Installation At any point were piping contacts or passes through concrete or masonry grout, the piping should be protected from abrasion and corrosion by the use of a sleeve of suitable material, such as PE pipe. You should check local codes to verify if an inside meter set installation is permitted.

Meter Size : 175 to 425 CFH Delivery Pressure: 0.25 to 2.0 psig Inlet Pressure: .5 to 60 psig Material List No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 Material Meter Regulator with Internal Relief Vented Outside Shut-Off Valve Service Line Service Riser Assembly Insulating Swivel

Multiple Domestic Manifold Installation When installing one regulator on a multiple meter manifold, be sure to install a regulator properly sized for the load in order to maintain proper relief capacity. Some companies choose to install a service regulator for each CERTIFIED meter. EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 1 1 1 1 1

Meter Regulator with Internal Relief Vented Outside Shut-Off Valve Service Line RESOURCESVapor Meter Specfification Worksheet Service Riser Assembly Insulating Swivel

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Multiple Domestic Manifold Installation When installing one regulator on a multiple meter manifold, be sure to install a regulator properly sized for the load in order to maintain proper relief capacity. Some companies choose to install a service regulator for each meter.

Meter Size : 175 to 425 CFH Delivery Pressure: 0.25 to 2.0 psig Inlet Pressure: .5 to 60 psig Material List No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quantity 1 1 1 Material Meter Regulator with Internal Relief Vented Outside Shut-Off Valve Service Line Service Riser Assembly Insulating Swivel

CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

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CERTIFIED EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAM

INSIDE DESIGNING AND INSTALLING EXTERIOR VAPOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS:


MODULE 1:INTRODUCTION TO DESIGNING VAPOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Introduces the design and installation of the exterior portions of a vapor distribution system for both residential and small commercial markets. MODULE 2:DESIGNING VAPOR SYSTEMS: CONTAINERS AND LINES Discusses how to determine effective system load of a vapor distribution system and how to size its containers, pipes, and tubes. MODULE 3: DESIGNING VAPOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: REGULATORS AND METERS Identifies how to select and size regulators and meters within a vapor distribution system. MODULE 4: PREPARING SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR TRANSPORT Details important steps in preparing vapor distribution components for transport; highlighting Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. MODULE 5: INSTALLING CONTAINERS Discusses how to install certain exterior components of a vapor distribution system using both aboveground containers and underground tanks. Also provides instruction on pre- and post installation procedures. MODULE 6: INSTALLING LINES Details how to install exterior lines in a vapor distribution system with emphasis on code requirements for working with pipe and tubing. MODULE 7: INSTALLING REGULATORS AND METERS Outlines the procedures and precautions for installing regulators and vapor meters including how to store, handle, and place them. MODULE 8: OTHER INSTALLATIONS Focuses on safety issues when performing special installations. Also discusses procedures for transferring liquid propane between stationary containers. MODULE 9: SYSTEM TESTS Details the system checks and tests you must perform to ensure your customers piping system is leak free. MODULE 10: SAFETY INFORMATION Provides information contained in the PERC consumer safety materials as well as emergency response recommendations in the event of an uncontrolled release of propane. Propane Education & Research Council 1140 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 1075, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 452-8975 | Fax: (202) 452-9054