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A Numerical procedure to calculate the temperature of protected steel columns exposed to fire Lie, T. T.; Harmathy, T. Z.

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Publisher’s version / Version de l'éditeur: Fire Study, 28, p. 40, 1972-03

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NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL O F CANADA DIVLSION O F BUILDING RESEARCH
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A NUMERICAL PROCEDURE T O CALCULATE THE TEMPERATURE O F PROTECTED S T E E L COLUMNS EXPOSED T O F I R E

T. T. L i e and T. Z. Harmathy

F i r e Study NO. 2 8

of the
Division of Building R e s e a r c h

OTTAWA

arch 1972

A NUMERICAL PROCEDURE TO CALCULATE THE TEMPERATURE O F PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS EXPOSED TO FIRE by T. T. Lie and T. Z. Harmathy ABSTRACT
A numerical technique has been developed for the calculation of the t e m p e r a t u r e history of protected s t e e l columns in fire. This technique was used for the theoretical simulation of s e v e r a l f i r e t e s t s . A comparison of experimental and theoretical information clearly showed that the technique i s capable of yielding acceptable accuracy.

Some basic assumptions used in previous works have been examined in the light of s e v e r a l numerical studies. It has been proved that the mechanism of heat t r a n s f e r between the protection and s t e e l c o r e h a s little effect on the s t r u c t u r a l performance of the s t e e l core, and that every p e r cent of moisture in the protection i n c r e a s e s the t i m e of f i r e endurance of the column by about t h r e e p e r cent. INTRODUCTION Columns a r e the most c r i t i c a l s t r u c t u r a l elements in a building in that their collapse can lead t o the l o s s of the entire structure. T h e r e fore, the performance of protected s t e e l columns in f i r e h a s long a t t r a c ted considerable attention in various countries. The conventional method of obtaining information on this subject i s by standard f i r e endurance tests. The possibility of making realistic theoretical estimates h a s been hampered by two factors: (i) the lack of knowledge concerning t h e r m a l properties of the commonly used protecting m a t e r i a l s at elevated t e m p e r a t u r e s and certain rheological properties of steel, and (ii) the complexity of the mechanism of heat flow, especially through physicochemically unstable solids. The f i r s t of these difficulties i s not s o serious now a s it was 10-1 5 years ago. During the past decade information has accumulated on the t h e r m a l and rheological properties a t elevated t e m p e r a t u r e s of

many important building materials, among them s t e e l and concrete. The difficulties related to the complexity of heat flow analysis have also been greatly reduced by having the calculations performed by high-speed computers. Thus many f i r e performance problems that not long ago had t o be solved by experiment can now be solved by numerical techniques.

In previous publications by the Division of Building Research, some numerical techniques have already been described for the calculation of the t e m p e r a t u r e history of various one- and two-dimensional configurations typically employed in walls and floors, and of the deformation history of s t e e l supporting elements, such a s beams, joists, etc. In this paper a numerical procedure will be described which can be used for predicting the temperature h i s t o r y of another important group of building elements, protected s t e e l columns. It will be seen that the r e s u l t s a r e also applicable t o the estimation of the point of failure of these elements in "standard" f i r e s .
PREVIOUS WORK
A considerable amount of theoretical work h a s already been done during the past ten y e a r s in connection with the f i r e performance of protected s t e e l columns. These works represented various approaches t o obtaining analytical solutions of the problem of heat conduction through the protective insulation into the s t e e l core. It was unavoidable, t h e r e fore, that numerous simplifying assumptions w e r e employed with r e s pect to both the m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s and the heat t r a n s m i s s i o n mechanisms. Consequently, the applicability of the derived formulas i s limited t o those c a s e s in which the assumptions used a r e closely satisfied.

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With respect to the modeling of heat transmission mechanisms, the following concepts w e r e employed ( s e e Fig. 1): (a) The t h e r m a l conductivity of s t e e l i s infinite; in other words, the t e m p e r a t u r e in the s t e e l c o r e i s uniform over the entire volume ( 1 -8). (b) The thickness of the insulation in relation t o i t s circumference i s s o s m a l l that the heat flow through it can be regarded a s one-dimensional (1 -8). (c) The t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e between insulation and the s t e e l is negligible (1-8). (d) The t e m p e r a t u r e of the exposed surface of the insulation i s equal t o the f i r e t e m p e r a t u r e (2-4, 6, 8).

(i) The influence of moisture in the insulation i s negligible (4. it can be applied t o any assembly consisting of a c e n t r a l c o r e of relatively high t h e r m a l conductivity. o r its capacity is negligible (1. 33. The unavoidable presence of m o i s t u r e in some protective m a t e r i a l s will a l s o be taken into account. Of course. a r e fully justifiable f r o m a practical point of view. In fact. In the p r e s e n t studies an attempt will be made t o u s e the fewest assumptions possible concerning m a t e r i a l behaviour and heat t r a n s m i s siori mechanisms. 5. Yet. g. 4-8). 8). surrounded by a square -shaped envelope of much lower conductivity.(e) The variation of the t e m p e r a t u r e a c r o s s the insulation i s approximately l i n e a r (1. e. which is exposed t o radiative heating on a l l four sides. o r the m o i s t u r e i s concentrated and evaporated at the inner surface of the insulation (2. 3). Some of the r e s u l t s will further be utilized t o check out the accuracy of simplifying assumptions used in previous studies. some of these assumptions. therefore. (h) The a i r enclosed by the protection h a s the s a m e temperature a s t h e s t e e l (2. even though only in a simplified manner. 6-8). and. with the u s e of m o r e adaptable numerical techniques. (f) The t h e r m a l conductivity and heat capacity of the insulation can be characterized by constant values within the t e m p e r a t u r e ranges that a r e of i n t e r e s t (2-4. The r e s u l t s will be compared with information obtained f r o m t e s t s . will a l s o be used in the present studies. It can also be used for the calculation of the t e m p e r a t u r e history of monolithic columns o r beams. NUMERICAL PROCEDURE The heat t r a n s p o r t in and at the boundaries of the insulation will be formulated with t h e aid of a finite difference method originally described . (g) The t h e r m a l capacity of the insulation i s negligible (1. it will no longer be n e c e s s a r y to retain those highly r e s t r i c t i v e assumptions that w e r e previously introduced only t o render the problems amenable t o theoretical solutions. It should also be mentioned that the applicability of the technique t o be described i s not limited to protected s t e e l columns. 6. 7). assumptions (a) and (h). 5. 7).

The f i r s t step in applying this method t o the present problem i s t o divide the cross-sectional a r e a of the insulating protection into a l a r g e number of elementary regions by the u s e of a two-dimensional network. this two-dimensional network need not be extended over the cross-sectional a r e a of the s t e e l core. for practical reasons a diagonal mesh has been selected for subdividing the cross-sectional a r e a of the insulation ( s e e Fig. . the subdivision of which thus can be done on a m o r e convenient basis. the idealization that the temperature of the s t e e l c o r e i s uniform all over i t s volume s e e m s a justifiable one. to calculate the t e m p e r a t u r e distribution in only one-eighth of the c r o s s -sectional a r e a of the insulation. owing to four-axes symmetry. Consequently. as will be described later. 2 shows. 9 and l a t e r elaborated upon in Ref. The elementary a r e a s a r e s q u a r e in the inside of the insulation and triangular at i t s boundaries. 12 and 13. As Fig. This method has been applied t o the solution of f i r e resistance problems in Refs. F o r each triangular boundary element. 2).in Ref. (represented by point Pmr. (representing region (ma n) o r Rm.) the heat balance equation for a unit height of the column covering a short period of A t duration i s a s follows: . from the figure that only those points of the x-y plane a r e defined for which (m n) i s an even number. 10. F o r each inside element. Since the t h e r m a l conductivity of s t e e l i s normally at l e a s t 20 t i m e s higher than that of the protection. 11. F o r an inside region h . in an x-y coordinate system a "representative" point of the protection. the representative point i s located on the hypotenuse. Pm. As in a previous numerical study (l3). the temperature at the centre i s taken a s r e p r e sentative of the entire element. n) has It i s obvious the coordinates x = (m-1) A 5 /J2 and y = (n-1) A 5 / J2. Since only columns with square protection will be considered in these studies. it i s possible. + EQUATION FOR THE INSIDE OF INSULATION A convenient way of obtaining equations for the calculation of the t e m p e r a t u r e h i s t o r y of insulation i s by writing heat balance equations for i t s elementary regions.

t 1) t 2 kJ ' J ( Tj T~ ( m t 1). kj ma n - j \ k ( T m . etc. n ' A5 1 - The t e r m on the left side of this equation expresses the accumulation The four of heat in Rm. t e r m s on the right-hand side describe the heat entering Rm. (P c)j m8 n - - j (Tm. n \ 1 + ~ m t l )( n . by conduction during the s a m e period from the neighbouring regions: R (m-l). ( n t 1)' (mt1 n l ( m1 ( n t1 brackets represent the temperature gradients and those in square brackets. .+ Ikim+l). (n-1)' R R R The t e r m s in round ( m t 1). during a time interval jAt < t r ( j t l ) At. the average conductivity of the material along the respective paths of conduction.n ' ). (n-1) 2 t kj ~j m )( 1 ) A5 " m. ( n t 1) m.. n ja etc.

respectively. from the following rearranged form of Eq. 1 i s T6 1 i. which can be determined experimentally. f r o m the flames and furnace walls) to a column specimen both by convection and radiation. a r e assumed t o b e known. e. the t e m p e r a t u r e at P . If the t e m p e r a t u r e s in all elementary r e ions a r e known at t = jbt. Experimental data have indicated (13) that in a f i r e t e s t furnace the transmission of heat to the t e s t specimen i s approximately equivalent t o radiative heat t r a n s f e r f r o m a black body at the so-called "furnace temperature". 1t can be c a l c u ~ e s . e. :.n ) I J EQUATIONS FOR THE OUTER BOUNDARY O F INSULATION In a standard f i r e t e s t heat i s t r a n s f e r r e d from the "furnace" (i. n ( ~ j (m+l). the only unknown quantity in Eq.and (pc)' represent the values of k and ( P C ) . in the present studies the columns will be modeled a s . When the flames a r e of sufficient thickness. 1: . r a diative heat t r a n s f e r i s the p r i m a r y mechanism (14). ( n t 1) + kj ) m. Consequently. (nt1) - TJ m.therefore. kj at t = jAt. at t~&Pemperatur=kqhat prevails at P ma n The k(T) and pc(T) functions. at t = (j+l) A t . k j \ ( m t 1). in other words.

The heat absorbed by an elementary surface region. This curve can be described approximately by the following expres sion (13): Tf = 530 t 1530 [ 1 . the temperature of which varies according t o the temperature-time curve specified by ASTM E l 19-69 (15). (n-l) and R2. ( n t 1). for i s the only un own the period j A t < t i ( j t 1) At.74 t z which i s only slightly different f r o m the expression recommended by the Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (16). n .79553 1 - t ') 1 ] t 306. By solving i t for T J ' ~ one finaky obtains: 1. and approximates the ASTM standard curve within 11" F in the 15-min to 8-h interval. n1 during the period jAt < t < ( j t l ) At can be written a s F r o m this region heat i s transmitted by conduction t o the two neighbouring regions.receiving radiative heat flux f r o m a black body. R2. Again.exp (-3. . R1. a heat balance equation c a n be written f o r Rkn.in which TJ quantity.

Through the a i r gap. t e m p e r a t u r e dependent quantity. emissivities in the range of 0. i. can be calculated approximately from the . Since the radiative heat t r a n s f e r i s predominant. a m a t e r i a l and i s sufficiently accurate t o regard it Since most building m a t e r i a l s have 95 (27). into 4 (N-M-1) pieces. The radiative heat t r a n s f e r r e d to the s t e e l c o r e from a ( 1 4 ) of the inner surface of insulafraction of the elementary region R m . It i s further assumed that a fraction a of each elementary s t e e l m a s s i s in direct contact with the adjacent elementary insulation surface. of i t s surface. it is. e. the convective t r a n s f e r mechanism will not be taken into account in the present studies. Obviously. including pure radiative and p u r e conductive heat t r a n s f e r s t o the s t e e l core. a s constant in the p r e s e n t studies. a. - The model used in this paper t o describe the mechanism of heat t r a n s m i s s i o n at the triangular elementary regions of the inner surface of insulation i s shown in Figure 3. can be simulated. 9 will be used. the inner surface of the insulation i s in direct contact with the s t e e l c o r e along a certain fraction. 1n tion during the period jA< t s ( j t l)A t is - where the emissivity factor following equation: E. heat i s t r a n s f e r r e d by radiation and convection. all possible practical conditions.85-0. EQUATIONS FOR THE INNER BOUNDARY O F INSULATION AND FOR THE S T E E L CORE As Figure 1 shows.Although in this equation €. the mechanism of heat transmission along the a r e a s of contact i s conduction. Obviously. while a fraction ( l a ) of i t s m a s s is a t s o m e distance from t h e elementary surface and receives heat by radiation. especially at higher temperatures. In this way the relative importance of the t r a n s f e r mechani s m on the r i s e of t e m p e r a t u r e of the s t e e l c o r e can be studied. and it i s separated by an a i r gap from the s t e e l along a f r a c tion (1 -a) of i t s surface. and thus receives heat from the insulation by conduction. a value of 0. s t r i c t l y speaking. In this model the total m a s s of s t e e l c o r e i s assumed to be divided into elementary pieces amounting t o the number of elementary regions along the inner surface of the insulation. by varying a from 0 t o 1.

Since.Here. steel i s regarded a s a perfect conductor. again. Consequently. From available data (17.j+l Man ' where (c )j is the specific heat of steel at a temperature that prevails S M. the temperatures of those fractions of elementary steel masses which a r e in direct contact with the insulation surface a r e identical to those of the adjacent elementary regions of insulation. 18). their presence can be taken into account simply by adding their heat capacities to those of the adjacent elementary insulation regions. from a heat balance equation written for region R Msn for the period jAt < t s ( j t l ) A t . Again. by assumption. t = j A t . the following equation can be derived for . the following expression has been derived for the dependence of c on temperature: S . c and c will be regarded as constants for the temperai t u r e ranges considered and equal to 0.9. n at P ~nat .

a . the p r i m a r y purpose of all these calculations i s t o obtain information on the temperature of the steel core.. Again. T J ' ~ can now be calculated from the following equation: sa =j+ 1 S j+l T s ~ C dT = 2a N-M-1 N-M C n= 3. by the application of the law of conservation of energy. i. which i s heated by conduction. the temperature of that (1-a) portion of the core which receives heat by radiation i s obtained a s As has been said earlier.. the following equations a r e applicable to the elementary regions along both sides of the lines of symmetry. 2 shows. i s identical to that of the adjacent surface element of the insulation. The ayerage temperature of the entire steel c o r e at t = ( j t l ) At. of each elementary s t e e l mass. S which i s obtained by expressing the enthalpy of the steel c o r e in two different ways.Of course. e. the temperature of the fraction. and once by using T J ' ~ sa . once with the aid of already defined variables. AUXILIARY EQUATIONS As Fig. Tj t l . Along line A-D: . 5.

if the t e m p e r a t u r e distribution at the jOt level i s known.and along line B-C: . that a l a r g e portion of the m o i s t u r e originally . thus And. 10. 20). The capillary water h a s a f a i r l y high mobility and. E F F E C T O F MOISTURE Although t h e r e h a s already been a f a i r amount of work done a t the DBR/NRC concerning the effect of m o i s t u r e on the f i r e endurance (19. a l l previous work related to walls and floors. a s numerous observations and theoretical work (19) indicated. 8. Since in f i r e endurance standards 1 0 0 0 ° F i s usually regarded a s the t e m p e r a t u r e of failure of s t e e l core. a different concept had t o be considered to take the p r e s e n c e of m o i s t u r e into account in the p r e s e n t studies. in the c a s e of a column. 8. 10. under the effect of high p r e s s u r e gradients developing during a f i r e exposure it will move slowly toward the cooler regions. 12 and 13 it i s now possible t o calculate the t e m p e r a t u r e distribution in the insulation and on i t s boundaries f o r any ( j t l ) At t i m e level. therefore. s t a r t i n g f r o m the initial condition. the calculations can be terminated a f t e r i t s t e m p e r a t u r e h a s exceeded 1460"R. 6. (N-mt 1) With the aid of Eqs. Since i t seemed unlikely that the r e s u l t s of this work could be applied to columns. 12 and 13 the t e m p e r a t u r e h i s t o r y of the p r o t e c tive insulation and of the s t e e l c o r e of t h e column can be determined up t o any specified t i m e level. Initially only the t e m p e r a t u r e distribution a t the t = 0 level i s known. 6. 4. the bulk of m o i s t u r e in building m a t e r i a l s i s in the form of capillary water. 4. In f i r e endurance studies the initial t e m p e r a t u r e of the column (insulation and steel) h a s always been taken a s 70" F and uniform. It s e e m s reasonable to assume. 11. with repeated application of Eqs. 11. It i s well known that under n o r m a l atmospheric conditions. i. e.j+ 1 ma (N-m) ( m t I). toward the inner s u r f a c e of t h e protective insulation. a t room t e m p e r a t u r e and at about 50 t o 70 p e r cent relative humidity.

that i s used for evaporation of moisture on reaching certain temperature levels. Since.present in the insulation will finally vapourize at the inner surface of the insulation. 2. namely Eq. A comprehensive computer study was undertaken t o find out whether the r a t e of moisture migration had any significant effect on the temperature history of steel core. 672" R. e. in other words. This model can be recognized a s p r a c tically the s a m e a s the one already used in Refs. it i s necessary to define a function which describes the fraction of the net heat. The hypothetical moisture concentration in the triangular elementary regions of the inner surface. the function to be chosen should obviously have a steep section a t this temperature. Since the bulk of evaporation is known to take place in the vicinity of the boiling point. the effect of moisture can be taken into account by modifying the equation concerned with the temperature of these regions. nr by (i) absorbing latent heat in the vaporization process and (ii) increasing the heat capacity of the regions. moisture exists only in the elementary regions along the inner surface of the insulation. supplied to an elementary region. To enable one to formulate the problem of vaporization of moisture. according t o this model. can be written a s follows: This equation can be verified with the aid of Fig. in which the r a t e of moisture migration is infinite. that in further work only the limiting case would be considered. after the moisture originally present in the insulation was transposed into these regions. 8. all moisture originally present in the insulation i s transposed into the inner surface layer of the insulation right from the beginning of the f i r e exposure. The following function fulfils this requirement: . i. 2 and 3. The presence of moisture affects the heat balance for an elementary region. Rm. It was decided. The computer studies indicated that the influence of the r a t e of moisture movement was not sufficient to justify the increased labour involved in a m o r e elaborate formulation of the problem. therefore.

CL v n- From a heat balance equation similar to Eq. ) in an elementary region RM. When t h e r e i s still moisture in the insulation. due to the presence of (hypothetical) moisture can be expressed as .6 = i erfc ( A where A is a constant. it can be derived that the change of the hypothetical moisture concentration . is used f o r 5 ) for increasing the temperaevaporation and a fraction ( 1 r n t u r e of insulation and steel core.. p e r unit time. . 1. generally taken a s 10 in the present work.a fraction of the net heat inflow in a certain region RM. b. due to evaporation ) t is: in the period jAt < t ~ ( j t l A The additional heat absorbed by these elementary regions.

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION T o verify the validity of t h i s n u m e r i c a l technique. 8. Thus the f o r m of Eq. T J + ~ o r becomes d r y during the heating process. i s m o i s t u r e in the insulation. In the t e s t s t h r e e different protecting m a t e r i a l s and two different s t e e l c o r e s w e r e used. T J M. The effect of the m o i s t u r e content of insulation on the t e m p e r a t u r e h i s t o r y of s t e e l c o r e s was a l s o studied i n a few c a s e s . If the insulation*is d r y . 4. standard f i r e t e s t s w e r e c a r r i e d out on s e v e r a l protected s t e e l columns. a heat capacity additive to those a l r e a d y introduced in Eq. in fact. 8. A typical t e s t specimen i s shown in Fig. i. n = 0. M. The r e s u l t s w e r e then compared with those obtained by the theoretical simulations of t h e s e t e s t s . n i s t o be calculated by Eq. n 1 M . e. i.The t e r m in brackets is. 8 modified for the p r e s e n c e of m o i s t u r e and f o r m o i s t u r e evaporation becomes: [J (18) a s long a s there j " This equation i s applicable to the calculation of TM. of the components of the specimen i s given below: The description . e. coJ > 0.

the l a t t e r data w e r e used for the whole t e m p e r a t u r e range under consideration. 21. S e v e r a l of the t e s t specimens w e r e constructed with the insulation in contact with the flanges of the s t e e l section. 3. The following t h r e e protecting m a t e r i a l s w e r e used: lightweight concrete of expanded shale aggregates. The heat input into the t e s t furnace was controlled in such a way that the average t e m p e r a t u r e closely followed the standard t e m p e r a t u r e v e r s u s t i m e c u r v e given by Eq. TESTING PROCEDURE The t e s t s w e r e c a r r i e d out by exposing t e s t specimens to heating in a furnace specially built for this purpose. 4. away f r o m the s u r f a c e of the specimen. 22. Steel core: H-section. 23. t o reduce heat l o s s e s f r o m the top of the s t e e l core. t h e i r m o i s t u r e content before t h e test. In the c a s e shown in the figure the insulation and s t e e l a r e separated all around by an a i r space. to reduce heat l o s s e s f r o m the bottom of the s t e e l core. 2. Mineral wool. 5. 1. but because of the s m a l l t e m p e r a t u r e differences between t h e various . 5. and a heavy clay brick. Protecting device. Those of the heavy clay b r i c k w e r e m e a s u r e d for a few t e m p e r a t u r e s according t o the method described in Ref. insulating f i r e b r i c k Group 23. 22.1. a s shown in Fig. t o contain an insulating m i n e r a l wool. Protecting insulation. and t h e weight and s i z e of the s t e e l c o r e s a r e given in the Tables 1. The t e m p e r a t u r e of the s t e e l c o r e was m e a s u r e d at four levels. 2 and 3. Insulating f i r e bricks. The furnace t e m p e r a t u r e was m e a s u r e d by nine thermocouples located at s e v e r a l levels around the specimen with t h e i r hot junctions 12 in. Since the m e a s u r e d p r o p e r t i e s w e r e approximately equal to those given in Ref. The t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s of the lightweight concrete w e r e derived f r o m the data given in Ref. and those of the insulating f i r e b r i c k f r o m Ref. The t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s of the insulating m a t e r i a l s used.

Fig. The average of the t e m p e r a t u r e s recorded by t h e s e t h r e e thermocouples. 9 and 10. and therefore it h a s not been plotted in t h e figures. only indications by t h r e e thermocouples located at the midheight of the specimen w e r e used. 5. To check the validity of this concept. no reliable information could be obtained of t h e s t e e l t e m p e r a t u r e in the initial stages of those two t e s t s (shown in Figs. 5). 5 to 8. was taken a s a m e a s u r e of the t e m p e r a t u r e of the s t e e l core. a = 0 in Eqs. in previous works the t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e between insulation and the s t e e l c o r e was always disregarded (1 -8). Probably because of condensation of moisture on the thermocouple wires. These doubtful t e m p e r a t u r e measurements have not been plotted in the figures. of which one was located in the c e n t r e of the web and the two others at the edge of either flange.locations. 5 and 8) in which the protection contained moisture. together with that obtained by theoretical simulations. 9 r e l a t e s t o a column made with . (c) All heat i s t r a n s f e r r e d by conduction from the insulation to the c o r e without any t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e at the contacting surfaces between s t e e l c o r e and insulation ( a = 1). The calculated t e m p e r a t u r e s of s t e e l c o r e have been plotted against t i m e in Figs. This finding also confirms t h e validity of the model used t o account for the presence of moisture. t h e r e i s no t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e at contacting s u r f a c e s between the c o r e and insulation (a = 0. RESULTS Information concerning the variation of the average t e m p e r a t u r e of s t e e l c o r e a s obtained from the f i r e t e s t s . 11 and 19). i s presented in Figs. As mentioned e a r l i e r . calculations w e r e performed for the following t h r e e modes of heat t r a n s f e r f r o m the insulation t o the s t e e l core: (a) All heat i s t r a n s f e r r e d by radiation t o the c o r e (i. e. In all t e s t s the furnace t e m p e r a t u r e followed v e r y closely the temperature v e r s u s t i m e curve formulated by Eq. It is seen that in all c a s e s a good agreement exists between experimental and calculated temperatures. 8. (b) 50 p e r cent of the heat is t r a n s f e r r e d t o the c o r e by radiation and 50 p e r cent by conduction.

An examination of data (24. CONCLUSIONS A finite difference calculation method has been described. 11 and 13 that f o r columns made with lightweight protection of considerable thickness. It s e e m s justified. i. 10 t o a column protected with insulating f i r e brick. It i s seen in Figs. With the exception of concrete. however. in the t i m e that it takes the s t e e l c o r e t o r e a c h the 1000"F level. and Fig. It can be used for the prediction of the t e m p e r a t u r e history of the insulation and s t e e l c o r e of protected s t e e l columns. the gain in time due t o the presence of moisture may be substantial. 11 13 it can be derived that the gain in f i r e resistance. It i s clearly seen that the mechanism of heat t r a n s f e r from the insulation t o the s t e e l c o r e has only a s m a l l influence on the s t e e l temperature. The r e s u l t s a r e shown in Figs.a lightweight concrete protection. s t e e l will have lost s o much of i t s strength that i t no longer can support the load. At this temperature. to assume that the s t e e l temperature i s equal to t h e temperature at the inner surface of insulation. Thus a close approximation of the average t e m p e r a t u r e of s t e e l c o r e can be obtained by assuming that this i s equal to the average t e m p e r a t u r e - . commonly used inorganic building m a t e r i a l s do not hold much moisture under normal atmospheric conditions. therefore. It h a s been shown that the temperature of s t e e l c o r e i s insensitive to the mechanism of heat t r a n s f e r from the inner surface of the insulation to the steel. It i s usual t o regard the time at which the temperature of s t e e l reaches an average of about 1000"F a s the t i m e of failure for the column. due t o moisture in the protection i s roughly 3 p e r cent for each p e r cent moisture. 25. Thus. 26) indicated that while at 50 p e r cent relative humidity concretes can hold 3 t o 6 p e r cent moisture by volume. one can expect gains of the o r d e r of 10 t o 20 p e r cent in the c a s e of concrete protection and hardly any gains for other inorganic materials. in other words. t o neglect the t h e r m a l resistance at the contacting surfaces between s t e e l and insulation. e. 11 t o 13. F r o m the data given in Figs. F u r t h e r calculations w e r e performed t o obtain information on the influence of the moisture content in the protection on the t e m p e r a t u r e of s t e e l core. most other m a t e r i a l s hold l e s s than 1 p e r cent. The acceptable accuracy of this method has been demonstrated by comparing experimental and theoretical results.

the influence of moisture on the t e m p e r a t u r e h i s t o r y of s t e e l c o r e i s negligible for most inorganic building materials. 0. Porteous f o r his assistance in conducting the experimental work. for which the presence of moisture may cause a 10 t o 20 p e r cent gain in the time that the column can support the load. and unprotected s t e e l for any f i r e exposure.of the inner surface of the protection. . such a s concrete beams and columns. Although the method has been developed p r i m a r i l y f o r the calculation of t e m p e r a t u r e s in protected s t e e l columns. A notable exception i s concrete. It may a l s o be used t o calculate the t e m p e r a t u r e history in solid s t r u c t u r a l elements. In general. and evaporates from this surface a s the t e m p e r a t u r e at this place r i s e s . To facilitate the calculation of the temperature of s t e e l c o r e it i s permissible t o a s s u m e that all moisture i s concentrated a t the inner surface of the insulation from the s t a r t of the heating process. it has a m o r e general applicability. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish t o thank E.

Btu/lbOR = 0. without subscript: specific heat of insulation. 1. ft coordinate. k thermal conductivity. lb/ft -8 Btu/h ft2 o R~ Stefan-Boltzrnann constant. " R specific heat. ft /ft . without subscript: density of insulation.. 2. ft emissivity emis sivity factor latent heat of vaporization. Btu/lb 3 density. Btu/h f t OR M number of m e s h points along x axis N P R t number of m e s h points along y axis point elementary region time. h temperature. O R (if not specified otherwise) m a s s of steel core. lb/ft coordinate. j .NOMENCLATURE Notations a c empirical constant. without subscript: thermal conductivity of insulation. 0 -17/3 x 10 3 moisture concentration. . ft3/ft 3 3 hypothetical moisture concentration. ft T W x Y Greek l e t t e r s fraction increment or difference mesh width.

M n. respectively a t o r around a m e s h point in the n-th o r N-th column. N s R w Superscripts o j att=O at t = jAt .Subscripts a f i average of the "furnace" of the insulation at o r around a m e s h point in the m-th o r M-th row. respectively of the s t e e l c o r e pertaining t o radiation of water m.

Zurich. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 . W. pp. 2. 1969. 1969. Structural f i r e protection in the process industry. 1968. Heron No. pp. Emmons.. Building. 216. London. Berechnung des Brandwiderstandes von Stahlkonstruktionen. Zurich. Fujii. Witteveen. 29. Dusinberre. 607-615. No.REFERENCES - 1 Geilinger. The theoretical calculation of temperature-rise of thermally protected s t e e l column exposed to the fire. Vol. 1966. 1961. M. Utvecklingstendenser rorande brandteknisk dimensionering av st%lkonstruk tioner. 301. Verlag Schweizer Stahlbauverband. 10-40. 0. O. Lie. S. Pettersson. S. M. T. Stockholm. Z. T. 57-81. 1965. Rotterdam. T. Harmathy. M. and Bryl. 265-268. " Ministry of Technology and F i r e Offices* Committee Joint F i r e Research Organization Symposium No. 1962. J. Temperature of protected s t e e l in fire. No. Feursicherheit der Stahlkonstruktionen. T. 2. Lie. Tokyo. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. G. Law. S. Special Technical Publication No. H. Paper 8 of "Behaviour of Structural Steel in F i r e . Heat t r a n s f e r calculations by finite differences. A t r e a t i s e on theoretical f i r e endurance rating. pp. 6-7. H. VSg -och vattenbyggar en. The numerical solution of heat conduction problems. pp. IV. International Textbook Company. 1963. 1943. T. pp. Scranton. Bekledingsmaterialen en Bouwconstructies bij Brand. 65. 1961. 1964. Teil: Feurschutz von Stahlstiitzen. 10. Schweizerische Zentralstelle f c r Stahlbau. American Society for Testing Materials. Pennsylvania. Vol. W. Centrum Bouwen in Staal. Brandveiligheid Staalconstructies. Building Research Institute Occasional Report No. 86-90.

R. pp. 1961. Z. Techn. 385. and Lie. s t r u c t u r a l clay products and r e f r a c t o r i e s . 1. Z. 1969 Book of ASTM Standards. Harmathy. T. Publ. and Gambill. Bulletin of the F i r e Prevention Society of Japan. P. Carnegie Inst. . No. T. W. J. L. F i r e Technology. No. JMLSA. h c . Brick. McGraw-Hill Book Company. No.. ASTM Designation E l 19-69. 3. Toronto. and Mawhinney. "Cahier 299". Y. Harmathy. McGraw-Hill Book Company. London. Sec. Z. M. 5. John Wiley and Sons. Harmathy. Harmathy. Special Technical Publication No.. Vol. 436-452. Butterworths Sci. 25. Standard methods of f i r e t e s t s of building construction and m a t e r i a l s . C a h i e r s C e n t r e Scientifique e t Technique du B2timent. T. et al. C. 464. H. T. T h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s of concrete at elevated t e m p e r a t u r e s . J. 1963. 29-35. pp. 1953. Calculation of t e m p e r a t u r e i n double-layer walls heated f r o m one side. Harmathy. 1958. 17. New York. Liley. 1970. Chemical Engineers Handbook. W. Engineering M a t e r i a l s Handbook. A p r i l 1959. Technology. pp. P h y s . E. 35. P h y s i c a l constants of s o m e c o m m e r c i a l s t e e l s a t elevated t e m p e r a t u r e s . Vol. No. Sect. Iron S t e e l Res. Z. P. 1971. P h y s i c a l and chemical data. p.. March 1970. Publ. London. Brit. Effect of m o i s t u r e on the f i r e endurance of building elements. 2. T. New York.. 38. Variable s t a t e methods of m e a s u r i n g the t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s of solids. T. 1190. ASTM Spec. 7. . Assoc. Industrial furnaces. pp. C. 1964. - . Appl. E.Kawagoe. P l u m m e r . S. 209-243. Vol. Touloukian. 13. New York. A m e r i c a n Society f o r Testing and Materials. 47-74. P e r r y . Z. Vol. T. 74.. J. F a c k l e r . Thrinks. P a r t 14. K. Journal of Materials. T h e r m a l performance of concrete m a s o n r y walls in f i r e . p. Mantell. W. 1965. 1965. p. Experimental verification of the r u l e of m o i s t u r e moment.

7 5. 25 26 27 . T. H.24 Powers. Sect. C. NRC 9492. 242. P e r r y . March 1967. New York. Ottawa. 197 1. National Research Council of Canada. Harmathy. T. Feasibility of determining the equilibrium moisture condition in f i r e resistance t e s t specimens by measuring their electrical resistance. Lie. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1963. L. Ottawa. et al. Chicago. NRC. H. Technical P a p e r No. C. Chemical Engineer's Handbook. Heat transmission. T. Division of Building Research. Bulletin 22. 10. Studies of the physical properties of hardened portland cement paste. Moisture sorption of building materials. J. and Brownyard. T. Building Research Note No. 1948. Z. Division of Building Research. T. Gilmor e. Research Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association.

Outside dimensions of specimen: 19: in.00 18. (k) ~ t u / f th O R 0. 342 3 Density of insulation a t room temperature: P = 9 0 lb/ft cpo = 0. Steel core: H-section. Emissivity of protection: C i = 0. Emissivity of steel: C s = 0.308 0.312 0. x 192 in.75 25. 327 0. .20 24. 323 0.320 0. 307 0.90 23. 320 0. 327 0.30 Thermal conductivity.. 327 0. 9. (no contact between s t e e l and protection).35 17. (p c) ~ t u / f t 3 R 16.70 27.80 25. 315 0.TABLE 1 INFORMATION ON THE TEST COLUMNS BUILT WITH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE PROTECTION Thermal properties of protecting insulation P Temperature O F 70 100 200 300 40 0 500 600 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1700 2000 2300 Volumetric heat capacity.323 0.20 24. 20 lb p e r ft length. 6 x 6 in. 311 0.90 23.325 0.25 43.90 24.60 33.75 23. 303 0.30 35.50 41. 328 0.65 25.85 25. 327 0.303 0.326 0.10 25. 9.90 24. 317 0.032 £t3/ft3 Average moisture content: Thickness of protection: 3 5/8 in.399 0.95 25.306 0.25 23.00 26. 305 0.

Outside dimensions of specimen: 11 in. 6 x 6 in. 31 13. (contact between steel and protection at the s t e e l flanges) Emissivity of protection: C i = 0. 127 0.66 12. 60 9.230 0.21 12.134 0.21 7. 20 l b p e r ft length.95 - T h e r m a l conductivity. 107 0. 141 0. 148 0. .39 8. .255 0.86 14. 307 0.281 0. 14 9. 41 14.120 0.TABLE 2 INFORMATION ON THE TEST COLUMNS BUILT WITH INSULATING FIRE BRICK PROTECTION T h e r m a l properties of protecting insulation Temperature. 55 9. Volumetric heat capacity.12 11. Thickness protection: 22 in. 9. 9. (k) ~ t u / f t hO R 0. Steel core: H-section.25 10.100 0. 00 8. = 0.88 10.204 0.098 0. x 11 in.182 0.76 13.57 11. 332 70 100 200 300 40 0 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2 400 I 3 Density of insulation a t room temperature: p = 45 lb/ft Average moisture content: CQ.114 0. Emissivity of steel: C S = 0. (pc) ~ t u / f t "R ~ 7.165 0.

x 12$ in. 29. (k) ~ t u / f t h "R (p c) ~ t u / f t " R O F 70 100 200 300 40 0 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 -. 6 5 0.0 4 f t / f t . 6 0 0. 26. 5 5 0. 9. 24.- 24. 31. 26.73 0. Temperature. 8 3 0.TABLE 3 INFORMATION ON THE TEST COLUMNS BUILT WITH HEAVY CLAY BRICK PROTECTION 1 T h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s of protecting insulation T h e r m a l conductivity. 5 4 0. Emissivity of steel: s s = 0. 8 6 0. 29. 33. 7 6 0. 7 0 0. 27. 25. . 33. 8 0 0. 57 0. 26. 9. (contact between s t e e l and protection at the s t e e l flanges). 32. Steel core: H-section. 27. 30. 6 6 0. 9 2 I 3 Density of insulation a t room temperature: p = 1 3 3 lb/ft Average m o i s t u r e content: (a) cpo = 0 3 3 (b) cpo = 0 . . 63 0. 28. 9 0 0. 8 x 8 in. Volumetric heat capacity. -. Outside dimensions of specimen: 12$ in. 6 0 0. Emissivity of protection: E i = 0. 48 l b p e r ft length. 32. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 6 1 0. 1 Thickness protection: 2 7 in. .

FIGURE 1 CROSS S E C T I O N O F A T Y P I C A L PROTECTED STEEL mar~a~z-I COLUMN .

P . .FIGURE 2 THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE ELEMENTARY REGIONS OF A ONE-EIGHTH COLUMN PROTECTION SECTION OF ~ I ~ ~ .

M A S S O F STEEL ELEMENT: ~ c W LMASS O F STEEL ELEMENT : (I-oc) W 4(N-M-1) C = C O N D U C T I V E HEAT FLUX R = RADIATIVE HEAT FLUX FIGURE 3 M O D E L O F M E C H A N I S M O F HEAT TRANSFER FOR A T R I A N G U L A R E L E M E N T A R Y R E G I O N O F THE I N N E R SURFACE O F I N S U L A T I O N IRWS~ -3 .

SECTION A-0-C-D WITHOUT ITEM 3 FIGURE 4 FIRE TEST SPECIMEN E l I###-I .

MINUTES FIGURE 5 240 1 300 360 A V E R A G E T E M P E R A T U R E O F STEEL CORE I N A C O L U M N PROTECTED W I T H L I G H T WE1 G H T CONCRETE Y' = 0. oc 0.1 - - - -- EXPEH l MENTAL CALCULATED - - 1 0 60 120 180 T I M E .032. (FOR FURTHER D E T A I L S O F S P E C I M E N SEE T A B L E 1) ~RYO~Z-4 .

5 ( F O R F U R T H E R D E T A I L S O F S P E C I M E N SEE T A B L E 2 ) . d = 0.FIGURE 6 A V E R A G E T E M P E R A T U R E O F STEEL C O R E I N A C O L U M N P R O T E C T E D W I T H I N S U L A T I N G FIRE BRICK Y o = 0.

o C = 0 . 5 SR4aLIZ .-. MINUTES FIGURE 7 A V E R A G E T E M P E R A T U R E O F STEEL C O R E I N A C O L U M N P R O T E C T E D W I T H H E A V Y CLAY BRICK 'Po = 0.6 ( F O R F U R T H E R D E T A I L S O F S P E C I M E N SEE T A B L E 3 ) .E X P E R l M E N T A L - CALCULATED TIME.

OC= 0 . MINUTES FIGURE 8 A V E R A G E T E M P E R A T U R E O F STEEL C O R E I N A C O L U M N P R O T E C T E D W I T H H E A V Y CLAY BRICK Y o = 0 .IMENTAL -EC XAPL EC R ULATED -- TIME. 5 ( F O R F U R T H E R D E T A I L S O F S P E C I M E N SEE T A B L E 3) . 0 4 .

(FOR FURTHER D E T A I L S OF THE C O L U M N SEE TABLE 1) .6 'Po = 0 . 0 3 2 . MINUTES 240 I 300 360 60 FIGURE 9 CALCULATED TEMPERATURES OF STEEL CORE I N A C O L U M N PROTECTED W I T H L I G H T W E I G H T CONCRETE FOR V A R I O U S R A T I O S OF C O N D U C T I O N TO R A D I A T I O N HEAT TRANSFER F R O M THE P R O T E C T I O N TO THE STEEL 8R4842 .I 1 I - d = 1 (PURE CONDUCTION) - 0 (PURE R A D I A T I O N ) - - - - I 0 0 I 120 1 180 TIME.

( F O R F U R T H E R DETA l L S O F C O L U M N SEE T A B L E 3) . S O F C O N D U C T I O N TO R A D I A T I O N H E A T T R A N S F E R F R O M T H E P R O T E C T I O N T O T H E STEEL .TIME. MINUTES FIGURE 10 C A L C U L A T E D T E M P E R A T U R E S O F STEEL C O R E I N A C O L U M N P R O T E C T E D W I T H H E A V Y C L A Y B R I C K FOR V A R I O U S R A T I 0 .R*~*X-9 Y o = 0 .

( F O R F U R T H E R D E T A I L S O F C O L U M N SEE T A B L E 1 ) .0 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 TIME. MINUTES F I G U R E 11 C A L C U L A T E D T E M P E R A T U R E S O F STEEL C O R E I N A C O L U M N P R O T E C T E D W I T H L I G H T W E I G H T C O N C R E T E FOR V A R I O U S M O I S T U R E C O N T E N T S DR4a+1-IO oc-0.

O . 5 . d . MINUTES FIGURE 12 C A L C U L A T E D T E M P E R A T U R E S O F STEEL CORE I N A C O L U M N P R O T E C T E D W I T H H E A V Y C L A Y B R I C K FOR V A R I O U S M O I S T U R E C O N T E N T S .TIME. (FOR FURTHER D E T A I L S O F C O L U M N SEE TABLE 3) SR+~*L-II .

THICKNESS TIME.If IN.5. MINUTES F I G U R E 13 CALCULATED TEMPERATURES O F STEEL CORE I N A C O L U M N PROTECTED W I T H I N S U L A T I N G F I R E B R I C K FOR V A R I O U S M O I S T U R E CONTENTS A N D T H I C K N E S S E S OF THE P R O T E C T I O N d = 0. (FOR FURTHER D E T A I L S O F S P E C I M E N SEE TABLE 2) OR*WIL-IL . THICKNESS 23lN.

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