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CHAPTER THREE COMPUTER NETWORKS

3.1.1.1

Define computer networks.

Computer network is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices. For example, it may connect computers, printers, scanners and cameras. Using hardware and software, these interconnected computing devices can communicate with each other through defined rules of data communications. In a network, computers can exchange and share information and resources. A computer network may operate on wired connections or wireless connections. When two or more networks are linked or connected and are able to communicate with one another using suitable hardware and software, it is called an internetwork. 3.1.1.2 Define communications.

COMMUNICATIONS Communications is about the transfer of information from a sender, across a distance, to a receiver. Using electricity, radio waves or light, information and data in the form of codes are transmitted through a physical medium such as wire, cable, or even the atmosphere. The information that is transmitted (sent) can be text, voice, sound, video, graphics and images, or a combination of all these, which we call multimedia. We transmit information or data by using two types of signals, namely analog and digital. 3.1.2.1 State the importance of computer networks and communications.

Information is now made easy with the availability of network communications. In a clinic for example, network communications plays an important part in keeping patients database for easy retrieval. Unlike in conventional practice, doctors and nurses have to look for a patients personal file from hundreds or maybe thousands of records. With network communication, the clinic saves time and manpower. Allocation can be effectively planned. E-Business E-business refers to conducting business transactions on the internet, not only limited to buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners. E-business supports many types of business transactions, including online shopping, selling and renting. Users can browse the website and choose from the list of items or services to buy. Payment is usually via credit card. Online Education With a network connections, online education is made possible. Students at any location around the world can participate in an online classroom, download tutorial questions and submit their assignments. E-Banking E-banking handles all types of banking transactions like account management, fund transfer and payments primarily over the internet. User can pay bills, check the account balance and transfer money to other parties, using e-banking facilities twenty four hours a day and seven days a week. With e-banking, most of the transactions can be done at home or from the office, thus users save time on traveling and queuing at the bank counters. Long Distance Communication Long distance communication is made easy via network availability. Communication is possible via voice, text or video. The cost of having this type of communication is cheaper than making a normal phone call and definitely faster and more effective than corresponding via letters of fax. In business, important decisions can effectively made through video conference meeting.

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3.1.3.1

Define types of computer networks:

Local Area Network (LAN) A LAN covers a small region of space, typically a single building ~ Eg: within a school lab. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A MAN is a collection of LANs with the same geographical area, for instance a city ~ Eg: within a a city Wide Area Network (WAN) A WAN can be a collection of LANs or MANs or the mix of two with a very large geographical area, for instance a country or even beyond the border ~ Eg: between KL and London 3.1.3.2 Differentiate between the three types of computer networks.

LAN is a group of computers and network devices connected together, usually within the same building. It is the smallest network compared to the other two networks. The simplest form of LAN is to connect two computers together. LAN is operated within a limited physical area, such as at home, school, a single building or several buildings. A network which consists of less than 500 interconnected devices across several buildings, is still recognised as a LAN. Inexpensive hardware used in LAN previously include twisted pair, coaxial cables and the higher end is fiber optic or wireless. However, coaxial cables are now being replaced by a higher speed cabling system such as CAT5 using RJ45 connectors. LAN is a very high speed network (from previously 10Mbps) to 100Mbps, which is faster than MAN and WAN. MAN can be defined as a group of computers and network devices connected together within a large physical area. It is a network of computers located at different sites within a large physical area, such as a city. Companies that have several branches within the Kuala Lumpur city such as banks, might find a MAN useful to them. In this case, setting up a MAN across long distances can be best connected using fiber optics. Sometimes, a MAN can be a collection of several LANs within the same city. MAN often acts as a high speed network (although not as fast as a LAN) to allow sharing of regional resources. WANis the largest network of all network types. The Internet is the largest WAN in the world. WAN generally covers large distances such as states, countries or continents. An example in the society using WAN is the banking organisation. Local banks have always maintained their business online by connecting all computers of their branches in the countries. International banks also use WAN to connect their computers all over the world. Actually, WAN is a group of MANs or LANs or the mixture of both networks. A device called a router is needed to connect the MANs and LANs all over a large physical area. A router is a special networking device that connects two or more different networks and keeps data flowing between them. A router makes all the different networks communicate, such as connecting LAN to LAN, LAN to WAN or WAN to WAN. The transmission media in WAN uses the fibre optic cable. WAN is still considered a fast network with speeds 20 2000 Kbps, but slower than LAN and MAN. 3.1.4.1 Define two types of network architecture:

Client/Server A client/server network is a network in which the shared files and applications are stored in the server but network users (clients) can still store files on their individual PCs. A server is a computer that shares information and resources with other computers on a network. A client is a computer which requests services or files from a server computer.

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Peer-to-Peer Peer-to-peer network is a network with all the nodes acting as both servers and clients. A PC can access files located on another PC and can also provide files to other PCs. With peer-to-peer network, no server is needed; each computer in the network is called a peer. All computers in the peer-to-peer network has equal responsibilities and capabilities to use the resources available on the network. 3.1.5.1 State three types of network topologies:

Bus Topology A bus topology consists of a single central cable to which all computers and other devices connect. It refers to the main physical pathway or central cable where all other devices are connected to it. All nodes share the backbone to communicate with each other on the network. Sometimes, a bus network has more than one server. Sometimes, a server is not needed on the network. If one of the nodes fails, the bus network would still function as long as the backbone is working. Ring Topology A ring topology consists of all computers and other devices that are connected in a loop. Ring topology is also known as a ring network. In a ring network each node directly connect to two neighbouring nodes. A server may exist in a ring network, but it will not connect to all the nodes in the network. The server, like other nodes, will only communicate to its two neighbouring nodes. Star Topology A star topology consists of a central host which acts as the centre, and all nodes connect to the host. The host can be a server, hub or router. In a star network, every node will not connect to the neighbouring nodes. Every node must connect to the host in order to communicate. The host will control the flow of communication in the network. If one of the nodes fails, the star network can still function as long as the host is working. 3.1.5.2 Differentiate between the three types of network topology.

Bus Topology There is a single central cable (backbone) and all computers and other devices connect to it Depends on network needs It has no connection between the nodes. Network can still run Network can still run Difficult. Need to search for the problematic node one by one

Ring Topology All computers and other devices are connected in a circle

Star Topology There is a central host and all nodes connect to it

Structure

Host existence Connection between nodes Host failure Node failure

Depends on network needs Yes

Yes

No

Network will fail Network will fail Depends on backbone. If there is a backbone, troubleshooting is difficult. If there is no backbone, the focus is on the two nodes not communicating

Network will fail Network can still run Depends on the host. It is easier to repair the problematic host. However, if the nodes fail, then each node has to be searched

Ease of troubleshooting

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Bus Topology Ease of adding or removing nodes Number of nodes when extending network Easy

Ring Topology Difficult

Star Topology Average

Many

Limited

Limited

3.1.6.1

Define Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as a protocol to facilitate communication over computer network.

TCP/IP is the internet communication protocol. It is a standard that sets the rules computers must follow in communicating with each other on a network. Some refer TCP/IP as the Internet Protocol Suite. When you use any applications or programs to access the Internet, these application will use TCP/IP to achieve the task. For example, when you want to surf a network, you will use the internet browser. Your browser then uses TCP/IP to request services from Internet servers. These servers will use TCP/IP to send the web pages you requested back to your browser. 3.1.7.1 Describe the types of network communications technology:

Internet The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller business, academic, domestic and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Internet is one of the uses of communication. Through the Internet, society has access to global information and instant communication. Intranet An Intranet is an internal network that uses Internet technologies and it is a small version of the Internet that exists within an organisation. It is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organisations information or operation with its employees. Intranet generally make company information accessible to employees and facilitate working in groups. Simple intranet applications include electronic publishing of organisational materials such as telephone directories, event calendars and job postings. Extranet An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a businesss information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses. Package shipping companies, for example, allow customers to access their network to print air bills, schedule pickups, and even track shipped packages as the packages travel to their destinations.

3.2.1.1

Identify the devices needed in computer network communication : Network Interface Card (NIC) Wireless Network Interface Card

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Modem (internal and external) Hub / Switch Router Wireless Access Point

3.2.1.2

State the functions of the following: Network Interface Card (NIC)

A Network Interface Card (NIC) is an adapter card or PC card that enables the computer to access the network Wireless Network Interface Card Wireless Network Interface Card (WNIC) is a network card that provides wireless data transmission Modem (internal and external) There are two types of modem, internal modem and external modem. An internal modem only works in stand-alone computers. It is built into the computer. An external modem is separated from the computer and is also mobile. Hub / Switch Hub or switch is a common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. Router A router is a communications device that connects multiple computers or other routers together and transmits data to the correct destination Wireless Access Point A wireless access point is a central communications device that allow computers to transfer data. This device can help information to be transferred wirelessly to other wireless devices or to a wired network. Wireless access point has high quality antennas for optimal signals. 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable.

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UNSHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR CABLE

The twisted-pair cable is generally a common form of transmission medium. It consists of two wires or conductors twisted together, each with its own plastic insulation. The twisted wires cancel out electromagnetic interference that can cause, the noise generated by adjacent pairs. Undesired coupling of a signal from one circuit, part of a circuit, or channel, to another. The most common connector used for twisted-pair cable is RJ-45. A wave produced by the interaction of time-varying electric and magnetic fields. Registered Jack-45 (RJ-45) is an eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers onto Local Area Networks (LAN), especially Ethernets. The Unshielded Twisted-Pair or UTP is the most common twisted-pair cable used in communications. Cables that consist of pairs of unshielded wire twisted together. It is the most common kind of copper telephone wiring. It has four pairs of colour-coded twisted-pair cables that are covered with a plastic outer jacket. SHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR CABLE The Shielded Twisted-Pair or STP is another form of twisted-pair cable. Twisted-pair cable wires that consist of an outer covering or shield. Its four pairs of colour-coded wires are each wrapped in metallic foil, and all four are then collectively wrapped in a layer of metallic braid or foil. Finally, this layer is wrapped with a plastic outer jacket. COAXIAL CABLE The coaxial cable, often referred to as coax, consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers. They are an insulating material, a woven or braided metal and a plastic outer coating. This cable is often used as cable television (CATV) network wiring because it can be cabled over longer distances in comparison to the twisted-pair cable. FIBRE OPTIC CABLE The fibre optic cable is a networking medium that uses light for data transmission. The intensity of light is increased and decreased to represent binary one and zero. The binary system is a way of counting using just the two numbers 0 and 1. Its core consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic which uses light to transmit signals. Each strand, called an optical fibre, is as thin as a human hair. 3.2.2.2 Identify various types of wireless transmission media such as infrared, radio wave and satellite.

WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY The use of wireless technology as a method of data transport appears very similar to a wired technology. In a wireless media however, signal transmission is unguided and the device communicates without using wires between nodes, usually by relying on radio frequencies instead. Infrared is used in devices such as the mouse, wireless keyboard and printers. Some manufacturers provide a special port called the IrDA port that allows a wireless keyboard to communicate with a PC. Infrared signals have frequencies between 300 GHz to 400 THz. They are used for short-range communication. Infrared signals have high frequencies and cannot penetrate walls. Due to its shortrange communication system, the use of an infrared communication system in one room will not be affected by the use of another system in the next room. Radio waves are normally omnidirectional. When an antenna transmits radio waves, they are propagated in all directions. This means that the sending and receiving antennas do not have to be aligned. The omnidirectional characteristics of radio waves make them useful for multicasting, in which there is one

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sender but many receivers. Our AM and FM radio stations, cordless phones and televisions are examples of multicasting. 3.3.1.1 Define Network Operating System.

An operating system is the program that first loads when a computer boots and manages any other software or hardware on the computer. A Network Operating System or known as NOS, has additional functionality that allows it to connect computers and peripherals to a network. A Network Operating System is most frequently used with Local Area Networks and Wide Area Networks, but could also have application to larger network systems.Text String, A NOS is not the same as the networking tools provided by some existing operating systems, Windows XP for instance. NOS is an operating system that has been specifically written to keep networks running at optimal performance. 3.3.1.2 Name various Network Operating System Software.

Windows NT Windows 2000 Server Windows Server 2003 Red Hat Linux 3.3.2.1 State the functions of various client software.

WEB BROWSER A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with HTML documents hosted by web servers or held in a file system.Text and images on a web page can contain hyperlinks to other web pages at the same or to different websites.Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many web pages at many websites by surfing these links. Web browsers available for personal computers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Safari, Netscape and Opera. Web browsers are the most commonly used type of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) user agent. Although browsers are typically used to access the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or content in file systems. EMAIL CLIENT An email client is a computer program that is used to read and send email. FUNCTIONS OF FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP) CLIENT File Transfer Protocol (FTP) client is used to connect two computers over the Internet so that the user of one computer can transfer files and perform file commands on the other computer. 3.4.1.1 3.4.1.2 3.4.2.1 Insert network interface cards (NIC). Install drivers for the NIC. Crimp and test UTP cable Straight cable Crossed cable

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3.4.2.2 3.4.3.1

Create awareness of the correct way when crimping a cable. Configure the workstation to join a LAN : Internet Protocol (IP) Address Subnet Mask Server name

3.4.3.2 3.4.4.1

Test the network connection. Create a shared folder.

3.5.1.1

Describe Mobile Computing (specifications, services, frequencies)

NOTEBOOK COMPUTER A notebook computer or notebook is a small mobile personal computer, usually weighing from one to three kilograms. Using the technology from Symbionics Networks Ltd., a wireless LAN adapter can be made to fit on a PCMCIA card in a laptop or notebook computer to provide mobile computing. TABLET PC A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer. Its digitising tablet technology allows the user to operate the computer using a stylus or digital pen and a touch screen instead of the usual keyboard and mouse. Most Tablet PCs offer built-in support for wireless networks. PDA Personal digital assistants or PDAs are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organisers but became much more versatile over the years. Many PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi or Wireless Wide-Area Networks or WWANs SMART PHONE A smart phone is an electronic handheld device that integrates the functionality of a mobile phone and a personal digital assistant or PDA or other information appliance. This is often achieved by adding telephone functions to an existing PDA or PDA Phone or putting "smart" capabilities such as PDA functions into a mobile phone. Internet Technology and Services (VOIP, BLOG) VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VoIP) Protocols used to carry voice signals over the IP network are commonly referred to as Voice over IP or VoIP. VoIP is one of the Internet technologies that allows a user to make telephone calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line.

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VoIP is a method for taking analog audio signals and turning them into digital data that can be transmitted over the Internet. There are three different VoIP services in common use today. They are Analog Telephone Adapter (ATA), IP Phones and computer-to-computer. BLOGGING A blog (web log or weblog) is one of the popular activities on the Internet. Most of these blogs are publicly shared and the authors frequently update the content on a regular basis. A blog is usually referred to the text produced by the author about his or her thoughts, experiences or interests. The world of blogging is referred as blogosphere. Another new term is the blogonomics, which refers to people using the blogosphere to generate money. The posts to a blog are usually arranged in this order, the most recent entries will always be on top of the journal. WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) The World Wide Web or the Web consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents. Each electronic document on the Web is called a web page which can contain text, graphics, audio and video. These pages are written in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Every website has an address or Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The URL is formed by the protocol, domain, directory and the document name. EMAIL An electronic mail or email is the transmission of messages and files via a computer network. A user utilises an email program to create, send, receive, forward, store, print and delete email messages. Some emails are called web-based email like Yahoo Mail and Hotmail. THE INTERNET RELAY CHAT (IRC) The Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a system for chatting that involves a set of rules and conventions, and client/server software. A chat is a real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer. A chat room is a location on an Internet server that permits users to chat with each other. Anyone in the chat room can participate in the conversation, which usually is specific to a particular topic. SEARCH ENGINES Search engines are special websites on the Internet to help you find information you need. Different search engines will serve different purposes. Types of network (examples: PAN, VPN, WLAN, WIMAX) PERSONAL AREA NETWORK (PAN) A Personal Area Network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices including PCs, laptops, printers, telephones, digital cameras, mobile phones, video game consoles and personal digital assistants, close to one person. PAN may be wired with USB port, Firewire port, Infrared (IrDA) and Bluetooth technologies. Bluetooth is the popular wireless PAN used by most people, especially the mobile phone technologies, and it applies the IEEE 802.15.1 standards. VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to remote offices or individuals with secure access to their organisation's private network.

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VPN uses tunnelling mechanism to maintain privacy and security of the data. Tunnelling means transmitting data packets across a public network. VPN is often used by companies to provide access from their internal network resources to their home or mobile workers. WIRELESS LAN (WLAN) Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a type of LAN that uses high-frequency radio waves to communicate between nodes. WLAN improves user mobility, speed and scalability to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network. The IEEE standard for Wireless LANs is 802.11

WORLDWIDE INTEROPERABILITY FOR MICROWAVE ACCESS (WiMAX) Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is the industry term for broadband wireless access network that is developed based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. WiMAX is a Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) technology that will connect WiFi hotspots to the Internet and provides a wireless extension to cable and DSL for larger broadband access.WiMAX would operate similar to WiFi but at higher speeds, over greater distances and for a greater number of users. A WiMAX system will have two major parts: a WiMAX base station, similar in concept to a mobile phone tower a WiMAX receiver installed at home

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