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3 4456 0375986 8

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'IMERMOPHYS121, PROPERTIES OF SATURATED LIGHT AND HEAVY WATER FOR ADVANCED NEUTRON SOURCE APPLICATIONS

Allen Crabtree Moshe Siman-Tov

May 1993

Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATlONAL MORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by MARTIN MARE3TA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. for the US.DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-840R21400

3 4 4 5 6 0375986 B

........................................................ LISTOFTABLES ......................................................... NOMENCLATURE ....................................................... ABSTRACT ............................................................. 1.INTRODUCTION ...................................................... 2. CORRELATION DEVELOPMENT ......................................... 2.1 LIGHT WATER CORRELATION DEVELOPMENT ....................... 2 2 HEAVY WATER CORRELATION DEVELOPMENT ...................... 3.ANALYTiCAL CORRELATIONS ..........................................
LISTOFFIGURES 3.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTY CORRELATIONS FOR SATURATED LIGHT WATER .................................................... 3.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTY CORRELATIONS FOR SATURATED HEAVYWATER ...................................................

v v

vii
1

1 5 5 6
9

10

15
21 21 21 22

............................. 6.RECOM~NDATIONS ..................................................


5. PHYSICAL PROPERTY TABLES AND GRAPHS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

4. PHYSICAL PROPERTY COMPUTER CODES ............................... 4.1QUIKPROP ........................................................ 4.2 FORTRAN SUBROUTINES ........................................... 4.3 SASPROGRAMS ...................................................

23
37
39

................................................... REFERENCES ...........................................................

41

iii

H20 saturated liquid enthalpy using Eq.4.................................. H20 saturated vapor enthalpy using Eq . 6.................................. H 2 0 saturated vapor density using l2q. 7................................... H20 saturated liquid thermal conductivity using H20 saturated liquid density using Eq .8...................................

H20 saturation pressure using Eq. 3......................................

Page 25 25
26

3
4

H20latent heat of vaporization using Eq. 5................................

26
27
27

5
6

8 9
10

11
12
13 14 15
16

. 9......................... H, 0 saturated liquid dynamic viscoSity using Eq. 10.......................... H, 0 saturated liquid specific heat using Eq. 11.............................. H20 surface tension using E q. 12........................................
D20 saturated liquid enthalpy using Q. 16................................. D20latent heat of vaporization using Eq . 17............................... D20saturated vapor enthalpy using Eq. 18.................................
D20 saturation pressure using Eq . 15.....................................

28
28 29 29
31

31
32

D,O saturated vapor density using 3 5 q. 19..................................

32 33
33

D, 0 saturated liquid density using E!q . 20..................................


D20 saturated liquid dynamic Viscosity using Eq. 22..........................

17 18 19 20

D20 saturated liquid thermal conductivity using Q. 21........................

34

D, 0 surface tension using Eq.24........................................

D20saturated liquid specific heat using Q. 23..............................

34
35

35

LIST OFTABLES
Page
1 Performance of the saturated light and heavy water physical

........................... 3. Sample output of the saturated heavy water correlations" ..........................


2. Sample output of the saturated light water correlations"
V

property correlations

.....................................................

20

24
30

NOMENCLATURE

CI

Cond

D y n V k c saturated liquid dynamic Viscosity (Pas) -Den saturated liquid density (kg/m3)

saturated liquid specific heat (kJ/kgK)

saturated liquid thermal conductivity (W/mK)

Q E M
UnHt pnt

saturated liquid enthalpy (kJ/kg) latent heat of vaporization (kJ/kg) saturation pressure (MPa) surface tension (N/m) saturation temperature ("C)

Stlens

Tnt

VapDen saturated vapor density (kg/m3)

VapEntl saturated vapor enthalpy (kJ/kg)

vii

'IHERM0PHYSICA.LPROPERTJES OF SATURATED LIGHT' AM) HEAVY WATER FOR ADVANCED NEUTRON SOURCE APPLICATXONS
Allen Crabtree Moshe Siman-Tov

The Advanced Neutron Source is an experimental facility being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As a new nuclear fission research reactor of unprecedented flux, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MWL]will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at high velocities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport property correlations for saturated light and heavy water were developed. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source Reactor's nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for li ht water were 20-300Cand 0.0025-85 MPa, respective1 while t ose for heavy water were 50-250C and 0.012-3.9 M&. Deviations between the correlation predictions and data from the various sources did not exceed 1.0%. Light water vapor density w a s the only exception, with an error of 1.76%. The physical property package consists of analytical correlations, SAS codes,and FORTRAN subroutines incorporating these correlations, as well as an interactive, easy-to-use program entitied QuikProp.

1 . INTRoDucnoN

source of neutrons for scientific experiments. The A N S facility will include a new nuclear fmion research reactor of unprecedented flux that will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The core of the reactor is composed of parallel aluminum-cladded fuel
1

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)to meet the national need for an intense steady-state

The Advanced Neutron Source ( A N S ) is a new research reactor facility being developed by

plates in an involute geometry. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MW/L] will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at very high velocities. In support of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR), several test facilities have been built that will simulate the conditions expected in the reactor core. Many
of the thermal-hydraulic (TLH) correlations involved in the ANSR design can be derived,

modified, or verified using data from these facilities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, it was essential to develop a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport properties, especially for saturated light and heavy water to be used consistently throughout the project. After surveying the literature and realizing the heavy dependance upon computer programs for A N S calculations, it was concluded that analytical expressions (correlations) rather than tabulated values would be most useful. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed ANSRs nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for light water were 20-300C and 0.0025-8.5 MPa, respectively. For heavy water, the temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges were 50-250C and 0.012-3.9 MPa, respectively. A goal was established to limit the maximum deviation in the correlations (compared with their relative original sources) to 3.0%. In practice, however, a higher accuracy was achieved while using a single correlation for the entire range of each property. Deviations did not exceed 1.0%,except for light water vapor density, for which the error was 1.76%.

To ensure the reliability of the physical property correlations, only well-established sources
were used. To avoid variations in the International System of U n i t s (SI) conversions, only data originally tabulated in SI units were used in the correlation development. Light water physical property correlations were partly based on data taken from the American Society of Mechanical

Engineers (ASME) steam tables. Where ASME did not provide physical properties in SI units, Keenan et a1.* steam tables were used instead. Heavy water physical property correlations were based on Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)3 tables, with the exception of surface tension. The surface tension correlation was based on data from Vargaftik et al. It is worth noting that Kaizerrnan, Washolder, and Tomerian developed a functional representation of heavy water properties based on Soviet data that made use of heavy to light water property ratios. It

w a s decided not to rely on such property ratios in this work but rather develop correlations based
directly on the indicated tabulated values.

best fit equation for each property. SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cay, North Carolina) was used to

Tablecurve (Jandel Scientific, Corte Madera, California) was used primarily for determining a fme tune the correlations and calculate the maximum deviations. These correlations were

In the development of the physical property correlations, two software cuds were used.

water. Since many people are not familiar with SAS,FORTRAN subroutines of these correlations were also developed that can be easily appended to other calculational programs requiring and unit conversions, an easy-to-use interactive program combining light and heavy water physical property data. To eliminate the need for timeconsuming data searches, interpolations,

incorporated into SAS codes for determining physical property data for both light and heavy

correlations was developed. QuikProp was written in QuickBASIC (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) but is a stand-alone executable file, thus, its use does not require compilation or the availability of QuickBASIC. physical property correlations and the corresponding computer programs documented in this however, and further improvements can be made, as recommended in Sect. 6. report are a l s o useful to a broader audience. Some limitations in the correlations do exist, Although this effort w a s conducted in support of the ANS project, it is believed that the

2 CORRELATION DEVELOPMENT
In the development of the physical property correlations, several data sources were
difficulties or constraints involved in the development of the physical property correlations are
discussed in this section. Explanations concerning any reservations regarding confidence levels or

investigated to determine their reliability. The data sources and ranges selected as well as any

source s e l e c t i o n s are also included in this section.

2.1 UGHT WATER CORRELAI"I0N DEVELOPMENT

surface tension correlation is an exact formulation as recommended by

physical property correlations are partly based on data taken from the ASME' steam tables. The

The light water physical property correlations are applicable over a temperature range of 20-300C and a corresponding saturated pressure range of 0.0025-8.5 MPa These light water

correlation, its respective source, and maximum deviation from the data are further documented when compared with tabulated values o f their respective sources, with the exception of saturated Most light water physical property correlations were developed using the exact tabulated

not provide physical properties in SI units, Keenan et a12 steam tables were used. Each

ASME. Where ASME did

. 7 % in Sect. 3. The light water physical property correlations developed deviate no more than 0

. 7 6 % . vapor density, which deviates 1

values with no unit conversions, extrapolations, or interpolations. The development of the liquid

dynamic viscosity correlation, however, did require some manipulation. The ASME values are not tabulated for saturated conditions but rather as a function of both temperature and pressure. Of

these values, only nine were within the applicable range of the correlation. In order to determine
the Liquid dynamic viscoSity at saturation conditions, two successive viscoSity values at a given

temperature were used to extrapolate back to the saturation pressure conditions corresponding to that temperature. respective sources over the applicable range. With the exception of liquid dynamic viscosity, intervals. Consequently, the correlations using Keenan et al? data result in slightly higher statistical confidence levels. The light water physical property correlations incorporated all data available from their

ASME values are tabulated in ten-degree intervals, while Keenan et aL2 values are in fivedegree

correlation, an attempt was made to reduce the maximum deviation by determining new constants. New constants were determined by narrowing the original range of the correlation to that of the applicable range. Although a maximum deviation of 0.3% was attained using the new constants as opposed to 0.5% using the original, this improvement was not considered appreciable, and the original constants were retained.
2 . 2

Although an exact formulation as recommended by ASME is used as !be surface tension

HEAVY WATER CORRELATION DEvEIxlpMENT


The heavy water physical property correlations are applicable over a temperature range of

50-250C and a corresponding saturated pressure range of 0.012-3.9 m a . These heavy water physical property correlations were based entirely on data taken from the Atomic Energy of
Canada Limited (AECL)? with the exception of surface tension. The surface tension correlation
i s an exact formulation taken from Vargaftik et al. Each correlation, its respective source, and

maximum deviation from the data is further documented in Sect. 3. The heavy water physical property correlations developed deviate no more than 1.0% when compared with the tabulated values of their respective sources. With the exceptions of liquid thermal conductivity, liquid dynamic viscosity, and surface tension, all of the heavy water physical property correlations were developed using the exact interpolations. The liquid thermal conductivity values found in the AECL source are not tabulated values, only six were within the applicable range of the correlation. In order to determine the liquid thermal conductivity at saturation conditions, two successive conductivity values at a given temperature were used to extrapolate back to the saturation pressure conditions corresponding to that temperature. In the development of the heavy water liquid dynamic Viscosity correlation, it was discovered that the AECL tables did not include values for dynamic viscosity but instead provided
two kinematic viscosity tables! In the absence of dynamic viscosity tables, it was first necessary to

tabulated values as given in the AECL tables, with no unit conversions, extrapolations, or

for saturated conditions but rather as a function of both temperature and pressure. Of these

determine the saturated kinematic viscosity and then convert to dynamic Viscosity by multiplying values are not tabulated or saturated conditions but rather as a function of both temperature and pressure. Of these values, only six were within the applicable range of the correlation. In order to
by the corresponding density. As with liquid thermal conductivity, the liquid kinematic viscosity

viscosity values at a given temperature were used t o extrapolate back to the saturation pressure were obtained, interpolation was required to determine the saturated liquid density for the

obtain the saturated liquid kinematic viscosity at saturation conditions, two successive kinematic

conditions corresponding to that temperature. Once the saturated liquid kinematic Viscosity values corresponding saturation temperature. The saturated liquid kinematic Viscosity values were then multiplied by their corresponding saturated liquid density values to obtain the saturated liquid dynamic viscoSity. To confirm that all of these manipulations were performed correctly, the resulting saturated liquid dynamic viscosity values were compared with values provided by Heiks et

al? This comparison showed good agreement within a maximum deviation of 3.0%.

With the exception of surface tension, the heavy water physical property correlations incorporated all of the available AECL data in the applicable range. In most cases, the physical property correlations are based on property values that are tabulated in five-degree intervals. As a result, these correlations often yield statistically higher confidence levels. As previously mentioned, however, the liquid thermal conductivity and liquid dynamic viscosity correlations were based on
only six values that were within the applicable range. Although these correlations yield a lower

data trends are smooth.

confidence level, this lower level does not reflect badly on the correIations performance since the

3. ANALXTICAL CORRELATIONS

correlations' maximum deviations from the data and their respective sources are listed in Table 1 must be applied exactly as they appear. Any alteration, including truncation, of the coefficients Although the physical property correlations or saturated heavy water were originally developed for a 50-250C temperature range, we have also examined the correlations' performance over an extended range. The correlations were checked both at 45" and 35C. A five-degree extension of the temperature range resulted in minor error increases. In some cases, the error at 45C was lower than the maximum deviation in the original range. The extension of the correlations to 35C resulted in slight error increases. Errors were not reported at either temperature for saturated heavy water thermal low as 2684C. E r r o r s for saturated liquid specific heat were not reported because there were no data or saturated specific heat below 47.93"C in the AECL3 data. Although one would not expect a major increase in the error of saturated liquid specific heat at 45"C, it i s not known whether the error at 35C would be small. Where data were available, the maximum deviations were 0.33 and 1.68% at 45 and 35"C, respectively. conductivity and dynamic Viscosity because these properties were already valid or temperatures as at the end of this chapter. In order to attain the accuracy as stated in Table 1, the coefficients

to use megapascals and kilojoules instead of the formal S I units of Pascals and joules. The

presented. Although most of the property values are in SI units, it proved to be more convenient

In the following pages, the actual light and heavy water physical property correlations are

w i l l cause a noticeable change in the accuracy of the resulting property values.

10
3.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTY CORRELATIONS MIR SATURA'IED LIGHT WATER

The physical property correlations for saturated light water are applicable over a temperature range of 20-300C. This temperature range corresponds to a pressure range of 0.0025-8.5 MPa.

H,O SATURATION TEMPERATURE (as a function of pressure) TspI= (A


where
= ln(P), A = 179.9600321, B = -0.1063030, C = 24.2278298, D = 2.951 x lo4,

+ CX)/(l + BX + OX'),

P = absolute pressure (MPa), T . ("C).


H,O SATURATION TE!MPERATURE (as a function of saturated liquid enthalpy)

TspI =A
where

+ Bh + ChsR+ Dh3,

A = 0.0835777361, B = 0.2377936769, C = 5.1932951 x D = -2.2208153 X lo',

h = liquid enthalpy (kJ/kg), T s d ("C).

11 H,O SATURATION PRESSURE

where

A = -7.395489709, B = 4.884152 x lo", C = 3.6337285 x D = 4.308960 x lo", E = 2.651419 x lo-', F = -4.14934 x 10-9,
T = temperature ("C), p . (ma).

L,qEntl= (A
where
A = 0.786889159, B = -0.001874457, C = 4.163042560, D = -3.334 x 10-7, E = -0.007798602,

i CT i Ep)

I (I

-+ BT + D p ) ,

(4)

T = temperature ("C), 4 ~ (kJ/kg). ~ 1

H,O LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION


where
A = 6254828.560, B = -1 1742.337953, C = 6.336845, D = -0.049241,

LtnHt = (A + BT

+ CP + Dpd)*12,

LtnHt (kJ/kg).

T = temperature ("C),

12

H,O SATURATED VAPOR ENTHALPY

VapEntl = A
where

+ B F R + C p + DT''[ln(T)]

A = 2488.301071, B = 6.2698272 x lo4, C = -3.953072 x lom5, D = 3.562872385,

T = temperature ("C), VupEntZ (Hkg).


H,O SATURATED VAPOR DENSKY VapDen= (A
where
A = -4.375094 x lo4, B = 4.947700 x 10-3, C = 7.662589 x lo4, D = 2.418897 x E = -5.963920 x lo", F = -4.227966 x lo", G = 2.867976 x 10-7, H = 2.594175 x lo-",

+ CT + EF + G p ) / ( l + BT + D F +

+ HT') ,

(7)

T = temperature ("C), VapDen (kg/m3).

H20 SATURATED LIQUID DENSITY


LiqDen = (A
where

+ BT, + CT;),

Tp = 1.8T 32, A = 1004.789042, B = -0.046283, c = -7.9738 x 104,

T = temperature ("C), LiqDen (kg/m3).

13

where

A = 0.5677829144, B = 1.8774171 x lo", C = -8.1790 x lo6, D = 5.6629477s x T = temperature ("C), C o d (WImeK).

where
A = -6.325203964, B = 8.705317 x lo", C = -0.088832314,

D = -9.657 x

107,

T = temperature ("C), DynVic (Paw).


H Z O SATURATED LIQUTD SPECIFIC HEAT
where
C, = [(A + CT)/(l

+ BT + D p ) ] l n ,

A B C D

= -1.67507 x lo",
= -0.03189591,

= 17.48908904,

= -28748 x lo4,

T = temperature ("C), Cp (kJ/kg*K).

14

H,O SURFACE "IZNSION

Sfens = M ( I + cX),
where

X = (373.99 - T)/647.15, A = 235.8 x 10-3, B = 1.256, C = -0.625,


T = temperature ("C), Sfens (N/m).

15

3 2 PHYSICAL PROPERTY CORRlELATIONS FOR SATURATED HEAVY WATER


The physical property correlations for saturated heavy water are applicable over a temperature range of 50-250 "C.This temperature ranges corresponds to a pressure range of 0.012-3.9 MFk

D20 SATURATION TEMPERATURE (as a function of pressure)


Tu= ap(A -+ BX

+ CX2 + D p ) ,

(13)

where

A = 5.194927982, B = 0.236771673, C = -2.615268 x lo3, D = 1.7083~6 x 103,

X = In(P),

P = absolute pressure (MPa),

tal ("CIS

D20 SATURATION TEMPERATURE (as a function of saturated liquid enthalpy)

Td = A
where

+ Bh[ln(h)] + Ch2[Zn(h)],

(14)

A = 1134352515, B = 0.03875871, c = -5.733 x 10")

h = liquid enthalpy (Hkg),

L( " 9

16 D20 SATURATION PRESSURE

P-, = q ( A
where

+ B/T, + C

x h(TJ

+ DTJ

TK = T 273.16, A = 95.720020, B = -8439.470752,


C = -13.496506, D = 0.012010,

Pd (MPa).

T = temperature ("C),

D,O SATURATED LIQUID ENTHALPY

LqEntl = A
where
A = -81.40815291,

+ Bp -+ C T f h ( T ) ,

B = 0.00274496, C = 21.13005836,

T = temperature ("C), LiqEntZ (Hkg).


D,O LATENTKEAT OF VAPORIZATION
LtnHt = (A where

+ BX + C P ) ' " ,

X = 371.49 - T, A = 508093.6669, B = 17006.921765, C = -1 1.009078,


LtnHt (kJ/kg).

T = temperature ("C),

17

D,O SATURATED VAPOR ENTHALSY


VapEntl = A where
A = 2337.404845, 3 = 0.335900, c = -1.30643 x 10-5,

+ BT[ln(T)] + CTd ,

T = temperature ("C), VapEnZ (Hkg). D@ SA'I"URATEDVAPOR DENSXTY


VapDen = q [ ( A
where

+ CT + Ep)/(l+ BT + DTzlj ,

A = -5.456208705, B =2 . 3 ~ x 6 10-3, ~ ~ C = 0.060526809, D = -1.15778 x lo'', E = -1.11360 x lo',

T = temperature ("C), VupDen (kghn3).


1320 SA"RATED L;IQUID DENSITY

LiqDen = (A + BTF

+ CT;)

where
T p = 1.8T 32, A = 1117.772605, B = -0.077855, C = -8.42 x lo4,

LiqDen (kg/m3).

T = temperature ("C),

18

D,O SATURATED LIQUID THERMAL CONDUClWITY


C o d = (A

+ BT, + CT12+ DT:) ,

where

Tl = (1.8" 491.67) A = -0.4521496,


B = 36.0743280, C = -357.9973221, D = 924.0219962.
Cond (W1m.K).

lo4,

T = temperature ("C),

D20SATURATEB LIQUID DYNAMIC VISCOSITY


@nVic = (A where
A = -1.111606 x lo4, B = 9.46 x lo", C = 0.0873655375,

+ BT, + C/Tp+ DIT&?) ,

TF= 1.8T + 32,

D = 0.4111103409,

T = temperature ("C), DynVuc (Paw). D20 SATURATED LIQUID SPECDFICHEAT

C , = (A + BT, + C T , '

+ DT13),

where

TI = ( 1 . 8 T 491.67) A = 2.237124, B = 122.217151,


C = -2303.384060, D = 13555.737878,

lo4,

T = temperature ("C), Cp (kTkg*K).

D,O SURFACE TENSION

where

X = (371.49 - T)/444.65, A = 244835759 x lo", B = 1.269, c = -6.60709649 x 10-l,

T = temperature ("C), S e 'm (Nlm).

Table 1 . Performance of the saturated light and heavy water physical property correlations
-

Light water

Physical property correlation

50-250"C 1.oo
0.39 0.03 0.17 0.31

H e a v y water
Reference'
45C

Reference?

35C

~~

~~

Saturation temperature (function of pressure) Saturation temperature (function of saturated liquid enthalpy) Saturation pressure Saturated liquid enthalpy Latent heat of vaporization Saturated vapor enthalpy Saturated vapor density Saturated liquid density Saturated liquid thermal conductivity Saturated liquid dynamic viscoSity Saturated liquid specific heat Surface tension
"Complete citations are located in sect. 8.

0 . 2 8
0 . 3 5
0.17 0.16 0.03

Keenan' Keenan2 Keenan'

0.06 1.68 0.50 0.12


0.11 0.10

aec13 aec13 aec13 aec13 aec13 aec13 mc13 aec13 aec13 aec13 aec13
Varga ftik4

0.02 0.33
0.33 0.06

Keenan'
Keenan2 Keenan' Keenan2 Keenan2

0.05
1.76 0.70 0.61

0.04
0.29 0.10 0.10

0.26
0.03

ASME' ASME' ASME*


ASME'

0.70 0.10

0.21
0.10

0 . 0 2 -

0.50

0.54

0.03

4. PHYSICAL PROPERTY COMPUTER CODES

The physical property correlations were incorporated in three different codes using three different programming languages. The most extensive code was an interactive properties software
a s developed using QuickBASIC. The most versatile code w a s a pair of package that w

were also organized in a third code providing SAS users a means of determining physical property data

FORTRAN subroutines that can be easily appended to any FORTRAN code. The correlations

4.1 QU"R0P

using the physical property correlations. Although written in QuickBASIC, QuikProp is a standthe code are exactiy as they appear in Sect. 3. The program can accept both temperatures and

A convenient, quick, and easy to use interactive properties software package was developed

alone executable code and does not require QuickBASIC for execution. The correlations used in pressures in either British or SI units. No preinstruction is necessary because the user is guided through the program. It was our intent for this program to provide the user with a "quick" source
of physical properties, thus alleviating the need for time consuming interpolations and unit

conversions.

4 2 R3RTRAN SUBROUTKNES

FORTRAN codes. Usually this requires no more than the addition of a call statement in the s with the interactive properties package, all mrrelations used in the subroutines original d e . A
to the main program as double-precision values. As a word of caution, the subroutines often

FORTRAN subroutines have been developed that can be easily incorporated in existing

are exactly as they appear in Sect. 3. The subroutines calculate physical properties and pass them

s not passed to the subroutine. I f provide inaccurate values i a double-precision input value i
subroutines must be changed accordingly.

single-precision values are desired, the variable declarations statement in the physical property

21

2 2
4.3 SAS PROGRAIS

correlations used in their development are exactly as they appear in Sect. 3. The initial point, final point, and interval are defined at the top of the code using macro variables. The properties are then calculated, and the results are displayed in the output window in a tabular format. The authors will be glad to provide a copy of these codes upon request. If you are

property codes were written in SAS. A s with all the other physicaI property codes, the

used in the development of the physical property correlations, and as a result, the first physical

Unlike FORTRAN, SAS is not a very common programming language. SAS, however, w a s

interested, please contact Allen Crabtree [(615) 576-5298] or Moshe Siman-Tov [(615) 574-6515].

5. PHYSICAL PROPE3ZTY TABLES AND GRAPHS

correlations and their performance. Table 2 is followed by Figs. 1-10 for selected saturated light i g s . 11-20 for selected saturated heavy water water properties, while Table 3 is followed by F properties. The tables are sampk outputs from the property codes described in Sect. 4 and are not suggested for uses other than point calculations or comparisons. As a visual representation of the physical property correlations, the graphs reflect any trends that the properties may have as a any additional computations and are readily available from the authors. If these codes are not

The tables and graphs in this section are provided as an additional description of the

f temperature. The computer codes described in Sect. 4 are highly recommended for function o

the sample output results will serve as an excellent means of checking accuracy.

adequate for a particular application and the user wishes to incorporate the correlations himself,

23

20 35

0.00234 0.00563 0.01235 0.02503 0.04738 0.08454 0.14326 0.23207 0.36129 0.543 15 0.79168 1.12271 1.90623 2.54767 3.34414 4.3 1931 5.49861 6.90937 8.58104

84.092 146.619 209.226 271.953 334.846 397.956 461.344 525.079 589.242 653.93 719.25 785.34 897.65 %.69 1037.28 1109.78 1184.63 1262.40 1343.84

2454.00 2418.57 2382.73 2346.24 2308.85 2270.30 2230.32 2188.58 2144.76 2098.49 2049.35 1996.90 1900.62 1836.50 1766.62 1690.00 1605.35 1510.99 1404.61

2536.84 2566.09 2593.00 2618.71 2643.60 2667.70

0.01700 0.03998 0.08308 0.16097 0.29310 0.50450 0.82657 1.29790 1.%501 2.883 1 4.1172 5.7435 9.5774 12.73% 16.7287
21.7417

997.955 993.1% 987.274 980.190 971.944 962.534 951.963 940.228 927.33 1 913.272 898.050 881.665 851.773 832.289

0.60210 0.62372 0.64191 0.65681


0.66853

0.0010051
O.OO07190

4.17804 4.17824 4.18143 4.18789 4.19801 4.21221 4.23105 4.255 19 4.28548

0.072738 0.070405 0.067947 0.065369 0.062676 0.059874 0.056966 0.053960 0.050861 0.047676 0.044412 0.041078 0.035387 0.031911 0.028401 0.024374 0.021345 0.017835 0.014368
N

50
65 80 95 110 125 140 155 170 185 210 225 240 255 270

0.0005453 0.0004320 0.0003538 0.0002976 0.0002555 0.0002232 0.0001977

0.67718 0.68287 0.68572


0.68585

2690.90
2712.95 2733.55 2752.34 2768.92 2782.85 2798.97 2803.59 2803.82 2799.13 2789.02 2772.93 2750.33

0.68337 0.67839 0.67103 0.65379

O.OO0 17715 4.32297 0.00016030 4.36901 0.00014625 4.42539 0.00012745 4.54905 O.OOO11825 4.64689 o.OO011025 4.76899 0.00010322 4.92364 0 . ~ 0 1 5.12363 0.00009147 5.38994 0.00008649 5.75973

0 . 6 4 0 6 4
0.62554 0.60858 0.58990 0.56960 0.54780

811.641
789.83 1 766.858 742.723 717.425

28.0410 35.9898 46.1091

285
300

See Nomenclature (p. vii).

2 5

Saturation Temperature (deg

C)

Fig. 1 . H20 saturation pressure using Eq. 3.


1600 1400

\
Y
7

cn

0Cl

x 1200

I :
t

1000

z 3
3
D
4 -

400

E ! 3
9)

c n

50

100 150 200 250 300 Saturation Temperature (deg C)

350

Fig. 2 H20 saturated liquid enthalpy using Eq. 4.

26

\
3

2500

5 2250
0 .0

.r! 2000 L .
0

>
Y-

n
U
O

1750

1250

50

Saturation Temperature (deg. C)

100

150

200

250

300

350

Fig. 3. H,O latent heat of vaporization using Eq. 5.


2850

n
Y

\ 2800 3
v

u ,

2750 Q. U
w
I

f C 2700

>

0 P

2650 2600

3 +
v)

2550
2500

50

250 300 Saturation Temperature (deg. C)


150

100

200

350

Fig. 4. H20 saturated vapor enthalpy using Eq. 6.

27

Y 0
W

x 35 + .-

40

0
L 0

r" II,

25

30

Saturation Temperature (deg. C)

Fig. 5. H,O saturated vapor density using Eq. 7.


1050

975 900
825

750

675

50

100 150 200 250 300 Saturation Temperature (deg C)

350

Fig. 6. H P saturated liquid density ushg E q .8

28
n

E 2 0.70
U

5 0.50 L
Q)

3 +
0

50

I / ,

200 250 300 Saturation Temperature (deg. C)


100 150

350

Fig. 7. H20 saturated liquid thermal conductivity using Q. 9.

u 1.3e-003 a W

1.0e-003

.O 7.5e-004

E
U
C

r
13

P-

5.0e-004

U a , +

2.5e-004
0.0e+000
0

2
V J
0

50

100 150 200 250 300 Saturation Temperature (deg. C)

350

Fig. 8. H20 saturated liquid dynamic viscosity using Eq. 1 0 .

29
n

\
Y v

6 . C

c U n

4.0

50

0.08
n

0.07

0.04

2 L
v)

0.03
0.02

0.0 1

50

100 150 200 250 300 Saturation Temperature (deg C)

350

Fig. 10. H@ surface tension using J3q. 12.

Table 3. Sample output of the saturated heavy water correlations

VapDen (kg/m3)
50 65
80

LiqDen

(W3)
0.61679 0.62565 0.63 175 0.63520 0.6361 1 0.63458 0.63074
0.62468

0.01 112 0.02299 0.04422 0.07597 0.13703 0.22405 0.35159 0.53215 0.78017
1.111%

195.520 259.209 321.918 384.167 446.289 571.022 633.93 1 697.347 761.35 826.00 891.37 957.48 1024.39
1046.88

2199.50 2164.81 2128.39 2090.15 2049.9 1963.43 1916.75 1867.58 1815.72 1760.92 1702.91 1641.34 1575.80 1552.99

240 1.47 2424.96 2448.47 247 1.52 2493.69 2514.42 2533.94 2551.34 2566.49 2579.09 2588.83 2595.43 2598.58

0.08342 0.16510 0.30483 0.53060 0.87825 1.39210 2.12568 3.14249 4.51720 6.3375 8.7073 11.7518 15.6260 20.5300 22.4374

1095.74 1087.48 1077.99 1067.27 1055.32 1042.15 1027.75 1012.12 995.26 977.180 957.868 937.329 915.562 892.567 884.630

o.oo064411 0.00050780
O.OOO4 1516

4.22066 4.19937 4.18059 4.16591 4.15695 4.15529 4.16254 4.18030 4.21018 4.25377 4.31267 4.38848 4.48281 4.59726 4.64016

0.067895 0.065366 0.062708 0.059927 0.057030 0.054022 0.050911 0.047704 0.044410 0.041037 0.0375% 0.034098 0.030554 0.026981 0.025785
W

95 110 125 140 155 170 185 200 215


230

0.00034839 0.00029822 0.00025932 0.00022843 0.00020343 O.oO018289 0.00016581 0.00015147 0.00013933 0.00012898 0.000 12013 o.Ooo11746

508.5 17 2007.80

0.61651 0.60635 0.59430 0.58048 0.56499 0.54793 0.54192

1.54564 2.10105 2.79969 3.66468 3.99420

245 250

2598.01
25%.94

"See Nomenclature (p, vii).

31
4.5
n

4.0

3 . 5
W

L 3.0
Y

2.5

2 . 0 c 0 z 1.5

1.0

v,

0 . 5
0 . 0
25
50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

Saturation Temperature (deg C)

Fig. 11. QO saturation pressure using E q . 15.

<
1 3 ,

.3
W
Q)

5
T J

-r;

32
n

\ 2200 7
Y v
c

2300

..- 2000
0 0
N I

c 21 00

>
+
U
0,
4 -

a 1900
O

+ 1800 0
I
0, +

1700

t
0

Fig. 13. D20 latent heat of vaporization using Eq. 17.


2650 2600
U

IIT, Y

2 2550 0
f f
L

"
0

2500
2450 2400 2350 25

-0
Q, +

v,

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

Saturation Temperature (deg. C)

Fw 14.

D20 saturated vapor enthalpy using Eq. 1 8

33

Saturation Temperature (deg. C)

Fig. 1 5 . D,O saturated vapor density using

w.19.

Saturation Temperature (deg C)


F i g . 16

D,O saturated liquid density using E+ 2 0 .

34

F i g . 17.

D20 saturated Liquid thermal conductivity using E q .21-

n VI
W

a
VI

CJ

78-004 6e-004

u E 5e-004
0

>

'E
0

4e-004

O S

36-004
2e-004

5 .-

* I

>
+

le-004
Oe+000

2 2
0

v,

25

50

75

Saturation Temperature (deg. C)

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

Eg. 1 8 D20 saturated Liquid dynamic viscosity using E q .2 2

35

Saturation Temperature (deg C)

Fw 2 0 .

surfixe tension using Eq. 34.

The physical property correlations provided in this document are for saturated conditions only, but subcooled conditions will exist in the ANSR. Although subcooled conditions are nominal, local superheated conditions are also possible.

As a result, the

most prominent recommendation or future work is to determine the error associated with the use of these correlations in calculating properties at subcooled and superheated conditions. The error is not expected to be large since most of the physical properties do not have a strong dependance on pressure. If the resulting error is considered unacceptable, however, additional correlations will be necessary. conditions. A need to broaden this range may arise as more safety analyses are performed.

The correlation range w a s originally designed to cover ANSR nominal operating

Many accident analyses, for example, would require correlation ranges comprising certain off-nominal operating conditions. It may be difficult, however, to maintain the same level of accuracy in a single correlation if the range is much broader.
used and gaining popularity within the A N S project.

It is enmuraging to know that the interactive program, QuikProp, i s actually being

that a Macintosh version of QuikProp be developed. Although the current version o f

As a result, it has been recommended

is desirable.

QuikProp can run under Windows as a DOS application, a mouse-driven Windows version

37

made this work possible: the review of the original draft by J. C. Moyers, A. E Ruggles,

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the A N S Project O f f i c e that

and R. D. Wichner; the review of the final draft by Norbert Chen and David Morris; and

original contribution by T. Creek.

the guidance and review by Grady Yoder. The authors would also like to acknowledge the

39

1.
2.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME Steam Tables, 5th Ed,, 1983. Joseph H. Keenan, Frederick G. Keys, Philip G.Hill, and Joan G. Moore, Steam Tables, John Wiley and Sons,New York, N . Y . , 1978.

3.
4. 5.

P . G. Hill, R. D. MacMiIlan, and V. Lee, Tables of Themdynamic hpertiks of Heavy Water 3 z SI U n i t s , AECL 7531, December 1981.

N. B. Vargaftik et aL, "Table of SurEaCe Tension of Heavy Water," in Water and Steam, Theu Properties and Cutrent Induslrial Applications, Pergamon Press, 1980.

S . Kaizerman, E.Wacholder, and N. Tomerian, "A TRennoph ical Heavy Water Properties Package or Thermal-Hydraulic Accident Analysis &a, " Nucl. Eng. Des. HI, 385-391 (1984).
Laurie Scott, Manager of Information Resources,Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada, personal communication to J. A, Crabtree, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, O a k Ridge, Tenn., October 1992.
J. R. Heiks et al., "The Physical Properties of Heavy Water from Room Temperature to 250C" HLM-934, January 12, 1954.

6.

7.

41

Internal Distribution
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23-27. 2%. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

46. 47. 48. 49-52. 53.

45.

C. W. Alexander D. J. Alexander R. R. Allen E. E. Alston J. L. Anderson B. R. Appleton R. E. Battle R. S. Booth W. W.Bowman R. k Brown G. J. Bunick J. H. Campbell (5) J. J. Carbajo P. F. Cento N. C. J. Chen K. W. Childs K. K Chipley J. E. Cleaves J. T. Cleveland D. H. Cook G. L. Copeland B. L. Corbett J. A. Crabtree W. G. Craddick J. S. Croweli J. R. Dixon H. L. Dodds E F. Dyer Y.Elkassabgi G. Farquharson D. K Felde R. E. Fenstermaker J. D. Freels V . Georgevich M. L. Gildner G. E. Giles H. A. Glovier R. M. Harrington J. B. Hayter W. R. Hendrich S. E. Holliman M. M. Houser M. Ibn-Khayat D. T . Ingersoll R. L. Johnson J. E. Jones, Jr.

54. 55. 56. 57. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 7980. 81. 82. 83.
84. 85. 86.
58.

87.

90-94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103.

88. 89.

B. L. Lepard, Jr. R. A. Lillie P. S. Litherland M. A. Linn A. T. Lucas J. A. March-Leuba B. S. Maxon G. T. Mays M. T. McFee S. V. McGrath T. J. McManamy G. R. McNutt J- T. Mihalczo B. H. Montgomery R. M.Moon D. G. Morris D. L Moses J. C. Moyers W. R. Nelson M. Olszewski R. E. Pawel H. R. Payne E J. Peretz B. H. Power C. C. Queen S. Raman C. T. Ramsey J. S. Rayside W. R. Reed J. P. Renier J. B. Roberto A. E. Ruggles T .L Ryan D. L . Selby H. B. Shapira 1. I. Siman-Tov M. Siman-Tov B. R. Smith T. K Stovall W. F. Swinson R. P. Taleyarkhan L. H. Thacker D. W. Thiesen P. B. Thompson K. R. Thorns S. R. Tompkins

104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112.

B. D. Warnick M. W. Wendel C. D. West J. L. Westbrook R. B. Wichner D. M. Williams P. T. Williams W. R. Williams B. A. Worley

113. 114. 115. 116-117. 118. 119. 120-121. 122.

G. T. Yahr G. L. Yoder ORNL Patent Office Central Research Library Document Reference Section Y-12 Technical Library Laboratory Records Dept. Laboratory Records, RC

External Distribution
123. R. Awan, US. Department of Energy, NE-473, Washington, DC 20585. 124. L. Y. Cheng, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Associated Universities, Inc., Bldg. 120 Reactor Division, Upton, Long Island, N y 11973. 125. C. L. Christen, DRS/Hundley Kling Gmitter, 1055 Commerce Park Drive, Oak Ridge, TN 37830. 126-128. U.S. Department of Energy, ANS Project Office, Oak Ridge Field Office, FEDC, MS-8218, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8218. 129. C. D. Fletcher, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, 2145 East 17th Street, Teton Village Complex, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885. 130. R. R. Fullwood, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973. 131. W. R. Gambill, Route 5, Box 220, Clinton, TN 37716. 132. B. Gupta, AECL Technologies, 1155 Metcalfe Street, 2nd Hoor, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3B 2V6. 133. A. F. Henry, Professor, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139. 134. R. A Hunter, Director, Office of Facilities, Fuel Cycle, and Test Programs, Nuclear Energy Division, US. Department of Energy, NE-47, Washington, DC 20585. 135. L. C. Ianniello, Acting Associate Director, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research, U. S. Department of Energy, ER-10, Washington, DC 20585. 136. M. Kaminaga, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Todai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-11, JAPAN. 137. T. L. Kerlin, University of Tennessee, College of Engineering, 315 Pasqua Engineering Building, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300. 138. J. A. Lake, Manager, Nuclear Engineering and Reactor Design, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P. 0. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415. 139. J. E. Mays, Research and Test Reactor Fuel Elements, Babcock and Wilcox Co., P. 0. Box 785, Lynchburg, VA 24505. 140-141. W. E. Meek, Project Manager, Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., P. 0. Box 1498, Reading, PA 19603. 142. C. S. Miller, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415. 143. J. P. Mulkey, U.S. Department of Energy, NE-473, Washington, DC 20585. 144. C. H. Oh, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415.

145. W. T. Oosterhuis, Materials Sciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office OF Energy Research, U.S. Department of Energy, ER-132, Washington, DC 20585. 146. J. M. Ryskamp, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P. 0. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, I D
83415. 148. J. L. Snelgrove, Coordinator, Engineering Applications, RERTR Program, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439. 149. P. I. Stumbo, Chief of Special Facilities Branch, Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2001. 150. I. Thomas, Director, Materials Science Division, Ofice of Energy Research, U.S. Department of Energy, ER-13, Washington, D.C. 20585. 151. J. M. Warren, GilbertlCommonwealth, Inc., 1055 Commerce Park Drive, Suite 200, Oak Ridge, TN 37830. 152. P. W. Winkler, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 7201 Hamilton Boulevard, Allentown, PA 18195-1501. 153. H. G. Wood, 111, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Thornton Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901 154. Office of Assistant Manager for Energy Research and Development, DOE-Oak Ridge Field Office, P.O. Box 2001, Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8600. 155-156. Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831.
147. R. W. Shumway, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID

83415-3885.