OHSP ONLINE LESSON TEMPLATE SCIENCE GRADE 7
: Physics: Electricity
MODULE INTRODUCTION AND FOCUS QUESTION(S): During thunderstorms, should we be more afraid of the thunder or the lightning? Why? Have you experienced “statics” while combing your hair or when touching a computer’s monitor? Did you experience some sort of shock? How can we protect ourselves from electric shock? Find out the answers to these questions in this module. More importantly, you will learn how to be safe from electric shocks. You will also learn how the science of charges and charging is being used in making our lives better.
MODULE LESSONS AND COVERAGE: In this module, you will examine these questions when you take the following lessons: Lesson 1 – Lesson 2 – Lesson 3 – Lesson 4 – Charges and charging processes What are charges? How do bodies become charged? Interactions between charged bodies How do charged bodies interact with each other? Safety with charges What does it mean that some appliances need to be grounded? How does a lightning rod protect us from harm? Applications of charges and charging processes How are these concepts on charges applied in industries and in cleaning up the air?
In these lessons, you will learn the following: Lesson 1 – Lesson 2 – Lesson 3 – Lesson 4 – Differentiate the three kinds of charges, in terms of protons and electrons. Discuss and demonstrate how objects become charged. Describe and predict how charged and uncharged bodies interact with each other. Investigate how grounding is implemented in appliances. Discuss how lightning rods keep us safe during storms. Investigate and report on how concepts on charges are applied in industries and in cleaning up the air.
Here is a simple map of the above lessons you will cover:
Lesson 1: Charges and Charging Processes Lesson 2: Interactions Between Charged Bodies Lesson 3: Safety with Charges Lesson 4: Applications of charges and charging processes
To do well in this module, you need to remember and do the following: 1. Open the indicated interactive simulations. Go beyond the given instructions and questions. Explore further and deeper as your time allows. 2. Open and view the indicated videos. Review the videos as many times as needed, as you answer the discussion questions related to them. 3. Gather the materials for the experiments and demonstrations and actually do them yourself. The actual experiments give you a richer learning experience than just reading the texts and even watching related videos. 4. Take down notes as you go through the simulations, videos and experiments. Writing on paper or typing on your computer helps you remember and understand things easier.
PRE-ASSESSMENT: Let’s find out how much you already know about this module. Click on the letter that you think best answers the question. Please answer all items. After taking this short test, you will see your score. Take note of the items that you were not able to correctly answer and look for the right answer as you go through this module. 1. The nucleus’ charge is ______ because _____. A. neutral ; it has equal numbers of positive and negative charges B. neutral ; all charges are outside the nucleus C. positive ; it has positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons * D. negative ; it has more electrons than protons The nucleus is positive because it has protons in it. The negatively charged electrons are outside the nucleus. 2. A sodium ion, Na+ has a net charge of +1 because ______. A. it has only one proton B. it has one less electron than protons * C. it has one less proton than electrons D. it gained one more proton from another atom A sodium atom has 11 protons in its nucleus and 11 electrons outside. It easily gives off its one outermost electron, and so it has one less electron than protons, becoming a Na+ ion. 3. If a neutral metal sphere (X) is placed in contact with a positively charged metal sphere (Y), sphere X will _____. A. remain neutral B. become positively charged as well * C. become negatively charged D. fluctuate from being positively charged and negatively charged The positively charged sphere (deficient of electrons) will take some electrons from the initially neutral sphere. This will make the initially neutral sphere also deficient in electrons and therefore positively charged.
4. Y In chargingX by induction, a charged body to a neutral body X (X) is placed nearY Y (Y) that is to be charged. If X is negatively charged and Y is connected to the ground, Y will _____. A. remain neutral B. become positively charged *
4. With the grounding.
. release excess electrons to the ground * take in more electrons from the ground take in more protons from the ground release excess protons to the ground
Only electrons can be added or removed from bodies. D. C. Y will _____. electrons will flow out from body Y. A. C. In charging by induction. remain neutral become positively charged * become negatively charged as well fluctuate from being positively charged and negatively charged
Body X will cause electrons in body Y to move away to the side far from body X. Grounding works by having a negatively charged body _____. these excess electrons will flow to the ground until the body becomes neutral. B.
5. If X is negatively charged and Y is connected to the ground. a charged body (X) is placed near to a neutral body (Y) that is to be charged. A negatively charged body has excess electrons. B. When grounded. D. A.
.6. B. The occasional rubbing between the metal and the rubber belt causes electrostatic charging. bypassing the building. conducting the charge to the ground. Grounding the washing machine prevents charge from building up. conducting the charge to the ground. A. flat iron laptop TV washing machine *
The pulsator in the wash tub gets turned by the motor through a rubber belt. Which of the following most needs to be grounded? A. it hits the lightning rod. collecting the charge into a storage device. C. at the base B. then electricity will pass through the building and the people in it will not be safe. bypassing the building * C. The charge build-up could give the user an electric shock. above the windows C. A lightning rod works by _______. on all the corners of the rooftop Placing rods above the highest points of a building will ensure that if ever lightning strikes. D. A. Lightning rods are placed _____ of a building. for use later as electricity The charge from lightning is immediately conducted down into the ground. The great amount of charge cannot be stored (yet) for later use as electricity.
7. If the lightning rod is not grounded. through the building B. keeping the people inside the building unharmed. and not any other part of the building.
8. above the highest point D.
wool: positive * both will have positive charges both will have negative charges leather glass Increasing human hair tendency wool to gain fur electrons silk rubber styrofoam polyvinylchloride (PVC)
The PVC will gain electrons from the wool.
11.6 X 1013 electrons remove 1. fur human hair silk * wool
From among the choices. C. How will an initially neutral body be made to have a charge of –1. A single electron’s charge is – 1.0 x 10-6 Coulomb) / – 1.3 X 1012 electrons This number of electrons will have to be gained by an initially neutral body for it to have a – 1.0 microCoulomb charge. What charges will be acquired by PVC and wool rubbed with each other? A.1.
.3 X 1012 electrons from it have it gain 1. wool: negative PVC: negative. C. D. D. D.6 X 1013 electrons from it where Q is the charge developed n is the number of electrons qe is the charge of an electron
Q = n qe
n = Q / qe = ( .0 microCoulomb? A.3 X 1012 electrons * remove 6. the greater the charge created in it. have it gain 6. silk is lowest in the series. thus having the greatest tendency to gain electrons.6 x 10-19 Coulomb. The more electrons drawn out from the glass rod. refer to the triboelectric series in the box at the right: 10. Which rubbing material will create the most charge on a glass rod? A. B.
For items 10 and 11. B. C. PVC: positive. B.9.6 x 10-19 Coulomb per electon n = 6.
B. but that for the spin dryer will not. then the charge that may accumulate in the machine may cause an electric shock on the person using it. C. D. Its other end should be connected to the water pipe outside the machine. They might get stranded in the ensuing flood. D. This way.12.
13. C. B. The person using the machine might get an electric shock. They might get carried away by the strong winds. * They might get sick with colds and flu. C. The other risks above should also be avoided. charge is prevented from building up in the washing machine. The washing machine will not run. The motor will keep running even as the timer goes down to zero. D. 14. The motor for the wash tub will run.
People in open fields (with no trees or houses) are at risk of getting struck by lightning. Why would it be dangerous for people to be out in the open fields during heavy rains and thunderstorms? A. B. to the motor of the spinner tub to the water pipes outside * to the dial-switch-timer to the plug
The green wire is a grounding wire. They might get struck by lightning. What could happen if this wire is not firmly connected at either ends? A. but the most fatal of them is the first.
If the grounding wire is not connected. The picture at the right shows a green wire attached to the motor at the underside of a washing machine’s wash tub. To where does the other end of this wire connect to? A.
If the grid is positively charged. the smoke particles will become positively charged.15.
Both should be positively charged. C. * The grid could be neutral. Pictured below is the process by which an electrostatic precipitator reduces the pollutants releases to the atmosphere by factories. D. as long as the collecting plate has a strong positive or negative charge. To attract the charged smoke particles. To attract the charged smoke particles. B. the smoke particles will become negatively charged. If the grid is negatively charged. Both should be negatively charged.
. It will work as long as they have opposite charges. what should be the charge of the metal grid and the collecting plate?
A. the collecting plates will have to be negatively charged. the collecting plates will now have to be positively charged. For this eco-friendly device to work.
C..16. and so it was attracted by the charged plastic sheet. The attraction overcomes the repulsion that the lower side experiences. (Left figure below) With the tissue bits now polarized. You showed them the demonstration where tissue bits flew up to the plastic sheet. How would you best explain to the kids why the tissue bits moved up. The plastic sheet induced a positive charge on the table top. The tissue bits however are still electrically neutral. the tissue bits got induced to have a positive charge. While on the table.
A. The tissue bits are neutral. * D. While on the table. This polarizes the tissue bits. pushing them lower. You conducted a “magic show” with the kids in an orphanage you visited. and this repelled the tissue bits. the upper side gets attracted to the plastic sheet. The negatively charged plastic sheet repels the electrons in the tissue bits.-
. with the upper side positively charged. defying gravity? Assume the plastic sheet to be negatively charged.++ . (Right figure below) -
++ + . and the lower side negatively charged. the tissue bits got polarized with its upper side positively charged. B.
* D. This point becomes neutral. but not a bigger body that is connected to the ground. and is connected to the ground. so it becomes neutral and thus no longer attracting the tissue bits. at least the point touched. The finger can take away just enough electrons to make it neutral. Option B is not possible. C. Your finger has no effect on the charges in the objects.
. You then touched the top side of the plastic sheet where there are tissue bits under it. There is no way for the finger to cause the plastic sheet to have a positive charge. and so no longer able to attract the tissue bit. B. Your fingertip grounds the plastic.
Touching the plastic sheet grounds the plastic. The tip of your fingers also got polarized to have a partial positive charge. and why? A. The tissue bits stay attached to the bottom of the plastic sheet. The small plastic sheet can polarize a smaller object. What would have happened. and so it then repels the tissue bits. and your finger repels the tissue bits. Option D is not possible. but not to make it positively charged. Your fingertip makes the plastic have a positive charge.17. as your hand is connected to your body.
Install just 2-hole outlets. it is not just a matter of having a 3rd hole for the 3rd prong. What will you tell him and why?
A. shower heater. Option B is dangerous if you have ungrounded 3rd holes in outlets in your living room. Both 3pronged and 2-pronged plugs will fit in these outlets. shower heater. Thus. Option A is not good. and he asks you which type of outlet he should install. C. he may 2-hole outlet just use adapters. and a 3-prong plug and 3-hole outlet. B. as plugging in 3-prong devices into 2-hole outlets through an adapter does not ground the appliance. Plugging in your stove there will not ground your stove. and so they only have 2-prong plugs and will need just 2-hole outlets. Install 2-holed outlets where it is needed: for the stove. oven.
. and 3-hole outlets elsewhere. Most other appliances do not need grounding. Your uncle is finishing his house. The picture at the right shows a 2-prong plug and 2-hole outlet. oven. For appliances with 3-prong plugs. The third prong actually connects to a grounding wire inside the round hole in the 3-hole outlet. * Appliances with heating elements (stove. and 2-hole outlets elsewhere. The grounding wire inside the third hole is the key protective device against shocks. shower heater) are prone to accumulating charges that may cause electric shock. D. Install just 3-hole outlets. oven. Install 3-holed outlets where it is needed: for the stove.18. Remember.
* B. The tree’s branches near the power lines should be trimmed. Do not let branches grow near the power lines. If you are the safety engineer in the town where this picture was taken. Consider the boy at the left side of the picture. NEXT
.19. C. what would you do? Write below concrete actions to make this area of your town safer. As long as he doesn’t touch the power lines. especially when it rains. The sign “No climbing” should be nailed onto the tree. the boy is at risk of getting electrocuted. If the branches touch the power lines. He is not exposed to any hazard. A playground should be built on the open area.
20. Trim the trees near the power lines.” Remind residents to not let electrical wires and appliances near bodies of water like in kiddie pools. How would the hazard he is exposed to be eliminated? A. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
Safety signs could be placed at the grounds near the power lines: “No flying of kites. D. he’ll be alright.
6 x 10-19 Coulomb c. A. +1 Coulomb B. loses one or some electrons * C.Lesson 1 Charges and Charging processes In this lesson. has equal numbers of protons and neutrons D. atoms B. An atom becomes a positive ion when it _____. a. A. Click on your answer. Pre-reading check. answer the following questions. neutrons D. we will focus on the following questions: What are charges? How do bodies become charged? 1.6 x 10-19 Coulomb * D. has no electrons B. gains one or some electrons * B. protons b. Discuss and demonstrate how objects become charged. An atom becomes a negative ion when it _____. The fundamental carriers of negative charge: A. gains one or more protons D. you shall: Differentiate the three kinds of charges. + 1. A. A neutral atom _____. – 1. has only neutrons in its nucleus C. gains one or some electrons B. loses one or more protons
. A. has equal numbers of protons and electrons * d. Before plunging into our first lesson. gains one or more protons D. EXPLORE: In this lesson. The proton’s charge is _____. loses one or more protons e. loses one or some electrons C. – 1 Coulomb C. electrons * C. in terms of protons and electrons.
electrons protons neutrons neutral
6. electrons neutrons protons
protons positively charged 14
. html Do you now understand how atoms become charged? Sub-atomic particles are charged. 3.org/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/electro n.htm Open the page below to know more about electrons: http://www. and so atoms are either positive negative or neutral. it becomes _____.2 Webpage reading: Atomic Structure Did you get all the correct answers? Review the items where you had mistakes.6 x 10-19 Coulomb: _____. atoms can easily gain or lose _____.3 Comprehension Check: How atoms get charged To summarize the key ideas from the readings. complete the statements below by clicking and dragging in the correct tiles from below.jjay.1. When an atom gains electrons. 5. When an atom loses electrons.cuny. The particles whose charge is – 1.windows2universe.
1.6 x 10-19 Coulomb: _____.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-atoms. 1.html Click on the link to protons to go to another page. The uncharged particles are the _____. Keep them in mind as you read the webpage on atomic structure: http://web. but not _____. 2. or open this: http://www.org/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/proton. it becomes _____. depending on the numbers of protons and electrons in them. 4. To become charged. The particles whose charge is + 1.
about 1 foot long. Hold the strings together on one hand. or table cloth. you will record your observations in the previous activity. What happens? d. blouse. Do the balloons repel each other? e. with this key fact in mind. b. Pass the balloon above your forearm. a. What happens? f. Procedure / Set-up Rubbed balloon placed near forearm Rubbed balloon placed near one’s head Two rubber balloons.4 Rubbing Balloons After learning how atoms become charged. Get two rubber balloons. Tear up a piece of tissue paper into small bits. each hung down by their threads Rubbed balloon placed near tissue bits Rubbed balloon brought near the wall Observations Guess-planations
Review your Observations and Guess-planations. Inflate them. Rub the balloons on your shirt. Review your answers. c.
. let’s now see how objects become charged.1. Hold the rubbed balloon against the wall. Hold the rubbed balloon a few inches above the tissue bits. Hang them on strings. How does it feel? Place it above your head. Write also in the 3rd column your “guess-planations” (guessexplanations) for each observation. pants.) Why is it that rubbing the balloons makes them do some gravity-defying tricks?
1. What do you notice about your answers? What comments are similar? What comments are different? Can you see any pattern to the results that you got? What do you think is a principle at work in these different procedures? Remember that only electrons (and not the protons) can be passed between bodies through ordinary interactions like rubbing and contact.5 Rubbing Balloons Worksheet In this worksheet. What happens? (You may have to rub the balloons again after some time through the procedures above.
Let’s now find out more about charges by doing the next activities. fur B. You also gave your initial ideas on why charged objects behave as observed.htm
1. styrofoam * D.Triboelectricity a. Which should your rub with amber to make it positively charged? A. Open and read this web page: http://regentsprep. 1.6 Web page reading: Creating Charges with Friction . NEXT FIRM UP: Your goal in this section is to learn and understand some key concepts. wool
.org/Regents/physics/phys03/atribo/default. by working on the following questions: How do we know what charges objects acquire when they are rubbed together? Which becomes positive? Which becomes negative? What is the triboelectric series? How was it made or determined?
1.7 Triboelectricity: Check for Understanding Let’s review the ideas found in the Website you just read. Write down your initial answers to these questions: How do we know which of the two objects rubbed together becomes positively charged? Which becomes negatively charged? What pairs of objects will more likely create strong charges in the objects?
b.End of EXPLORE: You just tried finding out about charges and how objects become charged. leather C. Click on your answers to the following questions.
End of FIRM UP: In this section. D. silk and wood * B. Teflon D. Which material. when rubbed with Styrofoam will create the strongest negative charge on Styrofoam? A. Which of the following statements most correctly describe the sign of the charge that objects acquire by rubbing? A. depending on the material used to rub them. dry hands and Teflon 5. glass and rubber C. becomes positively charged . Some objects can become only positively charged. scotch tape and PVC D. the balloon ______. How much of your initial ideas are found in the discussion? Which ideas are different and need revision? Now that you know the important ideas about this topic. will cause the weakest net charge in them? A. Natural materials tend to become positively charged. becomes negatively charged . A. Which pairs of materials. stays neutral B. * C. Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the discussion in the assigned webpage. let’s go deeper by moving on to the next section. wool 3. while synthetic materials tend to become negatively charged. B.2. becomes negatively charged . stays neutral C. when rubbed together. becomes positively charged * 4. Objects can become either positively or negatively charged. go back and find out from the reading the reason for the correct answers. PVC C. When you rub an inflated balloon with your hair. becomes positively charged . How did you do with this quiz? If you did well. you have read about how objects become charged either positively or negatively. while other objects can become only negatively charged. while hard objects tend to become negatively charged. Soft objects tend to become positively charged. leather * B. continue to the next part. your hair _____. If not. becomes negatively charged D.
com/watch?v=Ne7oqESE5Zw Re-view the video.youtube.
1. Material …rubbed with Interaction with rotating straw (attracted or repelled) The objects are therefore charged (+ or -)
How did you decide on the charges of the objects? Did you actually see whether objects are in excess or deficient of electrons? Or did you have to rely on the observed interactions and the triboelectric series? Explain.NEXT
DEEPEN: Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some aspects of the topic.8 Video Analysis: Rotating Straw Open this video: http://www. Video Analysis Worksheet: “What’s my charge?” As you review the video. answer the following questions. pausing it every now and then so you can take down notes.9 Positive or Negative?
1. From their interactions and from your prior readings. When done. you will decide on the charges of these objects. fill in the table below. Here you will see some demonstrations on how real charged objects interact.
perform this activity there.
End of DEEPEN:
. If the strip is attracted.) Fill the table below: Pair of objects rubbed Charges of the objects. then it is also negative. Determine the charges of the rubbed objects by seeing how they affect either a charged straw that is free to rotate (like in the video) or a charged strip of plastic cover that is hung and free to swing towards or away an object placed near it. (e. as predicted using the triboelectric series Effect on the straw or plastic strip (attract or repel) Charge of the objects. Choose different pairs of objects to rub together. based on interaction with straw or strip
1 2 3 4 5
Did the objects behave as predicted by the triboelectric series? Or were there any discrepancies? What could have caused these discrepancies? Go back to the reading on the triboelectric series as you review your ideas. Humidity will cause the rubbed objects to more quickly discharge. If the object repels the negatively charged plastic strip.g. thus the effects will not be observable.htm Gather as much materials in the list that you can gather. If you have access to an airconditioned room (low humidity).org/Regents/physics/phys03/atribo/default.Review the triboelectric series in this page: http://regentsprep. then the object is positively charged.
1. You will be given a practical task which will demonstrate your understanding.9 Make your own demo! Explore other related videos on electrostatic interactions in You Tube. You have completed this lesson. You then inferred the charges of these objects from the observed interactions. Before you go to the next lesson. This performance task is just a practice and preparation for the more exciting and relevant performance tasks in the next lessons. How did you find the performance task? How did this task help you further understand the science of charges and the interactions between charged bodies? Write down your reflections on your notebook or on a journal file in your computer. you have to answer the following post-assessment. you may move on to
. See which demonstrations you can do yourself. you are ready to do the tasks in the next section. What new realizations do you have about the topic? What new connections have you made for yourself? Now that you have a deeper understanding of the topic. you saw demonstrations on how charged objects interact with each other.In this section. Can you come up with your new demonstrations with materials that are available to you? Try to come up with demonstrations that are: interesting especially for kids replicable (even by kids) and safe effective for teaching others about charges
Maybe you will want to video your demonstrations and upload them to You Tube and be the next You Tube discovery!
End of TRANSFER: In this section. NEXT
TRANSFER: Your goal in this section is apply your learning to real life situations. If you pass this test. your task was to create your own demonstration on electrostatic charging.
becomes positively charged * 7. becomes positively charged . NEXT CHECK-UP TEST: 1. Na+ has a net charge of +1 because ______. To become charged. both positively charged B. The fundamental charges in nature are the _____ and the _____. it gained one more proton from another atom 6.the next lesson. becomes negatively charged . neutrons 4. neutrons C. A. electrons . both negatively charged C. becomes negatively charged . A. A. then they surely are _____. you may go back and review the lesson and take this test again. more neutrons than protons and electrons 3. If you do not pass this test. stays neutral B. A. less protons than electrons C. A. natural . protons . it has more electrons than protons 5. neutral . protons D. A. it has equal numbers of positive and negative charges B. both of the same charge
. objects need to either lose or gain _____. it has positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons * D. your hair _____. it has one less proton than electrons D. becomes negatively charged D. They have _____. positive . neutrons . protons 2. stays neutral C. A. it has only one proton B. electrons C. electrons B. neutral . The nucleus’ charge is ______ because _____. the balloon ______. When two objects repel. all charges are outside the nucleus C. equal numbers of protons and electrons D. neutrons . atoms . negative . protons B. becomes positively charged . Objects that are not charged are also said to be _____. no electrons and protons B. neutral . When you rub an inflated balloon with your hair. A sodium ion. neutral . it has one less electron than protons * C.
the duller one becomes negative. C. the smoother one becomes negative. Check how the rubbed object interacts with other objects of known charge.D. The rubbed object becomes negative. refer to the triboelectric series in the box at the right: 9. of opposite charges
8. wool: positive * both will have positive charges both will have negative charges leather glass Increasing human hair tendency wool to gain fur electrons silk rubber styrofoam polyvinylchloride (PVC)
The PVC will gain electrons from the wool. wool: negative PVC: negative. fur human hair silk * wool NEXT
. C. B. D. D. C. Which rubbing material will create the most charge on a glass rod? A. The rougher object becomes positive. and which one becomes negatively charged? A. What charges will be acquired by PVC and wool rubbed with each other? A. PVC: positive. B.
For items 9 and 10. how will you know which one becomes positively charged. B. the other becomes positive.
10. If you rub two objects together. D. The shinier object becomes positive.
Bringing a charged body near a neutral body will cause it to become charged.
EXPLORE: Are you ready to learn more about charges and how they interact? Let’s explore! In the previous lesson. Discuss the different charging processes: conduction. and to ready you for further for this new lesson.gcsescience.
. 3.htm Let’s do a comprehension check on what you just read.com/pse5-electrostatic-charge-neutral-attract. you learned how a body becomes charged. induction and polarization. Bringing a negatively charged body close to a neutral body will cause protons to rush to the side near the positively charged body. 2.htm How about neutral objects? How come they also get attracted to charged bodies? Write down your initial explanation as to why neutral bodies behave as such. http://www. Then go on to read this page: http://www. In this lesson we focus on the following question: How do charged bodies interact with each other?
2. Bringing a positively charged body close to a neutral body will cause electrons to rush to the side near the positively charged body. Read the following page to review some ideas.gcsescience.com/pse3-electrostatic-charge-attraction-repulsion.Lesson 2 Interactions between charged bodies In this lesson. Click on the T if the statement is TRUE. T F
1. you shall: Describe and predict how charged and uncharged bodies interact with each other.1 Web-page reading: Attraction and repulsion You saw in the first lesson how different combinations of charged bodies either attract or repel each other. Click F if the statement is FALSE.
Let’s now find out in the next part what the answers to these questions are.
2.2 Charging balloons. Interactive simulation exploration. Recall what you did in the previous lesson with balloons. You saw how the rubbed balloon interacted with another balloon, your hair, bits of paper, and with the wall. However, we cannot really see the movement of charges into or out of the balloon. Open this interactive simulation: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/balloons (You may have to install a Java program for the simulation to play.) As you explore the animation, keep in mind these questions: a. What charge occurs in the balloon after it is rubbed on the sweater? b. What net charge does the sweater therefore acquires? c. What transfers between bodies to cause these bodies to become charged? d. What happens between objects with unlike charges? e. What happens between objects with like charges? f. Explain why the charged balloon sticks to the wall. Was the wall charged? Again, note down answers in your notebook or note-file.
End of EXPLORE: At the start of this lesson, you reviewed the basic interactions between charged objects. You then learned how neutral objects can get attracted to charged objects, even as they stay neutral. The redistribution of electrons in the neutral body allows it to be attracted by (or to attract) charged bodies. Go back to the three TRUE-or-FALSE questions in Activity 2.1 and see if you are now convinced of the correct answers. In the next activities, you will see and use simple devices that can detect the presence of charges. NEXT
FIRM UP: Your goal in this section is to learn and understand these key concepts: An electroscope is a device used in detecting the presence or absence of charge. Objects can be charged by conduction or induction.
Keep in mind these questions as you do the next activities: What happens when a charged body is brought near a neutral body? Besides rubbing, through what other ways can bodies be charged?
2.3 An electroscope Read the following webpage: http://www.gcsescience.com/pse4-electrostatic-gold-leaf-electroscope.htm Then watch this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2PmWlPjV6n0&feature=fvwrel
Check your comprehension through the following questions: 1. The electroscope is a device used to ______. A. see charges B. detect charges in bodies * C. measure the amount of charges in bodies D. count the number of electrons going in or out of bodies
2. Identify the parts of the electroscope. Click and drag the names to the right boxes.
Cap or knob Leaf Insulation
Case or cover Alternate item, if above item cannot be programmed: 2. Which of the following items can be used as the stem for the electroscope? A. a plastic spoon B. a popsicle stick C. a metal paperclip with its plastic coating intact D. a metal paperclip with its plastic coating at its ends removed 3. The foil leaf repels when ______ is placed near its knob or cap. A. a person’s hand B. a positively charged body C. a negatively charged body is placed near D. a charged body, either negative or positive * 4. If a negatively charged body is brought near the knob or cap, the leaves become _____ and they _____. A. positively charged ; attract B. negatively charged ; attract C. positively charged ; repel D. negatively charged ; repel * 5. If a positively charged body is brought near the knob or cap, _____. This makes the leaves _____. A. electrons go up from the leaves to the knob; negatively charged B. electrons go down from the knob to the leaves; negatively charged C. electrons go up from the leaves to the knob; positively charged * D. electrons go down from the knob to the leaves; positively charged
2.4 Hands-on: Make your own electroscope After having watched how an electroscope can be made, try doing it yourself! Here’s another good video on how to make an electroscope. Pay attention to some details that will help make sure your electroscope will work. Click on the link to watch the video found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBF144bV18&feature=related
3) Vinyl is brought near again.6 Video viewing analysis worksheet Fill in the table below. get to know further how it works.5 Electroscope charging and grounding. Process description Diagram Explanation
Charge of the leaves
(at the end of process)
1) Vinyl (negatively charged) is brought near to the knob and the leaves repel. 4) Vinyl is then moved away and the leaves repel.2.
2) Vinyl is brought away and the leaves fall back down. and then finger touches the knob while the charged object is still held near. Draw sketches of the spaces given. 27
2. explained After making your own electroscope. Watch this video:http://www. Take down as much notes as you can as you watch the video.
5) Vinyl is brought near again. but this time the leaves close.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=JsVZwc1dOo.
2) Positively charged object is brought away and the leaves fall back down. 3) Positively charged object is brought near again. and the leaves repel further.” Try doing these steps with your own electroscope.Then when vinyl is brought away. the leaves repel. and then finger touches the knob while the charged object is still held near. the narrator says.
Charge of the leaves
(at the end of process)
1) Positively charged object is brought near to the knob and the leaves repel.
At the 4:21 mark. Then fill up the table below. this time with a positively charged body being used to charge the electroscope. and then touch it with my finger again. 4) Positively charged object is then moved away and 28
. 6) Glass (positively charged) is brought near. “A similar sequence of events happens if you charge it using a positively charged object instead.
http://www.com/class/estatics/U8L2c.pdf http://www.htm In the following web pages.the leaves repel. Keep in mind the following questions as you read: How could neutral objects be attracted by charged objects? What kinds of objects can be used in charging by conduction? What kinds of objects can be used in charging by induction? What’s the difference between charging by conduction and by induction? What is polarization? How does it happen? How is grounding involved in these charging processes?
In this web page.ca/30/charging. Then when object is brought away.
Was it easy to provide a different set of explanations to the apparently very identical observations? What did you notice about your explanations? Keep in mind that only electrons can be moved within and between bodies to cause bodies to become charged.physicsclassroom.
5) Positively charged object is brought near.7 Webpage readings: Charging processes Open and read the following websites. Recall the three True-orFalse questions at the start of EXPLORE (Activity 2.gcsescience.cfm http://www.studyphysics.com/class/estatics/U8L2b.1) Compare your initial answers with the results of this activity. the leaves repel.physicsclassroom. http://www. and the leaves repel further. you’ll see how neutral objects get attracted to charged objects.com/pse5-electrostatic-charge-neutral-attract.cfm
. but this time the leaves close.
2. 6) Negatively charged object is brought near. you’ll see how neutral objects can be charged through two different processes: conduction and induction.
DEEPEN: Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some aspects of the topic.Re-read the web pages. Having them ask questions that you gladly answer will enhance your understanding and mastery of the lesson. You will then read Web pages that further elaborate how even neutral objects participate in electrical interactions simply because they are polarized. You have also investigated and discussed conduction and induction. demonstrate charging by conduction and induction.8 Hands-on: Charging by induction and conduction Using your home-made electroscope and other materials described in the readings. the electroscope. If you have difficulty explaining. Here you will complete two worksheets that will check on your understanding of the charging processes. and how it is used as a step in charging or discharging bodies. you have further explored charges using a simple device. parents. two ways through which objects can become charged. Please also explain how bodies can become charged through conduction and induction? Finally. explain what kinds of bodies can be charged through conduction and / or induction. explain in your own words how neutral objects can be attracted to charged bodies. So now. or neighbors.
. You also encountered grounding. go back to the readings and Web pages in this section! Now that you know the important ideas about this topic. this time with a pen in hand you write down on your notebook answers to the questions above.
End of FIRM UP: In this section. Have as your audience your siblings. let’s go deeper by moving on to the next section.
The two spheres are made out of metal because metals have many free electrons that can easily move and are good conductors of electricity.xml See the notes and questions that further clarify the differences between conductors and insulators. Before the experiment is begun. What material is being used for friction charging?
. Worksheet: 3-ele-01_charging_by_induction.physicslab. Then open the web page below and answer the worksheet. You don’t need to actually touch the object with some other already charged material but just bring it in close proximity. 1. will the metal spheres and the strip be charged or uncharged? This is now tested with the coulombmeter. The force then acts from a distance and induces the charge.aspx?doctype=5&filename=Compilations_CPworkbo ok_ElectrostaticsConductionInduction.doc
CHARGING BY INDUCTION
You can charge objects by a process called induction. and how each of these kinds of materials can be charged.9 Worksheets: Charging processes Using your home-made electroscope and other materials described in the readings.
http://dev. You may re-open the websites in the previous activity to help you answer the questions in this worksheet.org/Document.2. demonstrate charging by conduction and induction. We also need to use a non-conducting strip of material that we can charge by friction. What does it tell you about the charge of both spheres?
Uncharged metal spheres. where are the positive and negative charges?
. Follow the sequence of events in the demonstration as shown below and mark on the diagrams what happens to the charge as the experiment progresses. What kind of charge will be on the strip after it has been rubbed with the duster?
Now the strip is charged by rubbing it vigorously with a duster. I.3. At first the metal spheres are touching but the charged strip is well away from them.
II. Where did the charge move? from…………………………………to…………………………………. What kind of charge has moved?
…………………………………. Charge on A / nC Charge on B / nC a.
Checking the charge on metal spheres A & B.
. separate the metal spheres.
Keeping the charged strip near to sphere A.
The charged strip is brought near to but not touching one of the metal spheres A.
Remove the charged strip.
However. Read the page below.edinformatics. leaving the upper part positively charged. and see for yourself why water is so essential and called the universal solvent. What would you expect to happen if A and B are made to touch again?
2.htm Note that dissolving things is also dependent on the electrical properties of molecules! End of DEEPEN: In this section.c. NEXT
. What new realizations do you have about the topic? What new connections have you made for yourself? Now that you have a deeper understanding of the topic. This body is polarized. Explore the page.com/interactive_molecules/water. you are ready to do the tasks in the next section.10 Webpage reading: Polarized objects and molecules Review the webpage below: http://www. Some electrons are repelled down to its bottom part. The whole body is still electrically neutral.com/pse5-electrostatic-charge-neutral-attract.htm The word polarized is not mentioned in the page.gcsescience. see that the neutral object has its charges not evenly distributed. This body is polarized by the charged body brought near it. You then read about how even neutral bodies participate in electrical interactions. as it has positively charged and negatively charged sides or ends. you strengthened your understanding of the different charging processes. Click on the following site: http://www.
On the other hand. Observe closely. NEXT
. and see how you can convince them to your explanation. your task was to create another demonstration on electrostatic charging and to provide deeper explanations as to how these effects happen in terms of the unseen charges within these objects. compose an explanation for your observations.11 Jumping and floating beads video analysis Watch this video: http://www. If you pass this test.com/watch?v=7LxyA-7KIoo With what you have been learning so far about charging processes.
Again. provide an explanation as to why the beads jump. If you do not pass this test. How are your explanations similar to theirs? How is your explanation different? Give some feedback to the other learners.youtube. you may move on to the next lesson. Compare notes with other on-line learners. it may be that it is you who’ll need to be convinced to their e xplanation!
2. Hold it horizontally a few centimeters above the tissue bits.TRANSFER: Your goal in this section is apply your learning to real life situations.
2. How did you find the performance task? How did this task help you further understand the science of charges and the interactions between charged and even neutral bodies? Write down your reflections on your notebook or on a journal file in your computer. you may go back and review the lesson and take this test again. you have to answer the following post-assessment.12 Lab Activity: Flying tissue bits Perform the following procedures that approximate the effects you saw in the video. End of TRANSFER: In this section. You have completed this lesson. You will be given a practical task which will demonstrate your understanding. as if by magic.
Cut or tear some small bits and strips of tissue paper. Before you go to the next lesson. Let these bits of tissue lie on the tabletop. Get a bond-paper sized plastic sheet (what we use for covering books and notebooks) and rub it with cloth or tissue paper. hover and float. as with the beads in the video.
. move downward to the leaves . When a positively charged body is brought near a neutral body. out of the knob and into the finger . move upward to the knob . out of the knob and into the finger . positive . induction . positively charged B. When charged non-metallic objects are used to charge another body. move upward to the knob . negatively charged C. the neutral body’s near side becomes _____. conduction . Touching the electroscope knob while a negatively charged body is near it will cause electrons to go _____. A. negatively charged C. positive . lots of excess electrons B. and the leaves become _____. what happens is _____ because _____. A. into the knob from the finger . A. because they have _____. grounding . conduction . A. negative . Metals are typically charged by _____. positively charged * D. negatively charged 6. and the leaves become _____.13 Lesson 2 Quiz 1. a strong tendency to release electrons to the ground D. rubbing . conduction . the bodies are not really touching each other C. negatively charged * C. When a negatively charged body is placed near an electroscope’s knob. non-metals cannot pass electrons between them D. A. out of the knob and into the finger . a strong capacity to gain electrons C. while the far side becomes _____. free electrons that can move from one body to another * 4. positively charged D. Touching the electroscope knob while a positively charged body is near it will cause electrons to go _____. out of the knob and into the finger . positively charged D. induction . into the knob from the finger . into the knob from the finger . move downward to the leaves . and the leaves become _____. negatively charged * 3. negative . also negative 2. positively charged B. electrons _____. negative C. non-metals can also pass electrons between them 5. A. positively charged B. positive * B. the bodies are touching each other B. induction . also positive D.2. into the knob from the finger .
Sphere Y was then brought away to the right. D. X becomes negatively charged . D. Y stays neutral X becomes positively charged . C. Y becomes negatively charged X becomes negatively charged .7. Y becomes positively charged
. B. Y stays neutral X becomes positively charged . Y becomes negatively charged * X becomes negatively charged . W X Y W -
What will be the charges of spheres X and Y? A. A negatively charged sphere W is brought near two neutral metal spheres X and Y that are touching each other. Y stays neutral X becomes positively charged . Y stays neutral X becomes positively charged . X becomes negatively charged . Y becomes positively charged *
8. B. C. removed from its contact with sphere X while sphere W is still near sphere X. A positively charged sphere W is brought near two neutral metal spheres X and Y that are touching each other. Sphere Y was then brought away to the right. + + + W + + + W
+ X Y
What will be the charges of spheres X and Y? A. removed from its contact with sphere X while sphere W is still near sphere X.
A negatively charged sphere W is brought near two neutral plastic spheres X and Y that are touching each other. D. with the top side negative and the bottom side positive
.9. Y stays neutral * both X and Y become positively charged both X and Y become negatively charged X becomes positively charged . with the top side positive and the bottom side negative * polarized. B. A negatively charged plastic sheet. Sphere Y was then brought away to the right. C. A. B. will cause the tissue bits to become _____. when brought near tissue bits on top of a table. D. entirely positively charged entirely negatively charged polarized. C. removed from its contact with sphere X while sphere W is still near sphere X. Y becomes negatively charged
10. W X Y W -
What will be the charges of spheres X and Y? A. X becomes polarized .
gcsescience.nationalgeographic. you will do the following: Investigate how grounding is implemented in appliances. both key insights and questions that you have in your head. we will focus on the following questions: What does it mean that some appliances need to be grounded? How does a lightning rod protect us from harm?
3. an introduction to lightning: http://www.nationalgeographic. think through the following questions: How can we be safe in our homes during thunderstorms? How can we be safe outdoors during thunderstorms? Will you be safer inside your car or under a tree? Explain.com/environment/naturaldisasters/lightning-interactive/ From the experience with the interactive animation. Go back to these notes as you move on to the next activities.Lesson 3 Safety with Charges In this lesson. you learned how charged bodies interact with each other. Keep in mind the following questions as you move on: How do the charging processes happen in some appliances at home? What does it mean that some appliances need to be grounded? How does grounding work to keep us safe? How does a lightning rod protect us from harm?
EXPLORE: Let’s continue with Lesson 3 of this module! In the previous lesson. In this lesson.1 Webpage reading: Lightning Open and read this webpage on electrostatic shock. Discuss how lightning rods keep us safe during storms.
. 3.com/pse6-electrostatic-charge-shock-spark-danger.2 Interactive animation on lightning Go to this site where you’ll see simulations of the effects of lightning: http://environment.com/environment/naturaldisasters/lightning-profile/ What new learning did you get from the readings? What are still unclear? Write notes on your notebook or note-files.htm Now go on to read more about lightning: http://environment.
sparing the structure and the people inside from damage. Is there anything in the animations that seem to contradict this idea? How can this be corrected or improved?
End of EXPLORE: At the start of this lesson.
In this web page. you explored about electric surges and lightning.lightning.ehow. Lightning rods need to be connected to the ground.3 Readings on Safety with Lightning Read the following web-pages.
3. you may need to review your notes from the previous lessons or activities to understand some parts.html
. http://environment. You now may have new ideas or insights about lightning and safety with electricity. NEXT
FIRM UP: Your goal in this section is to learn and understand these key concepts: Lightning rods are devices that keep people safe inside structures that are vulnerable to lightning strikes. so that charges will be conducted to the ground. you will read tips on how to be safe during thunderstorms. you will read more about staying safe from lightning.com/how-does_4588127_lightning-rod-protect-house.com/environment/naturaldisasters/lightning-safety-tips/ Learn more about lightning in this web page: http://www.
How are lightning formed in the clouds? You learned in the previous lessons that only electrons get to move around and between bodies. You may also have more questions in your head now after the Webpage readings and the interactive simulation. In the next activities.org/faq?tid=86 This web page has information on how houses are kept safe by properly installed lightning rods: http://www.nationalgeographic. As you read.
6. One lightning rod is enough to protect a big subdivision. Wait it out before going out to your next destination. Lightning rods need to be properly grounded. 6. SAFE. In case your car gets hit by lightning. Of course. Crouching low on the ground will lessen the risk of getting hit by lightning. Take shelter under the tallest tree you can find. It may even be increasing the risk of damaging the house. 4. UNSAFE. Crouch low on the ground. 4. 1. or else you’ll be unsafe. as it will cause the discharge to flow through the house. An ungrounded lightning rod is useless. Click on the S button if the action is SAFE. What more for a big subdivision. The tallest tree will be most likely hit by lightning. SAFE.Check your comprehension of the readings by assessing the following actions during a thunderstorm. stay indoors.
. 2. Stay inside your car when caught outside. SAFE. And if you are under it when it gets hit. UNSAFE. Continuing to use the television during a thunderstorm increases the risk of lightning hitting your house. S S S S S S S U U U U U U U
1. 7. Do this only of course if no shelter is within a short run from where you are. If a thunderstorm starts and you are indoors. 7. Click the U button if it is UNSAFE. more than one lightning rod is needed. 3. electricity will be conducted quickly into the ground. 5. Stay indoors during thunderstorms. SAFE. 5. Even for a big house. Continue watching television in your house. 2. 3. UNSAFE. charges may also zap to you sideways from the trunk.
How sure are you with your answers? Do you have them “know-how” on safety with lightning? Let’s find out the answers to these questions by going to the next part. close your windows and don’t be touching your car’s metal body.
then you may not be very safe when the next thunderstorm happens! Go back and review the readings and the interactive website. You will also examine your own appliances’ plugs and outlets. You may try looking at other related websites to help further clarify your unserstanding. and how we can be safe from lightning. http://hyperphysics.howstuffworks. and what the 3rd prong is for. As you read.phy-astr.com/everyday-tech/question110. this time inside your own homes: grounding of some appliances. you learned about how lightning is created. If you did well (perfect or just 1 mistake). NEXT
DEEPEN: Your goal in this section is to take a closer at another safety mechanism.4 Webpage readings: Ground wires. 3-prong plugs and 3-hole outlets Open the following web-pages and read on ground wires and 3-prong plugs and 3-prong outlets.gsu.
. think of the following questions: Why do some appliances have 3-prong plugs? Why are some outlets with 3 holes? What’s the difference with 2-prong plugs and 2-hole outlets? What is grounding? What is a ground wire for? How do these things help keep us safe?
The web page below discusses the differences between 2-pronged and 3pronged plugs in appliances. http://electronics.edu/hbase/electric/bregnd. then move on to the next part. If you did not do well in the comprehension check above.
3.End of FIRM-UP: In this part of the lesson. Here you will read about appliances and their plugs and the outlets where you plug them in.html
Take down notes and answers to the questions in your notebook.htm
The web page below discusses how the 3-hole outlet should have the grounding connection.
you’ll do something that will bring you into a useful understanding of what you’ve been learning so far. it is time for you to actually look around your house to see these things for yourself. Do the following: 1. In the next part. you learned how to be safe from lighning. but with a ground wire sticking out from it Appliances with 3-prong plugs
Why do you think these appliances in the right column need to have 3 prongs in their plugs? 2. Look also for appliances that have 2-prong plugs but have ground wires sticking out from it.3. List down appliances that have 2-prong plugs and those that have 3-prong plugs.
. and from electric shock while using your electrical appliances. Ask your parents or elder siblings the following: Do we have appliances that originally have 3 prongs. but we now use in 2hole outlets? (either by using an adapter or by having the 3 rd prong taken out) Why do some appliances have ground wires? Where do we connect these ground wires?
End of DEEPEN: In this part of the lesson.5 Home-based explo: What appliances have ground wires and 3-prong plugs? Now that you have read about ground wires and 3-prong plugs and 3-hole outlets. Appliances with 2-prong plugs Appliances with 2 prongs.
Review as well the correct answers. Interview an electrical safety inspector / engineer about grounding installations at residential houses. and 2-hole and 3-hole outlets. Inquire further on how these things keep you safe from electric shocks. ask him/her to show you the ground wiring in your house’s 3-hole outlets for some of your appliances. If you do not pass this test. You have completed this lesson. then you may have to go back to the readings or interview another electrical safety engineer or electrician. 2. Go to the city or municipal safety engineers’ office. Before you go to the next lesson.TRANSFER: Your goal in this section is apply your learning to real life situations. 3. discuss this as well with an electrician or an electrical safety engineer. If you are still not convinced of the correct answers.6 Interviews: electrician or an electrical safety inspector / engineer 1. Submit a one-page double-spaced report about the results of your interview.
3. Through interviews. and therefore you are “cognitively-at-risk” of electrical accidents. Go to a hardware store. You will interview some people who actually work with these safety devices with electricity. Can you already confidently answer the following questions? What does it mean that some appliances need to be grounded? How does a lightning rod protect us from harm? If not yet. Review your answers to the Safe-or-Unsafe questions in Activity 3. your task was to really see the safety features of ground wires and the specialized plugs and outlets for some appliances.3. If you have an electrician in your neighborhood. Ask someone there about the differences between the 2-prong plugs and 3-prong plugs. If you pass this test. you may move on to the next lesson. you may go back and review the lesson and take this test again. you have to answer the following post-assessment. you should have also obtained first-hand information about these safety mechanisms. NEXT
. End of TRANSFER: In this section. Ask about how home builders are complying with this safety requirement.
washing machine. Open your umbrella. keeping everyone safe C. Which of the following is the BEST thing to do when you are outdoors and suddenly a thunderstorm occurs? A. and oven toaster C. electric stove. most laptops. No. through an iron nail
. desktop computer. one family inside a building C. There’s no sense trying to outrun lightning. always * B. cellphone charger. A. still function if it is plugged into a 2hole outlet? (either the 3rd prong is removed or an adapter with 2 prongs is used) A. only during the rainy seasons C. one village B. Run for the nearest shed. B. Yes. Will an appliance with 3-prongs in its plug. and electric fans D. but it poses hazards of electric shock to its users. It is common practice to remove the 3rd prong or use an adapter. B. and shower heater *
7. One lightning rod is enough to protect _____. The appliance may still work for a while. many buildings within a kilometer radius 3. D. Yes. to the TV antenna B. * C. A. A. to the metal water pipes that go into the ground * D. and TV B. washing machine. The third prong is essential. it can gather as much charge as possible from the clouds B. 5. Walk slowly and carefully. and the appliance will not work at all. C. Take shelter under the nearest tree and stay close to its trunk. electric fan. to the screw that holds the wall outlet’s cover C. but it will stop working after some time. No. it will be far away from anyone’s reach. D. to the concrete wall of the house. DVD player. one small structure or building * D. lightning will more likely hit other lower buildings without lightning rods 4. lightning will most likely hit it instead of other parts of the structure * D. Which of the following sets of appliances either has a ground wire or a threepronged plug? A. only if the house’s outlets are not grounded 2. shelter or building. only if there are people inside the building D. A lightning rod is placed on the highest point in a building so that _____. Lightning rods need to be grounded _____. It will repel lightning. Where should ground wires (of appliances that have them) be connected? A. 6.1.
Keep in mind this question as you start this lesson and perform the next activities: How are these concepts on charges applied in industries and in cleaning up the air?
EXPLORE: Congratulations! You are now in Lesson 4 of this module on Electricity.gcsescience.htm Even photocopiers apply electrostatic charging and interactions! Read this page to see how: http://www. you will: Discuss practical and technology applications of the charging process and the interactions between charged bodies.com/pse10-electrostatic-photocopier. In this lesson.com/pse9-electrostatic-charge-inkjet-printer-nozzle. we focus on the following question: How are these concepts on charges applied in industries and in cleaning up the air? 4.htm This web page discusses how an inkjet printer applies electrostatic interactions: http://www.gcsescience. This web page discusses how spray-painting uses electrostatic interactions give surfaces a smooth coat of paint: http://www. In the previous section you looked at real world applications to protect you from electric charges. See how electrostatic charging and the interactions between charged objects are used in a variety of applications. Investigate and report on how concepts on charges are applied in industries and in cleaning up the air.gcsescience.1 Webpage reading: industrial application of electrostatic charging Start this lesson by reading these web-pages.com/pse12-electrostatic-insecticide-spray.htm
Quite similar to the previous page.htm
.gcsescience.com/pse8-electrostatic-charge-paint-spray. this web page discusses how electrostatic repulsion is applied in insecticide sprays: http://www.Lesson 4 Applications of charges and charging processes In this lesson.
htmError! Hyperlink reference not valid. of the simple science ideas behind them. you read and learned about several applications of electrostatic charging and interactions. you will simulate and investigate on the least familiar.com/pse11-electrostatic-chimney-pollution.This page discusses a very relevant application of electrostatic charging and interactions for reducing pollution from chimneys: http://www. until now. You can actually just click the right-arrow (next page) button at the bottom. It’s amazing how we may have already been using these devices.gcsescience. NEXT
FIRM UP: Your goal in this section is to learn and understand this key concept: Electrostatic charging is useful in cleaning up the air of pollutants from different industrial facilities Keep this question in mind as you do the next tasks: How are these concepts on charges applied in industries and in cleaning up the air?
In the next activities.
Which of these applications do you appreciate most? Why? Have you heard any other applications of electrostatics and charging processes not mentioned in these pages? Search articles on these applications and share what you get to your network of online learners. yet very relevant and important application of electrostatic charging and interactions: the electrostatic precipitator.
End of EXPLORE: In this first part of the last lesson. yet we are not mindful. Find time to read the pages shared by other learners to you.
read the following web pages: These web pages are nice follow-ups to your previous reading on the electrostatic precipitator: http://www. NEXT
4. .3 Web-page reading: Electrostatic precipitator To deepen your understanding of this important application of electrostatics.com/2011/05/electrostatic-precipitator. do this simulation on cleaning the air using charged balloons.2 Hands-on: Cleaning up the air using balloons How is electrostatics useful? To better appreciate the applications of electrostatic charging.blogspot.explainthatstuff. it will be good if you have family or neighbors as your audience in this demonstration. How effective is your balloon air cleaner? Is it 100% efficient? Will it be useful? Explain. How does an electrostatic precipitator work? Why would we need these electric precipitators? What facilities are installed with these electrostatic precipitators?
. Again. Draw diagrams that demonstrate your understanding of how electrostatic charging is applied. Enjoy your show and the question-andanswer portion after your demonstration.php?url=collection/cub_/activities/c ub_air/cub_air_lesson10_activity2.teachengineering. Open and study the web page below: http://www.html Take down notes. specially details that will help you answer these questions.4.org/view_activity.xml Perform the steps to simulate how a charged balloon can attract “polluting particulates” in the air.html http://anto-hendarto.com/electrostaticsmokeprecipitators.
Your report shall include the following: Narration of your preparations for the interviews: inquiries made. and see whether it has electrostatic precipitators installed in its chimneys. collaborate with other online learners on how to build this model.4. and demonstrates a methodical approach to addressing the issue. You may collaborate with up to three (3) other online learners. Your report shall be uploaded for a panel of reviewers to evaluate and score. Also. This way you can share with the expenses and the effort in putting the model together. or complaints filed to government authorities if you think the facility is not using the electrostatic precipitator. Do you think this device is worth the effort and the electricity used up for it? Why or why not? NEXT
TRANSFER In this module’s closing lesson. etc.
. Suggestions if the operation can still be improved.4 Electrostatic precipitator: Make a model Another way to deepen your understanding is by making another model of the technology application that you are studying. Open and study the page below: http://www.
Your report should be comprehensive.woodrow. In your notebook. and engaging. you’ll have other persons to compare notes with of your understanding of the lessons so far. Your output will be a multimedia report of your investigation.html If you can. with collaboration. your final task is to check on a nearby factory or power plant in your community.org/teachers/chemistry/1989/12model-electrostatic. write a brief reflection on your experience of building a working model of the electrostatic precipitator. appointments set. videos or pictures of your visit to the facility. You may visit your school’s laboratory and use their available materials to build the model. Documentation of your investigation: Transcripts and/or recordings of interviews. Feedback to the facility administrators: Commendations if they have been very helpful and that they have been using the precipitators properly and effectively.
but some things can still be added.
Very serious gaps in the methods and analysis are present on the issue. Acceptable. or all of these guide questions: What do you consider your most important learning in this module? What did you find challenging yet engaging? What did you find difficult and frustrating? Besides the investigation on electrostatic precipitators.
Comprehensive.htm If you commit some mistakes. Write a 1 to 2-page reflection on your experience in the entire module. You may choose to answer one. go first through a review on the concepts and ideas learned from the different activities. “More work needs to be done.
Shows some lapses or gaps in the methods and analysis of the issue.Here’s a rubric by which your report shall be scored: Criteria
Comprehensiv eness of the report
Very comprehensive. Open the link below. A number of the audience is easily disinterested.
Quite unsubstantial. Good material for a local news item.
Before you go on to the post-assessment.
Engaging. but the writing style and presentation can still be improved. Important facts and evidences were gathered. Additional information present reflects student’s deep understanding.
Not engaging. http://www. some.gcsescience. Very engaging. what other investigations related to electrostatic charges and charging could you work on later? NEXT
. Hardly anyone wants to finish the report.Writing style is interesting and vivid. and answer the questions there. you are advised to return to the Lessons and the Webpage readings to clarify further your missed or incomplete understanding. Not quite complete. The report is worth sharing to the national news agencies.
Scientific and methodical. Variables are clearly defined.
Some key information are lacking. Data and arguments are methodically presented.com/pse13-electrostatic-charge-questions-answers.
Methodically addressed the issue
Very scientific and methodical.
positive * D. become negatively charged as well * D. it has only one electron B. you have to go back and take the module again. it has one more electron than protons * D. it gave away one proton to another atom A chlorine atom has 17 protons in its nucleus and 17 electrons outside. 2.
3. become positively charged C. remain neutral B. protons and electrons . Cl. neutral C.has a net charge of -1 because ______. electrons and protons . you may move on to the next module. If a neutral metal sphere is placed in contact with a negatively charged metal rod. If you do well. becoming a Cl. Your score will only appear after you answer all items. The negatively charged electrons are outside the nucleus. If your score is not at the expected level. A. neutral B. It easily gains one more electron. so its charge is ____. neutrons. fluctuate from being positively charged and negatively charged Some of the excess electrons in the negatively charged rod will transfer to the initially neutral sphere. neutrons only . and so it has one more electron than protons. it has one less electron than protons C.POST-ASSESSMENT: It’s now time to evaluate your learning. A. protons and neutrons . This will make the initially neutral sphere also in excess of electrons and therefore positively charged.ion. Click on the letter of the answer that you think best answers the question. A chlorine ion.
. neutral The nucleus is positive because it has protons in it. A. the sphere will _____. The nucleus of atoms consists of _____.
making it negatively charged.4. a charged body X is placed near to a neutral body Y. If X is positively charged and Y is connected to the ground. With the grounding. remain neutral B. Y will _____.ahsd. In charging by induction.
. A. electrons will flow into body Y. become negatively charged C. become positively charged as well * D. fluctuate from being positively charged and negatively charged Body X will cause electrons in body Y to move to the side near body X.
With proper grounding. D. if not entirely eliminated. then _____. all its electrons will go to the ground its excess electrons will go to the ground * it will take in some protons from the ground it will take in some electrons from the ground
Only electrons can be added or removed from bodies. charge can accumulate in it. When grounded. B. If this happens. A.5. A negatively charged body has excess electrons. the person using it is at risk of an electric shock. desktop computer electric stove * flat iron hair dryer
The metal casing of the electric stove has a good chance of becoming electrically in contact with the live wires. B. this risk is minimized. Also. D. 6. usually done through the 3 rd (round) prong in its plug. these excess electrons will flow to the ground until the body becomes neutral. If a negatively charged body is to be connected to the ground. C.
. Which of the following most needs to be grounded? A. C.
bypassing the building. conducting the charge to the ground. it hits the lightning rod. A.
.6 X 10-10 Coulomb
Q = n qe
where Q is the charge developed n is the number of electrons qe is the charge of an electron
Q = n qe = (– 1. keeping the people inside the building unharmed. A. Lightning rods are placed _____ of a building. at the base B.6 x 10-10 Coulomb However. through the building B. C. since the body loses electrons.6 x 10-10 Coulomb . for use later as electricity The charge from lightning is immediately conducted down into the ground. The great amount of charge cannot be stored (yet) for later use as electricity. B.
9.6 x 10-19 Coulomb per electon) x (1 x 109 electrons) = – 1. If the lightning rod is not grounded. A single electron’s charge is – 1.6 x 1010 Coulomb. collecting the charge into a storage device. above the windows C. What will be the charge of a body if it loses 1 billion of its free electrons? A. its charge is positive: + 1. then electricity will pass through the building and the people in it will not be safe. 1 x 109 Coulomb + 1. on all the corners of the rooftop Placing rods above the highest points of a building will ensure that if ever lightning strikes. above the highest point D.6 x 10-19 Coulomb. A lightning rod works by _______.6 x 10-9 Coulomb + 1. conducting the charge to the ground. bypassing the building * C. and not any other part of the building.1.
Which rubbing material will create the most charge on a rubber stick? A. as the thief will be electrocuted. what will be the sign of their charges? A. the greater the charge created in it. B. or conversely. glass rod: positive. silk D. It discharges the motor and the whole machine. It is an “anti-theft” wire. It is the grounding wire. fur B. farthest away from rubber. With it attached to the main circuitry. leather glass Increasing human hair tendency wool to gain fur electrons silk rubber styrofoam polyvinylchloride (PVC)
11. If a glass rod is rubbed with Styrofoam. Without it the user won’t hear an alarm even when it is done washing. glass rod: negative. the washing machine will not be stolen. What is this wire and what is it for? A. both will have negative charges The Styrofoam will gain electrons from the glass rod. both will have positive charges D. C. It has the least tendency to gain electrons. wool The more electrons gained by the rubber stick. it will most easily give its electrons to the rubber stick.
. human hair is highest in the series. Without it the machine will not run. Styrofoam : negative * B. The picture at the right shows a green wire attached to the motor at the underside of a washing machine’s wash tub. From among the choices. refer to the triboelectric series in the box at the right: 10. Styrofoam: positive C. This way. The green wire is a grounding wire. It is the power line. 12.For items 10 and 11. It is the line to the buzzer alarm. charge is prevented from building up in the washing machine. human hair * C. Its other end should be connected to the water pipe outside the machine. D.
D. The washing machine will not run. B. The motor for the wash tub will run. The motor will keep running even as the timer goes down to zero. *
If the grounding wire is not connected. Stay in your car. C. on a long trip on an open plain highway. People in open fields (with no trees or houses) are at risk of getting struck by lightning. but turn off the radio and lights. Stay in your car. then the charge that may accumulate in the machine may cause an electric shock on the person using it. The other risks above should also be avoided. but stop at the roadside and wait for the storm to be over.
. but the most fatal of them is the first. D. B. * C. and a thunderstorm suddenly starts? A. Stay in your car and take a stop in the next stable shelter or gas station. Which of the following will be the BEST thing to do when you are in your car. as using these increases the risk of lightning hitting your car. The person using the machine might get an electric shock. but that for the spin dryer will not. Get out of your car and take shelter under the nearest tree you can find.13. What could happen if this wire is not firmly connected at either ends? A.
To attract the charged smoke particles. the collecting plates will have to be negatively charged. B. and then they get attracted to the similarly charged collecting plate. Which statement below best summarizes the process?
A. the smoke particles will become positively charged. while the negatively charged smoke particles will attach to the positive plate. the smoke particles will become negatively charged. Pictured below is the process by which an electrostatic precipitator reduces the pollutants releases to the atmosphere by factories. To attract the charged smoke particles.
If the grid is positively charged. Some smoke particles attach themselves to the metal grid.
. If the grid is negatively charged. Positively charged smoke particles will attach to the negative collector plate. * D. and then they get attracted to the oppositely charged collecting plate. the collecting plates will now have to be positively charged. and the others that pass will stick to the collecting plates. C.15. Smoke particles acquire a charge opposite that of the metal grid. The metal grid gives the smoke particles either positive or negative charges. Smoke particles acquire a charge similar to that of the metal grid.
. (Right figure below) -
++ + . the upper side gets attracted to the plastic sheet. The plastic sheet is actually positively charged. Negatively charged. The attraction overcomes the repulsion that the lower side experiences. pushing them lower. the upper side is negative and the lower side is positive.. You conducted a “magic show” with the Plastic kids in an orphanage you visited. This polarizes the tissue bits. and the lower side negatively charged. with the upper side positively charged.++ . What was the charge of the Table top tissue bits? A. * B. (Left figure below) With the tissue bits now polarized. How else could they be attracted to the plastic sheet? D. The tissue bits however are still electrically neutral. You sheet showed them the demonstration where tissue bits flew up to the plastic sheet. Assume the plastic sheet to be negatively charged. The negatively charged plastic sheet repels the electrons in the tissue bits. not negative. the upper side is positive and the lower side is negative. They are neutral. They are neutral. C. Positively charged.
and is connected to the ground. The finger can take away just enough electrons to make it neutral.
Touching the plastic sheet grounds the plastic. The small plastic sheet can polarize a smaller object. The finger is positively charged so it repelled the tissue bits. Option B is not possible. at least the point touched. The finger discharged the plastic. The tissue bits under the touched spot fell back to the table. * C. You then touched the top side of the plastic sheet where there are tissue bits under it. Option D is not possible. B. and so no longer able to attract the tissue bit. but not to make it positively charged. and it then repelled the tissue bits. There is no way for the finger to cause the plastic sheet to have a positive charge. This point becomes neutral. but not a bigger body that is connected to the ground. D. The finger changed the plastic’s charge to positive.17.
. which then was not able to attract the tissue bits any longer. Tissue is always repelled by the human body. Why? A. as your hand is connected to your body.
. A is not really a good answer. (Thus. It is ok to just have 2-hole outlets. “It’s there to accommodate appliances with three pronged plugs.18. Yes.” * C. Option C is not good. This is best for appliance with moving parts. shower heater) are prone to accumulating charges that may cause electric shock. “The third hole is for appliances that need to be grounded. oven. Plugging in your stove there will not ground your stove. and so they only have 2-prong plugs and will need just 2-hole outlets. like electric fans and washing machines…” Appliances with heating elements (stove.) Remember. One customer approached you and asked. For 3-pronged plugs. so the plug won’t easily fall off.” B. washing machines. it will be good if all outlets in your house have 3 holes. The grounding wire inside the third hole is the key protective device against shocks. “It’s for your safety. “The third hole is for a more stable fit. it is not just a matter of having a 3rd hole for the 3rd prong. there are available adapters…” D. Thus. like washing machines and shower heaters. Option B is dangerous if you have ungrounded 3 rd holes in outlets in your living room. as plugging in 3-prong devices into 2-hole outlets through an adapter does not ground the appliance. The third prong actually connects to a grounding wire inside the round hole in the 3-hole outlet. Most other appliances do not need grounding. You took a summer job in a hardware store. “What is the third hole in these outlets for? Should I buy these for my entire house?” Which of the following will be your BEST reply?
Better flying that higher above the cables. If you are a safety inspector. what will you tell the people in this house? List 3 things that you will tell these people. Examine the picture at the right.”
http://www. If you happen to pass by this road in the picture.com/FunandGames/OnlineGames/007006
20.19. “Hey! Fly that on an open field.
____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________
Cartoon from: http://www. what will you tell the girl who is flying her kite? A. away from any power lines!” * D. Don’t fly it higher than the cables. “Be careful.” C.com/FunandGames/OnlineGames/00 7005
. “Be careful. “Flying kites under power lines is ok as long as the string doesn’t touch them.alliantenergykids.alliantenergykids.” B.
or by taking away its excess electrons. especially when they are plugged in.Do not use electrical appliances when on or near water. 4. due to a charged body brought near it. by which smoke and exhaust is being cleaned up of the harmful particles. Electrostatics: The branch of physics concerned about charges that are not in motion as in currents in wires. Do not stick anything into oven toasters and other electrical appliances. 6. NEXT
GLOSSARY: 1. this device is also useful in demonstrating the different charging processes. Electrostatic precipitator: a device installed in chimneys. the body being charged. Triboelectric series: a listing of materials according to their capacity to take in electrons when rubbed with other materials. 3. either by providing it with electrons (the number by which it is deficient) from the ground. Grounding: the process by which things are made electrically neutral. or take in electrons from. Polarization: the process by which a neutral object is made to have positive and negatively charged poles. a feature application of electrostatics and electrostatic charging
. therefore causing both metals to acquire same-sign charges. Do not leave small children unattended. Conduction: the charging process by which metallic objects pass among them electrons. 2. 8. Have safety covers on electrical outlets. Electroscope: a device that is useful in detecting the presence of charges in bodies. Induction: the charging process by which non-metallic objects can be charged even while the charging body does not give up to. 7. 5.
http://www.windows2universe.1 Video for assessment: Electroscope induction with grounding 2.htm
http://www.jjay.1 Electrostatic charge: Attraction and repulsion 2.colorado.org/Regents/physics/phys03/atribo/default.html http://www.WEBSITE RESOURCES AND LINKS IN THIS MODULE: Lesson No.com/watch?v=-iykzxpnpjk&feature=endscreen&NR=1
http://www.org/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/electron.youtube.cuny.html http://regentsprep.gcsescience.6 Charging by Friction 1.2 Charging balloons interactive simulation 2.htm
http://phet.2 On protons 1.2 On electrons 1.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-atoms.windows2universe.3 Electroscope text and diagram 2.1 Video: Charging spheres by induction 2.youtube.com/pse4-electrostatic-gold-leaf-electroscope. Activity / Assessment / Short description 1.youtube.8 Video: Straw electrostatics 2.com/watch?v=2PmWlPjV6n0&feature=fvwrel
.3 Website link
http://www.2 Charges in the atomic level 1.htm
9 Worksheet: Conduction and induction 2.cfm
http://dev.9 Worksheet: Charging by inductions 2.com/interactive_molecules/water.org/Document.cfm http://www.physicsclassroom.10 Water as a polar molecule and universal solvent 2.htm
.com/class/estatics/U8L2b.7 How neutral objects get attracted to charged objects 2.com/pse5-electrostatic-charge-neutral-attract.com/pse5-electrostatic-charge-neutral-attract.htm
http://www.com/class/estatics/U8L2c.4 Make your own electroscope 2.youtube.htm
http://www.11 Video: Jumping and floating beads (into to grounding) 3.youtube.gcsescience.gcsescience.1
http://www.com/pse6-electrostatic-charge-shock-spark-danger.edinformatics.10 Polar molecules 2.Video: Making an electroscope 2.doc
http://www.gcsescience.youtube.physicslab.ca/30/charging.5 Video: Electroscope charging explained 2.7 Charging processes: Conduction and induction 2.xml
edu/hbase/electric/bregnd.4 2-pronged and 3-pronged plugs in appliances 3.org/view_activity.3
http://electronics.3 More on safety from lightning: Lightning protection institute 3.2 Lightning interactive animation 3.gsu.com/how-does_4588127_lightning-rod-protect-house.3 More on lightning rods at home 3.com/environment/natural-disasters/lightning-interactive/
http://environment.blogspot.php?url=collection/cub_/activities/cub_air/cub_air_lesson10_activity2.gcsescience.teachengineering.3 Lightning safety tips 3.xml
http://environment.lightning.nationalgeographic.Intro to lightning: Electrostatic shock 3.1 Lightning facts from National Geographic 3.nationalgeographic.4 The ground wire and 3hole outlets 4.2 Simple demo of precipitator using balloons
http://environment.1 Uses and applications of electrostatics 4.html
http://www.com/electrostaticsmokeprecipitators.Web-page: Electrostatic precipitator 4.woodrow.htm
.gcsescience.explainthatstuff.4 Electrostatic precipitator: Make a model 4. final check-up before the Postassessment
http://www.4 Closing quiz.com/pse13-electrostatic-charge-questions-answers.