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Revised Edition

The most general case of partial fraction expansion assumes you have a proper

fraction with all positive powers of z (if its not proper, carry out long division

until it is; if it has negative powers multiply by z

n

/z

n

, where n is the highest

negative power).

Lets suppose weve satised the above requirements, then we have an X(z)

that can be written as

X(z) =

B(z)

A(z)

,

where the numerator is of order m and the denominator of order n, m n. The

rst step is to factor the denominator:

X(z) =

B(z)

(z p

1

)(z p

2

) . . . (z p

n

)

,

where the p

i

are poles of X(z). Then we need to expand this into a sum of

terms

X(z) = c

0

+

c

1

z

z p

1

+

c

2

z

z p

2

+ . . . +

c

n

z

z p

n

,

the inverse z-transform of each of which we can look up in a table.

The individual c

i

factors are solved for as follows:

c

0

= X(z) |

z=0

,

which is actually just the ratio of the constant terms in the numerator and

denominator, while for 0 < i n

c

i

=

_

z p

i

z

X(z)

_

z=p

i

.

Example: Find x[n] when

X(z) =

3

5

2

z

1

1

3

2

z

1

+

1

2

z

2

.

First, we need to multiply through by z

2

/z

2

to make all the powers positive,

leaving us with

X(z) =

3z

2

5

2

z

z

2

3

2

z +

1

2

.

Then we factor the denominator:

X(z) =

3z

2

5

2

z

(z

1

2

)(z 1)

.

1

Now solve for the c

i

:

c

0

=

0

1

2

= 0

c

1

=

_

z

1

2

z

3z

2

5

2

z

(z

1

2

)(z 1)

_

z=

1

2

=

3

_

1

4

_

5

2

_

1

2

_

1

2

_

1

2

1

_ = 2

c

2

=

_

z 1

z

3z

2

5

2

z

(z

1

2

)(z 1)

_

z=1

=

3

5

2

1

_

1

1

2

_ = 1.

Thus

X(z) =

2z

z

1

2

+

z

z 1

,

which we can look up in the table to nd

x[n] = u[n]

_

2

_

1

2

_

n

+ 1

n

_

= u[n]

_

_

1

2

_

n1

+ 1

_

.

Repeated poles: The method explained above needs an additional step

when a pole appears more than once in the denominator. Suppose some pole

p

i

shows up r times, or in other words the denominator contains the expression

(z p

i

)

r

. Then the expansion requires all the terms

c

i

1

z

z p

i

+

c

i

2

z

2

(z p

i

)

2

+ . . . +

c

i

r

z

r

(z p

i

)

r

,

which can be iteratively (tediously) solved for as

c

i

r

=

_

(z p

i

)

r

z

r

X(z)

_

z=p

i

,

c

i

(r1)

=

_

(z p

i

)

r1

z

r1

_

X(z)

c

i

r

z

r

(z p

i

)

r

__

z=pi

,

c

i

(r2)

=

_

(z p

i

)

r2

z

r2

_

X(z)

c

i

r

z

r

(z p

i

)

r

c

i

(r1)

z

r1

(z p

i

)

r1

__

z=p

i

,

and so on. Note that you must simplify the expressions inside the braces be-

fore doing the z = p

i

substitution; if you dont, and if there are any (z p

i

)

denominators, you will nd it dicult to evaluate the result correctly.

2

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