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CLASSIFICATION OF IGBOMUSICALINSTRUMENTS, NIGERIA
CLASSIFICATION OF IGBO MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, NIGERIA
J.N.LO-BAMIJOKO there area number ofsystems for musical each Worldwide, instruments, classifying itsadvantages with Since ofthis andimperfections. the istofind of purpose study ways ina national instruments musical the will used be effort, incorporating Nigerian system derived from andconcepts. When reference will be indigenous terminology necessary, madetointernationally familiar terms suchas those oftheSachs-Hornbostel system. The majortaskof thisstudy is to place indigenous instruments in an indigenous framework. Thelists ofmusical instruments here not tocover do the presented pretend wide variations ofallNigerian musical instruments. the of the Rather, purpose survey istogive a broad overview ofIgbomusical as well as toshow how musical instruments, instruments ofsomeoftheother ofNigeria cultures relate to those oftheIgbos,and howthey to theclassification relate ofmusical instruments as a whole. TheIgboInstrument Classification In Nigeria, andspecifically theIgbo-speaking theclassification of among people, musical instruments takestwofactors intoconsideration. The first focuses on the instrument onthesociety inwhich theinstrument is used.Thefirst perse,thesecond in other deals with the classification of the instruments baseduponhow factor, words, are and the the with second various functions oftheinstruments inthe they played, context. indigenous 1. Iyg- to shake, orclaptogether rattle, 2. Iku- to strike a hardsurface with a beater 3. Iti- to strike a membrane with handor beater 4. Ikpq- to pluck orbow 5. Ifu- to blow With tothefunctions oftheinstruments intheindigenous are regard society, they to therolethey Theserolesaredivided into grouped according playin Igbo music. three and(3) therhythmo-melodic.' categories: (1) therhythmic, (2) themelodic, Thetwomajor factors wehavementioned within themselves cross-currents embody ofmeanings andvalues which willbe discussed as they comeup intheresearch. The nextsection willattempt to describe various musical instruments in all their Igbo ramifications. Iyo Under means toshake, rattle orclaptogether, andwhose roleinmusic is Iyo,which will comeallforms andshapes ofrattles andclappers. Thecharacteristic of rhythmic, instruments under theaboveheading is that sound musical (notnecessarily sound)is
This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Thu, 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
andpellet Description Where found bells Anambra. together. and Anambra States State Cross Rivers Anambra Imo. canbe single. they are known in Igbo as yomyom(Fig. fresh.They covered with inYoruba. in Efik. is used to describe buttheterm are shaken".2 makewhenthey only (whichtherattles) areknown aremadefrom Whentherattles themetalrattles. metal andbasketry and BendelStates. the Therefore.2). claptogether) Rattles inthe Nameofinstrument different Languages ideoroshainIgbo. According Shakers Nameofinstrument or inEfik. Basket ishaka.The nameekpili (Fig. under Instruments IYO (to shake. byshaking. Cross Rivers. description produced canbeapproached ofthe instruments totheir means ofproducing rhythmic according sound. haveonecommon as rattles described Instruments strung They a musical or tied around or waist as anklets then are used and bands. ekpili. lacedtogether andworn orankles around thewaist Bells of bata is different usedamong Saworo shapes Oyo state usedon bataanddundun theYorubas drums as buzzers metal Foranklets the Variously andwristlets rings Oyostate shaped with hollows useseke-seke.palm frondor metalencasements Whenthey are the Like as the same classification together. are then The shells fall out when or left to out and the nuts are either dry.20 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARYOF AFRICANMUSIC orclapping the instruments. Cross Rivers. Hourglass with on both sides clappers inside hanging loosely both openings bellsin as clapper Known in Efik ikpo-nketa English orgourds rattles oroshain Igbo. scraped and used as ankletsor waistbands. as ide (Fig. ophoin Edo iyok rattles in English.1). in Efik. which with tothematerial Their names to actas a buzzer. kaksak eyisa can rattle more. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . andsquares Yorubas orbeads(Fig.C.W. Smallround andhollow Imo. be small Where found Cross Rivers. Ogun.234. they grassorpalmfronds. states. beads. usually brass.128. instrument according vary seeds is madefrom therattle are made. are made of metal. ekpili. This content downloaded from 165.they strung ekpili. uyara Ekput in Igbo kpokokpoko Description bell-like shaped. 3) is usedwhen they arestill Theseseedsarecutinhalveswhenthey knownin Igbo as ekpiliorekpiri. Kwara Oyo.Bendel. Thegourd in Hausa andgwantso orlarge. together strung fall underthe Pellet rattlescontainedin grass. rattling. rattle. Echezona. nsakor sekere or double in Ida.203 on Thu.5) oragogo-ese for saworo eleko. from thesound is derived "thename'yom-yom' to W. nyo. ofseed. pebbles arealways feature. Imo.
beautifully Oyo. a type native oftheCrossRiver is ofwood.6)among State. Before thetopofthebasket is closed.203 on Thu. Some buzzers.Thebasket -Fig. 12) Qkpqkolo pieceof woodbeaten with ortortoise shell a stick. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Thisshaker. thefunction of these instruments can become evenmore andthedialogue cantakeother musical forms. aja. NIGERIA 21 TheYorubas have other shakers which gourd they callera-sango A bottle-like gourd itis containing pebbles.9) and calabash (ishaka Primarily. shaker hasa piece ofround calabash as the is basket 10). Whereas rattles onefunction in rhythm perform only shakers andtheclappers havemore musical functions. shell Theseareknown as aja (Fig. as they areinIgbomusic. Imo. Movement: Clapper: Shaker: andnkponkpo Wood andwooden Anambra. complicated. may filling onemusical movement andtheother. perform function.Fig. types together.shapedlikethebell. for gapsbetween will this musical butdo notperform itinthe same example. clappers It is also usedintheImostate inside. lacedaround thecalabash. There is another ofshaker known as uyara in theImo State.and with State.Nigeria. (Fig. Clappers Name ofinstrument Description Where found theshakersare oftwokinds. carved.Ogunand Kaduna states.g. orseed alsotortoise CrossRivers States clefs. way. 14). specific When the two instruments areusedtogether. or quadruple basket double. beaten with In a stick. rattling areputintothebasket. 13)inIgbo. most because ofthe loosely hanging probably ofthe CrossRiver andImoStates. suchas pebbles or materials.It can be a single. e.CLASSIFICATION OF IGBOMUSICALINSTRUMENTS.okpokolo clappers.andthe woven and closedat thetop. is known as kpokokpoko theIgbosoftheAnambra (Fig. andthis issimilar to they adoptsome dialogue what is generally known as the'callandresponse' form.234. Nigerian music a flatand hollowed a regular contemporary pieceofwoodusedto maintain ostinato is known as a 'Clef'.basket(nyo.8) in Uyo. Patterns ofmusical between shakers andclappers) Rhythmic (Anexample dialogue In thehandsof experts.128. This content downloaded from 165. inIgbomusic is a generic namefora flat. Theshaker andtheclapper. usually will form ofdialogue with oneanother. finger Other ofclappers areinthe form ofshort. base. triple shaker linked atthetopinsucha way that the link becomes thehandle ofthe together shaker. Thecalabash shaker instead hastherattling materials seeds. andhollowed (Fig. Thisshaker known as ikpo-nketa proximity (Fig.andthey aremadewith twoflat of pieces woodwhich beprolonged tobecome ormay havea raised backfor may handles. well rounded sticks hit grips. TheIgboname forbothshakers is nyQ. music.Rivers. specific ofthese instruments beusedfor andothers beused for in may time-keeping.
ogene Although their inmusic function is mainly It isimportant havemelodic to properties. Asogene dancesequence. usually to inthepatterns ofogene isbypatterns. slit-drums. this of The small class instruments. areall known as ogene. andxylophones.from (Fig.17 seeFig. instruments areranked: is howIgbomusical equal.ugege etc. Gongsof all sizes. family clappers) nyo the ranking is accorded of instruments. tothe area triple according inIgala. ikolo. ofinstruments (membrane drums) igbafamily odu.opi andoja (wind instruments) ndedegwu (xylophone) ofinstruments ogene (gongs) family ofinstruments andubo-aka andthumb ubo family (strings piano) of instruments rattles and (shakers. kugeinHausa. biggongs usually invery rare andalo cases.234. itscommunication a high usestwotones. instruments. ufieand ekwe(slitdrums) alo or ugbom.name varying orquadruple.128. InIgbo. Theyare used to communicate inthe when itis usedtocommunicate tothedancers indancemusic function changes anda low. (Fig. andmiddle The southern smaller onescanbe double. nwa(time keeping) Metal Instruments under a hard surface with a beater) IKU (to strike gongs Name of instrument 1. what canbedescribed as a melodic a musical context andalo outside perform thesame The biggongalo performs information. or alo when be ableto understand ogene they andFig.Ogene Fora triple seeFig.15)to thelargest. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .20) ogene. small are gongs andbig called ogene Description Where found Small andlarge inthewhole of metal gongs Used ofallsizes andshapes. nne(second lead) 3.22 OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARYOF AFRICANMUSIC JOURNAL Iku Instruments under Iku are all those whosehardsurface is struck with paddedor beaters. inIgbomusic mention here that musical instruments follow a hierarchical order which ofmusical determines instruments inthe total the framework placeandroleofa family ofIgbo music. inEdo. quadruple.Thefollowing 2 3. 19. ogene higher position Igbo function. or The known as alo are double. quadruple This content downloaded from 165. 5. as wellas theplaceand roleofan instrument within itsownfamily. 7. Nigeria. gong .their functions ogene and alo perform mainly rhythmic Although of is that the rattles. of Igbo musical in thehierarchical framework all are not Therefore.203 on Thu. 6. alo. triple. andonehastobeschooled method language talk. although single.16. gongsee Fig. non-padded thesmallest. rhythmic. in music than hierarchical Moreover. oke(lead instrument) 2. andthey gongs comprise can be single. 18andfor a andchild nnena nwa mother gong gong.nkong ulo andakpoge in Efik. in music. Thesearethegongs. 4. gongs agogoin Yoruba. to the role each each family Within the of instrument in music that family: particular plays 1.doublealo canbe found.Ogene Foran example ofa double metal nkpinabo.
The functions or listento theseinstruments inorder that women hear the instruments areusedtake instruments may placeatnight. kundun in Hausa maikafo Where found Description Cross slabs Tuned wooden Imo. organised disappearing Today. in Ibibio. rather instruments information. among agreement but is referred to as the drum In G. the (Fig.6 to be moved downtree.234.The only slitdrumuhieand themedium Imo Statecall their largest which is calledekwe slit thesmall drum alltheIgbosis with byall. andthelarge'slit drums. spreading they of inthepast. 7ft 10in and8ft drums was10ft dimension 5ininheight. and with a slitat thetop three the other families ofmusical Unlike come inthree sizes. In are still notallowed tosee inner the women ofthe chamber music area. inEfik. before theadvent Thiswastrue andatsacrificial purposes.As with rarely oftheslitdrums when areusedfor communication. and werenotmeant out of a hewed wereusually carved The medium-size slitdrums can be moved and are usedforritual around. around.Therehas always size as ikolo or ikoro. festivals".and thesmallest medium slitdrum. NIGERIA 23 Slitdrums Nameofinstrument inIgboare drums Smallslit orekere. Basden Ibos ikolo.128. ofthecommunity.203 on Thu. community non-functional. Rivers and PlateauStates over a resonator box.23). In fact are arebecoming likethelargeslitdrums instruments they one has to be schooled to be able to thegongs. butnotseeeither playing Xylophones Nameofinstrument or ngelenge. akwakwa obodom in Urhobo. inthis to their described according study to be thatthey "are notintended G. ofthetraditional beliefs headwhowasalsocustodian community and it was once is life as rapidly. thelanguage understand they size. placed Anambra. referred to thesamedrums in AmongtheIbos of Nigeria4 sameauthor different the created confusion the from way Igbos already by compounding thereby willbe slitdrums To reduce thisconfusion. largest as ekwe. inIgbo. outenough Cross RiversStates hollowed shapes. for whichthese whiletheytalk. thenamesofthedrums.CLASSIFICATION OF IGBOMUSICALINSTRUMENTS. Rivers Anambra. Niger by 3. okwa. Slitdrums intruments.or orover banana stems.The Igbos of and medium on the namesof the largest disagreement TheIgbosof oneufie.G. musically play or uhie(Figs. Of thelargest for ceremonial areusedfor ofmusic. ufie (uhie)andikolo(ikoro). Afikpo type. graded horns This content downloaded from 165. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ikot-eto ikwembo inOgoja.T.T. Basdenstated slitdrums. heardthese days. similar do not and as a never sizesofslitdrums they perform family. Basden hasreported ofonewhose areofenormous Thelargest slit drums inwidth.T. agiloh andmoloin Birom. to serve as resonator. Rivers. been as ekwe.24 & 25). calledekwe. ikoloandthemedium drum callthelargest slit State Anambra one ikoro.the is known as ufie oftheslitdrums Thelargest functions. them ortheplayers. areaschange sizes. Where found Description and Woodlogsofall sizesand Imo. Ndedegwu. These 2ininlength.5 the one this was on centre: life of a when the community pivoted Christianity.
ordering inmusic aremore orlessfixed. It never itis always rather. regarded among Igbosas the generator the liketheheart. instruments. ngedegwu only performs function ofa soloinstrument. andintheir similarity. pulsating gives happening itisregarded tomusic.12 Northcote W. accompanied.203 on Thu. a blackinfluence andthereby inAsiabeyond what there everwas of Asiancivilization in Africa. important scholars as a rhythmo-melodic Thedrum hasbeen described andmusicians bymany it is the instrument.7 Southern that"beautiful notesare produced kindsof Nigeria reported byvarious xylophone' Ofalltherhythmo-melodic isthe onethat the instruments. This theroles that instruments hierarchical order. As a melodic theIgbosas life andmeaning instrument.C. functions. life.According (Fig. but havingoriginated it. play inmusic ofa family ofmusicalinstruments twofactors: ordercontrols (1) thefunction ofthefamily ofmusicalinstruments ofeach member as a whole. Igbo supernatural way.M. thelanguage to be ableto understand to be schooled ofIgbomusical andin a is a hierarchical We sawthat there instruments. Igbo xylophone by used names are toits 27)and commonly ngedegwu (Fig. Echezonaclaimsthat"theIgbos are generally as theoriginators of the regarded elsewhere. among is notlifeas weknow The butthis it. Themusical study simply is rhythmo-melodic function of drums like the slitdrumsand xylophones.24 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARYOF AFRICANMUSIC Indifferent areas of the isknown different the names: most land. possessing this reason cando alla mortal cando and ofthe the drum godsandfor spirits possesses inthewaythat the itcando all ofthis itcansing. it needs to be that this instrument however. The inthe ofinstruments infact. only godscan. thexylophone didnotmention as an Igbosinwhich chapters from thedrums.13 drums Igbo land. only perhaps ofmusical butthemost instruments. has a strong emphasised rhythmic function. the twocategories areplayed. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . it shouldbe regarded as a melodicinstrument. Asa rhythmic instrument.W. ephemeral type.ofthemortal. which ofeverything around It is it. theylost touch withits further developments This content downloaded from 165. Because of its musicalfunction. way musical boththeslitdrums and the mayexplainwhyTalbotclassified functions. force. It cantalk. more. ngedegwu Mary inherWest a preference for the West African Studies. The xylophone is a very ancient instrument amongtheIgbos.the in all instruments used for onehas As musical communication."9 Echezona's claimsare basedon a series of historical evidences which confirm theblackpresence.and (2) thefunction marimba.234.128. W. accompanies. ofthedrum. Kingsley expressed African of because of "clear their water-like in Talbot variety xylophones Peoples of notes". It of his on the as drums. ngelenge 29).. If thisis so. Jones' "brilliant" in Southeast to placetheorigin ofthexylophone Asia must be invery bad attempt on thepartoftheWesterner and represents further demonstration to deprive faith. Thomascategorically instrument or why separate stated that"thecommonest musical instruments and (amongtheIbos) are drums In the are not the most common musical flutes". thenA. Africa ofanything that is ofvalue. also Basden in two books may why xylophones explain hededicated to music..10 Iti (To strike a membrane with handorbeater) Thenext in the isitiandunder itwill classification allthe belisted families of heading tointhis membrane which willbe referred drums as drums. musical is more a melodic than a rhythmic instrument..
all shapes in gangainHausa. tambari. is a type ofmusic when For instance ofmusic. drums). (3) Potdrums udu in Igbo. sekere. in kotso. Earthenware Imo.ekedein Isoko. (4) Drumxylophones States in Igbo and tuneddrumsarranged ekere-mba proina rack andplayed in lbibio gressively ikon-ikpa likethexylophone This content downloaded from 165. ormore mmonwu. Hausa.Rivers.234. and apinti. Imo. sacred themost from ofdrums families The Igboshavemany igba-alusi ranging ofthe ofthe andigbo-mmonwu spirits (drums drums).igba-egvwu. igba-egwu ancestors).203 on Thu. igbaigba-alusi. music this orsocialfunction what toknow They ritual.ilu in Yoruba. the different peoples of Nigeria namesdescribe drums The generic for names (1) Generic of and drums double all and inNigeria single igba nkwa andsizes in Igbo. shantu in Hausa Cross handle Anambra. ceremony. in used aregenerally thatnumber Drums Sets of drums ofdrums (2) Families of cultures in the different sets as to two drums as from many igba-eze. kalangu. CLASSIFICATION NIGERIA 25 itself.five Nigeria all oke-nkwa nkwa-ike.OF IGBO MUSICALINSTRUMENTS. thefamily within with handorbeater) ITI (to strike a membrane under Instruments Nameofinstrument Description Found Where Drums are foundall over areusedby andthey Nigeria. of drums.Accompanying aresacred custodians gongs Rivers and Cross Graduatedand differently Rivers. are playedonlyby holymen. special ofthat theperformance areusedfor instruments willalso be abletotellwhat special music. potwith States andBornu and sphericalopeningon Rivers or side of thehandle. koso. This family and thedrums ofthealtarofthegods. in Igbo.bata.and abang in lbibio. etc.igede Sapele. special lusi Igba-A one to three in number. havetheir ownspecialtypes drums used is music that in which to the culture for itispossible mentioned. etc.and in Yoruba dundun. belonging people isusedfor. either with different water pots with a fan-like levelsplayed andstamping tubes beater.128. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . igba-eze (king's (sacred of families These different common to the most (dancedrums).
havedescribed. igu-egwu (solosinging) As andikpo-egwu (tocallmusic). 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .203 on Thu. teaching (igba-egwu) dancing egwu which and ofdrama include itmeans all aspects As drama.a king. duty inthemorning. music). egwuis theterm ofplaying: anddifferent andikwe-egwu ways (chorus singing). patterns typical drumming. Ikpowhich pluck in thissection(othersunderanotherheading). performed it inhisservice maintained anexpert drummer whose ortitled manusually chief. is usually single. includes allstring some ofwhich means instruments. Igba-izaga masquerade masquerade thatdancesstanding forthevery tallizagamasquerade on two drum music played ismore than but itis a bamboo stilts. Igba-Mmonwu isa more ofdrum music. without means theword In Igbolanguage. It is important to note here that what areaofIgbolandthey Igbosofthe called the calldrums whether ImoareaofNigeria nkwa.Theking. spirits appear their is ofthe in forms of missions. sacredbecauseof themystery surrounding they the Thislesser which called this drum ofthe medicine W.128. hisown of drum three consisted a surrounded use which usually by large. egwu igba-egwu aspects jokes. themusicof thebiggest so big it can hardly Igbo masquerade.Faster drum musicof theigba-mmonwu in other ofigba-mmonwu There aremany oji-onu (thedancing types masquerade).234.14 drum. Drums. drum of Igbo with noneof thecomplicated musicfitfora king. orbow.W. music. are described This content downloaded from 165. iti-egwu (tobeatmusic) (tostrike iku-egwu as as the of well dance to is describe used dance. games. him(this him in Igbois known as itu-afa). masquerades comefrom. Izagamusic vigorous yiele comparatively is thetype dancedby slowdrummusic. plays (izi-egwu). 32).C. significant Igba-ijele movewithease. ijelemasquerade allowing is another to makeslowand widemovements. forms ofan Igbonative oftheparaphernalia doctor. Thegeneral term varied igba-mmonwu Igba-mmonwu type that for different at oftheancestral refers to thedrum music reasons. Ikpo toplay. masked different seasons year. anychange twotypes ofsinging: usedto describe danceor drama. thefunctions forwhich are used.As music. music. thus Ijelemusic Symbolically. samesocial. personal prestigious musical which varied functions orfour smaller drums (Fig. the isslow isas bigas a house. him thenews ofthe inform him theking about wastosalute give day. we for all of these of that used is drum music Therefore. andthrill praise day-to-day happenings.Echenoza man. ofigba-eze themusic Thisis themusic and itis a slowdignified with ofthedrums. part Igba-Eze a chief ora titled mancommissioned a setofdrums for In thepast. igbaornkwa perform functions all overIgboland. cultural andmusical Igba-Egwu ininflection.26 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARYOF AFRICANMUSIC as arelesser which In thehierarchy ofthesacred drums drums areregarded rattles. beardifferent to areusedfor which names andthey according Igboland. egwu.
a cane or metalbeater anda usedtoproduce sound. plucked or andgogeinHausa. group young of the lives of all took which evil them. eight strings. ikpamboto in Ibibio. eighteenmetal tongues. exception string dayIgboland. odong in Efik. akpata or agbata in Isoko. toanIgbosaying. agidigbo in Yoruba and Cross Rivers lookslikea Anambra Thisinstrument with States bow. one to Long neckedluteswith (3) Lutes kuntiki molo. CLASSIFICATION NIGERIA 27 or bow) Instruments under IKPO (to pluck Nameofinstrument zithers (1) Raft Thestrings aremade moloin Hausa and ubo together. A calabash orwoodenbox on Anambra. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Rivers. une in Igbo. to saythatafter itisclear means'stories travel "Akuko fast'.ubo.The front in Edo. backstrings The back of theinstrument the hasa matwoven through stalks. The instruments who the of members story goes played group only in Urunnevo of unewas banned theplaying thatincident village. akwara in Igbo. containing pebbles as the which rattle instrument bow (2) Musical is played.It is thetongplayedby plucking ues. in different sparing by spirits ways possessed on other than une.bowed. ofune(music with the most Inpresent instruments.203 on Thu. According N'ije"which them on those who ofthestring instruments oftheevileffects thestory that played the instruments which fire like wild land haveswept Igbos must string destroying Igbo them inbooks written about toIgboculture as belonging by nowknow byreading only This content downloaded from 165.128.OF IGBOMUSICALINSTRUMENTS. garaya. canes on bothsides. of string out of use. allegedly who men of last the of how bow)were (music egwu-une played Ukwu. ofsoft woodused short stick and Foundall overnorthern and eastern of western parts Nigeria Cross Imo. One of thereasonsforthedisappearance bow) have fallen instruments that orsatanic theIgboswastheadverse instruments string power among in Enugwuis toldin Urunnevo The story on their exerted village players. akpata ubo-aka in Igbo. ofthe the hard in Igbo byraising part found Wh6re andGongola states Several cane stalks bound Anambra Description are playedwhilethe strings actas resonators.234. piano (4) Thumb to varysound. Bendel states and to four mounted which is Rivers.Itisplayed hunter's in the one end of thestrihg which actsas resonamouth tor.
however. thestrings are "resonator to a single neckandtightened with attached This who never saw an writer." Thediscrepancy the twodescriptions ofubo-akwara between must have resulted from thedifferent cultural associations of thetwowriters.Nigeria. TheIgbosclassify with instruments string family string ubo-aka becauseit is played thebambooor metal It is theonlyIgbo lamellas.""16 in use the discovered an instrument at the National among Igbos.Talbotdescribed which a he called of as an ubQ-akwara.22 their Uboalongwith as faras to EastAfrica".W. words.Thiscontradicts "stringed notfound at all.20 whodidnot think that the Thomas.128. also mentions which he subtitled W.41). description.andwhich all early writings agree isthe existed the une(musical Thisinstrument iscurrently bow)(Fig.W. 48 & 49) is generally Theliteral Hornbostel9 as anidiophone.C. ubo-aka EvenNorthcote theIgbos. when Thewomen love only played with women une. oftheIgbos. translation ofuboinIgbomeans "a plucked orbowed thus the the instrument is itbelongs determines that instrument". Oneofthem.23 xylophone This content downloaded from 165.and thetongues.a ritual itwas.C.Echezona 'Ibo guitar'in his ubQ-akwara Ibo MusicalInstruments in Ibo Culture. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .21 called Basden piano tongues played it"an instrument which cannot be compared with onewith which he is anyforeign W. was at onetime. pegs. socialandcultural context Talbot a native called itas the anddescribed commonest instrument piano. only professional (Fig."18 An instrument inuseinparts still ofIgboland. type harp.234.in other functional within the instrument. Lagos..42). among Igboshadany instruments other than thedrums. married The husband uneas a gift tokeep especially newly gavehisnewwife hercompany hewasawayat work on thefarms.Echezona oncemore asserts that "alsotooktheir Ibo slaves acquainted". familiar because stories aboutitsmagic arestill it toldintheIgboareaswhere powers wasoncein use. anddescribed itas "a acknowledged of of made small bamboo and with the thumbs". byplucking oftheplucked orbowed instrument that survived theonslaught family against string inIgboland. instruments Thisisbecause. andis still insome ubo-aka areasofIgboland. theIgbosthrough with the ofOkechukwu music from Nwatu.203 on Thu. say whysuchan instrument which wasonce"a common all overIboland" instrument disappeared. among Igbos. itspresence.28 OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARYOF AFRICANMUSIC JOURNAL The twomainfeatures of UbQ-aka arethesoundbox. very becoming popular inAnambra the Awkunano known uneplayer Nwatu State. way played tothe ofinstruments. is Igbostring ubq-akwara. He did not.with theexception ofthemusical bow".. Thiswriter has comeacross of ubq-akwara in manyearlywritings and photographs enoughdescriptions by theinstrument to believe that existed andwasonceinuseamong the explorers really Northcote assertion that Thomas's instruments are Igbos. is boat-shaped whose a skin instrument andcovered with . Talbot in Peoples of Southern described two such earlyexplorers. inthe informed this writer that unewasaninstrument pastthe played bywomen. only women. Ubo-Aka classifiedby SachsObo-aka (thumbpiano) (Figs. Nigeria"1 hesaidwere instruments which instruments.Itissaidthat were later banned from unebecause songs playing they to playlovesongs usedtheinstrument to their lovers andnottheir husbands. ubq-akwara which matches Talbot's Museum. while the other instruments were more orless ofleisure instruments andofpleasure. which can be madeofcalabash The calabashsoundbox givestheinstrument a deep (gourd)or wood.
and kaho in Hausa (2) Horns opi. Large and small hornsmade Anambra.Qdu are horn andpja areflutes. Bendel. and akpele in Igbo. states Foundinmostnorthern and in Bendelstate states Found inmostnorthern of Nigeria (4) Metal horns oko in Edo. opi arehorns. and imborivungu in Tiv in aresaidto perform functions instruments melodic thestring andwind Although the in a than melodic class much are the instruments wind string music. ipe in Igbirra. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Thetongues havebeendiscovered to range from four to as many as eighteen. perform in the musical For thisreason. arewidely used Ivorywhistles in themiddlebeltsof Nigeria Long trumpetsof silver or beatenbrass These are all end blown inThe difference is struments.and the duna.CLASSIFICATION OF IGBO MUSICALINSTRUMENTS. Ifu Our last category of instruments.algaita in Hausa. Bendel and in most fromcalabash. sariwa in Fulani (3) Cross Rivers Imo. osoko in Idah. Largeand smallanimalhorns. nuk-ukang in Abak. varied sizes. function. from elephanttusk. to their functions. kaho in Hausa Flutes oja and odike in Igbo.odukin Ibibio. Imo. thewindinstruments socialas wellas which is purely melodic.234. Kaflutes are end blown. Instruments under IFU(toblow) Name of instrument Description Wherefound (1) Horntrumpets odu-enyi. NIGERIA 29 andresonant while thewooden sound boxgives theinstrument a lessresonant sound. Kwara. ofsound boxareusedallover ofubo-aka types Igboland. Benue. The wooden Rivers. trumpets. Also used as northern partsofthecountry trumpet. imar in Tiv.203 on Thu. goes under all windinstruments the of materials with which are encompasses irrespective they made.used as a and Bendelstates and owned only by trumpet. which theheading of ifu. thatalgaita is a double reed instrument.to blow.pampani. thestring in Igbomusic than position This content downloaded from 165. called akpele when made Rivers.128. kakaki in Hausa (5) Wooden or bone horns and reedinstruments fare. The horn can be decoratedwith simpleor very complexgeometric patterns Cross Rivers. Imo and Cross Wooden or cane flute of Anambra. in addition cultural functions a more the wind instruments of musical instruments. higher Igbo musical aregenerally restricted to their instruments Whereas thestring instruments.thewindinstruments are grouped to their according genre. occupy important hierarchy instruments. Anambra. Thetwo sound.odu-okike in Igbo.and Oyo states cane flutes are side blown. nobles.
Thedifference between the areusedmore for than for andthey chanting singing. (2) The secondtype the is usedas a trumpet a maleantelope's horn. instrument used in combination drums. cannot besaid heisonhisway tondi-nze orwhen athome (elders) meetings. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Unlike is known instrument.128. Theexplanation the onehassurvived wooden changing The in Igbo cultural and sociallife. also perform horn trumpets of thewindinstruments.53)is themostcommon is notched The wooden andendblown. usually performs The in of time war. Thishorn byhunters during usually ithas only oneholeusedfor season. usedformasquerade used for (flutes music)or qja-okolobia (flutes 9ja-mmonwu ofboth whohaveattained Thesound ofthese flutes is ceremonies ofmen manhood). spiritual 9dufamily Itisknown instrument. function. types high-pitched oja ofinstruments insize.26m)long. as the often usedas a musical isthe onethat ismost jdu-achala the different anditsnamevaries voiceoftheancestors. during meeting igba-eze played. Of thebamboopja. Qja (Fig. while ofthis canonce survival times.203 on Thu. Thehighest-pitched flutes. It is madeof wood. topouter rectangular toannounce oracknowledge hispresence both man Thetitled useshisodu-enyi blown.50) out of thetusk. 14m) The smallest about5 1/ 2"(.52) Wind instruments andit make their bankofthe deer orcow. of bamboo. especially this function. and a soft usually light wood. it givesa theIgbosis whose soundto thevoiceofthemasquerade.Likeodu-enyi. Niger a solo thehorntrumpets. Asa melodic as well as non-musical functions melodic instrument performs an expert thewestern likea human voice.30 OF INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL LIBRARYOF AFRICANMUSIC Odu three ofhorn ThewordQduis usedto describe types trumpets: Itisa status inIgboland. symbol (1) Qdu-enyi (Fig. both instruments. among Opi like smaller animal horns aremade with inthe classofopi(Fig. andonly titled isanivory horn. placeamong supernatural ofthe ofwind Ofallmembers andsupernatural. also notched. Opi as a musical gongs. is usedfor when occurs theinstrument giving signals. They a largeanimal ofodu is known as odu-okike madefrom horn. Among Thenon-musical function ofopi other induetwith blower singers. hunting is an instrument usedexclusively ofodu known as odu-achala by (3) The third type is a this instrument bamboo reed covered here is Because symbolic. as akpele. in itsdeep-rooted functionality againbe found Thisis which the different sound of isthe characteristic produce.Thebiggest is small this because bythis family gja discovered 2"(.IgbosontheWestern opiwith gourd. useitalso to talkamong showoff.a smallsquareor mencan own it. masquerades. themselves. bright oja This content downloaded from 165. To makea windinstrument iswhere the horn is onthe curve ofthe andthis holeismade tusk. Igbopeoples. size theinstrument's ofsounddetermines itspitch and thequality ofan 9ja determines areknown either as which arealso theshortest. Qdu of spiders' at one end withududo (the protective covering eggs24). itcansing instrument akpele Igbos. oja the thetwotypes ofeja only is sideblown. Odu-enyi kind of itis notusedtoperform as suchinthat instrument to be a musical anyspecial it to the elders of at which is use a ndi-nze but music.234. functions. blowing. andthe isabout101/ writer long. opi is a musical with and rattles.
12. 6. Basden.A.T. No. 31 twostyles is thatchanting is an extended form ofspeaking.Brill. rather a pluriarc. Ltd.CLASSIFICATION OFIGBO MUSICAL NIGERIA INSTRUMENTS. Northcote on theIbo-speaking Thomas..1938.1938. Fig. References coined for useinthis 1.128.Lo-Bamijoko's article Vol.Thomas. 811. Witridge Anthropological Report peoplesof Nigeria 136.. singing oja-ukwe ofall types. Macmillan. 24. Ibid. 54. P. Niger 4.203 on Thu. inDr. op cit. 7. 18. G. op cit.(Michigan State University. cit. 1. op cit.. Ibid. W. Echezona. Sachs. 357. 10. The lowest-pitched flutes areknown as pja-igede. 16.136. Ed: Talbot's seems torefer to a harp. Africa ofthexylophone E.Basden.TheHistory ofMusical 25.Echezona.Theterm hasbeen todifferentiate instruments whose "rhythmo-melodic" study musical functions arepurely from those that alsohavemelodic rhythmic properties.. op. 15. Ibo Musical Instruments inIbo Culture..J.D. 136. andop cit.. 13.817.117. Basden. op cit.. 360 22.185.188.M. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 23.360. Frank theIbosofNigeria Cass& Co.39.T.12..812. 21.Curt Instruments 455.1921)187. Basden. (1913-14) 14.Ibid.whose waybetween known is as This is for used women's dances ones.Thomas. (London: Kingsley. factors (Leiden: 1964).Talbot. Diss.. Among (London: 5.809.. Curt Instruments.359. op cit. Sachs. op cit. op cit.appeared published perspective oftheeditor.Talbot.Echezona. 17. 356 op cit.Echezona.234. 1963) 3. Ibos(London: Frank Cass& Co. while is purely singing musical. 2.. op. Mary West Studies 65... 52. 11. music usedfor Igedeis a drum is usedin pairswith burialceremonies. (the pitched flute). andIndonesia: Theevidence andother musical andcultural Jones. 1899) African 8.C. cit. OUP. andis usedbykind 1984. than description in"TheBlack inmusic".TheHistory Norton. Ph.W.1938) 358. oja Thenext soundis half thehighest-pitched andthelowestQja. 1962) Peoples Nigeria (London: ofSouthern 9. 19.A. Talbot. permission Spring This content downloaded from 165. Echezona. ofMusical (NewYork: 1940) 20. Ltd. and pja-igede themalegja calling and the female responding. G. op cit. Basden. 81.
203 on Thu.234.5 Seke-seke ring bellrattle on dundun drum Fig.1 Yomyom pellet metal rattle Fig.6 Kpokokpoko bell clapper Fig. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .128.3 Ekpili rattle Fig.32 LIBRARYOF AFRICANMUSIC JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL rattle Fig.2 Ide palmfrond orEkpiri seedrattle Fig.7 Ikpo-nketa This content downloaded from 165.4 Saworo wooden shaker Fig.
203 on Thu. 10 Ishaka calabash shaker i Fig.CLASSIFICATION OF IGBO MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.234.9 Nyo basket shaker Fig. NIGERIA 33 Fig. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .13 Aja flat clappers. 12 Aja clappers. type wooden Fig.128.8 Ikpo-nketa bell clapper Fig. together clapped liketwopalms Fig.14 Okpokolo clef wooden This content downloaded from 165.11 Sere-sango calabash shaker rounded stick Fig.
a Festival Anambra from Enugu State.15 Ogene metal gong Fig.128.34 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF AFRICAN MUSIC Fig. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .203 on Thu. 16 Ogene metal gong Fig.20 Alo large dancegroup travelled andwidely 'Nkponkiti' Fig.234. Ogene Nkpi-ino gong quadruple This content downloaded from 165. 17 Nne Ogene Na Nwa mother and child gong doublemetal gong Nkpinabo Fig.21 Thefamous oftheArts. Fig. 18 Ogene Nkpi-ito gong triple 19 Fig. during Umunze.
State Obosi. at a Festival Imo State.24 & 25 Ufie medium slitdrum Fig. NIGERIA CLASSIFICATION 35 Fig. Okposi.OF IGBOMUSICALINSTRUMENTS.22 Ogene-phone.203 on Thu.128.26 Igbeni from Afikpo.234.23 Ekwe slitdrum small group Fig. This content downloaded from 165. Andrew's Choir. St. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Anambra Figs.
28 The'Nwoge'xylophone Ahaozara.30 at Ukwu-ije Fig.128. at a Festival.29 xylophone Ngelcnge Kunduni Sxylophone Fig. in Europe andAmerica. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .31 Igbadrums Anambra Festival.234. This content downloaded from 165. Thegroup has Afikpo. performed Fig.27 Ngedegwu from Fig. group Imo State. State Awka.36 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF AFRICAN MUSIC xylophone Fig.203 on Thu.
CLASSIFICATION OF IGBO MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.36 Egwu Aguata.35 Udupotdrum This content downloaded from 165. Fig.234.128. Anambra at a Festival oftheArts State. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . drums Fig.34 Tambari hemispherical from Amalagroup Fig.203 on Thu.33 Dundun drums royal Fig. Anambra State.32 Igba-eze oftheObi ofOnitsha. NIGERIA 37 from above: Clockwise drums andthedrummer royal Fig. infront ofthepalace.
234.38 FantaGombio. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .40 Uboraft This content downloaded from 165.38 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF AFRICAN MUSIC Fig.128. Kanuri musician thewell-known BornoState from Borno. Fig.37 Shantu tube stamping drum xylophone Fig.203 on Thu.39 Ekere-mba zither Fig.
musician inNigeria whoplays une today Fig. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . NIGERIA 39 bow Fig. described 25 byTalbot Fig.128. Fig. madeof string horse tail Fig.44 Molo lute double-stringed Fig.203 on Thu.CLASSIFICATION OF IGBOMUSICALINSTRUMENTS.41 Unemusical from Nwatu. State.234.42 Okechukwu Anambra theonly Awkunanu. 46 Ubo-akwara similar to theone pluriarc.47 Harp This content downloaded from 165.43 Goge bowedlute. 45 Garaya than (smaller molo) Fig.
53 Thefour Oja usedfor This content downloaded from 165.36) Aguata thestudy Fig.203 on Thu.40 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LIBRARY OF AFRICAN MUSIC Fig.52 Theopi horn player oftheAmalaDanceGroup from (see Fig.128.234. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .48 Ubo-aka thumb-piano Fig.51 Kaho antelope horn ivory Fig.49 Thethree sizesof Ubo-aka usedfor thestudy horn Fig.50 Odu-enyi Fig.
celebrations ofthe versary Obi ofOnitsha This content downloaded from 165. NIGERIA 41 Fig.32.59 Imar-anyin 4-hole. 25 Jul 2013 00:58:33 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .60 Algaita instrument: thewell-known Musa'Mogaji MaiAlgaita' from (Chief Algaita Player) Kano. single-reed instrument Fig.58 Kakaki fortheEmir player of Kontagora.57 Fluteplayer ensemble inFig.CLASSIFICATION OF IGBO MUSICALINSTRUMENTS.203 on Thu.234.128.56 Sariwa caneflute Fig.54 Odike wooden flute Fig. Niger State double-reed Fig.Kano State ofthe Fig.55 Imar whistle flute Fig. at the theanniOfalaFestival.
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