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VOL. 5 OCTOBEI~ 1966

Transmission Facilities for General Pumose J.

Wideband Services on Analog Carrier Systems

Absiraci-Three newgeneral purpose wideband data facilities ity of 250 kb/s, full-group, which can handle up to50 kb/s,
provide for the transmission of synchronous and nonsynchronous,
and half-group, capable of 19.2 kb/s operation. These sys-
2-level data a t bit rates rangingfrom 19.2 to 250 kb/s.These
facilities make use of half-group, group, and supergroup bandwidth tems aredesignated general p w p o s e in that they canhandle
telephone facilities. The majorcomponents involved are the type synchronous or nonsynchronous, 2-level data at any bit
303 wideband data station, the exchange area transmission systems speed up to their respective design maxima. Furthermore,
(local loop, N-Carrier, TI Carrier), and the long-haul transmission the transmission facilities described in this paper are ana-
systems [L-type multiplex (LMX) terminals, and coaxial cable and
log and can accept any signal that falls within their signal
microwave radio circuits]. The group band system is representative
and is discussed in some detail. spectrum and power handling capabilities [I].
The analog carrier systems were designed principally to handle
voice frequencytransmission and they present special problems TI~ANSMISSION
when they are adapted to accommodatewideband signals. For
Figure 1 shows a possible coast-to-coast wideband con-
example, up to eight LMX group connector filters may be encoun-
nection, although all carriersystemsdo not necessarily
teredina 4000 mile circuit and each connector introduces over
appcarin one circuit [2]. The type 303 data set trans-
150 ps of delay distortion in the transmission band. Special delay
mitterattenuates t,he low-frequency components in the
equalizers are added to each connector which reduce the distortion
to f3 ps in the band 64 to 104 kHz. 2-level data signal by means of a simple high-pass filter.
The modulation schemes utilized in the various wideband modems
The low-frequency components are reinserted at the data
were carefully tailored to the respective carriersystems. The
set receiver byaregenerativefeedbackcircuit [3]. The
LMX modem, usedasan example in this paper,utilizes ves-
tigial sideband, suppressed carrier,
amplitude consequentreduction
modulation. inlowfrequencycontentin the
A carrierfrequency pilot is added to thetransmitted signal totransmitted signal alleviates low-frequency transmission
requirements. A baseband repeater system (local loop) is
facilitatecarrier recovery in the receiver. The pilot isseparated
fromthe wideband signal in the receiver by acrystal bandpass available which permits transmission of the restored polar
filter. The filtered pilot isused for two functions; it isused to
line signal over ordinary pairsin telephone cable. The local
control an AGC circuit and hence the level of the received signal,
loop is currently used for wideband transmissionup to
and it is used in amultiple loop APC circuit to coherently demodulate
20 miles, although most circuits are less than 10 miles in
the wideband signal. The APC circuit is new and promises improved
performance over the conventional phase-locked oscillator when
used inacoherentdetector. It is capable of maintainingsmaller
The N-Carrier transmission system (Fig. 1) is used on
phase errors in the presence of phase perturbations and, further-
short-haul routes up to 200 miles. The N-Carrier wideband
more, the recoveredcarrier is always a t exactly the correctfre-
quency and hence the circuit is incapable of breaking lock. terminals, as well as those for L-Carrier and T1 Carrier,
incorporate modulation schemes that are carefully tailored
to the facilities. The bandwidth of the N-Carrier line is
INTRODUCTION sufficient,for half-group or full-group wideband service, but

T HE ANALOG carrier systems that play a prominent is insufficient forsupergroup service. Thelatter is re-
role in the transmission of wideband (data) signals in stricted to the use of a baseband local loop or T1 Carrier
the Bell System are theN-Carrier for short-haul transmis- for exchange area transmission.
sion and -the L-Multiplex for coast-to-coast transmission. The TI Carrier system utilized pulse code modulation
Local loops, which interconnect the dataset on the custom- and time-multiplexing techniques to provideshort-haul
er's premises and the centraloffice equipment, make use of transmission of 24 voice frequency signals. The system has
ordinary pairs in the telephonecables. In addition, there is a synchronous bit speed of 1..544 mb/s. New wideband
a ncw digital time-multiplexed transmission system,the T1
Carrier, that is used for exchange area service. The ana-
log facilities were designed principally tohandle voice
transmission, and they present special problems whenthey
are adopted to acconmlodate wideband signals.
I \ -


Threedistinctgeneralpurposewideband services are

available: supergroup, having a maximum channel capac-

Manuscript received January 26, 1966; revised May 27, 1966.

Paper CP66-1031 presented a t t h e 1966 IEEE International Con- OFFICE OFFICE
vention, New York, N. Y.
The author is with the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., North
Andover, Mass. Fig. 1. Wideband transmission circuit.

terminals permit it to handle either eight 50-kb/s or two represents the relative envelope delay of the terminal re-
250-db/s data channelsin place of the voice channels ceiver and transmitteralone and thelower delay cha,racter-
[4]. The half-group data service: is in a format that is not istic is of the group connector filter. The total relative
readily handled by the T1 Carrier [ 3 ] . envelope delay distortion (consisting of the sum of the two
The long-haul transmission plant is made up of LMX characteristics in Fig. 3 ) is indicated by the dotted curve
terminals together withrepeatercdcoaxial cables and point- in Fig. 4. The delay equalizer that is added to each con-
to-point microwave radio chancds. The terminals include nector reduces the distortion to approximately . t 3 ps as
several steps of single sideband, suppressed carrier, ampli- represented by the solid curve. A new connector and equal-
tude modulation.Twelve voice channels which are nor- izer have recently been designed that will further improve
mally multiplexed in a group band extending from 60 to the equalization to +1.5 ps per link so that the residual
108 kHz can be replaced with either two half-group wide- delay distortion will be =t12 ps for a typical 4000 mile
band channels or one full-group channel. Five group chan- circuit.
nels aremodulatedintothe supergroupband andten
supergroups are combined in a mastergroupband. The 50 kb Wideband Modem Channel ChaTacteristics
250 kb/s service replaces five grllup channels and operates
The 50 kb modem basebandchannelcharacteristic is
directly into the 312 to 552 kHzsupergroupband. The
shown in Fig. 5. It is designed to have a 50 Hz to 37 kHz,
variousradiosystemscarry one to three mastergroups;
nearlysquarebandandallin-bandshaping is donein
the L3 Carrier multiplexes thret: mastergroups into a 7.97
the type 303 data set [3]. The square band characteristic
MHz band; and, shortly, L4 Carrier will introduce a 16.98
M H z broadband channel composed of six mastergroups.
The type 303 data service involves only the group and
supergroup bands, but the signa,ls can be multiplexed into
any position in the L3, L4, or ra,dio spectra.
The restored polar line signal is recovered at the output
of each of the transmission facilities depicted in Fig. 1.
Thus, the type 303 data set can operate directly into any
one of them, and, furthermore, the order of interconnec-
tion of the various systems is unimportant.
The modulation techniques utjlized in the various wide-
bandmodems were carefully sselected for optimum per-
Fig, 2. LMX terminal and 1ocal.loop modifications for wideband
formance considering the particular data service and carrier servlce.
involved. Each combination generates
problems and constraints. The I M X group-band terminal
is representative, however, and itherefore the remainder of
the paper will be devoted to a discussion of this system.
Wideband Equipment
The new equipment that has to be added to a LMX
circuit to adapt it for data transmission is shown in Fig.
2. The upperdiagramdepictsastandard voice circuit
consisting of atelephoneset, local cablepairs, LMX '"T
terminals, and coaxial cable an'd microwave facilities. I n U-SEC

the lower figure, the system has been adapted for 50 lib
wideband service. The 303 data set requires an additional 60 m 80 90 100 IUB
cable pair to provide 4-wire transmission.' Special ampli-
fiers and loss equalizers are spliced into the local cable to Fig. 3. Delay a t junctions between LMX systems.
adapt it for wideband signals. .At the telephone office, a
datatransmitterand receiver (wideband modem) are
added to modulate the restored polar line signal into the DELAY EQUALIZED
group band. FinaIly, special delay and loss equalizers are 7
added a t connector points to correct the delay and attenua-
tion distortion introduced bythe LMX bandpass filters.
The delay distortion introduced by the LMX terminal
equipment, is depicted in Fig. 3 . The upper characteristic 60 70 80 90 100 108

A voice frequencycoordinationchannel accompanies every

standard wideband channel and requires two additional cable pairs Fig. 4. Residual delay distortion of the group band for one link of
not shown in the figure. LR4X.

permitsseveralmodems to be connected intandem if bandwidth is somewhat restricted by a 104.08 kHz pilot

desired. The high-pass filter located in the type 303 data tone which is used for automatic gain regulation of the
set transmitter shapes the spectrum a t low frequencies and LMX broadband terminals. The frequency band between
a rolloff network in the data set receiver shapes the high- the pilot and the 108 kHz band edge is available, however,
frequencyband. for the voice frequency coordinationchannel. The wideband
The group band data channel after modulation is shown modem carrier frequency is 100 kHz, which divides the
inFig. 6. The wideband nlodem for the LMX system band into a 4 kHz vestigial upper sideband and a 37 kHz
incorporates vestigial sideband, suppressed carrier, ampli- lower sideband, resulting in an equivalent baseband of 37
tude modulation with coherent demodulation [5]. Vestigial kHz.
sidebandoperationpermitsoptimumutilization of the
availablebandwidth. Suppressing the carrierresults in Wideband Transmitter
maximum signal-to-noise performance since the LMX A block diagram of the transmitter is shown in Fig. 7.
system is both total-power and single-tone limited [a]. The baseband signal first passes through a line equalizer
The basic group extends from 60 to 108 kHz. The available and low-pass filter. The line equalizer can be adjusted to
compensate for variations in the loss and delay slope of
the intra-office wiring. The low-pass filter limits the noise
bandwidth and suppresses high-frequency signal compo-
nents which would cause frequency foldover upon modu-
lation. A crystal-controlled oscillator generates a 200 kHz
sine wave which is then divided to 100 kHz by a single
stage counter. I n this way a square wave carrier is gen-
0 I
0 25 kHz 37kHz
erated with a precise 50 percent duty cycle for modulating
the wideband signal. The carrier drives a balanced, two
Fig. 5 . Baseband 50 kb/s channel. transistor, product modulator. The signal at the output
of the modulator is double sideband, amplitude modulated.
Power in the vicinity of the carrier frequency is small be-

1 cause of the high-pass filtering carried out in the data set.
A carrier frequency pilot tone which is in-phase with the
modulating carrier is added to the modulated signal at a
power 9 dB below the average power in one sideband. The
bandpass filter following the modulator passes the lower
sideband and a 4 kHz vestige of the upper sideband. The
filter suppresses all modulation products that fall outside
the data channel toprevent interferencewithadjacent
Fig. 6. Group frequency 50 kb/s channel. group channels that are multiplexed on either side of the
wideband channel. The signal is then delay and loss equal-
ized and combined with the voice frequency coordination
IN -

channelfortransmission over the LMX facilities. The
equalizer corrects the delay and amplitude distortion in-
troduced by all transmission networks in the transmitter
and receiver and also for the residual delay distortion in
one link of LMX.
Wideband Receiver
A block diagram of the wideband receiver is shown in
Fig. 8. The voice frequency and wideband signal are first
Fig. 7. Fifty kb/s wideband transmitter. ,separated by bandpass filters for demodulation. The re-
ceiving bandpass filters also limit the noise bandwidth and
IOBkHz preventadjacentchannelsfrominterferingwiththe re-
ceived signals.
OUT The 100 kHz carrier pilot is separated from the data
signal by a narrow band crystal filter. The pilot is used to
control the gain of the receiving amplifier and hence the
power level of the received signal. The AGC circuit is fast-
actingto supplement the slow-acting regulators of the
LMX terminals. Impairments due to signal level varia-
tions arise in two ways: 1) if the signal level is allowed to
drop at the input of alink, the S/N ratio in that link
Fig. 8. Fifty kb/s wideband receiver. will be reduced, and 2) a signal level variation at the input
655 lEEE

of a slicer is equivalent to a variation in theslice level and The closed loop transfer function, @c(~)/cD,(~), and the
hence a decrease in noise immunity. transfercharacteristic of phaseerrorrelative toinput,
The filtered 100 kHz pilot is slso used as a carrier to phase jitter, @ . , ( U ) / ~ ~ ( W )are
, also given in Fig. 9. These ex-
coherently demodulate the wideband signals. Phase errors pressions emphasize the principle characteristics of the
introducedby the crystal pick-off <filter and associated phase-locked filter. The circuit response is not significantly
circuits are corrected by a volt,agc!-controlledphase shifter. influenced by the bandwidth of the crystal filter, providing
The error voltage tthat controls the phase shifter is gen- the filter bandwidth is small compared to the loop band-
erated by a detector in which the phase of the recovered width. The gain constant K can generally be selected on
carrier and the phase of the received carrier pilot are com- the basis of constant phase error requirements (due tofre-
pared. This form of APC circuit has been called SL phase- cluency offset) permitting an independent optimization of
locked filter. the transient response in terms of G(u), the low-pass filter
The demodulated dat,a signal is passed through a low- characteristic.
pass filter to suppress unwanted modulation products and It is desirable to maintain the peak phase error of the
then amplified to the required interface power level. A recovered carrier resulting from phasejitter below approxi-
small attenuation andslope equalizer is used to compensate mately 5degrees so that thetransmission impairment from
for intraoffice wiring similar to thatin the transmitter. this source be insignificant>131. Some idea of the amount
of transmission phase jitter that can be tolerated may be
Coherent Demodulaior obt.ained bycalculating the phaseerrorresulting from
The design of an APC circuit for use in a coherent de- sinusoidal input phase jitter at various frequencies and
modulator poses some interesting problems. For example, amplit,udes. The magnitude of the sinusoidal input jitter
since the average power of the group band data signal is 9 is plotted in Fig. 10 (for a representative circuit) as afunc-
dB above the level of the ca,rrier pilot,, it is a potential tion of the frequency of the input jitter that results in a
source of interference i n the carrier recovery circuit. The peak phase error of 5 degrees. This characteristic is for a
interference of data signals i:j nlinimized by trans- phase-locked filter with a loop bandwidth, (1 K ) fi, of +
mitting the carrier pilot at thesame phase as that used for 1000 Hz. Note that the permitted frequency of the input
modulation. For properoperation,the phasedetector jitter must generally be much less than theloop bandwidth
carrier must be it1 quadrature with thepilot, and, therefore, if the phase error is to be maintained below the 5-degree
the d a h components near the carrier are suppressed in the boundary.
phase detector by phasecancellation. This condition is
enhancedbymaintainingflattransmissionthrough the
vestigial region in the transmitter andplacing the vestigial ,-PHASESHIFTER

shaping network at the input of the data demodulator in

the receiver. The signal energy t,hat falls outside the double
sideband region is suppressed by a low-pass filter located
at the outputof the phase detector.
The commonly used circuit for carrier recovery is the
phase-locked oscillator, consisting of a voltage-controlled
oscillator in a feedback loop. It suffers from an inherent CLOSEDLOOP GAIN *,-PHASE OF REFERENCE
narrowbandwidth.This att,ribu.te can oftenbe used to _
ecw. %+KG(-I
%("I 4
advantage when phase averaging or smoothing is required, PHASE ERROR RESPONSE H1(-1*100 KHz BPF
but can contribute excessive signal impairment when used LOW CHAR. FUSS
in a wideband modem. The carrier-recovery circuit should
be capable of tracking faithfully the short-term as well as
the long-term phase perturbations introduced by the broad-
Fig. 9. Equivalent circuit of phase-locked filt,er.
band facilities [2].
The phase-locked filter exhibits no inherent band limit-
ing characteristic and in princip'le can be made to track
phase perturbations of any desired frequency and ampli-
tude faithfully. (In practice the bandwidth of the control
loop must be limited to restrict thenoise bandwidth.) The
equivalent linear circuit forthe phase-locked filter is given
i n Fig. 9. This equivalent circuit is valid for phase errors
less than about 30 degrees2but this inno way restricts the
amplitude or frequency of the input phase perturbations
that, canbe considered. o io 160 15.0 200 250

This restriction results from the use of a phase detector with a

sinusoidal transfer characteristic ratherthan one wit.h a linear Fig. 10. Magnitude of sinusoidal input jitter, producing a peak
characteristic as assrlmed in Fig. 9. phaseerror of 5", as a function of jitter frequency fi.
coNcLusloN and hence the circuit is incapable of bf,eakinglock. LOSS of
The telephone carrier systems werc originally designed pilot automatically shuts off the receiver, preventing tlhe
for voice frequency transmission but have proven adapt- generation of unintelligible signals due to noncoherent
able to high-quality wideband service. This has been ac- demodulation.
complished by the careful selection of a general data format
(restoredpolar)and of modulation schemes tailored for REFERENCES
each of the facilities. This paper describes the wideband [ l ] 11. T . James, “The evolution of wideband services in the U~ril,ed
terminal equipment designed for the LMX group band. States,” this issue, pp. (736-640.
Other signal processing schemes are required for the wide- [2] J., J. Mahoney, Jr., Transmissionplan for general purpose
wtdeband services,” this issue, pp. 641-648.
band terminals designed for the X-carrier and TI Carrier [ 3 ] R.. 11. Fracassi and F. E. Froehlich, “A wideband data station,”
facilities. this i s s ~ epp.
, 648-654.
[4] R. Tarbox, “T1 carrier transmission systems for general purpose
The phase-locked filter promises improved performance wideband services.” 1966 I E E E Intemat’l Conv. Rec., pt,. 1,
over the phase-locked oscillator when used in a coherent pp. 210-218.
[5] F. K. Becker, J. R. Davey,and B. R. Saltzberg, “An A M
demodulator. It is not only capable of maintaining smaller vestigial sideband data transmission set using synchronolts
phase errors in the presence of phase perturbations but the detection for serial tmnsmission up to 3,000 bit,s per second,”
i l I E E Trans.(Communication and Electronics), vol. 81, ptj. I,
recovered carrier is always a t exactly the correct frequency

Concise Papers

The Covariance of the Frequency of a Narrowband When tshe multiplicative disturbalrces of the channel are modeled
Gaussian Random Process as a random, time-variant linear filter, with a time-variant transfer
function that is a realization of a zero-mean, Gaussian random
field [ 3 ] ,the channel output is a realization of a zero-mean, non-
stat,ionary, Gallssian random process. The resttlts given here are
directly applicable to a F M system wing s11ch a channel.
Abstract-The mean andcovariance of theinstantaneousfre- The complex representation [4]-[6] is used for all narrowband
quency of a narrowband, zero-mean, stationary, Gaussian random Gaussian random processes throughout this note, thus all narrow-
process are found when the quadrature components of the process band Gaussian random processes are zero-mean and jointly circu-
areidenticallydistributed.Whenthe quadrature componentsare larly complex, i.e.,
stationaryand statistically independent, the mean andcovariance
expressions are identicalto well-known expressions. E [ z ( t ) ]= 0 and E [ z ( ~ ) ! / ( u =
) ] 0. (1)

The statistics of two such processes are thlls cornplelely det.ermined

The mean and covariance of t,he instantaneous freqllency of a
by the cross-covariance fnnction
narrowband, zero-mean, stationary Gaussian random process
have been found by Lawson and Uhlenheck [ l ] ,and Rice [2],
Ilnder t,he const.raint that the quadratmure components: of t,he process
czb,(t,u)= EML)Y*(?L)I (2)
are st,at.istically independent and identically distributed.Another
and the two auto-covariance functions
method of finding the mean and covariance of the instantaneous
frequency of a zero-mean, narrowband, Gaussian random process is
c.(t,u) = E [ z ( t ) z * ( u ) ]and cY(l,u) = E[u(l)y*(u)]. (#)
presented here. The process need not be st,ationary, and the qnad-
rature components need not, be statistically independent,; however,
[The well-known expectation operator is E [ . ] and y* is the complex
the quadrat,nre components must be ident,ically distributed. When
conjugate (and transpose, if appropriate) of 11.1 Other well-known
t,he process is not stationary, or t.he quadrature component,s are not,
properties of the complex representation are that the magnit,nde
st.atist,ically independent, t,he covariance of the frequency contains
of the complex representation Iz(t)l is the envelope of the narrow-
a term that is not, present in Lawson and Uhlenbeck’s [ I ] or Rice’s
band process, andthatthe phase of the complex representat,ioll
[2] expressions.
+ [ z ( t ) ] is the phase of the narrowband process.
The mean and covariance of the inst,antaneous frequency are of
This note is also concerned with s(t), the instantaneous complcx
int,erest in the analysis of F M systems t,hat, use a fading channel.
frequency of a process, which is defined as the derivative, wit,h re-
spect to time, of t,he natural logarithm of t.he process
I\iIanuscript received April 14. 1966; revised June 15, 1966. This paper presents
~. Derformed while the author was witkthe CommunicationLaboratory of

Stanforditesearch Institute.
The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell Uni-
s ( t ) a- In[z(t)] = Ih[z(t)] = $(t)/z(t). (4)
versity, Ithaca, N. Y . at