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How does a material behave? General transport equations Differential equation for class of problems Differential equations of motion in each direction Solution Velocity profile

Assumptions

Co-ordinate system Assumptions

Integration Boundary conditions

Manipulation Parameter values

**How can dispersed phases be represented?
**

Multiphase flows are often described as being composed of a continuous phase and a dispersed phase (e.g. bubbles, drops, particles). The problem is being able to convert discontinuous distributions to continuous distributions so that they can be expressed using differential equations. This can be achieved by averaging over a volume (or sometimes over time or an ensemble of possible configurations).

dÜl and lÜL Often problem with determining a suitable averaging volume size in a multiphase flow as not possible to satisfy both inequalities.Effects of averaging Where d=mean particle separation l=size of averaging vol. L=length scale over which an averaged quantity changes significantly. .

Mass fraction of the vapour phase (usually).Measures of the amount of each phase in a mixture x . All the quantities are dimensionless and vary between 0 and 1. αd+αf=1 . Sometimes called ‘voidage’ and denoted byε.Volume fraction of the dispersed phase. In vapour/ liquid flows it is sometimes called ‘quality’.Volume fraction of the continuous phase. αd . αf .

Eulerian Models Treat both phases as continuous materials (‘continua’) whose motion is governed by differential equations. Most simple and popular approach. such as particles. as continuous may be a difficult assumption to make. Similar assumption as in single-phase fluid mechanics. . Length scale constraints Constitutive relations and interaction terms can be difficult to define. Difficulties: Describing a disperse phase.

DEM models Follow individual disperse elements and individually calculate interactions.Lagrangian models e.g. Large computing power required. Often combined with an Eulerian model (e. for the continuous phase).g. Obtaining quantifiable outcomes . Difficulties: Description of interactions can be difficult.

Homogeneous Flow Models •The dispersed and the continuous phases are combined together and modelled as a new. •New combined ‘mixture’ properties (e.g. continuous phases. •The slip between the phases must be small i. ud~uf or the slip ratio ud/uf~1. Often true when ρf/ρd>10 or G≥2000kg/m2s. .e. µ) have to be defined. ρ.

momentum. •The phases are modelled separately with a set of mass.Separated Flow Models αd αf •Slip is allowed. the exchange of mass. . •Terms are required to describe the interaction between the phases i. and energy equations for each phase.e. •Often called ‘two-fluid’ models. momentum and energy over the boundaries. •Geometry (the structure of the flow) is still lost.

How to model a multiphase flow 1. – – – – Choose a model What detail of the flow is required? How many phases require modelling? What is the geometry of the flow? What is the relative motion between the different phases like? .

How to model a multiphase flow (2) 2. . Write down conservation equations — Mass — Momentum.Required when there are significant variation in temperature or if there are important temperature related phenomena such as phase change.what are the significant forces on the flow components? Is the flow unsteady? — Energy.

— Most difficult to describe are terms for friction and the interaction between the different phases. .How to model a multiphase flow (3) 3. Determine the constitutive relations — These specify how the components of a flow behave and interact with one another. — Can be very difficult to achieve and often they are flaky.

Bubbly flow in a liquid D θ x G x z .

and scale.008. .05 and for the flashing of water at low pressure Cf=0.Modelling of Friction Factor (1) Constant Cf A convenient approximation that uses experiment and experience to determine a value for a particular situation e. However. and pipes corrode.g for high pressure boilers Cf=0. this approach does not allow for the effect of voidage or Re type dependency. distort.

but they are nearly all dubious. 1 x 1− x µ = µd + µf where Re=GD/µ. but depends on x. Note that µ ceases to be a property. Other forms are available.Modelling of Friction Factor (2) Two-phase friction factor Correlations of Cf(Re) are obtained as for single-phase fluid mechanics using a mixture viscosity for the multiphase flow e. .g. usually lacking in any form of physical meaning: there is no reason for a multiphase flow to behave like a Newtonian fluid.

Modelling of Friction Factor (3) Two-phase multipliers Another approach is to compare the (unknown) two-phase pressure gradient with the (well-known) single-pressure gradient Two-phase pressure gradient = Single-phase pressure gradient × Two-phase multiplier φ2 The multiplier can be based on the liquid (l) or the gas (g). .

Different sorts of two-phase multipliers φl based on Gl φg based on Gg φlo based on G φgo based on G .

⎛ dp ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dz ⎠l 2 χ = ⎛ dp ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dz ⎠ g Based on flows of individual components in a twophase flow .Martenelli Parameter Parameter used to correlate experimental data based on known single-phase pressure drops.

Correlations using the Martenlli parameter Data can be correlated by χ χ 2 2 φ g = 1 + Cχ + χ 2 φ = 1+ 2 l C + 1 ⎡⎛ dp ⎞ ⎛ dp ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ dp ⎞ ⎛ dp ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟ + C ⎢⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ dz ⎠m ⎝ dz ⎠l ⎢ ⎦ ⎣⎝ dz ⎠l ⎝ dz ⎠ g ⎥ Two-phase frictional pressure drop Liquid term Two-phase term 1/ 2 ⎛ dp ⎞ +⎜− ⎟ ⎝ dz ⎠ g Gas term .

Lam. Lam. Turb. Gas Turb. Lam.Values of C Chisholm (1967) Liquid Turb. Lam. C 20 12 10 5 . Turb.

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