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**Done by -Oussama Gassab
**

-hammouya houssam Groupe 01 - Achraf Djerida

I I

n communication we have to perform some conditions on the signals in order to transmit or receive them , like modulating , demodulating and filtering , to do that we have to build required circuits with specified precision and conditions .

n order to build the needed circuits for the needed communication application we have to do the theoretical analysis by doing the mathematical calculations which applies the physical formulation of the devices , and that analysis simulated by using a software , if the results in the simulator are matches the mathematical analysis , than the circuit can be built in the real world in order to perform its required job.

-Single transistor amplifiers Objectives : 1.to learn how to bias and test a transistor amplifiers We have the following circuit : .

The mathematical analysis : 𝑅𝐶 = 𝑉𝐶𝐶 − 𝑉𝐶𝐸𝑄 10 − 5 = = 5𝑘Ω 𝐼𝐶𝑄 1 𝑚𝐴 50+300 2 And when we take 𝛽 = = 175 we have 𝑉𝐶𝐶 −𝑉𝐵𝐸𝑄 𝐼𝐵𝑄 𝐼𝐵𝑄 = 5.64𝑀Ω = 5. 10−3 𝑚𝐴 so 𝑅𝐵 = 1.7 .65 Multisim simulation : We got the following results .10 −3 𝑚𝐴 = 10 −0.7 .

By computing the dc voltage of the collector and the biasing current we have .

Measuring the gain voltage 𝐴𝑉 = 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 (𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 ) 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 (𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 ) = 192 1 = 192 When change the transistor BJT-NPN-VIRTUAL we got When we change the transistor the beta is changed and all the Q points it has been changed . so this bias is not practical because it is not stable . in addition the beta factor is sensitive to temperature and even to the current inside the transistor . in that circuit the changing on beta will correspond high change to collector current . so in this case the transistor base current is unstable relative to the changing of beta . . that is mean the collector current is unstable at all .

5 −1 1 1 𝑉 𝑉𝐶𝐶 −𝑉𝐶𝐸𝑄 −𝑉𝐸 𝐼𝐶𝑄 = = 4.5𝐾Ω 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑤𝑒 ℎ𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑅2 = 8.Part 02 : The mathematical analysis 𝑉𝐸 = 1𝑣 𝑠𝑜 𝑅𝐸 = 1𝑚𝐴 = 1𝐾Ω 𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑅𝐶 = 10 −4.2𝑘Ω 𝑅1 = 39𝑘 The gain is A= 174 When change the transistor to BJT_NPN_VIRTUAL We have got the following result .

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8 We see that the gain is approximetly for the first one and the Q points are nearly the same so this bias stabilize the Q points and it is applicable .999594 𝑚𝑣 = 119.So the gain is 𝐴𝑣 = 119. so the emitter resistor stabilize the Q point for the changing of beta .707 𝑚𝑣 0.

Part 03 : We have the following circuit : The mathematical analysis We have computed 𝑅𝐵 by using the fact that 𝐼𝐶1𝑞𝑄 = 𝐼𝑅𝐵 = 𝑉𝐸𝐸 −𝑉𝐵𝐸𝑄 𝑅𝐵 𝑅𝐵 = 𝑉𝐸𝐸 −𝑉𝐵𝐸𝑄 𝐼𝐶 1 𝑞𝑄 = 10 −065 1 𝑚𝐴 = 9.35𝑘Ω And for maximum symmetrical swing 𝑉𝐶𝐸𝑄 = 𝑉 𝑐𝑐 2 .

We know that the transistor is saturated when Vce is less than 𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑡 We have 𝑉𝐶𝐸 = 𝑉𝐶𝐸𝑄 − 𝐴𝑉 𝑣(𝑡) .038 𝑚𝑣 1. Explaining this distortion .375 𝑚𝑣 = 155.𝑉𝐶𝐸𝑄 = 𝑉𝐶𝐶 − 𝑅𝐶 𝐼𝐶 𝑅𝐶 = 𝑉𝐶𝐶 2 𝐼𝐶 = 2 𝑋1𝑚𝐴 = 5 𝑘Ω 10 By using the oscilloscope we have got the following So the gain 𝐴𝑉 = 214.66 When increase the voltage to 20 mv we have the following Result .

And since 𝑉𝐶𝐸 > 𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑜 |𝑣 𝑡 | < 𝑉𝐶𝐸𝑄 −𝑉 𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝐴𝑣 And the value of 20 mv will exceed this limit and the distortion will accrue. When we do the ac analysis we have obtained the following Results .

From the ac analysis we can say the transfer function is H(w)=k for frequencies greater than 1k ( phase shift is zero) so we conclude that at high frequencies the transistor operates as linear amplifier or just a multiplication gain . .

1575 K which justify the relation that 𝑧 𝑗𝜔 = 𝑅2 𝜔 2 −𝜔 2 1+𝑗𝑄 𝜔 0 0 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑅2 = 20𝑘 .Matching networks : Objectives : designing a circuit with specified input resistance to match a required source resistance . Part 1 : Mathematical analysis R1 matches R2 that is mean 𝑅2 = 1 + 𝑄2 𝑅1−𝑄2 𝑅1 So 𝑄2 = 𝑅 2 = 1 𝑅 20000 50 20 = 400 𝑄 = 20 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑄 = 1 𝑅2 𝑋 = 𝑅2 𝐶𝜔 𝐶 = 𝑅 𝑄 2 𝜔 = 20000 𝑋 2𝜋𝑋 10 6 = 159 𝑝𝐹 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐿 = 𝜔 2 𝐶 = 159𝜇𝐻 When performed ac analysis we have got the following results So at the peak we have found R=19.

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160. The bandwidth theoretically is 𝐵 = 2𝛼 = 𝑅𝐶 = 1 20.7KHZ When we use the multisim we have obtained the following results We know that 𝑧 𝑗𝜔 = 𝑠𝑜 𝜑 𝜔 = −𝑎𝑐𝑟𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝑄 1+𝑗𝑄 𝜔 2 −𝜔 2 0 𝜔 𝜔 0 2 𝜔 2 −𝜔 0 𝑅2 𝜔 𝜔 0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝜑 𝜔 = = = 𝑅2 2 𝑅2 2 𝜔1 + 𝜋 4 𝑠𝑜 𝜔 = 𝜔 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 2 𝑧 𝑗𝜔1 𝑧 𝑗𝜔2 𝑠𝑜 |𝜔2 − 𝜔1 | = 𝐵 For these results we determine the bandwidth So the bandwidth is 51.10 −12 1 = 312500 𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝑠 𝑠𝑜 𝐵𝑓 =49. .5611kHz which matches the theoretical results.10 3 .

10 3 . 𝑅 𝑠𝑜 𝑛 = 𝑛2 1 𝑇 C 𝑤𝑒 ℎ𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑅𝑇 = 50 = 0.8 𝜇𝐻 .05 𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑅𝑇 20000 1 = 20𝑘 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 And B = 2α = 𝑅 We 𝑛 = 𝑐 𝑐1 1 +𝑐2 so c=B 𝑅 = 2𝜋 10.Part 02 : The transformer-like network : We have built the following circuit : we have obtained the required values by doing the mathematical analysis .20000 = 796𝑝𝐹 𝑇 1 2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑐 = 𝑐 1 by solvining these two +𝑐 1 2 𝑐 𝑐 equation we have found that And 𝐿 = 1 2 𝐶 𝜔 0 𝑐1 = 838𝑝𝐹 𝑐2 = 15.9𝑛𝐹 𝑠𝑜 𝐿 = 31.

When the bandwidth is 5kHz we have got the following results .26 < 100 𝑛𝑄𝑇 𝑄𝐸 = 26 < 100 So the last values are very bad approximation because in this case 2𝛼 = 𝐵 = 𝑛 2 𝐺 𝐶 𝜔 0 𝐶𝑅 𝑛 2 = 100 1 − 𝑛𝑄 1 𝑇 𝑄𝐸 +1 We can evaluate a good value of c and L but the porpose of the experiment is to determine the error and the bad approximations that happens when the Q s are not large enough .𝑄𝑇 = We have 𝑄𝐸 = 𝜔0 𝐶1 + 𝐶2 𝑅 = 5. So the ac analysis gives So the results does not accordance with thoery because in this case the approximation is so far from its conditions because the bandwidth is very large and cannot be used .

67nf and C2=31.9μH so we have 𝜔0𝐶𝑅 𝑄𝑇 = 2 = 200 𝑛 𝑄𝐸 = 𝜔0 𝐶1 + 𝐶2 𝑅 = 10.6445 which and the theory band width is 5kHz When we build the equivalent RLC circuit as follow .C=1. When we perform the ac analysis we got So at resonance frequencies the impedance is 17.1075 k which matches the theory 20k And the bandwidth is about 8.5 > 100 𝑛𝑄𝑇 𝑄𝐸 = 105 > 100 All the conditions of the approximation are satisfied so we expect a results that matches the thoery models .59nf and C1=1.8nf And L=15.

5131 kHz as shown above .The ac analysis for this circuit is So the results matches the equivalent circuit the bandwidth is 7.

and calculators to solve a problem . T hat is mean to put a such application in real world we have to recognize many things that correspond with losses and errors and approximations. and we thought that the problem it has been solved . pan .I t is very easy to perform the theoretical analysis in papers by using only the mathematical formulas . and that what we have accustomed to do . We have learnt that the engineer must have experience in the field with real appliances not only the theoretical formulas . and to simulate that in the simulator there are many concepts must realized and many ideas must performed . but in reality we found that we have solved only mathematical formulas . about us we have an experiment to deal only with papers .

communication circuit

communication circuit

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