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69

8
4. A = {1, 2, 3, 4}
1. A = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} B = {4 , 5 , 6 , 7 }
A B
B = { x |x x 8}
. U = {0 , 1, 2, 3, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9}

. U = {0 , 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 , 7 , 8 , 9,10}
A B
. U = {0 , 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9, 10}
.
U
. U = {0 , 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , 7 , 8 , 9, 10}
A,B
2. U
8
5
.
.
.
.

U
2

AB
BC
CA
CB

.
B

U
A

U
A

3.
U

.
.
.
.

{2, 4, 5, 6, 8}
{2, 5, 8}
{2, 4}
{6}

5.

C
B

U
A

.
.
.
.

AB
CU
BU
BC

70
6. A = {0, 1}
A
. {{ }, 0, 1}
. {{ }, {0, 1}}
. {{ }, {0}, {1}}
. {{ }, {0}, {1}, {0, 1}}

9. B = {a, b, c, d}
B
. 4
. 8
. 16
. 32

7.
A =
B = Yes
C = {i, e, a }

. A B
. B C
. B A
. C A

10.
. {5} {x |x = 2n n I}
. {0} { x | x
0< x < 7}
. { } {x |x
1< x < 3}
. {1, 2, 3} {x | x
4 x 8}

8.
. A = {5, 7, 9} B = {7, 7, 9}
. A = {5, 9, 7} B = {5, 5, 9, 5}
. A = {5, 9, 11} B = {5, 7, 9, 11}
. A = {7, 9, 11} B = {11, 7, 7, 9}

71

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

72

2544

73



1.
2.
( )
3.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


6.
7.

8.

74


1) 2) 3)
4)
1)

A B 2 A B

A B
A B A B
A B = {x x A x B x A B}

A B

U
A

A = {1, 3, 5}
B = {1, 2, 3, 4}
A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}


A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9} A B
. {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9}
. {1, 3, 5, 7}
.
5
.
7

75


A B 2
A B A B
A B

U

1)

2)

A B

A
A B

A B

4)
A

A B

1) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {1, 2, 3, 7, 9}
A B = {1, 3, 7}
2) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {2, 4, 6, 8}
A B = { } ()
3) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9}
A B = {1, 3, 5, 7} (A B)
4) A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} B = {4, 6, 10}
A B = {4, 6, 10} (B A)
5

76


A U
A A = {{2,
2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

...
4)

A B (U)
A B A
B A - B
A B = A B

A B

U
A

A = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}


B = {3, 5, 7, 9}
A B = {8, 10, 11, 12}

A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {5, 6, 7, 8} A B
. {1, 3}
. {6, 8}
.
9
.
6

77


B - A

1)


U
B

U
A

3)
B

B - A

1) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {5, 6, 7, 8}
B - A = {6, 8} 6 8 B A
2) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {2, 4, 6, 8}
B - A = {2, 4, 6, 8} 2, 4, 6, 8 B
A
3) A = {3, 5, 7} B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
B - A = {1, 9, 11} 1 , 9 11 A
B

9

78


A=

B=

A B = {{1,
1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9}


...
2)

A B 2 A
B A B


A B

U
A

A = {1, 3, 5}
B = {1, 2, 3, 4}
A B = {1, 3}


. {2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9}
. {3, 5, 8}
.
.

2
8

79

A B
(U) A B A
B A - B

U
U
1)
2)
A
A
B
B
A - B

A - B
U

3)
A

A - B

1) A = {2, 4, 6, 8} B = {5, 6, 7, 8}
A - B = {2, 4} 2 4 A B
2) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {2, 4, 6, 8}
A - B = {1, 3, 5, 7} 1, 3, 5, 7 A
B
3) A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11} B = {3, 5, 7, 9}
A - B = {1, 11} 111 A B
3

80

1)

2)

A B
3)

A B
U

4)

U
A

1) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {1, 2, 3, 7, 9}
A B = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9}
2) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {2, 4, 6, 8}
A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
3) A = {1, 3, 5, 7} B = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9}
A B = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9}
4) A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} B = {4, 6, 10}
A B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
1

81

A= {2, 3, 4, 5, 8} B = {3, 5, 7, 8, 9}
3, 5, 8}
A B = {{3,

...

3)

A A
U A

U
A

U = {-2, -1, 0, 1, 2}
A = {0, 1, 2}
A = {-2, -1} -2 -1 U
A


U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
A
. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
.
10
3
.

82


A - B A B
A = {{1,
1, 3, 5, 7} B = {{5,
5, 6, 7, 8} A B = {{1,
1, 3}


...

B - A
A B (U)
B A B
A B - A
B A = {x x B x A }

B A

U
A

A = {8, 9, 10}
B = {5, 7, 9, 11}
B - A = {5, 7, 11}


A = {1, 2, 3, 4} B = {4, 6, 8, 10} B A
. {1, 2, 3}
. {6, 8, 10}
.
4
.
11

83

A A
U A A

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
A U A U
A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} A
U A

10

84


B-A
A = {1, 2, 3, 4}

B
B = {4, 6, 8, 10}

A
B A = {6, 8, 10}

B
B-A

11

85

33

33

12

86

8
4. A = {3, 5, 7, 9}
1. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B = {3 , 5 , 7 , 9 }
B = { x |x x 8}
A B
. {3, 5}
A B
.
. {1, 2, 3, 4}
U
A,B
. {3, 5 , 7 , 9}
. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9,}
.
U
2. A B
A
B
U
A
4 2 7 B
.
U
5 8 3
B
6
A
.
.
.
.

{2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
{2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8}
{3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
{2, 8}

.
A

.
.
.
.

5.

3.
A

4 5 3
8 10 2
0
1
C

A B = {2, 4}
B C = {0, 1, 2, 4}
C A = {0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
C B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10}

.
.
.
.

AB={}
CA{}
BC={}
ABC{}

87
6 - 10
A

4 5 3
8 10 2
0
1
C
-1
-3
-2

8. A B
. { }
. {6, 8, 10}
. {0, 1, 6, 8, 10}
. {-1, -2, -3, 6, 8, 10}

6. A B
. { }
. {4, 2}
. {2, 4, 3, 5}
. {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

9. B C
. {5, 3}
. {4, 2}
. {2, 3, 4, 5}
. {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

7. A
. {-1, -2, -3, 0, 1, 3, 5}
. {0, 1, 3, 5}
. {6, 8, 10}
. { }

10. A B
. {x |x 4<x< 10}
. {x |x 4<x 10}
. {x | x
4x< 10}
. {x | x 4 x 8}

88
3

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

89


1. A = {x | x
5. A = {1, 2, 3, } A
.
6x<9} A
.

.
. {7, 8, 9}
.
. {6, 7, 8}
. {6, 7, 9}
. {6, 7, 8, 9}
2. B = {-4, -3, -2, -1} B

. {x | x x>-5}
. {x | x -4<x<-1}
. {x | x -5<x<-1}
. {x | x -4<x<0}
3. C = {x | x x>-1}
C
.
.
.
.
4.
. {x|x -4<x +1< 5}
. {x|x 1}
. {x |x
x+5 5}
. {x |x }

6.
. {-4, -3, -2, -1}{-2, -1, -3, -4}
. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}{-1,-2,-3,-4,-5}
. {5 }{x |x
x+5 5}
. {2, 4, 6, 8}{x |x }
7.
. {{5, 6}, 7, 8}{5, 6, 7, 8}
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}{2, 4, 5, 6, 8}
. {10 }{x |x
8<x<10}
. {2, 4, 6, 8}{x |x }
8. A = {x |x
2x<5} A
. {5}
. {4, 5}
. {2, 3, 4}
. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

90
9. A = {x |x 7< x 14}
A
. 7
. 32
. 64
. 128
10. A = {4 , 5} A
. {4} {5}
. {{4, 5}}
. {{4}, {5}}
. {, {4}, {5} , {4 , 5}}
11. A = {-4, -3, -2, -1}
A
. {-1, -2, -3 , }
. {x |x }
. {x |x -1< x 4}
. {x |x -7< x 4}
12. A = {1, 3, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6}
AB
. {5}
. {1, 3, 4, 6}
. {1, 3, 4, 5, 6}
. {1, 3, 5, 5, 6}
13. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
B = {3, 5, 7}
AB
. {3, 5, 7}
. {3, 5, 7, 9}
. {1, 3, 5, 5, 6}
. {1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

14. U = {x |x }
A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} , B = {3, 5, 7}
-
A B
U
.
A

U
A

U
A

15. U = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15}


C = {5, 9, 11, 13, 15}
D = {1, 3, 7, 9, 15}
C D
. {1, 3, 5}
. {1, 3, 7, 11}
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13}
16. A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14}
B = {2, 6, 10, 14} A B
. {4, 8, 12}
. {2, 6, 10, 14}
. {2, 6, 10, 12, 14}
. {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14}

91
17. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} BA
. {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
. {2, 4, 6, 8}
. {1, 3, 5, 7}
. {8, 10}

19. U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}


A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}, B = {1, 2, 5, 7}
U
A

18. A B
A
4
.
.
.
.

2
3

{1, 3}
{1, 3, 5, 7}
{1, 2, 3, 4}
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9}

1
9

B
-

. 5
. 4
. 3
. 2
20.

U
A
B
C
.
.
.
.

A (B C)
B (A C)
A (B C)
A (B C)

92

3
4

7
8
9
10

12
13

15

16

17

18

19
20

14

11

5
6

1
2

93


5.
1. B = {a|a 4 < x < 10}
B
. {x |x }

. {x |x x+1 = 7}
. {6, 8}
. {x |x x +1> -2}
. {4, 6, 8}
. {x |x 1}
. {6, 8, 10}
6. A = {a, b, c}
. {4, 6, 8, 10}
A
2. A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} A
. {c, b, a }

. {{a, b} , c }
. {x | x x< 10}
. {{a, b}, {b, c}}
. {x | x x< 10}
. {{c}, {b}, {a }}
. {x | x x< 10}
. {x | x 1 x <10}
7. A = {1, 3, 5, 7 }
A
3.
. {x |x -8}
. {1, {5, 6}, 7 }
. {x |x x-9 = 16}
. {x |x }
. {x |x 0<x <1}
. {3, {5, 6}, {1, 7}}
. {x |x }
. {{1}, {3}, {5}, {7 }}
4. A = {2, 4, 6, , 20} A
.
.
.
.

8. A = {x |x 2x<10}
A
. { }
. {2, 4, 6}
. {2, 4, 6, 8}
. {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

94
9. A = {x |x
4 x <10}
A
. 7
. 32
. 64
. 128

13. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}


B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
AB
. {2, 4, 6, 8}
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

10. A = {3, 5, 7}
A
. {3} {5} {7}
. {{3, 5, 7}}
. {{3}, {5}, {7}}
. {, {3}, {5}, {7}, {3 , 5},
{3 , 7}, {5 , 7}, {3 , 5, 7}}

14. U = {x |x }
A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} , B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
-
A B
U
.

11. A = {x |x
-5< x -1}
A
. {-1 , -2 , -3 , }
. {x |x }
. {x |x -5< x <-1}
. {x |x -5< x 15}
12. A = {1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5}
B = {2 , 4 , 6}
AB
. {2 , 4}
. {1, 3, 5}
. {2, 4, 6}
. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

U
A

B
U

15. U = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15}


C = {5, 9, 11, 13, 15}
D = {1, 3, 7, 9, 15}
(C D)
. { }
. {5}
. {9, 11}
. {1, 3, 7}

95
16. A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}
B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} A B
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}
. {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
. {7, 9, 11, 13}
. {1, 3, 5}

19. U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}


A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}, B = {1, 2, 5, 7}
U
A
B

17. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}


B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} BA
. { }
. {1, 3, 5, 7}
. {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
. {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

. 1
. 2
. 4
. 5

18. A B

20.

A
4
.
.
.
.

2
3

{1, 3}
{1, 3, 5, 7}
{1, 2, 3, 4}
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9}

1
9

C
.
.
.
.

B (A C)
C (A B)
C (A B)
C - (A B)

96

15

16

17
18
19

20

14

10

13

12

11