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Shingai Study Centre O-level Biology

Instruction to students: Answer all question in Section A and two in Section B and also write legibly

1)(a)Proteins and glucose are present in the blood which enters the kidney, but do not normally occur in the urine. For each one explain the mechanism which prevents it from appearing in the urine. (4) (b)Name 4 constituents of normal mammalian urine. (4) (c)State 7 functions of mammalian kidney. (7)

2)Explain the following phenomena shown by the human body. (a)Violent exercise results in a rise in body temperature accompanied by noticeable sweating. (3) (b)Shivering when we are cold. (3) (c)Keeping cool in hot countries by wearing loose-fitting, light coloured clothing. (3) (d)The formation of goose pimples on the skin when cold. (3) 3)(a)What is a reflex action. (2) (b)Why is it important for animals to have simple reflexes? (4) 4)(a)Draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of the flower of the a named plant. (5) (b)Give functions of each part you have labelled. (3) (c)How is the flower adapted to its method of pollination. (3) 5)(a)For each of the following food materials describe one test you would use to show its presence: (i)a reducing sugar. (ii)starch. (3) (iii)a protein. (3) (iv)a fat. (3) (4) (3)

(b)In the digestion of the food materials in (a), name one enzyme that is used.

SECTION B:Choose two question, Each question has a maximum of 20 marks

6)(a)Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. (4) (b)Explain why respiration is necessary in plants. (5) (c)Describe the functions of the following structures during gaseous exchange: (i)cilia (ii)alveoli (iii)red blood cells. (Total 7 marks)

(d)Explain the relationship between smoking and respiratory diseases. (4) 7)(a)Describe the defensive functions of the circulatory system. (6)

(b)State the structural differences between a capillary and a vein. (3) (c)Explain the differences in composition of blood of that entering the capillaries and that leaving the capillaries. (6) (d)Explain how infants acquire immunity. (5) 8)(a)Describe the functions of the following parts of the cell. (i)nucleus. (2)

(ii)mitochondrion. (2) (iii)cell wall. (2) (b)Distinguish between osmosis and diffusion. (4) (c)Explain the importance of osmosis in plants. (6) (d)Explain the effects of temperature in the efficient functioning of enzymes. (4) Bonus Questions: The human genome contains how many genes? (2) What do we use to measure blood pressure in a clinical set-up? (2) In which country was HIV first discovered? (1)
Know what you want to do, hold the thought firmly, and do every day what should be done, and every sunset will see you that much nearer the goal machiwenyika et al (2013)