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Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. All organisms are made of __________.

Even when arranged into higher levels of organization, such as tissues and organs, cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function. The discovery and early study of cells progressed with the invention of ___________ in 1590 and their improvement in the 17th century. In a _______ microscope (LM), visible light passes through the specimen and then the lenses. Although an LM can resolve individual cells, it cannot resolve much of the internal anatomy, especially the _____________, membrane-enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells. To resolve smaller structures, scientists use an _________ microscope (EM), which focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface. ____________ electron microscopes (SEMs) are useful for studying the surface structure or topography of a specimen. SEMs have great depth of field, resulting in an image that seems three-dimensional. ____________ electron microscopes (TEMs) are used to study the internal structure of cells.

10. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity. 11. Organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of _____________ cells. Protists, fungi, animals, and plants consist of _______________ cells. 12. All cells are surrounded by a selective barrier, the _______________. 13. All cells contain ______________that carry genes in the form of DNA. 14. All cells have _____________ tiny complexes that make proteins. 15. In a eukaryotic cell, most of the DNA is in an organelle bounded by a double membrane, the _____________ 16. The interior of a prokaryotic cell and the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell is the ______________. 17. Within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell are a variety of membrane-bound ____________ with specialized form and function. These membrane-bound organelles are absent in prokaryotes. 18. _______________ cells are generally much larger than _______________ cells. 19. Eukaryotic cells are typically 10100 ________ in diameter. 20. Metabolic requirements set an upper limit to the ________ of a single cell. 21. The ________________ functions as a selective barrier that allows the passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes for the whole volume of the cell. 22. As a cell increases in size, its volume increases faster than its ___________ _______. 23. Smaller objects have a higher ratio of ___________ _______ to volume. 24. Larger organisms do not generally have larger cells than smaller organisms, simply ______cells. 25. Cells that exchange a lot of material with their surroundings, such as intestinal cells, may have long, thin projections from the cell surface called _______________, which increase the surface area without significantly increasing the cell volume. 26. The general structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of ________________.

27. Other lipids and diverse ________ are embedded in the lipid bilayer or attached to its surface. 28. The eukaryotic cells genetic instructions are housed in the _________. 29. The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a _______ membrane called the nuclear envelope. 30. Within the nucleus, the DNA and associated proteins are organized into discrete units called ___________________, structures that carry the genetic information. 31. As the cell prepares to divide, the _____________ fibers coil up and condense, becoming thick enough to be recognized as the familiar chromosomes. 32. A typical human cell has ____ chromosomes. 33. A human sex cell (egg or sperm) has only ____ chromosomes. 34. In the ____________, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized and assembled with proteins from the cytoplasm to form large and small ribosomal subunits. 35. ________________, containing rRNA and protein, are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis. 36. Bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the __________ __________ or nuclear envelope. 37. Cells that specialize in protein secretionfor instance, the cells of the pancreas that secrete digestive enzymesfrequently have a high proportion of _________. 38. Many of the internal membranes in a eukaryotic cell are part of the _______________ system, which includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, vacuoles, and plasma membrane. 39. ___________ ER is rich in enzymes and plays a role in a variety of metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, and storage of calcium ions. 40. Rough ER is especially abundant in cells that secrete ______________. 41. __________ carry proteins from one part of the cell to another. 42. The ______________ is the shipping and receiving center for cell products 43. A _____________ is a membrane-bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules. 44. Amoebas eat by engulfing smaller organisms by _________________. 45. Lysosomes can play a role in recycling the cells organelles and macromolecules. This recycling, or _____________, renews the cell. 46. ____________ are large vesicles, membrane-bound sacs with a variety of functions. 47. _________________ are formed by phagocytosis and fuse with lysosomes. 48. ______________ vacuoles, found in freshwater protists, pump excess water out of the cell to maintain the appropriate concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell. 49. A large ___________ vacuole is found in many mature plant cells. 50. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the organelles that convert energy to forms that cells can use for work. 51. __________________ are the sites of cellular respiration, using oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels. 52. _________________, found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis.

53. Chloroplasts convert _________energy to ___________ energy by absorbing sunshine and using it to synthesize new organic compounds such as ___________ from CO2 and H2O. 54. The number of ____________________ is correlated with aerobic metabolic activity. 55. Mitochondria have a smooth outer membrane and a convoluted inner membrane with infoldings called ____________. 56. The inner membrane encloses the mitochondrial _________, a fluid-filled space with mitochondrial enzymes. 57. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment _____________as well as enzymes and other molecules that function in the photosynthetic production of sugar. 58. Inside the innermost membrane is a fluid-filled space, the ____________, in which float membranous sacs, the ______________. 59. ______________, bound by a single membrane, contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a byproduct. 60. The ______________ is a network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm that provides mechanical support and maintains the cells shape. 61. This function is especially important in animal cells, which lack ___________ and also plays a major role in ____________ , changes in cell location and limited movements of parts of the cell. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. _______________ are hollow fibers constructed of the globular protein __________. Many unicellular eukaryotic organisms are propelled through water by _______ and ____________ The sperm of animals, algae, and some plants have ______________. __________cilia lining the trachea sweep mucus carrying trapped debris out of the lungs. A _____________ has an undulatory movement that generates force in the same direction as the axis, like the tail of a fish. 67. _________ move more like oars, with alternating power and recovery strokes that generate force perpendicular to the axis. 68. _______________ are solid fibers built as a twisted double chain of _________subunits. 69. _____________ filaments range in diameter from 8 to 12 nm, larger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules, built from a family of proteins that includes _____________. 70. The network of theses fibers reinforce cell shape and fix _________________ location. 71. In plants, the __________ protects the cell, maintains its shape, prevents excessive uptake of water, and supports the plant against the force of gravity. 72. Though lacking cell walls, animal cells do have an elaborate ____________________ (ECM). 73. The primary constituents of the ECM are glycoproteins, especially collagen fibers, embedded in a network of glycoprotein proteoglycans. 74. ____________, a glycoprotein, accounts for about half the total protein in the human body. 75. Plant cells are perforated with ________________, channels allowing cytosol to pass between cells. 76. In __________ junctions, membranes of adjacent cells are fused, forming continuous belts around cells that prevent leakage of extracellular fluid. 77. _____________ (or anchoring junctions) fasten cells together into strong sheets, much like rivets. 78. ______ junctions (or communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells.