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THE USE OF TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY AT THE FIFTH CLASS MI DINIYYAH PUTRI LAMPUNG

By

MIRZAWAN

RESEARCH PROPOSAL Submitted as a requirement of Teacher Training Program (Monbukagakusho) to Prof. Nishigaki Chikako and his Associate gaki@faculty.chiba-u.jp

PERGURUAN DINIYYAH PUTRI LAMPUNG MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH DINIYYAH PUTRI LAMPUNG JL. RAYA NEGERI SAKTI KM 15 GEDONG TATAAN KABUPATEN PESAWARAN

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I. INTRODUCTION

TABLE CONTENT

  • 1.1 The background of problem

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  • 1.2 The Identification of Problem

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  • 1.3 The Limitation of Problem

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  • 1.4 The Formulation of Problem

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  • 1.5 The Goal Research

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  • 1.6 Benefits of

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II. LITERATURE REVIEW

  • 2.1 The nature of English Language Learning ...............................

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  • 2.2 The Total Physical Response ...............................................

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2. 3 Applications in Learning .........................................................

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  • 2.4 Definition of Achievement

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III. METHOD OF RESEARCH

  • 3.1 Research Design ..................................................................

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  • 3.2 The Research Time

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  • 3.3 Subject Research ..........................................................................20

  • 3.4 Indicators of Success

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  • 3.5 Action Research Plan

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  • 3.6 The reliability and validity instruments

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  • 3.7 Data Analysis Techniques

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REFERENCES

APPENDIX

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I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Issues

Action research is an attempt by educators to improve the learning process to be

better, to facilitate the conduct of research and understand the action are presented in detail on the identification of problems, limitations issues, the formulation of the problem, research objectives and benefits of the research.

In essence of education is the absolute necessities of life must be fulfilled, in order to develop the potential in each student so that they can survive and compete in the arena of global competition, education is also a long-term investment that is expected to transform the life of a high-value, dignified, cultured and global perspective within the framework of national and state social life.

The definition of education in the perspective of the policy, which has formal and operational definition, as set on government regulation no 20, 2003 about National Education System state that education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing their potential and have the spiritual strength of religious, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and skills needed , state and nation.

While Tilaar (1999:28) defines the essence of education as a process to develop the existence of participant-learners are socialized, entrenched, in the governance dimension of life locally, nationally, and globally. The formula has four components, namely: 1. Education should be a continuous process. The process of education implies that learners have the ability immanent as social beings, and also implies that humans the creature that is lifelong learning. 2. The process of education means to develop human existence. This means that human existence is an interactive. Interaction of humans is not only with each other but also with nature, and with the idea of god. 3. Socialized human existence. The process of

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education is the process of realizing a socialized human existence. In this process occurs internalization of values, moral renewal and revitalization. 4. Process entrenched society has dimension of time and space. The process can penetrate the dimensions of past, present, and future. More over thanks to advances in science and technology communication, the educational process can also penetrate the dimension locally, nationally and regionally, and globally.

Education is defined as a systematic and systemic activity, directed and planned the formation of the personality of students. The process of personal formation through two objectives, namely private establishment for those who have not grown by those who've grown up and for those who've grown up on their own. The purpose of the implementation of the national education system will affect the future face of the globalization of education learners ranging from elementary school to college. Therefore, in order to increase the quality of education should be the level of education unit should organize a quality of education. Quality of education requires professional educators because educators have an important role and are directly involved with the students.

Education has an important role and are very basic education in elementary school, he lived with six levels comprise; grade I (one) to grade VI (six), as specified in BSNP Graduates Competency Standards (2006) in accordance with the Regulation of the Minister No. 22 of 2005. Basic Competency Standard of Elementary School and junior high school has aims laid intelligence: knowledge, personality, noble character, and the skills to live independently and follow further education.

The process of education is the education component of all mobility activities by educators are directed to the achievement of educational goals that have been formulated. Success or failure of a general learning can be viewed from two aspects, namely based on criteria from the point of the learning process itself and the product of learning achieved. The quality of education processes implicated in two aspects, namely the quality of the components and quality management.

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Management the process of education includes the scope of the macro and micro.

The main purpose of education is the process of managing learning and optimal learning experience, which meant that educators are responsible for the implementation of education. teacher is required to master the four competencies of professional competence , pedagogical competence, social competence and personal competence, by mastering the competencies of a teacher qualified to design learning. A teacher should be able to realize the four competencies in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. Learning activities will get good results if previously planned well too.

in designing lesson plans would require analysis of the students need for learning, appropriate and well targeted. Realizing how essential Learning Implementation Plan then teacher is obliged to draw up lesson plan in accordance with the Decree of the Education Minister No. 41, 2007 on a standard process which states that every teacher in the educational unit is obliged to draw up a complete and systematic lesson plans so that learning takes place in an interactive, inspiring, fun, challenging, motivate learners to actively participate and provide enough space for innovation, creativity, and independence according to their talents, interests and development of learners. While Cameron (2002: 72) argues that: In planning and teaching a foreign language, we need to take account of the first language background to know what will work and what may be too difficult for children. It is apparent that quickly Becomes learning a new word is not a simple task that is done once and then completed.

To support the ability to organize and produce quality outcomes, teachers also demanded that innovate in the learning process, for example with regard to teaching methods, assessment and evaluation. A teacher should understand the assessment method must also be understood. On the field, a lot of teachers who do not understand the true concept of assessment. Georgio and Pavlou (2003: 4) defines assessment as follows: Assessment is the general term roommates include

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all the methods used to gather information about children's knowledge, ability, understanding, attitudes, and information. Assessment can be carried out through a number of instruments (for example, tests, self-assessment), and can be formal or informal.

While the same is defined by Hanna (1993), namely: Assessment is the process of collecting, interpreting, and synthesizing information to aid indecision making. Assessment is synonymous with measurement plus Observation. It concerns drawing inferences from these data and sources. The primary purpose of assessment is to increase of student's learning and development rather than simply to grade or rank student performance (Morgan & O'Reilly, 1999 in Suryanto).

So it is clear that the assessment is to gather information about the activities of achievement, understanding, behavior and motivation are obtained from various types of bills and process that information to assess learning outcomes and student development, the definitions above Georgiou and Pavlou (2003: 5) formulate the goals of children's assessment that:

  • 1. To monitor and aid children's progress.

  • 2. To provide the children with evidence of their progress and enhance

(motivation)

  • 3. To monitor performance and plan your future.

  • 4. To provide information for parent, colleagues, and school authorities.

Assessment in order to give an idea of the actual student achievement, it must be based principle of judgment on: 1) oriented on achieving competence, i.e. the assessment is used to measure the achievement of specified competencies in the curriculum. 2) Valid, assessment should measure what we want to measure. 3) Fair, which provides an opportunity assessment and treatment to students. 4) Objectively, that regardless of the students' performance and status (subjective) in other words impartially 5) Sustainable, meaning that the assessment should be planned, gradual, orderly, continuous and sustainable manner to obtain the results of student learning and development. 6) Overall, it means that the assessment

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should be able to assess the overall realm of competence which includes cognitive, psychomotor and affective. 7) Open, meaning that the assessment criteria should be open to the parties concerned so that the decision is clear student learning outcomes. 8) Meaningful, assessment for students used. When a teacher has to understand the principles mentioned above, so the results of assessment that the teachers done is an actual picture of students' abilities

Efforts to improve the quality of education in Indonesia is continuously carried out by the government and relevant agencies either conventional or innovative ways to organize new policies such as teacher certification, education and training to improve the qualifications of teachers, improvement of infrastructure and so forth. Although various attempts have been made, but until now has not shown an increase in the quality of education both at primary, middle and upper, so there is a question of what is causing the quality of education is not well developed, actually the primary school there is a problem mostly lies in educators , in this case there are several trends that are still made by educators less appropriate that need improvement are 1. Still adhered to the pattern of one-way communication or the so-called temporary teacher centered, learning should be student centered pattern must adhere, Cameron (2002: 1) states that teaching Learner-center places the child at the center of teacher thinking and curriculum planning. So it is clear that the ideal of learning is learning that put students at the center of thought and planning educators, and Cameron (2002:1) states that more children are often enthusiastic and lively as learner. They want to place the teacher rather than their peer group. They will have a go at an activity even when they do not quite understand why or how.

2. Many educators have behaviorist paradigm, which holds that learners must be empty like a cup filled with water while the educator is like a pot filled with water so the view is that the absolute knowledge that should belong to the teacher, the fact one can learn wherever d with technological advances increasingly sophisticated information making it easier for students to learn so do not be surprised if a student can be more intelligent than the educators themselves.

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3. Less skilled in presenting attractive learning and fun course, by using the method according to the unit level learners, in the case of a teacher must be skilled and clever in choosing strategies and methods of teaching, methods of TPR is attractive and interesting method according to the characteristics of learners confirmed by Cameron (2002:4) states that (the child) actively tries to make sense

of the world

ask question, want to know, also from very early stage, the child

... has purposes and intentions: he want to do. So in choosing the method according

to the characteristics of children at the primary level is capable to accommodate

characteristics of

learners. .

4. The evaluation system is not comprehensive and

does not standardization, as well as the low literate technology. Thus there must be a new breakthrough to change the mindset and paradigm of education so that all components of the change in the atmosphere of learning more meaningful.

Language is a system of sounds, words, patterns that are used by humans to communicate through thoughts and feelings to convey a message or communicate between individuals. Through human language able to express thoughts and ideas either through spoken or written language. English as one of the international language used in the lingua franca, trade and education also has a very strategic role in the success of a person. English has four skills namely listening , speaking, reading, and writing, the four skills should be taught in a procedural order learning objectives can be achieved.

TPR method (Total Physical Response Method) developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at California State University San Jose. TPR (Total Physical Response) is seen as the appropriate method for teaching English to children where learning more priority to activities directly related to physical activity and movement (movement).

In Asher's TPR method found more frequent or more intense memory of a person is given the stronger stimulation of memory associations connected and easier to recall (recalling). Activities recall is done verbally with the motor activities. In

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terms of development, Asher saw success in learning a second language as an adult is a parallel process to the achievement of the child's first language. He claimed that speak directly to children is a process of giving the command in which children respond physically first before he was able to produce a verbal response. Furthermore, Asher also concluded that the most effective role of emotional factors in children's language learning, i.e. learning by engaging games with moves that can be combined with singing or storytelling will be able to reduce the pressure of one's language learning. He believes that the joy in children (positive mood) will have an impact both on cognitive psychology and child.

Learning at the elementary school level should be interesting and give students the opportunity to act in accordance with the target of the learning itself or known as learning by doing (learning process recommended by TPR), so that they can develop the potential that exists on the optimal learners as the ability to explore and Traffic experimenting, questioning and argued, divergent and critical thinking skills. Learning said to be good if the student if the student is actively involve in any learning activities both mentally and physically.

In reaching the Learning objectives can be seen in student achievement, particularly in English subjects in MI Diniyyah Putri Lampung. As an overview of student achievement can be seen from the average value 50 odd semester, as well as the average UAM at 50, 7 in the school year 2010/2011. This fact is reflected in the learning of English is still under the standards set mastery learning is 60. Starting from the average results above, it is necessary to research why English learning achievement MI Diniyyah Putri Lampung is still low.

Based on observations at several schools in the district Gedongtataan teacher assessment in determining student achievement as follows: 1. Conservative form of assessment is still an emphasis on cognitive, 2. Educators are almost never documented student learning outcomes; 3. More material related to memorizing and existing in textbooks; 4. Daily tests using only a piece of paper which is then written on the book value of what has been and competencies to be achieved by

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students is uncertain, and not questioned; 5. All assignments and exercises are not recorded regularly and continuously; 6. Almost no assessment of the activity and the ability or talent of the students in the assignment so that the assessment is not objective because it involves only one realm only.

Stems from the observation of the above circumstances, it is necessary to innovation in learning English is still centered on teacher centered and assessment still focuses on the cognitive domains. Whereas in the present curriculum should be student-centered learning and assessment must be carried out comprehensively covers the cognitive, psychomotor aspects and affective aspects.

Effort needs to be done to change the situation is to use a variety of teaching methods, strategies, techniques appropriate to varying learning process so that students do not get bored and one such method is Total Physical Response (TPR). According to Richards in his book Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Total Physical Response is defined: "a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it Attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity". So the TPR method is a method of learning a language are arranged in coordination command, speech and motion, and trying to teach language through physical activity (motor).

In the TPR method required a teacher to be a model for learning and is able to present a fun learning environment as stated by Freeman (114:2000) in Setiyadi Learning may take place when language learners observe actions and perform the action themselves. In a study using TPR teachers can serve as a model and also can take action together with students in accordance with the target language and learning goals, and this is also the uniqueness of the TPR method that makes this method different from other methods and make the atmosphere become active and fun learning (joyful learning) due to the principle of learning by doing. Given the subjects of English language is very important in the education and communication, the application of the method Total Physical Response (TPR) is

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expected to Improving student achievement.

  • 1.2 Identification of Problems

    • 1. English learning achievement is low, judging from the results of the test odd Semester average 50.5.

    • 2. Learning is done conventionally and using techniques the mono centralized or teacher centered.

    • 3. Learning has not associated between motor and cognitive activity yet.

    • 4. Learning is done in theory not practice directly

    • 5. Evaluation system that is less comprehensive and systematic.

      • 1.3 Limitation Problem

Based on the background and the identification of the problems described above, this research will examine the effectiveness of the application of the method Total Physical Response (TPR), the problem of learning problems that will be studied are:

  • 1. Designing Lesson Plan using TPR

  • 2. Conducting comprehensive and systematic evaluation of learning.

  • 3. Activity during the learning process takes place, includes listening, speaking,

reading, writing activities and accuracy to act in accordance with the instructions of the method Total Physical Response (TPR)

  • 3. Student achievement in the English subjects.

    • 1.4 Problem Formulation

the authors formulate the problem as follows:

  • 1. How to plan (lesson plan) the implementation of learning by using the Total Physical Response method in English subject?

  • 2. How to Implement a comprehensive evaluation of learning and systematically?

  • 3. How to improve students' learning activities and learning using TPR?

  • 4. How to improve the learning achievements of students with learning using

TPR?

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1.5

Goal Research

this paper aim to measure the success of the knowledge of the teachers

performance in the learning process and learning outcomes in the quality of learning in elementary schools. The paper specifically aims to:

  • 1. Increasing the ability of teachers in designing Lesson Plan using the TPR

  • 2. Improving student learning activities using the TPR on English subjects

3.Increasing student achievement is viewed from cognitive, physicomotor,

affective as a result of using the TPR on English subjects

  • 4. Conducting a comprehensive evaluation of learning, effective and systematic.

    • 1.6 Benefits of Research

Practical benefits The paper are expected to:

  • 1. Benefits for teachers

    • a. Improving performance and effectiveness learning English process that is efficient, well targeted and qualified in Basic Education Unit.

    • b. Guiding and directing students in improving academic achievement English.

    • d. As consideration for Islamic Elementary School teachers in implementing learning.

      • 2. Benefits for students

        • a. To be embedded motivation and enthusiasm to learn English in basic level.

        • b. To be embedded optimistic attitude and be able to follow the learning optimally and fun.

        • c. Improve student achievement

          • 3. Benefits for schools:

            • a. In order to produce quality graduates or output.

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II. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Nature of Learning English

Learning is a deliberate process designed to create the learning activities within the individual. In other words, learning is something external that is designed to support the learning process internally within the individual. Dick and Carey (2005: 205) defines learning as a series of events or activities that are presented in a structured and planned to use one or more types of media. The learning process whose objective is for students to achieve competence as existed on the government’s regulation. To achieve these objectives the learning process needs to be designed in a systematic and systemic learning starts from the design to the implementation of learning evaluation.

One of the most important in learning a language is a function of language itself that is to communicate, when one student started to ask about something, express ideas, feelings, opinions, they must master the language as a means of communicating. English is the international language used by all the countries that exist in the world, In Indonesia, English as a foreign language is taught from elementary school through university. English is the international language and used as instruction in education both at Primary, Intermediate and Upper.

Basically the study is a requirement for students to be able to increase their knowledge in a dynamic life transformed. The description above is an achievement in the study include the mastery of skills that include: learning, discrimination, concepts, principles and problem solving for students or learners after attending learning, which serves as a tool to communicate in order to access the information and in the context of everyday as a means of interpersonal relationships, exchange information and raise awareness about the nature and importance of English as a foreign language to become a major tool of learning.

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In the implementation of learning a teacher must be able to choose the method according to the students characteristics in an effort to help learners achieve the target language and use variations of approaches, methods, techniques and involves the students in learning to support successful learning itself.

Widodo (2002:72) says that Teaching English, especially for children, should be enjoyable, interesting, repetitive, and Understandable. In doing so, there should be appropriate methods for teaching English to them. One of the alternative methods that can be applied in the classroom is the so-called Total Physical Response. This method tries to introduce some language skills or components in an action in roommates a teacher serves three roles: an order taker, a model of provider, and an action in roommates monitor learners serve as models and performer’s action until they feel ready to speak out. It is no less important was expressed Cameron (2005:2) says that Building up a useful vocabulary is central to the learning of a foreign language at primary level. so clearly in English lessons at primary level is very complex and need special attention in order that learning can be exciting and understandable also not necessarily be directly seen or measured success of the learning, learning a language takes time to practice the language as a process of internalization of language learning.

This opinion is also supported by Stern (1970:57) states that in language teaching, we must practice and practice, again and again during the language learning stage he practice all the time. Cameron (2002: 78) also expressed the same opinion that learning a word take a long time and many exposures the words used in different situations.

Cameron (2002: 81) conclude some principles of English language learning, especially in learning vocabulary in elementary school are:

1. The type of words that the children find possible to learn will shift. Five years olds learning a foreign language vocabulary need very concrete that connects with an object they can handle or see, whereas older learners can cope with words and topics that are more abstract and remote from immediate experience.

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2.

Vocabulary development is not just learning words but more importantly is also

about expanding and deeping word knowledge. Children need to meet word again

and again, in new contexts that can help increase of what they know about words. Teaching need to include the recycling of words.

  • 3. Words and word knowledge can be seen as being linked in networks of

meaning. Meeting a word will activate the network and thus provide support for

understanding and for learning.

  • 4. Basic level of words are Likely are to be more appropriate for younger learners

can benefit from building up super ordinate and subordinate vocabulary words linked to basic level they are already know.

  • 5. Children change in how they can learn words. Where as the very young learners

will learn words as collections, older children are much more Able to the make

the connection between the words they learn and to use the paradigmatic organization of words and concepts as help in learning vocabulary.

Hatch and Brown (1995: 372) in Cameron learning vocabulary naturally esential

five basic steps of learning vocabulary, strategies that learners must have are:

  • 1. Having source for encountering new words.

  • 2. Getting a clear image, visual or auditory Wether or both, for the form of new

words;

  • 3. Learning the meaning of words;

  • 4. Making a strong memory connection between the form and meaning of words;

  • 5. Using the words.

While the Nation (1990: 51) in Cameron (2002: 84) highlighting the five techniques do educators in conveying the meaning of new vocabulary, this

technique can be used in the classroom especially at the elementary school level:

By Demonstration or picture

  • 1. using an object

  • 2. using cut-out pigure

  • 3. using gesture

  • 4. performing an action

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5.

photographs

  • 6. drawings or diagrams on the board

  • 7. pictures from the book (to these we might add and moving images, from a TV,

video or computer)

By verbal explanation

  • 8. analytical definition (as in the teacher's description of protractor)

  • 9. putting the new word in a defining context (eg, an ambulance takes sick people

to hospital) 10. translating into another language.

So it is clear that learning English vocabulary especially at the basic level should be adjusted to the characteristics of students, both in terms of learning techniques, which kind of vocabulary and context.

Heaton (1998: 8) says that the four major skills in communication through language are boadly Often defined as listening, speaking, reading and writing. In many situations where english thought for general perpose, the skills should be carefully integrated and used to perform as many genuinely.

In English language, learning priority is the achievement of learning itself, learning methods should be interesting and educational units in accordance with the learners the importance of methods that Asher (2005: 1) argues that "method" implies a formula, a formula implies a science. Before using TPR to teach English, the teachers must prepare everything related to learning themselves as media, images, etc so that the students can understand the significance of learning. It is expected to increase student achievement and to apply English in everyday life recording (real life).

2.2 Total Physichal Response (TPR)

TPR is a method that involves learning English between thinking and performance to learn the language, especially a foreign language TPR Advocates

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stated that Increasing the memory is stimulated through association with the motor activity and the process of learning a foreign language learning is parallel to the first process language (Brown: 1987: 163 in Setiyadi). By observing and taking action they will understand the language they are learning, to understand the meaning of the word to make the merger between words and actions what

their observe. The meaning of the word can be guessed from the internalization by showing action in accordance with the order according to Palmer and Palmer state that no method of teaching foreign speech is Likely to be economical or successful roommates does not include in the first period a very considerable proportion of that type of classroom work roommates consists of the carrying out of the pupil of orders by teacher (Richard and Rodger 2001: 88 in Setiyadi). According to Asher TPR principles and objectives are:

  • 1. Understanding of the target of language should be developed before speaking.

  • 2. Often be conveyed through actions, especially by using commands.

  • 3. Feelings of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.

  • 4. Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.

  • 5. Teachers should be tolerant of errors are expected to be made by students.

  • 6. Meaning is more important than form. The goal is to provide the PLA an

enjoyable learning experience, having a minimum of the stress that typically accompanies learning a foreign language. (Http://www.tpr-world.com)

TPR method didsebut also with the "natural method" due to their lessons done naturalistically. According Widodo (2005: 237) there are three central reasons why TPR method called natural methods are:

(A) Before children develop the ability to speak, they develop listening competence. At the early phases of first language acquisition, they are Able to Comprehend complex utterances, they hardly can spontaneously roomates Produce or imitate. Asher takes into accounts that a learner may be making a mental blueprint of the language that will make it possible to produce spoken language during this later period of listening;

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(B) Children's ability in listening comprehension is acquired Because children need to respond physically to spoken language in the form of parental commands. (C) When a foundation in listening comprehension has been established, speech evolves naturally and effortlessly out of it.

Observing this reason that learning English should first put emphasis on the ability to hear for themselves the students can receive expressions and following expressions can even Produce and movements can help in interpreting meaning of the word and as a response to the communication between parent or educator then go to the next is the ability to speak, is the ability express learners vocabulary received into expressions to interact in society. As expressed by Linse (2005), TPR is designed based upon the way that children learn their mother tongue. In this respect, TPR considers that one learns best when he is actively involve and grasp what he hears (Haynes, 2004; Larsen-Freeman, 1986; Linse, 2005 in Widodo).

At the beginning of class learning English in class will spend time to understand the target language, in particular the sentence orders and concrete nouns conversational skills will be introduced after the students understand the target language. "Having Fun" to make students interested in learning English and this is also the basic principle of the method of TPR. Learning English would be more effective if accompanied by physical activity in accordance with the target language. English teacher to be selective in choosing words to in learning English.

  • 2. 3 Applications in Learning

From some of the research conducted by Asher (2003: 1) explains that a person

will be successful to learn the language if it has the following characteristics:

1. Good language learners achieve fluency faster when they are immersed in activities that involve them in situational language use;

  • 2. Good language learners often start their language learning with a period of

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silence as they watch the effect of language on others;

  • 3. Good language learners show comprehension by successfully accomplishing

tasks-generated language;

  • 4. Good language learners focus on overall sentence meaning rather than a

sentence's grammatical parts;

  • 5. Good language learners the make faster progress when the language of

Instruction is consistent (though limited) on a daily basis, and

  • 6. Good language learners the make faster progress when the content involves

clearly language that is usable or valuable outside the classroom.

So learning English will work well if the students involved in the learning process and the learning process obeying a systematic and consistent approach to learning the English language. According to Linse (2005:9) there are several procedures to learning using TPR are:

1.Preparation.Introduce the important vocabulary items.

  • 2. Setting Up. Have students sit in a circleor other informal arrangement. Set

upthe situation in front of the students. For some of the lessons you'll just need to

grab a piece of chalk. For others you may need to bring items from home. Talk about what you'll be doing, ie, "I'm getting ready to draw a picture.

  • 3. Demonstration. Read the lesson while you do the action.

  • 4. Student Modeling. Read the lesson while a student does the actions.

  • 5. Reinforcement.Repeat step number 4.

  • 6. Total Participation. Read the les-son and have the entire class carry out the

instructions.

  • 7. Variation.Change the lesson sequence.

There are some others way in application the TPR, Proponent of TPR, Asher (1979) in the Intensive English Learning states that there are several steps that can be done by applying an educator in the TPR Step I The teacher says the commands as he himself performs the action. Step 2 The teacher says the command as both the teacher and the students then perform the action.

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Step 3 The teacher says the command but only students perform the action Step 4 The teacher Tells one student at a time to do commands Step 5 The roles of teacher and student are reversed. Students give commands to teacher and to other students. Step 6 The teacher and student allow for command expansion or produces new sentences.

Asher (1998) has also written several books that are used for learning a foreign language, he began learning activities by introducing a command line that is close to real life students as "stand up, sit down, walk, stop, point, turn around, etc." and learning he recommended was to use students as a tool environment / media of learning such as the following activities:

Point to the door (Teachers and students pointed to the door) Point the chair (Teachers and students pointed to a chair) Point the table (Teachers and students pointed to a table) (Ashers, 1988:4-3 in Setiyadi).

In English lessons using TPR method, the students not only understand the command but also understand object names in English. In the process of learning by using TPR method is a lot of activity that can be done by teachers and students, among others: a. activity using the command (imperative drill), is the main activity of the teacher in the classroom of the TPR method. b. exercise is useful for obtaining physical movement and activities of students. b. Conversational dialogue. c. reading activity and writing new vocabulary also coached at sentence structure based on tenses and so on. TPR is a method of learning English hypoactive, communicative and direct engagement.

  • 2.4 Definition of Achievement

Intellectual ability of students determine the success of students. To determine a person's success or failure in learning it is necessary to do an evaluation, in order to determine students’ achievement gained after learning process takes place. Learning achievement is inseparable from learning, because learning is a process,

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while the achievement is the result of a learning process. Understand the terms of learning achievement in general should start with the understanding of learning itself. For the experts expressed the opinion that varies according to their views of learning.

Sudjana state that achievement is person gains through learning activities. If you learn something about the nature of knowledge acquisition is a cognitive knowledge or learning something and if it is moving, it’s the movement skills (2000: 22). Gagne (1985: 40) states that academic achievement is divided into five aspects: intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, verbal information, attitudes and skills ..

Vocabulary is the most important in learning English, you can be imagined if one does not have the vocabulary, of course, communication will be hampered or when someone is wrong in choosing the vocabulary, the message transmitted or received will be miss interpreted. So it is correct to say without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed in communication. Cameron (2002: 2) says that building up a useful vocabulary is central to learning of a foreign language at premary level. Soedjito (1990:1) asserts that the vocabulary (vocabulary words) can be interpreted as follows: (1) all the words contained within a language, (2) wealth word owned by a speaker / writer, (3) the word used in a science, (4) a list of words drawn a field of science. Lexicon are: (1) the language component that contains information about the meaning and usage of the word in the language, (2) wealth word owned by a speaker, writer, a language, vocabulary, vocabulary, (3) compiled a list of words in a dictionary, but with a short explanation and practical.

Based on the above understanding can be said that each vocabulary possessed by every language, so the English had clearly had vocabularies. The authors argue that to improve the students’ vocabulary to the learners should be done intensively and consistently using learning methods and appropriate to the characteristics both of the learners and the learning process outside the formal learning process.

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III. METHOD OF RESEARCH

  • 3.1 Research Design

some experts give opinion about definition of action research; Action research is simply a form of self reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own practices, their understanding of these practices and the situations in which the practices are carried out. (Carr and Kemmis 1986: 162). Action research is the application of fact finding to practical problem solving in a social situation with a view to improving the quality of action within it, involving the collaboration and co- operation of researchers, practitioners and laymen (R.B.Burns 1994 : 293)

  • 3.2 The Research Time

This study will be conducted in the Islamic Elementary School of MI Diniyyah

Putri lampung

  • 3.3 Subject Research

Subjects in this study were students of class VA and VB Islamic Elementary

School of MI Diniyyah Putri Lampung.

  • 3.4 Indicators of Success

Indicators of success in this classroom action research is focused on the aspects of the process, lesson planning, implementation of learning, and student achievement. The indicators of success in this research are:

a. Lesson Plan

Preparation of lesson plans using the TPR will assess using the assessment tools APKG Iwith an average rating of 4, categories good in each cycle by a rating scale 1-5.

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  • b. The implementation process of learning

The implementation process of learning is call increased when increasing the number of students who are actively reaching 80% of all students and an increase in student learning activities in the learning process at each cycle. Students are said to be active if activity above 80%. Student activities include listening, speaking, reading, writing, and precision of action.

  • c. Evaluation System

To measure and evaluate student achievement using 20 multiple choice test with validity and reliability, level of difficulty, level of different with category sufficient in each every cycle.

  • d. Student Achievement

Students can be said to be successful if students achievement has got a score 70 as

much as 80% of the total number of students MI Diniyyah Putri Lampung.

3.5 Action Research Plan

Classroom Action Research will be conducted in MI Diniyyah Putri Lampung and will be divided into several cycles to achieve students achievement as much as 80%. Each cycle consists of a topic that consists of 2 meetings. This classroom action research design cycle model developed by Kemmis and Mc. Taggart are:

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These classroom action research design cycle models developed by Kemmis and Mc. Taggart with the steps

These classroom action research design cycle models developed by Kemmis and

Mc. Taggart with the steps in each cycle class actions are as follows:

  • A. Plan (Planning)

  • B. Action (action)

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  • C. Observations (observation)

  • D. Reflection (Reflection)

3.6 The reliability and validity instruments 3.6.1 Validity Test

Validity comes from the word that means the extent to which the precision and accuracy of a measuring instrument in doing the measuring function (Anwar, 2000: 5). A test or measurement instrument is said to have high validity if the measuring instrument proficiency level function, or provide an appropriate outcome measure for the purpose of doing these measurements. Instrument unfavorable improved based on feedback from lecturers, then tested on 20

students from other schools. To find out if whether possessed validity test empirically is to correlate the scores obtained on each item about. If the score of all the statements that have drawn the correlation coefficient, item mepunyai positive correlation with high correlation indicates that the item has more validity in other words the higher the measure is valid. The validity of validity is called matter. Criterion validity tests, the index 0.00 - 0. 19 means very low validity. 0.20- 0, 39 means low validity.

  • 0.40 - 0, 59 means sufficient validity.

  • 0.60 - 0, 79 means high validity.

0.80- 1, 00 means very high validity.

Hadi (1992: 190).

3.6. 2 Reliability Test

Reliability or level of provision (consistency or regularity) is the ability of the research instrument to collect data from a group of individuals’ remains. The instrument has a high reliability level tend to produce similar data on the variable elements, if repeated at different times on the same group of individuals. Criterion

validity tests, the index

  • 0.00 - 0. 19 means very low reliability.

0.20- 0, 39 means low reliability.

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0.40

- 0, 59 means sufficient reliability.

  • 0.60 - 0, 79 means high reliability.

0.80- 1, 00 means very high reliability.

Hadi (1992: 190).

  • 3.6. 3 Levels of difficulty

Problem is good is a matter that is not too easy or too difficult. Purpose of

analyzing the level of difficulty of questions is to obtain a good question.

Questions that are too easy or too difficult will not be used for testing in research. To determine the level of difficulty of questions by comparing the following criteria:

  • 1.00 to 0.30 is about difficult

  • 0.30 to 0.70 is about sufficient

  • 0.70 to 1.00 is about easy (Arikunto, 2006: 210)

  • 3.6. 4 Distinguishing Features

Distinguishing features is something about the ability to distinguish between

students who are smart (highly skilled) with student stupid (low capability). The numbers indicate the amount of power difference is called the index of discrimination. The following is a classification distinguishing features:

  • D = 0.00 -

0.20 = bad

  • D = 0.21 - 0.40 = quite

  • D = 0.41 -

0.70 = good

  • D = 0.70 - 1.00 = excellent

  • D = negative, everything is not good, so items that have a value D (negative)

should be omitted. Arikunto (2006: 207).

3.7 Data Analysis Techniques

Data collection was conducted through observation / observation for student activities, and tests for students' vocabulary consist of 20 multiple choice items. The data that has been collected from the observation sheet and test results carefully analyzed in detail one by one. The data obtained in this study were

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analyzed to compare the percentage achieving the targets set in accordance with the standards of mastery learning at least 60. In the implementation of this study, the researcher used descriptive statistical analysis for the quantitative data and to analyze qualitative data in the form of data use activity analyzed qualitatively.

  • 3.7.1 Analysis of Lesson Plan

Assessment Lesson Plan using the TPR on English subjects assessed value scale 1-5. The formula determines the final value is as follows:

R = (A + B + C + D + E + F + G + H)

Description:

4, 1-5 = very good. 3, 1-4 = good. 2, 1-3 = sufficient 1, 1-2 = less.

  • 1 = very poor.

(Teacher Work Assessment (APKG I))

  • 3.7.2 Analysis of Student Activities

Activity data obtained during learning will be analyzed by statistical analysis, in the form of percentage and a simple statistical table. To determine the percentage of students in learning activities every meeting used the following formula:

analyzed to compare the percentage achieving the targets set in accordance with the standards of mastery

The results compared with the active student success criteria. The cycle will be terminated in this study after the student reaches 80% of active students.

  • 3.7.3 Analysis of Learning Evaluation System

Learning evaluation system calculated using Anates program to calculate the level of validity, reliability, and power of different difficulty level of the questions.

  • 3.7.4 Analysis of Students’ Vocabulary Achievement

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Evaluation of student achievement will conduct each end of the cycle by using a test form with 20 multiple choice then student achievement is calculated by using the formula:

menggunakan rumus:

Evaluation of student achievement will conduct each end of the cycle by using a test form

Description:

% P (70) = The percentage of students that scored ≥ 70 Σ ▒ N70 = Number of students who scored ≥ 70 Σ ▒ N = Number All learners per class.

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