Herbert Spencer


Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer Born 27 April 1820 Derby, Derbyshire, England 8 December 1903 (aged 83) Brighton, Sussex, England British 19th-century philosophy Western philosophy Evolutionism, positivism, classical liberalism


Nationality Era Region School

Main interests Evolution, positivism, laissez-faire, utilitarianism Notable ideas Social Darwinism, Survival of the fittest


Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era. Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. He was "an enthusiastic exponent of evolution" and even "wrote about evolution before Darwin did."[1] As a polymath, he contributed to a wide range of subjects, including ethics, religion, anthropology, economics, political theory, philosophy, biology, sociology, and psychology. During his lifetime he achieved tremendous authority, mainly in English-speaking academia. "The only other English philosopher to have achieved anything like such widespread popularity was Bertrand Russell, and that was in the 20th century."[2] Spencer was "the single most famous European intellectual in the closing decades of the nineteenth century"[3][4] but his influence declined sharply after 1900; "Who now reads Spencer?" asked Talcott Parsons in 1937.[5]

England.[7] As both an adolescent and a young man Spencer found it difficult to settle to any intellectual or professional discipline. on 27 April 1820. which located specific mental functions in specific parts of the brain. . He worked as a civil engineer during the railway boom of the late 1830s. Spencer was an autodidact who acquired most of his knowledge from narrowly focused readings and conversations with his friends and acquaintances. John Chapman. who would later win fame as 'Darwin's Bulldog' and who remained his lifelong friend. Spencer aimed to reconcile the associationist psychology of Mill's Logic. His uncle. yet as Spencer extended evolution into realms of sociology and ethics. From 1848 to 1853 he served as sub-editor on the free-trade journal The Economist. Thomas Spencer also imprinted on his nephew his own firm free-trade and anti-statist political views. with the apparently more 'scientific' theory of phrenology. the son of William George Spencer (generally called George). while the members of the Derby Philosophical Society introduced him to pre-Darwinian concepts of biological evolution. while also devoting much of his time to writing for provincial journals that were nonconformist in their religion and radical in their politics. including John Stuart Mill. after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. the notion that human mind was constructed from atomic sensations held together by the laws of the association of ideas. Spencer's father was a religious dissenter who drifted from Methodism to Quakerism. particularly those of Erasmus Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. He ran a school founded on the progressive teaching methods of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and also served as Secretary of the Derby Philosophical Society. published in 1855. However it was the friendship of Evans and Lewes that acquainted him with John Stuart Mill's A System of Logic and with Auguste Comte's positivism and which set him on the road to his life's work. which he did in Principles of Biology (1864).[1] 2 Life Herbert Spencer was born in Derby. Otherwise. introduced Spencer to his salon which was attended by many of the leading radical and progressive thinkers of the capital. Through this paradigm. he also made use of Lamarckism. which predicted that humanity would eventually become completely adapted to the requirements of living in society with the consequential withering away of the state. and who seems to have transmitted to his son an opposition to all forms of authority. The book was founded on the fundamental assumption that the human mind was subject to natural laws and that these could be discovered within the framework of general biology. George Henry Lewes and Mary Ann Evans (George Eliot). Spencer was educated in empirical science by his father. Its publisher. He strongly disagreed with Comte. which explored a physiological basis for psychology. a scientific society which had been founded in the 1790s by Erasmus Darwin. vicar of Hinton Charterhouse near Bath. Harriet Martineau. but also of the species and the race. Principles of Psychology. the Reverend Thomas Spencer.Herbert Spencer Spencer is best known for coining the expression "survival of the fittest".[8] The first fruit of his friendship with Evans and Lewes was Spencer's second book. and enough Latin to enable him to translate some easy texts.[6] This term strongly suggests natural selection. the grandfather of Charles Darwin. during which time he published his first book. This permitted the adoption of a developmental perspective not merely in terms of the individual (as in traditional psychology). Social Statics (1851). with whom he was briefly romantically linked. Spencer himself introduced the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley. completed Spencer's limited formal education by teaching him some mathematics and physics.

Huxley that met every month and included some of the most prominent thinkers of the Victorian age (three of whom would become presidents of the Royal Society). Spencer differed from Comte in believing it was possible to discover a single law of universal application which he identified with progressive development and was to call the principle of evolution. he was possessed with the idea of demonstrating that Herbert Spencer it was possible to show that everything in the universe – including human culture. Through such associations.Herbert Spencer 3 Spencer argued that both these theories were partial accounts of the truth: repeated associations of ideas were embodied in the formation of specific strands of brain tissue. This immense undertaking. he believed. Despite Spencer's early struggles to establish himself as a writer. aimed to demonstrate that the principle of evolution applied in biology. which has few parallels in the English language. in the end it took him twice as long and consumed almost all the rest of his long life. There were also some quite significant satellites such as liberal clergyman Arthur Stanley. Spencer envisaged that this work of ten volumes would take twenty years to complete. Russian. would do for the human mind what Isaac Newton had done for matter. and into many other languages and he was offered honors and awards all over Europe and North America. an exclusive Gentleman's Club in London open only to those distinguished in the arts and sciences. His later years were also ones in which his political views became increasingly conservative. The last decades of Spencer's life were characterized by growing disillusionment and loneliness.[10] In common with others of his generation. the book was not initially successful and the last of the 251 copies of its first edition was not sold until June 1861. the banker and biologist Sir John Lubbock. including the members of Chapman's salon. French. Japanese and Chinese. This was in contrast to the views of many theologians of the time who insisted that some parts of creation. the Dean of Westminster. Despite his growing wealth and fame he never owned a house of his own. language. sociology (Spencer appropriated Comte's term for the new discipline) and morality. Spencer's interest in psychology derived from a more fundamental concern which was to establish the universality of natural law. and morality – could be explained by laws of universal validity. He also became a member of the Athenaeum. Comte's Système de Philosophie Positive had been written with the ambition of demonstrating the universality of natural law. psychology. and the X Club. and guests such as Charles Darwin and Hermann von Helmholtz were entertained from time to time. Members included physicist-philosopher John Tyndall and Darwin's cousin.H. He never married. by the 1880s he had become a staunch opponent of . Spencer had a strong presence in the heart of the scientific community and was able to secure an influential audience for his views. by the 1870s he had become the most famous philosopher of the age. The Psychology. were beyond the realm of scientific investigation. and after 1855 was a perpetual hypochondriac who complained endlessly of pains and maladies that no physician could diagnose.[citation needed] By the 1890s his readership had begun to desert him while many of his closest friends died and he had come to doubt the confident faith in progress that he had made the center-piece of his philosophical system. a dining club of nine founded by T. However. Spanish. In 1858 Spencer produced an outline of what was to become the System of Synthetic Philosophy. and Spencer was to follow Comte in the scale of his ambition.[11] His works were widely read during his lifetime. and these could be passed from one generation to the next by means of the Lamarckian mechanism of use-inheritance. and by 1869 he was able to support himself solely on the profit of book sales and on income from his regular contributions to Victorian periodicals which were collected as three volumes of Essays. His works were translated into German. Italian. Whereas Social Statics had been the work of a radical democrat who believed in votes for women (and even for children) and in the nationalization of the land to break the power of the aristocracy. in particular the human soul.[9] However.

shortly before his death. in particular in its conception of a philosophical system as the unification of the various branches of scientific knowledge. and to the human mind as much as to the rest of creation. in the form of natural laws. and sociology were all intended to demonstrate the existence of natural laws in these specific disciplines. Spencer's political views from this period were expressed in what has become his most famous work. At the same time. The exception to Spencer's growing conservativism was that he remained throughout his life an ardent opponent of imperialism and militarism. His critique of the Boer War was especially scathing. Spencer shows drawings of the pin in Appendix I (following Appendix H) of his autobiography along with published descriptions of its uses. It is coincidentally near that of Karl Marx. He continued writing all his life. The tension between positivism and his residual deism ran through the entire System of Synthetic Philosophy.[12] Spencer also invented a precursor to the modern paper clip. On the one hand. The first objective of the Synthetic Philosophy was thus to demonstrate that there were no exceptions to being able to discover scientific explanations. he held that it was possible to discover 'laws' . he owed far more than he would ever acknowledge to positivism. In essence Spencer's philosophical vision was formed by a combination of deism and positivism. His ashes are interred in the eastern side of London's Highgate Cemetery facing Karl Marx's grave. however.Herbert Spencer female suffrage and made common cause with the landowners of the Liberty and Property Defence League against what they saw as the drift towards 'socialism' of elements (such as Sir William Harcourt) within the administration of William Ewart Gladstone – largely against the opinions of Gladstone himself. At Spencer's funeral the Indian nationalist leader Shyamji Krishnavarma announced a donation of £1.[13] Synthetic philosophy The basis for Spencer's appeal to many of his generation was that he appeared to offer a ready-made system of belief which could substitute for conventional religious faith at a time when orthodox creeds were crumbling under the advances of modern science. The Man versus the State. psychology. In 1902. he nonetheless held fast to this conception at an almost sub-conscious level. it was in this sense that his philosophy aimed to be 'synthetic. and it contributed to his declining popularity in Britain. of all the phenomena of the universe. This "binding-pin" was distributed by Ackermann & Company. and the laws of nature as the decrees of a 'Being transcendentally kind.' Natural laws were thus the statutes of a well governed universe that had been decreed by the Creator with the intention of promoting human happiness. 4 Tomb of Herbert Spencer in Highgate Cemetery. Spencer's volumes on biology. though it looked more like a modern cotter pin. Even in his writings on ethics. Spencer followed Comte in aiming for the unification of scientific truth. the idea that the laws of nature applied without exception. Spencer's philosophical system seemed to demonstrate that it was possible to believe in the ultimate perfection of humanity on the basis of advanced scientific conceptions such as the first law of thermodynamics and biological evolution.' Like Comte.000 to establish a lectureship at Oxford University in tribute to Spencer and his work. until he succumbed to poor health at the age of 83. he had imbibed something of eighteenth century deism from his father and other members of the Derby Philosophical Society and from books like George Combe's immensely popular The Constitution of Man (1828). in later years often by dictation. Spencer was nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature. This treated the world as a cosmos of benevolent design. to the organic realm as much as to the inorganic. Although Spencer lost his Christian faith as a teenager and later rejected any 'anthropomorphic' conception of the Deity. He also followed positivism in his insistence that it was only possible to have genuine knowledge of phenomena and hence that it was idle to speculate about the nature of the ultimate reality. he was committed to the universality of natural law.

It differed from other scientific laws only by its greater generality. the lowest forms of life are said to be evolving into higher forms. Chambers' book was in reality a programme for the unification of science which aimed to show that Laplace's nebular hypothesis for the origin of the solar system and Lamarck's theory of species transformation were both instances (in Lewes' phrase) of 'one magnificent generalization of progressive development. he held that evolution had a direction and an end-point. Spencer believed that this evolutionary mechanism was also necessary to explain 'higher' evolution.[6] and is often misrepresented as a thinker who merely applied the Darwinian theory to society. 'Progress: Its Law and Cause'. this formulation has problems: 'I don't know whether [Spencer] was ever made to realize the implications of the second law of thermodynamics. differentiated. who stressed only the unity of scientific method. as Bertrand Russell stated in a letter to Beatrice Webb in 1923. just as in the theory of biological evolution. undifferentiated. believed to have merely appropriated and generalized Darwin's work on natural selection. or knowledge learned unconsciously. Moreover. Spencer is often. He tried to apply the theory of biological evolution to sociology. But although after reading Darwin's work he coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest' as his own term for Darwin's concept.[14] As an objection to evolution. and to human social organization as much as to the human mind. In contrast to Comte. was the inherited experience of the race. especially the social development of humanity. homogeneity to a complex. heterogeneity. In this respect. published in Chapman's Westminster Review in 1857. if so. and which later formed the basis of the First Principles of a New System of Philosophy (1862). However.Herbert Spencer of morality that had the status of laws of nature while still having normative content. he only grudgingly incorporated natural selection into his preexisting overall system. Spencer claimed that man's mind had evolved in the same way from the simple automatic responses of lower animals to the process of reasoning in the thinking man. he may well be upset. in contrast to Darwin. and the laws of the special sciences could be shown to be illustrations of this principle. Intuition. This evolutionary process could be found at work. throughout the cosmos. Spencer believed in two kinds of knowledge: knowledge gained by the individual and knowledge gained by the race. he followed the model laid down by the Edinburgh publisher Robert Chambers in his anonymous Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1844). Spencer's attempt to explain the evolution of complexity was radically different from that to be found in Darwin's Origin of Species which was published two years later. a conception which can be traced to Combe's Constitution of Man. Spencer posited that all structures in the universe develop from a simple.' Chambers was associated with Chapman's salon and his work served as the unacknowledged template for the Synthetic Philosophy. while being accompanied by a process of greater integration of the differentiated parts. Spencer believed. the law of evolution. In it he expounded a theory of evolution which combined insights from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's essay 'The Theory of Life' – itself derivative from Friedrich von Schelling's Naturphilosophie – with a generalization of von Baer's law of embryological development. quite erroneously. It was a universal law. the attainment of a final state of equilibrium. Although often dismissed as a lightweight forerunner of Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species. 5 Evolution The first clear articulation of Spencer's evolutionary perspective occurred in his essay. The second objective of the Synthetic Philosophy was to show that these same laws led inexorably to progress. that was applying to the stars and the galaxies as much as to biological organisms. . The primary mechanism of species transformation that he recognized was Lamarckian use-inheritance which posited that organs are developed or are diminished by use or disuse and that the resulting changes may be transmitted to future generations. diminishing (not increasing) heterogeneity'. The law says that everything tends to uniformity and a dead level. this case is still regularly made by anti-evolutionists but does not apply to Darwinian approaches. Spencer sought the unification of scientific knowledge in the form of the reduction of all natural laws to one fundamental law. He proposed that society was the product of change from lower to higher forms.

was complex and differentiated. By the turn of the 20th century the first generation of German sociologists. his attempt to introduce Lamarckian or Darwinian ideas into the realm of sociology was unsuccessful. He developed a theory of two types of society. Though Spencer made some valuable contributions to early sociology. although Spencer now equivocated over whether the evolution of society would result in anarchism (as he had first believed) or whether it pointed to a continued role for the state. and which we in turn would hand on to future generations.Herbert Spencer 6 Sociology Spencer read with excitement the original positivist sociology of Auguste Comte. which Spencer conceptualized as a 'social organism' evolved from the simpler state to the more complex according to the universal law of evolution. the sociologist Lester Frank Ward. Émile Durkheim established formal academic sociology with a firm emphasis on practical social research. Militant society. Society. it should be noted that Spencer's theories of laissez-faire. had presented methodological antipositivism. survival-of-the-fittest and minimal human interference in the processes of natural law had an enduring and even increasing appeal in the social science fields of economics and political science. industrial society. structured around relationships of hierarchy and obedience. albeit one reduced to the minimal functions of the enforcement of contracts and external defense. undifferentiated homogeneity to complex. Although Ward admired much of Spencer's work he believed that Spencer's prior political biases had distorted his thought and had lead him astray. was simple and undifferentiated. would pioneer the distinction between the natural sciences (Naturwissenschaften) and human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). industrial society was the direct descendant of the ideal society developed in Social Statics.] Ethics The end point of the evolutionary process would be the creation of 'the perfect man in the perfect society' with human beings becoming completely adapted to social life. launched a relentless attack on Spencer's theories of laissez-faire and political ethics. Comte had proposed a theory of sociocultural evolution that society progresses by a general law of three stages. was in the process of gradual adaptation to the . attempting to reformulate social science in terms of evolutionary biology. Hermeneuticians of the period. [Examples are needed. to be actively dangerous. The evolutionary progression from simple. Ludwig von Mises. furthermore. most notably Max Weber. The chief difference between Spencer's earlier and later conceptions of this process was the evolutionary timescale involved. which corresponded to this evolutionary progression. the militant and the industrial. however. not least in his influence on structural functionalism. 20th century thinkers such as Friedrich Hayek. Moreover. It was considered by many. Spencer rejected what he regarded as the ideological aspects of Comte's positivism.[15] In the 1890s. such as Wilhelm Dilthey. Spencer argued. In the United States. by the development of society. Milton Friedman and Ayn Rand expanded on and popularized Spencer's ideas. One might broadly describe Spencer's sociology as socially Darwinistic (though strictly speaking he was a proponent of Lamarckism rather than Darwinism). A philosopher of science. as predicted in Spencer's first book. based on voluntary. contractually assumed social obligations. However. differentiated heterogeneity was exemplified. The psychological – and hence also the moral – constitution which had been bequeathed to the present generation by our ancestors. while politicians such as Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher enacted them into law. Writing after various developments in biology. who would be elected as the first president of the American Sociological Association.

7 Portrait of Spencer by Burgess. Hence too much individual benevolence directed to the 'undeserving poor' would break the link between conduct and consequence that Spencer considered fundamental to ensuring that humanity continued to evolve to a higher level of development. "The strange capacity which we have for being affected by melody and harmony. Music. may be taken to imply both that it is within the possibilities of our nature to realize those intenser delights they dimly suggest. and that they are in some way concerned in the realization of them. to provide public education. but was maladaptive in advanced societies. replaced instead by a pessimism regarding the future of mankind. 'Liberty' was interpreted to mean the absence of coercion. aggression was a survival instinct which had been necessary in the primitive conditions of life. Nevertheless. leading to the universal observance of the principle of justice – each person had the right to a maximum amount of liberty that was compatible with a like liberty in others. However. However. for evolution to produce the perfect individual it was necessary for present and future generations to experience the 'natural' consequences of their conduct. and was closely connected to the right to private property. If so the power and the meaning of music become comprehensible. They would also instinctively respect the rights of others. . makes a contribution to the ethical education and progress of the species. Spencer termed this code of conduct 'Absolute Ethics' which provided a scientifically-grounded moral system that could substitute for the supernaturally-based ethical systems of the past. Speakers have persuasive effect not only by the reasoning of their words. Hence anything that interfered with the 'natural' relationship of conduct and consequence was to be resisted and this included the use of the coercive power of the state to relieve poverty. leading eventually to a perfect society in which no one would cause another person pain. Although charitable giving was to be encouraged even it had to be limited by the consideration that suffering was frequently the result of individuals receiving the consequences of their actions. or to require compulsory vaccination. Spencer thought that the origin of music is to be found in impassioned oratory. but otherwise they are a mystery. and for this reason we need a code of 'Relative Ethics' which takes into account the distorting factors of our present imperfections. Only in this way would individuals have the incentives required to work on self-improvement and thus to hand an improved moral constitution to their descendants." [16] Spencer's last years were characterized by a collapse of his initial optimism.Herbert Spencer requirements of living in society. he devoted much of his efforts in reinforcing his arguments and preventing the mis-interpretation of his monumental theory of non-interference. but by their cadence and tone – the musical qualities of their voice serve as "the commentary of the emotions upon the propositions of the intellect. In the perfect society individuals would not only derive pleasure from the exercise of altruism ('positive beneficence') but would aim to avoid inflicting pain on others ('negative beneficence'). 1871–72 Spencer adopted a utilitarian standard of ultimate value – the greatest happiness of the greatest number – and the culmination of the evolutionary process would be the maximization of utility. Over the course of many generations the evolutionary process would ensure that human beings would become less aggressive and increasingly altruistic. conceived as the heightened development of this characteristic of speech. they were subject to the Lamarckian mechanism of use-inheritance so that gradual modifications could be transmitted to future generations." as Spencer put it. Because human instincts had a specific location in strands of brain tissue. For example. he recognized that our inherited moral constitution does not currently permit us to behave in full compliance with the code of Absolute Ethics. Spencer's distinctive view of musicology was also related to his ethics.

He has been claimed as a precursor by libertarians and anarcho-capitalists. he thought that the Unknowable represented the ultimate stage in the evolution of religion.' He called this awareness of 'the Unknowable' and he presented worship of the Unknowable as capable of being a positive faith which could substitute for conventional religion. Therefore. we can frame no conception of it. but to bring about a reconciliation of the two. Hence both science and religion must come to recognize as the 'most certain of all facts that the Power which the Universe manifests to us is utterly inscrutable. Whether we are concerned with a Creator or the substratum which underlies our experience of phenomena. Nonetheless.[18] He also argued that the individual had a . we are ultimately driven to accept certain indispensable but literally inconceivable notions. unlike Huxley. and was frequently condemned by religious thinkers for allegedly advocating atheism and materialism. it is only possible to obtain knowledge of phenomena. Starting either from religious belief or from science. He rejected theology as representing the 'impiety of the pious. the final elimination of its last anthropomorphic vestiges. Spencer argued. Spencer insisted that he was not concerned to undermine religion in the name of science. owing to the inherent limitations of the human mind. religion and science agree in the supreme truth that the human understanding is only capable of 'relative' knowledge. This is the case since. Indeed.Herbert Spencer 8 Agnosticism Spencer's reputation among the Victorians owed a great deal to his agnosticism. not of the reality ('the absolute') underlying phenomena.' He was to gain much notoriety from his repudiation of traditional religion. whose agnosticism was a militant creed directed at 'the unpardonable sin of faith' (in Adrian Desmond's phrase). Political views Part of a series on Liberalism • • Liberalism portal Politics portal Part of a series on Libertarianism • • • Outline of libertarianism Libertarianism portal Liberalism portal Spencerian views in 21st century circulation derive from his political theories and memorable attacks on the reform movements of the late 19th century. Spencer concluded."[17] Spencer argued that the state was not an "essential" institution and that it would "decay" as voluntary market organization would replace the coercive aspects of the state. Economist Murray Rothbard called Social Statics "the greatest single work of libertarian political philosophy ever written.

he said. and welfare reforms.[27] Spencer's association with Social Darwinism might have its origin in a specific interpretation of his support for competition. he replied: "When men hire themselves out to shoot other men to order.[25] which also took such a view. where competing individuals or firms improve the well being of the rest of society. his model of a spontaneous social order. His main objections were threefold: the use of the coercive powers of the government. asking nothing about the justice of their cause. In response to being told that British troops were in danger during the Second Afghan War."[19] As a result of this perspective. his insistence on the limits to predictive knowledge. compulsory education. humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws. were tantamount to "socialism". Spencer vehemently attacked the widespread enthusiasm for annexation of colonies and imperial expansion. the name of Herbert Spencer would be virtually synonymous with Social Darwinism. made famous by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher." The reforms. prohibition and temperance laws. In The Man versus the State (1884). it has recently been identified as the paradigmatic case of "Social Darwinism". as he believed in voluntary association and informal care as opposed to using government machinery. and his arguments provided so much ammunition for conservatives and individualists in Europe and America that they still are in use in the 21st century. I don't care if they are shot themselves. Spencer was harshly critical of patriotism. rather than coercion or state intervention to initiate their physical annihilation. He called himself "a radical feminist" and advocated the organization of voluntary labor unions as a bulwark against "exploitation by bosses". Spencer viewed private charity positively so long as it did not encourage the procreation of the unworthy. this faction of the Liberal party Spencer compared to the interventionist "Toryism" of such people as the former Conservative party Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli). Spencer desired the elimination of the unfit through their failure to reproduce. the kind of competition Spencer advocated is closer to the one used by economists. understood as a politically motivated metaphysic very different in both form and motivation from Darwinist science.[21] By the 1880s he was denouncing "the new Toryism" (that is. Spencer had opposed private property in land. a social theory that applies the law of the survival of the fittest to society. The expression 'There Is No Alternative' (TINA). tax funded libraries. which subverted all he had predicted about evolutionary progress from 'militant' to 'industrial' societies and states. and favored an economy organized primarily in free worker co-operatives as a replacement for wage-labor. He was sympathetic to Georgism.[28] Focusing on the form as well as the content of Spencer's "Synthetic Philosophy". including the social struggle for existence.[23] Spencer anticipated many of the analytical standpoints of later libertarian theorists such as Friedrich Hayek. and the disregard of the "laws of life.[24] While often caricatured as ultra-conservative.[26] 9 Social Darwinism For many. claiming that each person has a latent claim to participate in the use of the earth. Spencer denounced Irish land reform. the discouragement given to voluntary self-improvement."[20] Politics in late Victorian Britain moved in directions that Spencer disliked. he said) and instead promoting paternalist social legislation (what Gladstone himself called "Construction" – an element in the modern Liberal party that he opposed). may be traced to its emphatic use by Spencer. which he said was about the same as "slavery" in terms of limiting human freedom.Herbert Spencer "right to ignore the state.[29] . especially in his "law of equal liberty". and his warnings about the "unintended consequences" of collectivist social reforms. the "social reformist wing" of the Liberal party – the wing to some extent hostile to Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone.[22] he attacked Gladstone and the Liberal party for losing its proper mission (they should be defending personal liberty. Whereas in biology the competition of various organisms can result in the death of a species or organism. laws to regulate safety at work.

engineers.E. Henri Bergson. Spencer's thought had penetrated so deeply into the Victorian age that his influence did not disappear entirely. and lawyers."[34] Nonetheless. from whose sociology. labeled Spencer a "conservative Anarchist. and Émile Durkheim defined their ideas in relation to his.[29] Political influence Despite his reputation as a Social Darwinist. Spencer's influence among leaders of thought was also immense.H. and once editions in the rest of the world are added in the figure of a million copies seems like a conservative estimate. In recent years.[35] as well as a still highly negative estimate. He was probably the first. sold 368. New York. The leading Polish writer of the period.[32] In post-1863-Uprising Poland. his ideas. This figure did not differ much from his sales in his native Britain. Half a century after his death. William James. his authorized publisher. his Portrait of Spencer by Hamilton. wrote: "The Fourteenth Amendment does not enact Mr. Spencer's political thought has been open to multiple interpretations. and set free the speculative mind of countless doctors. Marxist theorist Georgi Plekhanov. Durkheim borrowed extensively. Appleton. In the United States. philosopher in history to sell over a million copies of his works during his own lifetime. Spencer's ideas were to be found "running like the weft through all the warp" of Victorian thought. though it was most often expressed in terms of their reaction to." Spencer has also been described as a quasi-anarchist. Spencer "enlarged the imagination. As his American follower John Fiske observed."[30] The aspect of his thought that emphasized individual self-improvement found a ready audience in the skilled working class. as well as an outright anarchist. Durkheim's Division of Labour in Society is to a very large extent an extended debate with Spencer. "Polish Positivism". The early 20th century was hostile to Spencer. and repudiation of. In Lochner v. his work was dismissed as a "parody of philosophy". and the prophet of the cracker-barrel agnostic. ca.[33] and the historian Richard Hofstadter called him "the metaphysician of the homemade intellectual. Soon after his death. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.755 copies between 1860 and 1903. as the sheer volume of his sales indicate. 1895 philosophical reputation went into a sharp decline. conservative justices of the United States Supreme Court could find inspiration in Spencer's writings for striking down a New York law limiting the number of hours a baker could work during the week."[37] . Herbert Spencer's Social Statics. many of Spencer's ideas became integral to the dominant fin-de-siècle ideology. where pirated editions were still commonplace. Arguing against the majority's holding that a "right to free contract" is implicit in the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. As William James remarked. and those who believed that social development required a strong central authority. much more positive estimates have appeared. and highlighting the concept in the introduction to his most universal novel.[31] Such varied thinkers as Henry Sidgwick. who should brook no interference from a meddling state. Pharaoh (1895). by the 1870s and 1880s Spencer had achieved an unparalleled popularity. giving it a striking poetic presentation in his 1884 micro-story. in his 1909 book Anarchism and Socialism [36]. of many physicists and chemists. many commentators now agree. "Mold of the Earth". on the ground that this law restricted liberty of contract. Bolesław Prus.Herbert Spencer 10 General influence While most philosophers fail to achieve much of a following outside the academy of their professional peers. G. His political philosophy could both provide inspiration to those who believed that individuals were masters of their fate. and of thoughtful laymen generally. and possibly the only. T. Green. hailed Spencer as "the Aristotle of the nineteenth century" and adopted Spencer's metaphor of society-as-organism. Moore.

Spencer also had an influence on literature. It is perhaps the best testimony to the influence of Spencer's beliefs and writings that his reach was so diverse. as many novelists and short story authors came to address his ideas in their work. This was accomplished. Wells used Spencer's ideas as a theme in his novella. issued in one volume • Education (1861) [49] • System of Synthetic Philosophy [50]'. Chapter XIX of the first edition of Social Statics(p) • Social Statics: Abridged and Revised [47] (1892) • "A Theory of Population" (1852) • Principles of Psychology [48] (1855). so that the reader would not be slowed by strenuous deliberations concerning the proper context and meaning of a sentence." and needed to quickly jettison all things Japanese and take up Western ethics and learning. His thought was introduced by the Chinese scholar Yen Fu. who believed that Japan was on the verge of transitioning from a "militant society" to an "industrial society. objects and phrases before the subject of a sentence so that. H. Spencer's voice lent authoritative support to formalist views of rhetoric. and Jorge Luis Borges all referenced Spencer. "The Philosophy of Style.[38] Spencer also influenced the Japanese Westernizer Tokutomi Soho. warning him of the dangers of imperialism. George Bernard Shaw. While the overall influence that "The Philosophy of Style" had on the field of rhetoric was not as far-reaching as his contribution to other fields. of their translation into Marathi. Lawrence. Abraham Cahan. a staunch Spencerian. He argued that by making the meaning as readily accessible as possible." explored a growing trend of formalist approaches to writing. George Eliot. Martin Eden.[39] He also corresponded with Kaneko Kentaro. the writer would achieve the greatest possible communicative efficiency. Jack London went so far as to create a character. Thomas Hardy. who saw his writings as a prescription for the reform of the Qing state. Arnold Bennett greatly praised First Principles [42]. Leo Tolstoy. The Conditions Essential to Human Happiness Specified. The Time Machine.' in ten volumes . Spencer argued that it is the writer's ideal "To so present ideas that they may be apprehended with the least possible mental effort" by the reader. Bolesław Prus. and the affectionate sobriquet given to him in Maharashtra – Harbhat Pendse. employing them to explain the evolution of man into two species. His 1852 essay. when readers reached the subject. they had all the information they needed to completely perceive its significance. by placing all the subordinate clauses. D. and their influence on the likes of Tilak and Agarkar. and the influence it had on Bennett may be seen in his many novels. He influenced not only the administrators who shaped their societies' inner workings. about reading all of Spencer's works. H. Primary sources • • • • Papers of Herbert Spencer in Senate House Library. University of London [43] Most of Spencer's books are available online [44] "On The Proper Sphere of Government" (1842) Social Statics: or. It has also been suggested that the character of Vershinin in Anton Chekhov's play The Three Sisters is a dedicated Spencerian.Herbert Spencer Spencer's ideas became very influential in China and Japan largely because he appealed to the reformers' desire to establish a strong nation-state with which to compete with the Western powers.G. Spencer's aim was to free prose writing from as much "friction and inertia" as possible.[40] Savarkar writes in his Inside the Enemy Camp. but also the artists who helped shape those societies' ideals and beliefs. and the First of Them Developed [45] (1851) • "The Right to Ignore the State" [46]. Machado de Assis. Highly focused on the proper placement and ordering of the parts of an English sentence. first edition. Richard Austin Freeman. according to Spencer. of his great interest in them.[41] 11 Influence on literature Spencer also exerted a great influence on literature and rhetoric. he created a guide for effective composition.

Part VII: General Analysis. Part II: The Inductions of Psychology. "Specialized Administration". in two volumes See also Spencer. The Philosophy of Style [58] (1852). Part VIII: Congruities." "Progress: Its Law and Cause. Part VIII: Industrial Institutions (1896). and others) • Various Fragments (1897. Part IX: Corollaries • Principles of Sociology. in three volumes: • Volume I (includes "The Development Hypothesis. enlarged 1900) • Facts and Comments [59] (1902) 12 . Part VI [published here in some editions]: Ecclesiastical Institutions (1885) • Volume III – Part VI [published here in some editions]: Ecclesiastical Institutions (1885). The Origin and Function of Music. Herbert (1904). classified and arranged by Spencer. in two volumes • Volume I – Part I: The Data of Ethics [52] (1879). "From Freedom to Bondage". enlarged 1876. Part V: Physical Synthesis. and Speculative (1891). Part II: The Inductions of Ethics (1892). References • Volume II – Part IV: The Ethics of Social Life: Justice (1891)." "The Factors of Organic Evolution" and others) • Volume II (includes "The Classification of the Sciences". Political. or Groups of Sociological Facts. 1885) – Part I: Data of Sociology. Part III: General Synthesis. 1883) • The Man versus the State (1884) • Essays: Scientific. Appendices • The Study of Sociology (1873. Part III: Domestic Institutions • Volume II – Part IV: Ceremonial Institutions (1879). Part II: Inductions of Sociology. 1880).Herbert Spencer • First Principles [42] ISBN 0-89875-795-9 (1862) • Principles of Biology (1864. 1873–1881). 1867. compiled and abstracted by David Duncan. An Autobiography [55]. "State Tamperings With Money and Banks". Part II: The Inductions of Biology. Part VI: The Ethics of Social Life: Positive Beneficence (1892). 1896) [53] • An Autobiography [54] (1904). in two volumes • Volume I – Part I: The Data of Psychology. Part V: The Ethics of Social Life: Negative Beneficence (1892). Part VI: Laws of Multiplication. in three volumes • Volume I (1874–75. and James Collier (London. Part VII: Professional Institutions (1896). Part V: Political Institutions (1882). Part III: The Evolution of Life. Appendices • Principles of Psychology (1870." "The Physiology of Laughter. Appleton and Company. D. Richard Schepping. in two volumes • Volume I – Part I: The Data of Biology. "The Americans". Part V: Physiological Development." and others) • Volume III (includes "The Ethics of Kant". Part III: The Ethics of Individual Life (1892). Williams & Norgate. revised and enlarged: 1898). References • The Principles of Ethics [51] (1897). Appendix • Volume II – Part VI: Special Analysis. Appendices • Volume II – Part IV: Morphological Development. parts 1–8. Part IV: Special Synthesis. • v1 Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer by David Duncan [56] (1908) • v2 Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer by David Duncan [57] (1908) • Descriptive Sociology. Essay Collections: • Illustrations of Universal Progress: A Series of Discussions (1864.

Cambridge Massachusetts. 37 [4] "Spencer became the most famous philosopher of his time. Introduction to Sociology (2010) p. p. William. 243. and J. org/ ?option=com_staticxt& staticfile=show. edu/ charles. p. Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer p. pp. 104. quoting from C. htm) at the Constitution Society [23] Ronald F. 2007. Herbert Spencer.+ I+ don+ t+ care+ if+ they+ are+ shot+ themselves. 387. wikisource. pp. 537 [11] Duncan. Jeff (2011-04-24) The Real William Graham Sumner (http:/ / mises. Mises Institute [3] Thomas Eriksen and FinnNielsen. p. Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer p. Eleanor Marx. 222. com/ sol3/ papers. [7] Duncan. p. Green. 388. 307. Social Darwinism in American Thought (1944. Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer p. [18] Stringham. Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments (London: Routledge. edu/ projects/ sciabarra/ essays/ ieeslibertarianism. djvu/ 874 [16] "The Origin and Function of Music" 1857 (http:/ / oll. Peter (2010-11-04) Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinist or Libertarian Prophet? (http:/ / mises. marxists. 1969). Anarchism and Socialism. 403–407 online (http:/ / www. [30] James. A Perplexed Philosopher [62] (1892) by Henry George. 113 [9] Duncan.+ asking+ nothing+ about+ the+ justice+ of+ their+ cause. 75 [10] Duncan. 1968. Anarchy and the Law. php?title=336& chapter=12353& layout=html& Itemid=27) [17] Doherty. org/ hs/ manvssta. "Herbert Spencer". Crane Brinton. UK: Acumen Publishing. org/ wiki/ Page:Popular_Science_Monthly_Volume_44. org/ featured/ herbert-spencer-apostle-of-liberty/ ) [24] Chris Matthew Sciabarra. 12 [5] Talcott Parsons." says Henry L. ed. The Structure of Social Action (1937. [33] Gertrude Himmelfarb. 143. Facts and comments (http:/ / books. constitution. Aveling. Edward. Brian. Jens Beckert and Milan Zafirovski (2006). htm [37] Plekhanov. ssrn. [36] http:/ / www. [34] Richard Hofstadter. 537 [14] quoted in [15] http:/ / en. cfm?abstract_id=1768172) Transaction Publishers. Anarchy and the Law. Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. org/ daily/ 5206/ The-Real-William-Graham-Sumner). (http:/ / papers. [20] Herbert Spencer. Edward. [31] Quoted in John Offer. p. ( See here. Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer. [25] (http:/ / people. Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer pp. Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer p. English Political Thought in the Nineteenth Century (London: Benn. thefreemanonline. p. Georgiĭ Valentinovich (1912). 42. 1989). A Few Words with Mr Herbert Spencer [63] (1884) by Paul Lafargue. ssrn. [39] Kenneth Pyle. 32. Herbert Spencer and the Invention of Modern Life (Newcastle. nyu. 3. Richards. [22] The Man vs the State. org/ daily/ 4779/ Herbert-Spencer-Social-Darwinist-or-Libertarian-Prophet). (http:/ / www. in International Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology.Herbert Spencer 13 Philosophers' critiques • • • • • • Herbert Spencer: An Estimate and Review [60] (1904) by Josiah Royce. Mises Institute [2] Richards. New York: Free Press. google. htm)) [38] Benjamin Schwartz. Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. 1968). com/ books?id=zBQRAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA126& dq=+ When+ men+ hire+ themselves+ out+ to+ shoot+ other+ men+ to+ order. Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer p. The Atlantic Monthly. 497 [12] Duncan. 464 [13] Duncan. A history of anthropology (2001) p. Tischler. htm) [26] http:/ / radgeek. 53–55 [8] Duncan. 1992). . Lectures on the Ethics of T. marxists. 1964). Spencer-smashing at Washington (1894) by Lester F. org/ archive/ plekhanov/ 1895/ anarch/ index. In Search of Wealth and Power (The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Ward. p. p. cfm?abstract_id=1768172) Transaction Publishers. 612. Chicago: Charles H. [21] Social Statics (1851). Vol. [19] Stringham. + & ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html). Mr. 2007.H. 2004). Cooney. Martineau [61] (1902) by Henry Sidgwick. Remarks on Spencer's Definition of Mind as Correspondence [64] (1878) by William James. trans. wku. [35] Mark Francis. libertyfund. htm). quoted in Robert J. com/ gt/ 2008/ 04/ 02/ herbert_spencer/ [29] Stewart (2011). com/ sol3/ papers. California. 126. Boston: Beacon Press. 2007). p. 1933). p. 246. (http:/ / papers. p. Stanford. smith/ wallace/ S450. Notes [1] Riggenbach. Kerr & Company. p. 1884 (http:/ / www. "Herbert Spencer: Apostle of Liberty" Freeman (January 1973) online (http:/ / www. "Libertarianism". XCIV (1904). org/ archive/ plekhanov/ 1895/ anarch/ ch09. The New Generation in Meiji Japan (Stanford University Press.

London: Constable and Company. com/ PM.com/view/article/36208). htm http:/ / www. net/ HS-FC. Herbert Spencer and the Invention of Modern Life.. txt http:/ / praxeology. Man. David. 1992 ISBN 0-8070-5503-4. The Structure of Social Action. htm http:/ / oll. google. " Herbert Spencer and the Disunity of the Social Organism (http://www. ulrls. pp. James G. Robert L. Maurice. php?recordID=0236 http:/ / oll. html http:/ / fair-use. libertyfund. p. 1971. • Rafferty. com/ PM. questia. libertyfund.K. html 14 [63] http:/ / www. Isis 94 (2003). (1937) New York: Free Press. Newcastle UK: Acumen Publishing.historians. Jose. "Social Darwinism in Anglophone Academic Journals: A Contribution to the History of the Term" (2004) 17 Journal of Historical Sociology 428.. net/ HS-SP. Social Darwinism in American Thought.pdf). (1944) Boston: Beacon Press. questia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. grundskyld. qst?a=o& d=7900182 http:/ / www.co. 35–72. org/ ?option=com_staticxt& staticfile=show. " The Right to the Use of the Earth (http://www. ac. org/ Home3/ Author. qst?a=o& d=96054973 http:/ / oll. Edward C. Ltd. 2007 ISBN 0-8014-4590-6 • Harris. htm [64] http:/ / books. com/ PM. 2003.google. 1968. James." History of Science 41. David Duncan (1908). net/ HS-SP. and .uk/ elwick-spencer. questia. org/ Texts/ LFBooks/ Spencer0236/ PrinciplesEthics/ HTMLs/ 0155-02_Pt05_Apps. lon. questia. "Herbert Spencer's 'Principles of Sociology:' a Centennial Retrospective and Appraisal. • Parsons. Robert G. 'Erasmus Darwin. Herbert Spencer.oxforddnb. qst?a=o& d=3559105 http:/ / books. htm#firstprinciples http:/ / archives. uk/ dispatcher. Herbert (1820–1903)". org/ ?option=com_staticxt& staticfile=show. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004) online (http:// www. qst?a=o& d=98953755 http:/ / praxeology. questia. dk/ 0-Perplexed. Herbert Spencer and the Origins of the Evolutionary Worldview in British Provincial Scientific Culture'. com/ PM.Herbert Spencer [40] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] Spencer to Kaneko Kentaro.M2 http:/ / www. 26 August 1892 in The Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer ed. google. and Reason: A Study in Nineteenth-century Thought. Richard. libertyfund. 1–29 • Francis. Boston: G. libertyfund. com/ PM. the Washington Intellectual Community. • Kennedy. Talcott. questia. Paul. com/ PM. Herbert Spencer. The Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer (1908) online edition (http://books. org/ herbert-spencer/ data-of-ethics http:/ / www. "Spencer. qst?a=o& d=99533534 http:/ / www. php%3Ftitle=1394 http:/ / www. com/ PM. com/ books?id=gUozqCwTGkEC& printsec=frontcover& dq=herbert+ spencer#PPR3.pdf)".com/ books?id=trlCAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:herbert+intitle:spencer&lr=&num=30&as_brr=3) • Elliot. • Elliott." Annals of Science 2002 59(3): 221–261 online at Ebsco • Duncan.org/annual/2006/06program/ precirculated/Session145_Rafferty. org/ dirs/ etext04/ 8phil10. Hall & Co. php%3Ftitle=273 http:/ / www. state. qst?a=o& d=54665737 http:/ / www. • Hofstadter.shpltd. marxists. a standard short biography • Hodgson. Geoffrey M. 1917 • Elwick. questia. http:/ / praxeology. org/ archive/ lafargue/ 1884/ 06/ herbert-spencer. com/ books?id=c2rjtEWeYvwC& pg=PA9& lpg=PA9& dq=%22Remarks+ on+ Spencer's+ Definition+ of+ Mind%22& source=bl& ots=-dky4KGHk4& sig=uzT7uc3v4FJLlyrAhhN9M_-qj68& hl=en& ei=n--cTOaFL4bGsAPQs-3VAQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CBwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=%22Remarks%20on%20Spencer's%20Definition%20of%20Mind%22& f=false References • Carneiro. panarchy. questia. qst?a=o& d=96277756 http:/ / www. 296. Hugh. aspx?action=search& database=ChoiceArchive& search=IN=MS791 http:/ / oll. 1978 • Mandelbaum. com/ PM. Herbert Spencer. gutenberg. History. 1851. html http:/ / www. qst?a=o& d=14557498 http:/ / www. and Perrin. org/ spencer/ ignore. Mark.

amazon.htm) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy by William Sweet • Review materials for studying Herbert Spencer (http://www. The Study of Sociology excerpt and text search (http://www. Stewart. Turner. Oxford: Oxford University Press.google. ISBN 0-8039-2426-7 Versen. 15 • • • • • • By Spencer • Duncan. Herbert. 1987.amazon. The Philosophy of Herbert Spencer.stanford.utm. 2006. Herbert. The Principles of Psychology excerpt and text search (http://www.com/sociology/ herbert-spencer-1820-1903) . Robert J. An Autobiography (1905.com/books?id=gztMAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:herbert+inauthor:spencer&lr=& num=30&as_brr=3) • Spencer. Herbert. 1992. Abridged and Revised: Together with the Man Versus the State) • Spencer.google. Education: Intellectual. highly influential among libertarians full text online free (http://www. Abridged and Revised: Together with the Man Versus the State (1896). Herbert. Optimistic Liberals: Herbert Spencer.bolenderinitiatives. the Brooklyn Ethical Association. 1985.com/ books?id=gUozqCwTGkEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:herbert+inauthor:spencer&lr=&num=30& as_brr=3) • online writings of Spencer (http://books. Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior. 2008-02-27 • Herbert Spencer (http://www. David. Herbert Spencer: A Renewed Appreciation.amazon. Moral.edu/entries/spencer) entry by David Weinstein in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Christopher R. 2007. The Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer (1908) online edition (http://books.com/read/96054973?title=Social Statics. Herbert. and Physical (1891) 283pp full text online (http://books. Michael W. "Commandeering Time: The Ideological Status of Time in the Social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer" (2011) 57 Australian Journal of Politics and History 389. Iain.iep. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.com/dp/0521437407) • Spencer.com/ books?id=trlCAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:herbert+intitle:spencer&lr=&num=30&as_brr=3) • Spencer. Sage Publications. Herbert.com/dp/ 1402182716).com/read/96277756?title=The Study of Sociology) • Spencer. and the Integration of Moral Philosophy and Evolution in the Victorian Trans-Atlantic Community. London: Continuum. Spencer: Political Writings (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) edited by John Offer (1993) excerpt and text search (http://www.questia. Herbert. Social Statics: The Man Versus the State • Spencer.google. Taylor.edu/s/spencer. Social Statics. Men versus the State: Herbert Spencer and Late Victorian Individualism.com/books?as_q=&num=30&btnG=Google+Search& as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_brr=3&lr=&as_vt=&as_auth=herbert+spencer&as_pub=&as_sub=& as_drrb=c&as_miny=&as_maxy=&as_isbn=) External links Biographical • Herbert Spencer (http://plato. 2 vol) full text online (http://books.google. Richards. Florida State University. Taylor. full text online (http://books. Michael W. Jonathan H.com/dp/1418188417).com/books?id=hTBVAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover& dq=inauthor:herbert+inauthor:spencer&lr=&num=30&as_brr=3) • Spencer.questia.Herbert Spencer American Conservation in the Late Nineteenth Century. also full text online free (http://www. google.

org/journals/lar/pdfs/2_2/2_2_9.).constitution. • Long. php?person=165&Itemid=28) at the Online Library of Liberty (HTML.org/hs/ignore_state. Mises Institute Sources • Works by Herbert Spencer (http://oll.php?query=mediatype:(texts) -contributor:gutenberg AND (subject:"Spencer.gutenberg.lewrockwell. Herbert. Long 16 . Cambridge University Press. • First Principles online (http://praxeology. 1820-1903")) at Internet Archive (scanned books original editions color illustrated) • Works by Herbert Spencer (http://www. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. ed.org/daily/4779/ Herbert-Spencer-Social-Darwinist-or-Libertarian-Prophet).htm) by Herbert Spencer. The Freeman (July/August 2004) • Richards.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.org/index.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=SpeFirs. (1911).org/identities/lccn-n80-38441) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • On Moral Education (http://mises. "Spencer. 1820-1903" OR creator:"Spencer.archive. Herbert Spencer: Libertarian Prophet (http://praxeology.pdf). reading PDF) • Works by and about Herbert Spencer (http://www.net/HS-SP.org/author/Herbert+Spencer) at Project Gutenberg (plain text and HTML) • Works by or about Herbert Spencer (http://worldcat.libertyfund.Herbert Spencer •  Chisholm. • "Herbert Spencer: The Defamation Continues" (http://www.com/orig3/long3.htm#firstprinciples) • "The Right to Ignore the State" (http://www. Roderick. Herbert. Peter.org/search. facsimile PDF. Herbert".net/herbertspencerlibertarianprophet. Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinist or Libertarian Prophet? (http://mises. reprinted in Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought (Spring 1966) • First principles (http://etext. pdf).html): a vindication by Roderick T. University of Virginia Library.virginia.lib.xml&images=images/ modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all) Electronic Text Center. Hugh.

Bachrach44. Profjunk. PBS-AWB. The Founders Intent. Rcbutcher. Aswarp. Hmains. Lestrade. Biruitorul. AdRock.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Kfriedlander.wikipedia.php?title=File:Herbert_Spencer_5. Ronald bolender. Epbr123. Bastin. R'n'B. Squeezeweasel. Everyking. Dave souza.216. 544 anonymous edits Image Sources. Sam Korn. Spacenookie.jpg  Source: http://en. Jansseba. Santa Sangre. Aletheia. PS2pcGAMER. Piotrus. Gtstricky. Jadabocho. Britannicus. Chris55. Hogeye. Meepster. Astrochemist.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2. Mild Bill Hiccup. Chris the speller. The Enyclopedist.5  Contributors: Blue_flag_waving.wikipedia.php?title=File:A_coloured_voting_box. Alansohn.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unknown File:Herbert Spencer by John Bagnold Burgess. Junetulip.0/ . Carbuncle. Nihiltres.org/w/index. Magnus Manske.php?title=File:Herbert_Spencer_by_John_Bagnold_Burgess. Pdcook. Wikiain. Zelchenko. Physicistjedi. Intangible.org/w/index. NielsF. Free. Omnipaedista. 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