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Reflector Antennas with Adaptive
Apertures

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Satish K. Sharma, San Diego State University Zahra A. Pour, University of Manitoba Lotfollah Shafai, University of Manitoba

4.1

Introduction

Based on the aperture theory, each radiating element of a conventional phased array antenna is spatially weighted, both amplitude- and phase-wise, to form the desired radiation patterns at the far-field region. The resulting patterns are shaped to aim the main beam at a predefined direction, place deep nulls along the interference sources, meet the cross polarization and sidelobe level criteria, and displace the phase center locations. From the aperture distribution point of view, the phased array antennas are the discrete version of aperture antennas such as parabolic reflector antennas. Inspired by the degrees of freedom offered by adaptive phased array antennas, reflector antennas with adaptive apertures are the main focus of this chapter to explore intriguing aspects of their potentials through the use of multimode primary feeds. In particular, multiphase center aperture antennas are of special interest. These electronically adjustable reflector antennas with adaptive aperture operation is greatly appreciated in advanced technologies in a variety of applications such as communication systems, remote sensing, satellite communications, and radars such as ground moving target indicator (GMTI) or space-based radars. First, theory and overview of generation of adaptive apertures are described. Following that, the performance of symmetric parabolic reflector antenna illuminated by primary feeds with individual modes is presented. The modes of interest are the TE11, TM01, and TE21 modes of the circular waveguide feeds. It is shown that the reflector phase center location is coincident with its physical center when operating at the aforementioned individual modes. Different combinations of these modes, both dual- and tri-mode cases, will be considered to form adaptive apertures with displaced phase center locations away from the geometrical center of the reflector. The dual mode cases are the fundamental TE11 mode combined with

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either of the higher order TM01 or TE21 modes. Different mode content factors with quadrature phase differences of 90 are studied to effectively shift the peak intensities of the electric field across the aperture. This will, in turn, displace the effective phase center locations of the reflector antenna. Interestingly, the secondary beam patterns will be at the boresight direction, while the phase center locations move away from the physical center of the aperture. Adaptive operation of such apertures can be readily controlled by signal processing algorithms to properly excite the amplitude and phase of these modes in either dual- or tri-mode primary feeds. Examples of practical dual- and tri-mode waveguide feeds will be introduced. Other than waveguide feeds, other multimode feeds, such as multimode microstrip radiating elements can also be used to feed reflector antennas, and thereby adaptive apertures can be generated. The corresponding results will be presented in this chapter

4.2

Parabolic reflector antennas can be viewed as powerful devices capable of transforming a spherical wave, emanated from a point source located at their first focal point near the surface, into a plane wave at their second focal point at infinity. Interestingly, they can also be viewed as mathematical transform operators, based on the multiple Fourier transform and convolution operations, affecting the spatial distributions of their focal plane field [1], which may be carried out with signal processing functions. In this capacity, their focal plane fields can be effectively synthesized to form virtual array antennas over a single aperture with multiple phase center locations and identical secondary radiation patterns [1, 2]. The importance of displaced phase center antennas had been well recognized in radars with moving platforms. As an example, ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radars are extensively used to detect and track the moving targets on the ground. The main challenge in such radars is to sufficiently suppress the clutter from targets. The clutter signals come from different unwanted reflection sources such as terrain, sea, atmosphere, high radar cross-section objects, and most importantly moving platforms [3]. One of the techniques to reduce the platform motion noise and scanning modulation noise is the displaced phase center antenna processing technique [4]. The main idea is to make the antenna appear stationary in space. Traditionally, two or more identical aperture antennas were exploited to provide two or more separate phase center locations, which were required to suppress the clutter from the signals. All antennas must generate the same radiation patterns at the far-zone region [3, 5]. As technology advances, an electronically controlled multiple phase center antenna within a single aperture is a smart alternative to multiaperture antennas, as it can save the cost and lessen the complexity and volume of the antenna system. The use of adaptive aperture distributions in parabolic reflector antennas opens a new window to explore the potential of such an economical solution. To adaptively change the aperture distribution, multimode feeds may be employed as primary feeds. This is because controlling their mode content factors, both amplitude and phase, as well as mode polarization alignments provides extra degrees of freedom to control the shaping of the primary feed patterns and eventually to adaptively displace the phase center locations of the composite reflector and the feed.

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In conventional applications, reflector antennas are used to generate high gains with low cross polarizations and sidelobes levels. In this mode of operation, the reflector is illuminated by a feed normally with a symmetric radiation pattern and a unique phase center that coincides with the reflector focal point [6, 7]. However, this need not be the case. A reflector antenna can also be viewed as an aperture antenna [7, 8], which reradiates the feed power incident on its surface. For a symmetric reflector, the aperture is defined by its rim. However, in general by neglecting the diffracted rays, the reflector aperture may be defined by a surface perpendicular to the reflected rays and bound by their cross section, regardless of the reflector geometry and direction of radiation. In such a case, if the aperture field distribution is symmetric, then the reflector phase center will be at the geometric center of its aperture. For asymmetric aperture field distributions, the phase center will not be at its geometric center, but will be located near the peak field intensity. Its exact location will depend on the angular location and extent of the far field wave front, over which the phase center is to be determined [6]. Herein, the reflector phase center will be determined by the wave fronts over an angular region around the main beam. In terms of reflector aperture distributions, a symmetric reflector antenna fed by a point source generates a symmetric aperture distribution in azimuth, but tapered radially, in accordance with the reflector curvature. The far field is the Fourier transform of the aperture field, which, due to its symmetry, results in a symmetric pencil beam. The main beam has an equivalent phase center at the physical center of the reflector aperture. A similar situation also holds for a vectorial field, where the aperture field maintains the focal field polarization in addition to the field symmetry, thus retaining the far field main beam phase center at the reflector aperture center. The situation is somewhat different for asymmetric field distributions, which can be represented by Fourier series of the azimuthal TE and TM modes in general. Thus, by adaptive selection of the mode coefficients of the focal region field, one can generate cophasal asymmetric reflector aperture fields. However, since the reflector transforms its cophasal aperture fields to axial far field beams, these asymmetric aperture fields generate axial reflector beams, with physically different equivalent phase centers on the reflector aperture. The reflector aperture therefore becomes equivalent to multiple virtual planar arrays, centered individually at each equivalent phase center location. In practice, one can synthesize the asymmetric focal region fields using azimuthal modes, employing waveguides, horns, or microstrip patches. Their analog or digital combination can simulate the adaptive apertures as virtual array that can be used as independent beams in signal processing algorithms [1]. As already mentioned, the asymmetric aperture distribution in the focal region may be synthesized using multimode feeds. In general, multimode feeds contain a combination of two or more transverse electric or magnetic modes. The combined radiation patterns of these modes can be expressed by a double summation as follows [9]:

TE TE TM TM E = Anm fnm fnm ( , ) + Anm ( , ) n m TE TE TM TM E = Bnm gnm ( , ) + Bnm gnm ( , ) n m

( (

) )

(4.1)

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where Anm and Bnm are the complex numbers in general to represent both amplitude ratios and phase differences of the nmth mode. The fnm(, ) and gnm(, ) represent radiation properties of the nmth mode, and they can be functions of spherical and angles. Different radiation patterns can be obtained by controlling the excitation of these modes for applications such as beam shaping, beam scanning, and smart antennas. The remarkable property of the round open-ended waveguide as well as circular microstrip patch antennas is that both fnm(, ) and gnm(, ) functions are the multiplication of two independent functions of and . This allows one to control the pattern of each mode independently in two orthogonal angular spaces. As such, circular waveguide feeds with the TE11+TM01, TE11+TE21 modes, TE11+TM01+TE21 modes, and circular microstrip patches with TM11+TM21 modes are studied as primary feeds in this chapter. Their patterns are shaped to form an adaptive aperture distribution over a single reflector antenna, whose electric field intensities are spatially shifted in order to displace the phase center location of the reflector. In the following sections, the concept of multiple phase center based adaptive apertures antenna is first applied to a symmetric paraboloid reflector antenna, since its geometry is symmetric and the location of its phase center, with a symmetric feed, is predictable (i.e., it is on the reflector axis). Then, the feed radiation is made asymmetric by adding higher order modes and shown that the reflector phase center moves away from its geometric center, while it still generates broadside radiation patterns. Also, the idea is extended to offset reflector antennas due to their distinct advantages over symmetrical-cut parabolas. It is shown that a single aperture antenna illuminated by a multimode adaptive feed may provide multiple phase center locations over the aperture. The idea is based on shifting the effective aperture illumination intensities away from the physical center of the aperture geometry. To this end, the primary feed must asymmetrically illuminate the aperture, while its effective phase center location coincides with the focal point of the reflecting surface.

4.3 Reector Antenna Performance with Individual TE11, TM01, and TE21 Modes of a Circular Waveguide Feed

In this section, the performance of a symmetric reflector antenna, illuminated by a circular waveguide feed with individual TE11, TM01, and TE21 modes, is discussed. For simplicity, these modes are analytically modeled based on the discussion in Chapter 8 of Volume II of the handbook. Without loss of generality, symmetric E- and H-plane patterns are considered for both TE11 and TE21 modes. The mathematical expressions of the combined tri-mode model can be stated as follows:

E = C1 cosn sin jC2 (sin 2 cos ) cos 2 + jC0 sin 2 cos E = C1 cosn cos + jC2 (sin 2 cos ) sin 2

(4.2a)

(4.2b)

where C1, C0, and C2 are the content factors of the TE11, TM01, and TE21 modes, respectively. They can be complex numbers in general to represent both amplitude

4.3

Reector Antenna Performance with Individual TE11, TM01, and TE21 Modes

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and phase excitation of each mode. The tapering factor of the dominant TE11 mode is determined by n. As can be seen, the first term of (4.2) corresponds to the TE11 mode type of a circular waveguide, and it produces a broadside pattern as expected. The second term of (4.2) models the TE21 type mode, which generates a boresight null pattern. The TM01 mode has only E component, as given by the third term of (4.2a). It also generates a split beam with a null at the boresight direction. To conduct our study, a symmetrical-cut parabolic reflector is selected with an F/D = 0.5 and a diameter of 30, where is the free-space wavelength at the frequency of 10 GHz. If a single TE11 feed is to illuminate such geometry, the factor n in (4.2) should be equal to 2.25 to provide around 10 dB edge illumination. Therefore, n = 2.25 is assumed throughout our study. The corresponding primary patterns of each of the three modes are shown in Figure 4.1. As can be seen, the TE11 mode is symmetric with a main beam at the = 0 direction. The TE21 and TM01 modes have split beams with a deep null at the boresight angle. They are symmetric as well. When the reflector is individually excited by these modes, it generates symmetric radiation patterns at the far-field region, due to the symmetry of both the reflector geometry and the primary patterns. The corresponding secondary patterns are

Figure 4.1 Primary radiation patterns of the circular waveguide feed dened by (4.2) with n =2.25, (a) TE11, (b) TM01, and (c) TE21 modes.

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plotted in Figures 4.2(a) to 4.4(a) at the frequency of 10 GHz. In order to locate the phase center of the reflector, the associated secondary phase patterns are also illustrated in the previously mentioned figures, Figures 4.2(b) to 4.4(b), when the reflector coordinate origin is placed at X=Y=0. As can be seen, the reflector produces symmetric patterns when excited by each of the three modes. However, the main beam is split with the higher order TE21 or TM01 modes. As for the phase patterns, they are all uniform around the main beams for all modes. This implies that the reflector phase center location is at its physical center on the aperture (i.e., X=Y=0) when individually illuminated by previous modes. In the following sections, the performance of the reflector antenna illuminated by the dual-mode and tri-mode primary feeds will be presented. For the dual-mode feeds, both circular waveguide and microstrip patch feeds are studied. The trimode feed is the combined TE11, TM01, and TE21 modes of the circular waveguide feeds. Practical dual- and tri-mode waveguide feeds will also be introduced.

4.4

Since we have now established what to expect from the symmetric reflector antenna geometries, when individually excited using dominant mode TE11, and higher order modes TM01 and TE21 in a circular waveguide, we can now start the discussion of dual-mode excited reflector antenna performance and the generation of the adaptive apertures capable of providing multiphase center locations within a single aperture antenna. Both symmetric and offset geometries of parabolic reflector antennas are considered. As for the primary feeds, dual-mode circular waveguide horns are employed to illuminate the reflecting surface. The modes of interest are the combination of the fundamental TE11 mode with the higher order of either TM01 or TE21 modes. It is shown that the corresponding primary radiation patterns can be shaped such that their main beam is spatially aimed at the left or right sides of the aperture. This, in turn, will result in an adaptive aperture with multiphase center locations.

Figure 4.2 (a) Secondary copolar and crosspolar radiation patterns and (b) copolar phase pattern at X=0 and Y=0 of the symmetric reector fed by the single TE11 mode dened by (4.2) with n=2.25, when F/D=0.50, D=30 and f=10 GHz.

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Figure 4.3 (a) Copolar secondary radiation patterns and (b) copolar phase patterns of the symmetric reector fed by the single TM01 mode dened by (4.2), when F/D=0.50, D=30, and f=10 GHz.

Figure 4.4 (a) Copolar secondary radiation patterns and (b) copolar phase patterns of the symmetric reector fed by the single TE21 mode dened by (4.2), when F/D=0.50, D=30, and f=10 GHz.

4.4.1 Symmetric Reector with TE11 + TM01 Mode Feed Horn [2]

The typical geometry of a symmetric parabolic reflector antenna is shown in Figure 4.5. The reflector diameter is 101 cm and its focal length is 38.1 cm. Its half-angle subtended by the rim is therefore 67. For simplicity, first, the analytical TE11 and TM01 modes of the circular waveguides are selected, which are already available in TICRA GRASP V.7 [10]. To efficiently excite these modes at the frequency of 9.75 GHz, the diameter of the circular waveguide feed is selected as d = 2.40 cm. The resulting feed at its dominant TE11 mode generates a nearly symmetric radiation pattern to illuminate the selected reflector. By exciting the higher order TM01 mode, as a dual-mode operation, the feed brings extra degrees of freedom to appropriately shape the primary feed pattern to eventually displace the reflector phase center location. For this, three different

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Figure 4.5 The geometry of a symmetric reector antenna with a diameter of 101 cm and a focal length of 38.1 cm [2]. (2006 IEEE.)

excitation functions are considered, and the resulting radiation patterns of these feed excitations are shown in Figure 4.6(ac), respectively, as obtained from [10]: (i) [TE11 (1.0/0) + TM01 (0.0/0)] representing the single TE11 mode as the reference excitation; (ii) [TE11 (0.5/0) + TM01 (0.5/+90)] for dual-mode operation with equal mode amplitudes and +90 phase difference; (iii) [TE11 (0.5/0) + TM01 (0.5/90)] for dual-mode operation with equal mode amplitudes and 90 phase difference. For the excitation (i), which is y-polarized and is due to the TE11 mode only, the primary radiation patterns are symmetric with a main beam along the z-axis in both principal planes, as shown in Figure 4.6(a). There is a slight difference between the two principal plane patterns that is the characteristic of the TE11 mode and in practice is corrected by adding external chokes [11]. The cross polarization components in the principal planes are theoretically zero and thus are not shown in the figure. Adding the higher order TM01 mode, to the excitation in other two cases of (ii) and (iii), causes the radiation pattern asymmetry as shown in Figure 4.6(b, c). One of the co polarization patterns, the E-component, is scanned in the = 90 plane to angles = +24 and 24, depending on the excitation phases of the two modes. However, the E-component, in the = 0 plane, still stays at the boresight direction, indicating a symmetric illumination with respect to this plane. It is important to note that since the TM01 mode has only the E-component, which is symmetric about the z-axis, it contributes to the cross-polarization in the = 0 plane. Its magnitude depends on the relative excitation of the two modes, and, as shown in Figure 4.6(b, c), it can be significant. Comparing the results of Figure 4.6(ac), it is clear that the dominant mode has radiation patterns symmetric about the principal planes. However, the combined mode patterns are symmetric only about one principal plane and asymmetric about the other. Thus, if the feed excitations (i) to (iii) are used to illuminate a symmetric reflector, the same symmetry relationship will remain. That is, in the = 90 plane, the excitations (ii) and (iii) will illuminate one side of the reflector aperture stronger than the other side. In the = 0 plane, the reflector aperture illumination will remain symmetric. Thus, in accordance with the previously stated concept, with the TE11 mode excitation the reflector phase center will be located on the z-axis, which is the geometrical center of its aperture. With the other two excitations, the reflector phase center will move to the right or left side of the z-axis, where the aperture field has intensified. To confirm these results, the reflector secondary fields are computed to determine the

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Figure 4.6 Feed radiation patterns with d = 2.4 cm at f =9.75 GHz (a) excitation (i) TE11 (1.0/0) + TM01 (0.0/0), (b) excitation (ii) TE11 (0.5/0) + TM01 (0.5/+90), and (c) excitation (iii) TE11 (0.5/0) + TM01 (0.5/90). (2006 IEEE [2].)

phase center locations. In each case, the phase center is defined by a coordinate origin with which the secondary phase pattern remains constant, at least over the main beam.

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The phase patterns of the reflector far fields, corresponding to excitations (i) and (iii), are illustrated in Figure 4.7(a, b), respectively. For the excitation (i), the phase pattern is constant over the main beam. It is also constant over the sidelobes,

Figure 4.7 The reector far-eld phase distributions for (a) excitation (i) and coordinate origin at X=Y=0, (b) excitation (iii) and X=0 and Y=0, and (c) excitation (iii) when X=0 and Y=13 cm [2]. (2006 IEEE.)

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after a consecutive change of 180, for each adjacent sidelobe, representing the sign change. This clearly indicates that the selected coordinate origin, at the geometric center of the reflector aperture, is the reflector phase center. Note that, since the reflected rays are parallel to the reflector axis, the location of the reflector aperture, along the z-axis, is not a critical parameter, as long as it is in the near field of the reflector, meaning that the reflector phase center is on its geometric axis. Figure 4.7(b) shows the far field phase patterns corresponding to the excitation (iii). It is evident that the far-field phase has a nonzero slope over the main beam and sidelobes in the = 90 plane. This indicates that the selected coordinate origin is not coincident with the reflector phase center location. However, since its aperture field is asymmetric about the y-axis, its phase center should also be located on the y-axis. Thus, a simple lateral shift of the coordinate origin along the y-axis can determine the new phase center location, where the far field phase pattern becomes uniform again. This is done in Figure 4.7(c), where the coordinate origin is moved laterally to the point (X = 0, Y = 13 cm). The far field phase pattern is now constant over the reflector main beam, indicating that its phase center has moved to this point. For the excitation (ii), it can be shown similarly that the reflector phase center will move to the point (X = 0, Y = 13 cm). To develop a virtual array antenna, the secondary radiation patterns must have the main beam along the boresight direction, while the reflector phase center displaces form its physical center. To confirm this, the reflector radiation patterns with the feed excitations (i) and (iii) are shown in Figure 4.8(a-b), respectively, at 9.75 GHz. The feed blockage effects are included in these computations. The secondary radiation patterns with the excitation (i), Figure 4.8(a), are nearly symmetric with zero cross-polarizations in the principal planes. The reflector gain is 38.56 dBi at the =0 direction. Figure 4.8(b) shows the corresponding results for the excitation (iii). The peak gain is now 36.60 dBi, which drops by 1.96 dB due to the low illumination on half of the reflector aperture. As expected, the cross-polarization is 8.44 dB in the =0 plane, which reflects the high cross polarization of the feed due to the presence of the higher order TM01 mode. It should be mentioned that the corresponding secondary radiation patterns with the excitation (ii) are identical to the ones of case (iii) shown in Figure 4.8(b). That is, they have broadside patterns with a displaced phase center location in the opposite y-direction (X=0, Y= 13cm). This is omitted here for brevity.

4.4.2 Offset Reector with TE11 + TM01 Mode Feed Horn

As offset reflector antennas improve the overall performance of the antenna by reducing the blockage effects due to the feeds and supporting struts, it is worthwhile to extend the multiphase adaptive aperture concept to these structures [2]. An elliptical offset reflector aperture is selected. Keeping the previous focal length of 38.1 cm, a reflector height of DH = 66 cm is selected. Then, the other diameter is changed to form elliptical apertures with different axial ratios. A typical geometry of an offset reflector is shown in Figure 4.9. To effectively excite both the TE11 and TM01 modes and provide reasonable edge illuminations, the diameter of the feed is selected as d = 3.20 cm. The same excitations (i) and (iii), explained in the preceding section, were again used to conduct the study on the offset reflector. The performance of the offset elliptical reflector

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Figure 4.8 The reector radiation patterns with the excitations (a) [TE11(1.0/0)+TM01 (0.0/0)], and (b) [TE11(0.5/0)+TM01 (0.5/90)] [2]. (2006 IEEE.)

Figure 4.9 The geometry of an offset elliptical reector with minor and major axes of DH and D, respectively [2]. (2006 IEEE.)

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on peak gain, 3 dB beamwidth, peak sidelobes, peak cross polarization, and the phase center displacements is summarized in Table 4.1 for different axial ratios of DH/D. As axial ratio of the ellipse decreases from 1.50 to 0.50, the gain increases from 29.54 to 34.70 dBi, and the phase center displacement increases from 4.40 to 14.40 cm. The peak cross polarization in the = 0 plane is nearly constant and dominated by the feed cross polarization. In the = 90 plane, it is initially around that of the offset reflector and deteriorates gradually. The sidelobe levels deteriorate in the = 0 plane but improve in the = 90 plane. The interesting cases are those with DH/D between 0.7 and 0.50, where the reflector beamwidths, for the selected TE11 and TM01 mode power ratio, are about equal. Thus, it is interesting to investigate the reflector performance for different mode power ratios. For further study, we select DH/D = 0.65, with width D = 101 cm, height DH = 66 cm, and the focal length 38.10 cm. Then, with the excitation (iii), the mode amplitude ratio is changed and its effect on the reflector performance is studied. The results are shown in Figure 4.10. Figure 4.10(a) shows the effect of the mode amplitude ratio on the reflector gain and phase center displacement from the reflector aperture center. As expected, by increasing the TM01 mode relative amplitude, the reflector gain decreases, from 36.42 dBi, and the phase center displacement increases. The effects of the mode amplitude ratio on the sidelobe and cross polarization levels are shown in Figure 4.10(b). In the = 0 plane, the sidelobe levels remain constant, but the cross polarization increases rapidly. Thus, for increasing the phase center displacement, a penalty is paid in increased cross polarization in the orthogonal plane. On the other hand, if the objective is to displace the phase center by a certain distance, then the mode amplitude ratio becomes the main parameter. Note also that the phase center displacement with the excitation (ii) is equal to that of (iii), but in the opposite direction. Thus, by maintaining the mode amplitudes constant and changing their relative phases, two different phase centers, on opposite sides of the reflector axis can be obtained. The reflector radiation patterns for these two cases are identical, but have different phase patterns. Since equal mode amplitudes of excitations (ii) and (iii) can be implemented readily by hybrids and magic Ts, they are selected for practical applications such as in GMTI radar reflectors. The reflector parameters were similar to the earlier case. The radiation patterns in the principal planes, with the excitation (iii) at 9.75 GHz, are shown in Figure 4.11(a). The gain is 34.10 dBi, and in the = 0 and = 90 planes the 3 dB beamwidths are 2.92 and 2.82, the crosspolarization levels are 9.05 and 23.74 dB, and the sidelobe levels are 19.85 and

Table 4.1 Radiation Characteristics and Phase Center Displacement of an Offset Reflector with Different Axial Ratios at f = 9.75GHz, Fed by a Dual-Mode Feed (d =3.20cm) and Mode Excitation (iii) [2] (2006 IEEE) =90 =0 =90 Axial =0 Plane Plane Plane =0 Cross- =90 Cross- Phase Center Ratio Gain Plane 3dB 3dB BW Sidelobe Sidelobe Polarization Polarization Displacement (DH/D) (dBi) BW (deg) (deg) Level (dB) Level (dB) (dB) (dB) (+Y, cm) 1.50 29.54 2.94 4.39 4.40 21.72 19.85 10.78 21.10 1.00 32.04 2.90 3.40 7.00 20.47 23.60 30.31 18.91 0.70 33.76 2.80 2.80 10.20 19.38 28.60 9.84 17.19 0.50 34.70 2.54 2.44 14.40 18.13 30.63 9.22 15.47

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Figure 4.10 Effect of mode amplitudes on the (a) gain and phase center displacement in the =90 plane, and (b) cross polarization and sidelobe levels in the principal planes, due to excitation (iii) [2]. (2006 IEEE.)

31.33 dB, respectively. For reference, the reflector far field phase patterns, due to excitations (ii) and (iii), and computed in the = 90 plane, from their new phase centers at Y = 12cm, are shown in Figure 4.11(b). Over the main beam, the phase distributions are uniform. To verify these results in practice, an offset reflector with D = 90 cm, DH =66.5 cm, and focal length of 39.6 cm was used for measurement. The reflector and feed horn assembly were mounted on a slide, and placed on the far-field antenna measurement tower in the compact range of the University of Manitoba. A photograph of the prototype antenna is shown in Figure 4.12(a). Initially, the reflector was illuminated with the TE11 mode alone, and the reflector phase center on its aperture was determined. Then, the reflector was illuminated with the excitation (iii), and the reflector was moved laterally, in the = 90 plane, until the measured far field phase became constant. The phase center displacement was determined by the amount of reflector lateral move on the slide. As already discussed, the reflector phase center displacements with the excitations (ii) and (iii) were found to be equal

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Figure 4.11 (a) The reector radiation patterns with the excitation (iii), and (b) the reector fareld phase patterns due to excitations (ii) and (iii), in the =90 plane, computed from their phase centers at Y=12cm [2]. (2006 IEEE.)

but in the opposite directions. Therefore, the measured constant phase pattern, in the = 90 plane, at 9.75 GHz and with only the excitation (iii), is presented in Figure 4.12(b). The constant phase distribution was achieved when the reflector was moved by 12 cm (i.e., Y = 12 cm), which is the phase center location of the reflector with this illumination.

4.4.3 Symmetric Reector with TE11 + TE21 Mode Feed Horn

The symmetric parabolic reflector antenna under study has an aperture diameter of D = 50 and F/D= 0.375 at 10 GHz. It is assumed that the focal region field is due to the combination of the TE11 and TE21 modes of circular waveguides. The feed is defined in TICRA GRASP V.7 [10] with a radius of 0.5 at the frequency of 10 GHz. The corresponding aperture field distributions are shown in Figure 4.13

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Figure 4.12 (a) The photograph of the offset reector and the feed assembly, and (b) the far eld phase of the reector, in the =90 plane, after moving the reector by Y = 12 cm with the excitation (iii) [2]. (2006 IEEE.)

for different mode content factors. When the excitation is due to the TE11 mode alone, Figure 4.13(a), the aperture field is symmetric as expected. For the combined dual-mode case, infinite possibilities can exist, but for simplicity, equal amplitudes for the modes are selected. As for their relative phase shifts, four different cases are considered: (1) the in-phase case of TE11 + TE21, (2) out of phase case of TE11 TE21, and the two quadrature phase cases of (3) TE11 + jTE21 and (4) TE11 jTE21 [1]. For the first two cases, the aperture field amplitudes are symmetric, as shown in Figures 4.13(b). Their aperture phases are, however, asymmetric and cause main beam scanning at the far-field region, as depicted in Figures 4.14(a, b). The reflector aperture is therefore, equivalent to two coincidental array elements with equal amplitudes and antisymmetric phase distributions. The most interesting cases are the last two, with quadrature relative phases according to the cases (3) and (4). Their resulting aperture amplitude distributions are shown in Figures 4.13(c, d), having significant field values over only one half of the aperture, to the left or right. These distributions are similar to the TE11 mode, but shifted to the left, or right of the aperture center. Their far field patterns are also similar to that of the TE11 mode, as

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Figure 4.13 Normalized aperture eld distributions of the symmetric reector with F/D=0.375 and D=50 fed by (a) TE11 mode alone, (b) TE11 TE21, (c) TE11 + jTE21, and (d) TE11 jTE21.

shown in Figure 4.14(c), with slightly lower gains, due to the reduced aperture sizes. These two excitations are thus equivalent to a two-element array, having elements occupying the left- or the right-hand side of the reflector aperture. Their relative phase center locations are therefore shifted to the left or right, near the centers of their field distributions. Because they generate far field patterns, almost identical to the TE11 mode, but have distinctly different phase centers, they can be used together as elements of a virtual array. This possibility provides an opportunity for implementation of algorithmic signal processing in diverse applications, such as remote sensing or radar image processing. In the last two cases, the mode amplitude ratio influences the aperture distributions and phase center displacements. The resulting gains and phase center displacements are shown in Figure 4.15. With an equal amplitude ratio in (3), a maximum phase center displacement of 21.50 cm was achieved. Thus, the maximum phase center separations of the last two distributions (3) and (4) are equal to 43 cm, a significant distance, without causing any grating

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Figure 4.14 The principal plane secondary radiation patterns of the symmetric reector with F/ D=0.375 and D=50 fed by (a) TE11 + TE21, (b) TE11 TE21, and (c) TE11 jTE21 at f=10 GHz.

4.4

143

Figure 4.15 Effect of the TE11 and TE21 mode amplitude ratios with +90 phase shift on the phase center displacement and gain of the symmetric reector with F/D=0.375 and D=50 at f=10 GHz.

lobe formations [1]. The results are similar to the one with the combined TE11 and TM01 modes explained earlier. Therefore, both TE11 + TM01 and TE11 + TE21 feed horns with the discussed reflector antennas lead to an antenna with displaced phase centers along the y-axis, or adaptive aperture antennas over the reflector apertures.

4.4.4 Offset Reector with TE11 + TE21 Mode Feed Horn

In this section, the idea of multiple phase center based adaptive aperture antenna using the combined TE11 and TE21 feed are extended to offset parabolic reflector antenna [11]. The offset reflector antenna under investigation has an elliptical aperture with a width of 101 cm and height of 66 cm. The focal length and offset clearance distance are 38.1 cm and 13 cm, respectively. The analysis frequency is 10 GHz. The geometry of the dual-mode TE11 and TE21 feed horn is shown in Figure 4.16. The aperture diameter of the feed is 4 cm. The TE21 mode is excited from the sides of the circular waveguide with two standard rectangular waveguides while the TE11 mode is excited from the end of the waveguide. With this feed, the primary radiation pattern is scanned in the =90 plane, when there is a quadrature phase difference between the TE11 and TE21 modes. This is illustrated in Figure 4.17 for an equal mode amplitude ratio and compared with the in-phase modes. Therefore, it is possible to move the reflector phase center location along the y-axis away from its physical center, when there are 90 phase shifts between the TE11 and TE21 modes. This can be controlled by changing the amplitude ratios of the aforementioned modes similar to the previous sections. The resulting displaced phase center locations and gain of the offset reflector antenna are shown in Figure 4.18 as a function of mode amplitude ratios. It is evident that the larger phase center separation is obtained with the stronger TE21 mode. However, the antenna gain drops as the phase center location moves away from the origin. Depending on the application, there is a compromise between the gain and phase center displacements. For example, in GMTI radars the maximum phase center separation depends on the platform velocity and pulse repetition interval [11]. To show that the developed antenna is an adaptive aperture, the main beam of the secondary radiation patterns must remain at the boresight angle. An example

144

Figure 4.16 Geometry of the dual mode TE11 and TE21 feed horn, LT=3 cm and LH=8 cm at the frequency of 10 GHz [11]. (2004 IEE.)

Figure 4.17 H-plane primary radiation patterns of the feed shown in Figure 4.16 at the frequency of 10 GHz excited with an equal mode amplitude ratio with in-phase and quadrature phase shifts between the TE11 and TE21 modes [11]. (2004 IEE.)

is shown in Figure 4.19 for the 0.6 TE11+0.4j TE21 feed excitation. As can be seen, the H-plane pattern of the reflector retains a good symmetry near the main beam at = 0.

4.5

145

Figure 4.18 (a) Phase center locations, and (b) gain of the offset reector antenna as a function of TE11 and TE21 mode amplitude ratios [11]. (2004 IEE.)

4.5

So far, the idea of adaptive aperture antennas was presented by employing separate dual-mode primary feeds illuminating both symmetric and offset reflector antennas. With the dual-mode feeds, either TE11+TM01 or TE11+TE21, the phase center locations of the composite reflector and the feed varied along the y-axis while the corresponding secondary patterns produced a broadside shape with a main beam at the =0 direction. It should be noted that only quadrature phase differences between the either of the higher order modes and the dominant TE11 mode result in such adaptive apertures. Now, the performance of a symmetric reflector antenna performance with a tri-mode circular waveguide feed is presented. The modes of interest are the TE11, TM01, and TE21 type modes. To simplify our study, the analytical model of these modes is used, as expressed by (4.2) in Section 4.3 with n =2.25. The parabolic reflector antenna under investigation is similar to the one in Section 4.3 with an

146

Figure 4.19 H-plane reector antenna radiation pattern fed by the dual-mode feed shown in Figure 4.16 with the excitation of (0.6TE11+0.4jTE21) at frequency f = 10GHz [11]. (2004 IEE.)

F/D=0.5 and D=30 at the frequency of 10 GHz. To better understand the effect of the third mode on the adaptive aperture antenna, first the reflector fed by a dual-mode circular waveguide with the combined TE11 and TE21 modes will be addressed. For the dual-mode TE11 and TE21 circular waveguide feeds, the primary radiation patterns are shown in Figure 4.20(a, b), when there are 90 phase shifts between the modes. The amplitude ratio is selected as 0.6 (i.e., |C2/C1|=0.6 and C0=0). It is evident that such quadrature phase shifts scan the primary main beam at the =90 plane. In addition, the phase center location of the feed itself will be along its longitudinal axis. With the primary patterns shown in Figure 4.20, the reflector will be asymmetrically illuminated accordingly. To better clarify this, the normalized amplitude and phase aperture distributions of the symmetric reflector are illustrated in Figure 4.21. As can be seen, the peak intensities of the electric field shift away from the physical center of the aperture along the y-axis. Since the phase distributions across the aperture are uniform, as depicted in Figure 4.21(c, d), the phase center location of the reflector will therefore move along the y-axis. In order for the resultant antenna to be a virtual one, its secondary radiation patterns must have a broadside shape. This is shown in Figure 4.22 for the same mode amplitude ratio of 0.6 at f =10 GHz. The patterns are identical for both +90 and 90 phase shifts between the modes. One can well predict the phase center movement of the reflector from the aperture distributions in Figure 4.21. However, the secondary phase patterns may be used to accurately determine the phase center location. The amount of the coordinate origin shift, which makes the phase patterns uniform around the main beam, is equal to the phase center displacement. This is shown in Figure 4.23 for both positive and negative phase shifts between the TE11 and TE21 modes. Originally, the phase patterns have nonzero slopes when the coordinate origin is placed at X=Y=0, as shown in Figure 4.23(a). By displacing the reflector coordinate origin, the secondary patterns will be uniform around the

4.5

147

Figure 4.20 Primary radiation patterns of the dual-mode TE11 and TE21 waveguide feed dened by (4.2) with C0=0 when n =2.25 at f=10GHz (a) C2/C1=0.60/+90 and (b) C2/C1=0.60/90.

Figure 4.21 (a, b) Normalized amplitude aperture distributions and (c, d) phase aperture distributions of the symmetric reector with F/D=0.50, D=30 fed by the dual-mode TE11 and TE21 feed dened by (4.2) when C0=0 and n =2.25 at f=10 GHz. (a) and (c) C2/C1=0.60/+90; (b) and (d) C2/C1=0.60/90.

4.5

149

Figure 4.22 Secondary radiation patterns of the symmetric reector with F/D=0.50 and D=30 fed by the dual-mode TE11 and TE21 feed dened by (4.2) when n =2.25, C0=0, and C2/C1=0.6/90 at f =10 GHz.

main beam as depicted in Figure 4.23(b, c). As a result, the phase center location will be equal to X=0 and Y= 10.5 cm for the C2/C1=0.6/90. Now, the higher order TM01 mode with a small fraction is added to this dualmode case to conduct our study on the symmetric reflector with a tri-mode feed. The mode amplitude ratio is selected as |C2/C1|=0.6 and |C0/C1|=0.2. As for the phase shifts between the modes, there are four possible cases with each of the higher order mode having 90 phase shifts with respect to the fundamental TE11 mode. For brevity, two cases with phase shifts of same polarity are reported here. Their associated primary patterns are shown in Figure 4.24. Now, the primary patterns are scanned at both diagonal and asymmetry planes of =45 and 90, respectively. The normalized amplitude aperture distributions of the symmetric reflector, illuminated by the primary tri-mode feed shown in Figure 4.24, are illustrated in Figure 4.25. As can be seen, the peak intensities of the electric field shift further away from the physical center of the aperture along the y-axis comparing to the dual-mode case shown in Figure 4.21. The phase distributions across the aperture are uniform as before and are not repeated here for brevity. The secondary radiation patterns are shown in Figure 4.26, which is aimed at the boresight angle, as expected. It should be mentioned that the secondary patterns remain unchanged for the negative mode phase shift signs as well, which are omitted here. Therefore, such adaptive apertures will have multiphase center locations along the y-axis by controlling the mode content factors of the primary feed. Table 4.2 summarizes the results of the symmetric reflector performance with the dual- and tri-mode feeds modeled by (4.2) with n =2.25 at the frequency of 10 GHz.

4.5.1 Practical Triple-Mode Feed Horn

In this section, a tri-mode horn is presented that can be used as a primary feed to adaptively illuminate reflector antennas for multiphase center applications [13].

150

Figure 4.23 Secondary phase patterns of the symmetric reector with F/D=0.50 and D=30 fed by the dual-mode TE11 and TE21 feed dened by (4.2) when n =2.25 and C0=0 at f =10GHz (a) X=Y=0 and C2/C1=0.6/90 (b) X=0, Y=+10.5 cm, and C2/C1=0.6/+90 (c) X=0, Y=10.5 cm, and C2/C1=0.6/90.

4.5

151

Figure 4.24 Primary radiation patterns of the tri-mode waveguide feed dened by (4.2) when n =2.25 at f =10 GHz: (a) C2/C1=0.6/+90 and C0/C1=0.2/+90 (b) C2/C1=0.6/90 and C0/C1=0.2/90.

The triple-mode feed horn geometry is shown in Figure 4.27 [12, 13]. The feed is simulated using the full wave analysis tool FEKO [14]. This feed horn was also verified using ANSYS High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) [15], and both provided similar results. The horn has two chokes at the aperture to maintain

152

Figure 4.25 Normalized amplitude aperture distributions of the symmetric reector with F/D=0.50, D=30 fed by the tri-mode feed dened by (4.2) when n =2.25 at f =10 GHz: (a) C2/C1=0.6/+90 and C0/C1=0.2/+90, (b) C2/C1=0.6/90 and C0/C1=0.2/90.

Figure 4.26 Secondary radiation patterns of the symmetric reector with F/D=0.50 and D=30 fed by the tri-mode feed dened by (4.2) when n =2.25, C2/C1=0.6/+90, and C0/C1=0.2/+90 at f =10 GHz.

beamwidth required for illumination of the reflector. The TE11 mode is the dominant mode in a circular waveguide, while TM01 and TE21 mods are higher order modes. Three circular waveguides of selected radii: 1.34cm, 1.53cm, and 2.1cm, respectively, are used to support the propagation of TE11, TM01, and TE21 modes. For exciting the TM01 and TE21 modes, two rectangular waveguides are employed at the ports responsible for exciting these modes, as shown in Figure 4.27. The rectangular waveguides are oppositely placed in the TE21 mode rather than the TM01 mode. Further, while the TE11 mode is horizontally polarized, the TM01 mode is vertically polarized. Similarly, the TE21 mode is horizontally polarized. The total

4.5

Table 4.2 Summary of Gain, Cross Polarization Levels, and Phase Center Locations of the Symmetrical Reflector Antenna with F/D=0.5 and D=30 Fed by the Dual- and Tri-Mode Circular Waveguide Feeds Defined by (4.2) with n =2.25 at f =10 GHz Mode Excitations TE11 TE21 1/0 0 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 0 XPOL Peak TM01 =45 Gain(dBi) =0 0.2/+90 38.37 18.98 dB 21.72 dB 0.2/90 38.37 36.94 36.94 36.83 36.83 18.98 dB 9.43 dB 9.43 dB 12.95 dB 12.95 dB 21.72 dB 12.39 dB 12.39 dB 15.90 dB 15.90 dB Phase Center(X=0) Y=+4.0 cm Y=4.0 cm Y=+10.5 cm Y=10.5 cm Y=+12.7 cm Y=12.7 cm

153

Figure 4.27 CADFEKO generated model of the triple-mode feed horn along with major dimensions [13]. (2012 IJAP.)

length of the horn is 24 cm with aperture outer and inner diameters of 7.6 cm and 7.2 cm, respectively. The reflection coefficient magnitudes for the triple-mode feed horn are shown in the Figure 4.28. For the TE11 mode, a matching bandwidth better than S11 10 dB is observed from 7.43 GHz to 7.94 GHz. The reflection coefficient magnitudes of the other ports are as follows S22 and S33 exciting the TM01 mode is matched from 7.46 to 8.34 GHz, whereas S44, S55 exciting the TE21 mode is matched from 7.3 to 8.05 GHz. The overall common matching bandwidth considering all the modes is from 7.43 GHz to 7.94 GHz, which approximates to 510 MHz and can

154

Figure 4.28 Reection coefcient magnitudes versus frequency variation for the triple-mode feed horn exciting TE11, TM01, and TE21 modes [13]. (2012 IJAP.)

meet the bandwidth requirements for several practical radar applications. Detailed analysis results for this triple-feed horn are included in Volume II, Chapter 8.

4.5.2 Symmetric Reector Antenna Performance with the Tri-Mode Feed

A symmetric parabolic reflector antenna geometry excited using a triple-mode feed horn [13] (Figure 4.27) is shown in Figure 4.29. The feed reflector antenna combination is designed using the FEKO, which is a full wave analysis commercial tool [14]. The tool is capable of computing interactions between the feed horn and reflector surface, and predicts impedance matching behavior including radiation performance. The reflector surface is of diameter, D = 1.2m with an F/D ratio of 0.5. The frequency range under consideration is from 7.47 GHz to 7.98 GHz, where all the three modes are impedance matched. This is shown in reflection coefficient magnitude plot of Figure 4.30, where the Sii characteristics of the three modes are shown. Please refer to Figure 4.27 where rectangular waveguide ports connected to the feed horn responsible for generating the three modes are shown. The S11 corresponds to the reflection coefficient magnitude of the dominant mode, which is TE11, and S22 and S33 correspond to the reflection coefficient magnitude of the TM01 mode, and S44 and S55 correspond to the reflection coefficient magnitude of the TE21 mode. The dominant TE11 mode has a bandwidth of 510 MHz, the TM01 mode has a bandwidth of 710 MHz, and the TE21 mode has a bandwidth of 890 MHz. Thus, common matching bandwidth is 510 MHz for all the three modes. Also, impedance matching bandwidth is preserved for the reflector antenna similar to the one observed in case of the feed horn alone (Figure 4.28). The TE11, TM01, and TE21 mode radiation patterns of this reflector antenna at 7.73 GHz are shown in Figure 4.31(ac), respectively. From Figure 4.31(a), the dominant mode peak copolarization gain and peak cross-polarization level can be observed as 34.12 dBi and 40dB, respectively. The TM01 mode radiation patterns shown in Figure 4.31(b) offer a peak copolarization gain and peak cross-polarization levels of 32.86 dBi and 24dB, respectively. Similarly, Figure 4.31(c) shows that the TE21 mode radiation patterns provide a peak copolarization gain and peak

4.6

Multiple Phase Center Offset Reectors with TM11 + TM21 Microstrip Patch Feeds

155

Figure 4.29 Triple-mode feed horn with a parabolic reector antenna in symmetric conguration [13]. (2012 IJAP.)

Figure 4.30 Reection coefcient magnitudes versus frequency variation for the symmetric reector antenna excited using the triple-mode feed horn [13]. (2012 IJAP.)

cross-polarization level of 32.89 dBi and 37 dB, respectively. It can be observed that the dominant mode offers higher gain than the other two modes in case there are higher order modes (TM01 and TE21), as the radiated power is distributed in more than one lobe thus it shows reduced gain. As expected, the higher order modes have null in the patterns similar to the tracking mode patterns.

4.6 Multiple Phase Center Offset Reectors with TM11 + TM21 Microstrip Patch Feeds

So far, it is shown that by altering the amplitude ratios of multimode primary feeds and providing quadrature phase shifts between the selected modes, the phase center location of the reflector can be changed while it produces identical secondary patterns at the far-field region. In this section, the idea of multiple phase center based adaptive aperture antenna is studied when the feed is a dual-mode stacked circular patch operating at the combined TM11 and TM21 modes. It can be in the form of a

156

Figure 4.31 Copolarization and cross-polarization gain radiation patterns for the symmetric reector feed horn combination for (a) TE11 mode, (b) TM01 mode, and (c) TE21 mode at 7.73 GHz [16]. ( 2012.)

4.6

Multiple Phase Center Offset Reectors with TM11 + TM21 Microstrip Patch Feeds

157

stacked two-layer structure with the TM11 patch on the top and the TM21 patch in the middle over the ground plane as the bottom layer. The substrate permittivity is selected as 1.15 to make the patterns nearly independent of the ground plane size [8]. Herein, the concept is further investigated to include the feed polarization in terms of the mode orientations of the circular microstrip patch feed to move the phase center location along two orthogonal directions. To this end, two cases for the feed are considered base on (4.1). It is assumed that both modes are polarized along the y-axis for the first case, whereas the second case includes a y-polarized TM11 mode and an x-polarized TM21 mode. The combined radiation patterns can be expressed as follows [9]. Case I:

TM TM TM TM E = A11 f11 () sin + A21 f21 () sin 2 TM TM TM TM E = B11 g11 () cos + B21 g21 () cos 2

(4.3)

Case II:

TM TM TM TM E = A11 f11 () sin + A21 f21 () cos 2 TM TM TM TM E = B11 g11 () cos B21 g21 () sin 2

(4.4)

where

TM f11 () = J0 (ko a11 sin ) J2 (ko a11 sin ) TM g11 () = J0 (ko a11 sin ) + J2 (ko a11 sin ) cos TM f21 () = J1 (ko a21 sin ) J3 (ko a21 sin ) TM g21 () = J1 (ko a21 sin ) + J3 (ko a21 sin ) cos TM TM TM TM , A21 = B21 = C21 A11 = B11 = jC11

(4.5)

wherein the mode content factors of the TM11 and TM21 modes are defined by C11 and C21, complex numbers, respectively. Also, Jn is the Bessel function of order n. The offset reflector antenna under study has an aperture diameter of 20 and offset clearance distance of . The parameter is the free-space wavelength at the frequency of 10 GHz. The focal length to the diameter ratio, F/D, is selected as 1.1. The corresponding half-angle subtended by the rim and offset angle are 24.20 and 26.80, respectively. Now, by controlling the amplitude and phase excitation, and more importantly the polarization of each mode, the phase center location of the composite reflector and the feed can be displaced while the radiation patterns remain unchanged. All required simulations for the reflector antenna are carried out using the commercial software TICRA GRASP V.7 [10]. Similar to the previous studies, in order to develop an adaptive aperture antenna, the phase center location of the composite reflector and the feed should be

158

displaced from the physical center of the reflector aperture with identical secondary radiation patterns. To this end, the primary feed should asymmetrically illuminate the reflector aperture with its phase center located at the focal point of the reflector. With a dual-mode stacked microstrip antenna, the phase shift of 90 between the modes results in scanned primary main beams, in which the phase center of the feed itself is located at its physical center [17]. This point must be coincident with the reflector focal point to generate axially symmetric patterns at the far-field region. To conduct the study, an equal mode amplitude ratio is selected (i.e., C21/C11=1),

Figure 4.32 Aperture amplitude distributions of the offset reector fed by the primary dual-mode microstrip feed by (4.3) and (4.5): (a) C21/C11=1/1+90, and (b) C21/C11=1/190 [9]. (2011 IEEE.)

4.6

Multiple Phase Center Offset Reectors with TM11 + TM21 Microstrip Patch Feeds

159

with quadrature 90 phase shifts between the TM11 and TM21 modes. The resulting aperture distributions for cases I and II are illustrated in Figures 4.32 and 4.33, respectively. As can be seen, the peak intensities of the field is shifted to the up or down, and right or left sides of the aperture, as the polarization of the modes alter according to the cases I and II, respectively. It should be mentioned that the corresponding phase distributions are uniform across the aperture. This means that the phase center locations of the reflector move along both X- and Y-directions as the mode polarization changes while generating axially symmetric patterns at the

Figure 4.33 Aperture amplitude distributions of the offset reector fed by the primary dual-mode microstrip feed by (4.4) and (4.5): C21/C11=1/1+90, and (b) C21/C11=1/190 [9]. (2011 IEEE.)

160

Figure 4.34 Normalized far-eld secondary radiation patterns of the offset reector fed by the dualmode microstrip patch feed with C21/C11=1/190 [9]. (2011 IEEE.)

far field zone. The phase center motion can be readily extended to any direction by properly aligning the modes of the primary feed. To show that the developed antenna is an adaptive one, the secondary farfield radiation patterns are plotted in Figure 4.34. As expected, the main beams are aimed at the =0 direction, while the reflector phase center moves toward the right, left, up, or down side of the aperture. Therefore, the antenna appears to be four separate and identical antennas within a single hardware by controlling the polarization and amplitude and phase excitations of the TM11 and TM21 modes.

References

[1] [2] Shafai, L., and S. K. Sharma, A Virtual Array Concept for Reector Antenna Aperture, 2004 Inter. Symposium on Antennas Propaga., Japan, August 1721, 2004. Shafai, L., S. K. Sharma, B. Balaji, A. Damini, and G. Haslam, Multiple Phase Center Performance of Reector Antennas Using a Dual Mode Horn,IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 54, No. 11, Nov. 2006, pp. 34073417. Skolnik, M. I., Radar Handbook, 2nd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990. Schleher, D. C., MTI and Pulsed Doppler Radar with MATLAB, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2010. Muehe, C. E., and M. Labitt, Displaced-Phase-Center Antenna Technique, Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2000, pp. 281296. Olver, A. D., P. J. B. Clarricoats, A. A. Kishk, and L. Shafai, Microwave Horns and Feeds, New York: IEEE Press, 1994.

4.6

Multiple Phase Center Offset Reectors with TM11 + TM21 Microstrip Patch Feeds [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

161

[12]

[13]

[17]

Rudge, A. W., K. Milne, A. D. Olver, and P. Knight, The Handbook of Antenna Design, IEE Electromagnetic Waves Series, Vol. I, No. 15, London: Peter Peregrinus, 1982. Silver, S., Microwave Antenna Theory and Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1949. Allahgholi Pour, Z., L. Shafai, and A. M. Mehrabani, Virtual Array Antenna with Displaced Phase Centers for GMTI Applications, IEEE Radar Conference, May 2011. TICRAs GRASP 7.0 Software, TICRA Engineering Consultants Lderstrde 34 DK-1201 Copenhagen, Denmark. Damini, A., B. Balaji, L. Shafai, and G. Haslam, Novel Multiple Phase Centre Reector Antenna for GMTI Radar, IEE Proc. Microw. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 151, No.3, June 2004, pp. 199204. Sharma, S. K., and A. Tuteja, Investigations on a Triple Mode Waveguide Horn Capable of Providing Scanned Radiation Patterns, IEEE Inter. Symposium on Antennas Propagation 2010, July 11-19, 2010, Toronto, Canada. Sharma, S. K., and M. Thyagarajan, Performance Comparison of Symmetric and Offset Reector Antennas Adaptively Illuminated by Novel Triple Mode Feedhorn, International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2012, 2012. EMSS FEKO webpage: http://www.emssusa.com. ANSYS High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS), Canonsburg, PA. Thyagarajan, M., Performance of Reector Antennas by Employing Triple Mode Feedhorn and a Frequency Recongurable Spiral Loaded Planar Dipole Antenna, MS Thesis, San Diego State University, 2012. Allahgholi Pour, Z., Control of Phase Center and Polarization in Circular Microstrip Antennas, MS Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, July 2006.

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