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UNIVERSITY OF WEST BOHEMIA FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING

JET ENGINES
GAS TURBINESS

GAS TURBINES
MAIN THEMES

Introduction Main types of gas turbines Basic parameters of gas turbines Stage of gas turbine Stator of gas turbine Rotor of gas turbine Multistage gas turbine Stator cooling Conclusions

INTRODUCTION

In turbines is converted heat and pressure energy to kinetic energy and mechanical work with very high efficiency The conversion is provided in stator and rotor canals In stator vanes is converted heat and pressure energy to kinetic energy In rotor blades is converted heat and pressure energy to kinetic energy and mechanical work

INTRODUCTION

Obtained performance on turbines is exploited for compressor and assembly drive. In case of turboshaft engines, performance is also used for propeller or rotor drive. Ground power unit use converted energy for drive of electric generators or compressors and many types of equipments.

INTRODUCTION
REQUIREMENTS

High performance High reliability High lifetime High efficiency Minimal weight and dimensions Simple construction and maintenance Low price

GAS TURBINE TYPES


TYPES BY DIRECTION OF FLOW

Radial

Centrifugal Centripetal

Axial

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Centrifugal and centripetal gas turbine

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Parts of centripetal gas turbine

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Engine with centrifugal compressor and centripetal turbine

GAS TURBINE TYPES


TYPES BY INLET FLOW FIELD

Turbines with homogeneous inlet flow field Turbines with non-homogeneous inlet flow field

Fig. Turbines with homogeneous and non-homogeneous inlet flow field

GAS TURBINE TYPES


TYPES BY NUMER OF STAGES

Single stage Dual stage Triple stage Multi stage TYPES BY NUMBER OF SPOOLS Single spool turbines Dual spool turbines Triple spool turbines

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Single stage axial gas turbine

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Dual stage axial gas turbine

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Triple stage axial gas turbine

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Multi (4) stage axial gas turbine 2 stages for compressor drive 2 stages for propeller drive

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Multi (8) stage axial gas turbine

GAS TURBINE TYPES


TYPES BY REACTION OF STAGE

Impulse stage Impulse/Reaction (Reaction) stage

GAS TURBINE TYPES

Fig. Impulse and reaction stage

BASIC PARAMETERS
Flow rate

Depends on construciton 0,5-300kg.s -1 Thermal gradient Max. 30kJ.kg-1on one stage Temperature before turbine Non-cooled turbines max. 1000C Cooled turbines 1200C and more

BASIC PARAMETERS

years

Fig. Evolution of temperature parameters

BASIC PARAMETERS
RPM (Revolutions per minute)

Depends on construction 5-90.103 min-1 Reliability Means reliability of blades. At present days in modern engines its approximately 10000 hours. Efficiency Single stage turbines 0,82-0,90 Multi stage turbines 0,88-0,94 Cooling air Depend on intensity of cooling (approximately 5% from flow rate)

BASIC PARAMETERS

Fig. Dependence of efficiency on flow rate

TURBINE STAGE

Fig. Elementary turbine stage

TURBINE STAGE

Fig. Impulse turbine stage

TURBINE STAGE

Fig. Reaction turbine stage

TURBINE STAGE
Forces on rotor blade are created by:

Aerodynamic forces created by fluid around blades (impulse action of gases) Reaction action of gases in convergent rotor blades canal where are gases accelerated

TURBINE STAGE
c c3 c 3 150 m.s
1 , 3

c 4= u 4 w 4

Fig. Reaction turbine stage

TURBINE STAGE

Work transferred to blades of elementary stage from 1kg of gas From Euler equation:
W e , st = u ' 3 . c 3' u u 4 . c 4u [ J.kg ] since c 4u 0 W e , st = u ' 3 . c 3' u u 4 . c 4u [ J.kg ]
1 1

TURBINE STAGE

Fig. Velocity triangles on elementary turbine reaction stage

TURBINE STAGE

Fig. Ideal and real expansion on turbine stage in T-s diagram

TURBINE STAGE

Fig. Real expansion on turbine stage in p-V and T-s diagram shows static and total parameters

TURBINE STAGE

Work on turbine stage 1 W e , st = c p. T 3t T 4t [ J.kg ]


W ad , st =c p. T 3t T 4t , ad [ J.kg 1]

Efficiency of turbine stage


W e , st st = [ 1] W ad , st T 3t T 4t st = [ 1] T 3t T 4t , ad st =0.83 0.89

TURBINE STAGE

Efficiency of multistage turbines is higher than efficiency of every single stage (in compressor that's NOT true) Efficiency of multistage turbines is 0.88-094 Efficiency increasing by number of turbine stages WHY?

TURBINE STAGE

Efficiency of multistage turbines is higher than efficiency of every single stage (in compressor that's NOT true) Efficiency of multistage turbines is 0.88-094 Efficiency increasing by number of turbine stages WHY?

Lower velocity of gases as in single stage Losses from stage before are exploited in the next one

TURBINE STAGE
Reaction of elementary stage

Is ratio of adiabatic static work of rotor and adiabatic static work of elementary stage

hR = [ 1 ] H 0 1

TURBINE STAGE

Fig. Impulse and reaction turbine in T-s diagrams

LOSSES IN GAS TURBINE


Profile losses

in stator and rotor as well These losses are generated as soon as gas fluid around vanes/blades.

Friction losses (boundary layer) Shock phenomenas Wakes (high angle of atack)

Profile losses are higher in rotor

LOSSES IN GAS TURBINE


Secondary losses

Generated by pair-wakes (induced drag) Losses in redial spaces between rotor blade and turbine case Other losses Losses in bearings Friction of disks

LOSSES IN GAS TURBINE

Fig. Losses in rotor blade

BLADE GEOMETRY

Characteristic shape of rotor blade is the longitudinal shape In elementary stage is determined in the middle diameter ( by flow equation ) The real flow is spatial. The peripheral speed is increase from rotor root to rotor tip. Absolute velocity and pressure changed as well. All of these parameters are connected The real flow is spatial, compressible, viscous and non-stationary GEOMETRY of blade must accepted these facts

BLADE GEOMETRY

Fig. Geometric solution of rotor blade construction

BLADE GEOMETRY

Fig. Reaction rotor blade construction

BLADE GEOMETRY

Fig. Creating rotor back with lemniscate

BLADE GEOMETRY

Fig. Creating a impulse rotor blade

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE


Created by compiling of turbine stages in a row Modern engines used 6 and more stage turbines because:

There are high thermal gradients Higher efficiency Better collaboration with compressor ( bigger diameter lower RPM ) Smooth shape of engine

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Shape of overflow canal

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Parameters through the multistage impulse turbine

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Thermal gradient distribution on multistage turbine

TURBINE CHARACTERISTIC

Fig. Gas turbine characteristic

TURBINE CHARACTERISTIC

Fig. Gas turbine characteristic

STATOR VANES

Fig. Tubular stator vanes

STATOR VANES

Fig. Stator vanes

ROTOR BLADES

Fig. Turbine rotor blades

ROTOR BLADES

Fig. Turbine double-rotor blades

ROTOR BLADES

Fig. Turbine double-floor rotor blades

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Double-stage gas turbine

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Scheme of double-stage gas turbine

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Double-stage gas turbine

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. 'Free' gas turbine

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Triple-stage gas turbine

MULTISTAGE GAS TURBINE

Fig. Four-stage gas turbine

GAS TURBINE COOLING

Fig. Thermal and mechanical load blades

GAS TURBINE COOLING

Fig. Rotor blade damaged by thermal load

GAS TURBINE COOLING

Thermal damage of pressure side of stator blade

Cracks on cooled stator blade

Fig. Stator vanes damaged by thermal load

GAS TURBINE COOLING

Fig. Evolution of temperature increasing in depends on used material

GAS TURBINE COOLING


Sources of cooling

Air from fan Air from low pressure compressor Air from secondary flow on CC Air from secondary flow ( turbofan engines )

GAS TURBINE COOLING

Fig. Turbine cooling

GAS TURBINE COOLING

Fig. Multi-stage turbine cooling

GAS TURBINE COOLING

Fig. Distribution of cooling air in turbine stage

BLADES COOLING
Methods of blade cooling

Convective ( Internal cooling ) Film cooling Transpiration cooling

BLADES COOLING
Convective cooling

Hot air flows around blades Blades are cooled with air, which flows through cooling holes inside blade

BLADES COOLING
Film cooling

Cooling is provided with cooling air, which is delivered through the holes on the blade surface. Cooling with air film is more efficient as convective cooling

BLADES COOLING

Transpiration cooling Transpiration cooling is similar technique of cooling as cooling with air film. In this case is generated a homogeneous surface of cooling air on surface of blade Transpirationally cooled blades have no holes. Air flow through the porous surface of blade.

BLADES LOAD

Fig. Turbine rotor blades load

REFERENCES

Otis, Vosbury: Aircraft gas turbine powerplants Jeppesen: 2002 Rolls royce The jet engine, 1996 Hanus D., Marlek J, : Studijn modul 15, Turbnov motor, CERM, s.r.o. Brno 2004 Kadrnoka J.: Tepeln turbny a turbokompresory, CERM, s.r.o. Brno 2004

DISCUSSION... ...QUESTIONS