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Lordship of Negroponte
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Lordship of Negroponte
Nigropont Client state*

12041470

The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. 1204. The borders are very uncertain.

Capital Language(s) Religion

Chalkis (Negroponte) Venetian officially, Greek popularly Roman Catholic officially,

Political structure Historical era - Principality 1204 established - Ottoman Conquest 1470

Greek Orthodox popularly Client state Middle Ages

* The duchy was nominally a vassal state of, in order, the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the Latin Empire (from 1209), the Principality of Achaea (from 1236), but effectively, and from 1390 also de jure, under Venetian control

The Lordship of Negroponte was a crusader state established on the island of Euboea (Italian: Negroponte) after the partition of the Byzantine Empire following the Fourth Crusade. Partitioned into three baronies (terzieri) run by a few interrelated Lombard families, the island soon fell under the influence of the Republic of Venice. From ca. 1390, the island became a regular Venetian colony as the Kingdom of Negroponte (Regno di Negroponte).

Contents

1 History o 1.1 Establishment o 1.2 Succession disputes o 1.3 Byzantine interlude o 1.4 Later history 2 List of rulers of Negroponte o 2.1 Triarchy of Oreos o 2.2 Triarchy of Chalkis o 2.3 Triarchy of Karystos 3 References 4 Sources and bibliography

History
Establishment
According to the division of Byzantine territory (the Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae), Euboea was awarded to Boniface of Montferrat, King of Thessalonica. Boniface in turn ceded the island as a fief to the Flemish noble Jacques d' Avesnes, who fortified Chalkis. After his death in mid-1205 however, the island was ceded to three Veronese barons: Ravano dalle Carceri, Giberto dalle Carceri and Pecoraro da Mercanuovo. They divided the island into three triarchies (terzieri, "thirds"): the northern, based at Oreos (Italian: terzero del Rio), the southern, ruled from Karystos (Italian: terzero di Caristo), and the central portion, ruled from Chalkis (Italian: terzero della Clissura). The city of Chalkis or Negroponte (citt de' Lombardi, "city of the Lombards") however was not under the latter's control, but served as overall capital of the island and joint residence of the Lombard rulers and their families. By

1209 however, Ravano had established himself as sole master of Euboea, styling himself as dominus insulae Nigropontis. Having allied himself with an unsuccessful Lombard rebellion against the Latin Emperor, Henry of Flanders, Ravano was eager to find a powerful protector. Thus, in March 1209, he signed an alliance with Venice, which recognized Venetian overlordship and gave the Venetians significant commercial privileges. In May, however, in an act of political balancing, Ravano also acknowledged his vassalage to the Latin Empire.

Succession disputes
However, already after the death of Ravano in 1216, his heirs disagreed over the succession, allowing the Venetian bailli to intervene as a mediator. He partitioned the three baronies in two, creating thus six hexarchies (sestieri). The northern triarchy of Oreos was divided between Ravano's nephews, Marino I and Rizzardo; the southern triarchy of Karystos was divided between his widow, Isabella, and his daughter, Bertha; and the central triarchy was divided between Giberto's heirs, Guglielmo I and Alberto. Provisions were also made that in the case someone among the sestieri died, his inheritor would be the other sestiere of the respective triarchy, and not his children. In actual fact, most sestieri were succeeded by their brothers, sons or nephews, keeping the baronies within the tight circle of the original Lombard families. In 1255 however, the death of Carintana dalle Carceri, hexarch of Oreos and wife to William II of Villehardouin, nominal overlord of Negroponte, led to the so-called "War of the Euboeote Succession", which involved Achaea and Venice. William claimed for himself his wife's inheritance, while the Lombard barons were unwilling to concede it. On 14 June 1256, Guglielmo of Verona and Narzotto dalle Carceri, the other two triarchs, repudiated their allegiance to William and pledged themselves to Venice. William responded by capturing Chalkis, which the Venetians retook in early 1258. The war ended in the battle of Karydi in May/June 1258, where William defeated the Duke of Athens, Guy I de la Roche, who had allied himself with the rebellious triarchs. Finally, in August 1259, Doge Reniero Zeno negotiated a peace, followed by a treaty in 1262, which recognized William's suzerainty over the island, but not his possession of the triarchy of Oreoi.

Byzantine interlude
By that time, however, the Empire of Nicaea had established itself as the foremost power in the area of the former Byzantine Empire, reconquering several territories from the Latins. Its successes culminated in the recapture of Constantinople in 1261 and the reestablishment of the Byzantine Empire, whose energetic ruler, Michael VIII Palaeologus, sought to reconquer the remaining Latin principalities in southern Greece. To this end, he accepted the services of Licario, an Italian renegade, who had his base near Karystos. Under Licario's command, Byzantine troops soon conquered most of Euboea, except Chalkis. After the departure of Licario sometime after 1280 however, with Venetian aid, the island gradually returned to Latin control. By 1296, Bonifazio da Verona had completely expelled the Byzantines from Euboea.

Later history

In 1317 however, Karystos fell to the Catalan Don Alfonso Fadrique, vicar-general of the duchy of Athens and illegitimate son of Frederick III of Sicily. In 1319, a peace treaty was signed between Venice and Don Alfonso, whereby he retained Karystos, which the Venetians acquired in 1365. When the last triarchs, Niccolo III dalle Carceri and Giorgio III Ghisi, died in 1383 and 1390 respectively, they left their territories to Venice, which thus established complete predominance over the island. Nevertheless, the triarchic system was maintained, with Venetian families appointed to the positions of terzieri, while the Venetian podest resided at Chalkis. Venice's rule lasted until 1470, when, during the OttomanVenetian War of 14631479, Sultan Mehmed II campaigned against Chalkis. With the fall of the city on 12 July, the whole island came under Ottoman control.

List of rulers of Negroponte


Note: The sequence of rulers during the 13th century, as well as the familial relations between them, are not very clear, as information about Euboea's internal history is scarce to non-existent, especially for the period 1216 1255.[1] According to the rules of succession laid down on the island's division into thirds and sixths in 1216, on the death of a hexarch, he was succeeded in his domain by his fellow hexarch within their third, and not by the former's heirs.[2] The following outline for the 13th century relies on the reconstruction by J.B. Bury.[3]

Jacques d'Avesnes (12041205)

Triarchy of Oreos
Percoraro de Percorari da Mercannuovo (12051209) dalle Carceri family Ravano dalle Carceri (12091216) Rizzardo dalle Carceri (12161220)

Marino I delle Carceri (1216 before 1255 Carintana dalle Carceri (? 1255) Grapella dalle Carceri (1255 after 1262) Grapozzo dalle Carceri (before 1270 ?)

Narzotto dalle Carceri (before 1255 after 12

Marino II (Merinetto) dalle Carceri (before 1270 under the regency of his mother Felisa da Ver

Alice dalle Carceri (? 1296) with her husband Giorgio I Ghisi (? 1311

Byzantine rule (12751280s) Ghisi family Pietro dalle Carceri (about 1315) Bartolomeo II Ghisi (13111341) Giorgio II Ghisi (13411358) Bartolomeo III Ghisi (13581384)

Giorgio III Ghisi (13841390) dAulnay/de No family (under Venice) (13851470) Januli I de No (13851394) Nicolo de No (1394 before 1426) Januli II de No (before 14261434) Gioffredo de No (14341446) Januli III de No (14461470) Ottoman conquest (1470)

Triarchy of Chalkis
dalle Carceri/da Verona family Giberto I da Verona(12051208) Ravano dalle Carceri (12091216) Guglielmo I da Verona (1217 ca. 1263) Alberto da Verona (1217 before 1230)

Guglielmo II da Verona (ca. 12631273/1275) Giberto II da Verona (12751279) Maria Navigajoso (12791328)

Beatrice da Verona (1279 after 1310) and her husband John de Noyers (1303132

Pietro dalle Carceri (13281340) Giovanni dalle Carceri (13401358) Nicollo dalle Carceri (13581383) Sommarippa family (under Venice) Maria II Sanudo (1383 ?), with her husband Gaspare Sommaripa (1383?) Crusino I Sommaripa (14301462) Domenico Sommarippa (14621466)

Giovanni Sommarippa (14661468) Crusino II Sommarippa (14681470) Ottoman conquest (1470)

Triarchy of Karystos
dalle Carceri family Ravano dalle Carceri (12041216) Isabella dalle Carceri (1216 ?) Grapella dalle Carceri (? after 1262) Gaetano da Verona Berta dalle Carceri (1216 ?)

Narzotto dalle Carceri (before 1255 before 127

Marino II (Merinetto) dalle Carceri (before 127012 under the regency of his mother Felisa da Veron Byzantine rule (12761296) Licario (1276 ?) dalle Carceri/da Verona family

Maria da Verona with her husband Andrea Cornaro Pietro dalle Carceri Catalan rule

Alice dalle Carceri with her husband Giorgio I Ghisi Bartolomeo II Ghisi

Marulla da Verona (13171338) with her husband Alfonso Fadrique (13171338) Boniface Fadrique (13381365) Direct Venetian rule (13651386) Giustiniani family (under Venice) Michele Giustiniani (13861402) Andrea Giustiniani (1386 ?) Antonio Giustiniani (? 1406) Zorzi family (under Venice) Nicol Zorzi (14061436)

Giovanni Giustiniani (1386

Jacopo Zorzi (14361447) Antonio Zorzi (14471470) Ottoman conquest (1470)

References
1. 2. 3. ^ Bury (1886), pp. 321ff. ^ Bury (1886), pp. 319321 ^ Bury (1886), p. 348

Sources and bibliography


Bury, John Bagnell (1886). "The Lombards and Venetians in Euboia (12051303)". The Journal of Hellenic Studies 7: 309352. Bury, John Bagnell (1887). "The Lombards and Venetians in Euboia (13031340)". The Journal of Hellenic Studies 8: 194213. Bury, John Bagnell (1888). "The Lombards and Venetians in Euboia (14301470)". The Journal of Hellenic Studies 9: 91117. Cawley, Charles, Latin lordships in Greece: Euboea, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 2012,[better source needed] Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5 Koder, Johannes (1973) (in German), Negroponte: Untersuchungen zur Topographie und Siedlungsgeschichte der Insel Euboia whrend der Zeit der Venezianerherrschaft, Vienna: Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, ISBN 3-70010020-5 Miller, William (1908), The Latins in the Levant, a History of Frankish Greece (12041566), New York: E.P. Dutton and Company Nicol, Donald MacGillivray (1993), The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 12611453, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-43991-6 Setton, Kenneth M. (1976), The Papacy and the Levant, 12041571: Volume I, The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, DIANE Publishing, ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-0-87169-114-0|978-0-87169-114-0]]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_Fadrique

Alfonso Fadrique
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Don Alfonso Fadrique (English: Alfonso Frederick, Catalan: N'Anfs Frederic d'Arag) (died 1338) was the eldest and illegitimate son of Frederick II of Sicily. He served as vicar general[1] of the Duchy of Athens from 1317 to 1330. He was first proclaimed vicar general by his father in 1317 and sent off to govern Athens on behalf of his younger half-brother Manfred. He arrived in Piraeus with ten galleys later that year, but Manfred had died and was succeeded by another brother, William II. In the year of his arrival, Fadrique married Marulla, the daughter of Boniface of Verona, thus allying himself with the chief lord of Euboea. By this marriage, also, he acquired rights to the castles of Larmena, Carystus, Lamia, and Gardiki. Over the next two years, Fadrique warred with the Republic of Venice and stormed the city of Negroponte with Turks after Boniface of Verona died. In 1318, John II Comnenus Ducas, the Byzantine sebastokrator of Neopatria died and Fadrique invaded Thessaly. He took possession of his castles at Lamia and Gardiki and conquered Neopatria, Siderocastron, Loidoriki, Domokos, and Pharsalus. He conquered the palace of the Ducae at Ypati and took the title of Vicar General of the Duchy of Neopatria. He built a tower at Ypati. In 1330, Alfonso was relieved of his duties as vicar general and replaced by Odo de Novelles. He was compensated with the Sicilian counties of Malta and Gozo. He died in 1338 and left three sons: Pedro, James, and Boniface.

Notes
1. ^ He is referred to with the magniloquent title magnificus dominus, dominus Alfonsus, excellentissimi domini, domini Federici, Dei gratia regis Siciliae filius, ac felici Francorum exercitui in ducatu Athenarum et in aliis partibus Romanie imperii presidens, that is "Magnificent lord, don Alfonso, son of the most excellent lord don Frederick, by the grace of God King of Sicily and president of the fortunate army of the Franks in the duchy of Athens and other parts of the Roman Empire".

Sources

Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume III The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Harry W. Hazard, editor. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, 1975. Setton, Kenneth M. Catalan Domination of Athens 13111380. Revised edition. Variorum: London, 1975.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neopatria

Duchy of Neopatria
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Duchy of Neopatria

13191390

Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Neopatras

Capital Language(s) Religion

Government Historical era - Principality 1319 established - Conquered by the 1390 Republic of Florence

Neai Patrai Catalan (official), Greek popularly Roman Catholic officially, Greek Orthodox popularly Duchy Middle Ages

The Duchy of Neopatria or Neopatras (Catalan: Ducat de Neoptria, Greek: ) was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade. It was situated in Central Greece, centered around the city of Neai Patrai (modern Ypati) in the Spercheios valley, west of Lamia. In 1318-1319 the Almogavars of the Catalan Company, after having conquered most of the Duchy of Athens, expanded into the territories of the Despotate of Epirus in southern Thessaly, under Alfonso Frederick, the infante of the Kingdom of Sicily. The new territories were created a duchy and united with the Duchy of Athens. The Duchy was divided into the captaincies of Siderokastron, Neopatria, and Salona (modern Amfissa).

Part of the Duchy's possessions in Thessaly was conquered by the Serbs of Stefan Dusan in 1337. In 1377, the title of Duke of Neopatria was assumed by Peter IV of Aragon. It was preserved among the subsidiary titles of his successors, and is still included in the full title of the Spanish monarchs. The attacks of the Byzantine Empire progressively diminished the territory of the duchy until what was left of it fell completely into the hands of the Republic of Florence in 1390. Eccelesiastically, Neopatria largely corresponded to the Archdiocese of Neopatras (L'Arquebisbat de la ptria) which had one suffragan: Zeitounion. Among the Catalan archbishops was Ferrer d'Abella, who tried to have himself transferred to a west European see.

Sources

Setton, Kenneth M. Catalan Domination of Athens 13111380. Revised edition. London: Variorum, 1975.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almogavars Almogavars

Almogavar-style troops during the conquest of Mallorca. Almogavars is the name of a class of soldier mostly from the Crown of Aragon and other Iberian kingdoms during the 13th and 14th centuries.[1] Almogavars were lightly clad, quickmoving frontiersmen and foot-soldiers. They were well known during the Christian Reconquista (reconquest) of the Iberian Peninsula. Aragonese crown troops were commanded mainly by Christian officers, or infanzones (low noblemen without money). They hailed from Catalonia, Aragon, and later Valencia. At first these troops were formed by farmers and shepherds originating from the countryside, woods and frontier mountain areas. Later, they were much employed as mercenaries in Italy, Latin Greece and the Levant.[1]

Contents

1 History o 1.1 Ethnic development 1.1.1 Origins and early history, 7th through 9th centuries 1.1.2 10th and 11th Centuries 1.1.3 12th, 13th and early 14th Centuries 1.1.3.1 War in Sicily and crusade against the Crown of Aragon 1.1.3.2 The Catalan Company 1.1.3.3 The Aragonese Duchy of Athens 1.1.4 Late Period 2 Cultural and linguistic legacy o 2.1 Etymology o 2.2 Negative connotation of Almogavars o 2.3 The battle cry of the Almogavars in Catalan 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading

History

Kingdom of Pamplona and Banu Qasi c. 925

Iberian peninsula in 1031. Almogavar history begins with early invasions of Iberia by Muslim peoples and battles with northern and western foes. These troops of different faiths were joining to the service of the Christian kingdoms as they once had been under the command of the Muslim kingdoms. The

hinterland of Ebro Valley oscillated between two powerful states, Moors of al Andalus and Franks, of the Carolingian Empire, looking to expand the Marca Hispanica.

Ethnic development
Very early on,[clarification needed] Iberian society was composed of Muslims who were at first ethnically Near East Muslims. Large percentages were also Arabic, Berber, Iberian native converts (muwallads), native Christians, and a Jewish minority. The Jewish minority representated about 5% of the population.[clarification needed] The ethnically Arab were at the top of the social hierarchy; Muslims in general had a higher social standing. Christians and Jews were considered dhimmis and had to pay a specific tax called a jizya. They still enjoyed the possibility of social mobility. Conversion to Islam translated into a higher rate of social mobility for Christians and Jews alike. Half of the Christians in Al-Andalus are reported to have converted to Islam by the 10th century, with more than 80% by the 11th century. Even Christians that did not accept Islam as their religion, became increasingly Arabized in terms of culture. These Christians became known as Mozarabs or mustaribs, a word meaning "Arabized." However, after the conquest of the Islamic kingdoms by the northern Christian kingdoms, the population again gradually become Christian for the same reasons. Socioeconomically, Almogavars generally came from peasant or shepherd people. Most were of Muslim descent and custom but not all were. In their war cries they shouted "Awake sword, kill, kill, Saint George, Aragon..."[2] as stated by chronicler Ramon Muntaner. Later, [clarification needed] the ranks of the Almogavars were restocked with persons from widely diverse backgrounds, including Christians. These included soldiers from the following kingdoms and locales:[citation needed]

Kingdom of Navarre (Vascones) Kingdom of Pamplona Gascony Kingdom of Aragon Val d'Aran.

The Almogavars also included other vascon or vasconized people of Ebro Valley;

Franks Urgellese Ampurianense Gironese Toulousian Rosellonese Barcelonian Pallaresian

And Iberian or European people;


Valencian Mallorcans Galician Castilian Sicilian

Sardinian Calabrese Occitan Greek Turkish

Their ranks even included Germans, who joined the troops of the king of Aragon during the expedition by the Byzantine Empire.[3] [4] [5]

Origins and early history, 7th through 9th centuries


See also early Al-Andalus history In 711, Tariq ibn Ziyad, under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, led a large army from the north coast of Morocco on April 29 711. The armies of Tariq, composed of recent converts to Islam,[6] landed at Gibraltar. The Muslim armies swept through Hispania. Bandits known as Al-Mogauar were located in the territories of the Al Andalus towards the 10th century. The first historical reference appears in the Arabic chronicle muluk Akhbar Al-Andalus, history of the kings of Andalus, written between 887 and 955 by Ahmad ibn Muhammad alRazi, known among the Arabs with the nickname Al-Tariji (the Chronicler) and between Christians as the Moor Rasis. In his chronicle, the historian of Qurtuba describes the areas of Al-Andalus, and the Ebro valley. Al Tariji identifies for first time in history the existence of troops called almogavars in the city Saraqusta, the Islamic Zaragoza.[3] When Charlemagne destroyed the walls of Pamplona after a failed attempt to conquest the Muslim Saraqusta, the Vascons Leaders, allies and relatives of Banu Qasi, a muladi family of Muslim leaders, annihilated the rearguard of Franks in the Battle of Roncevaux Pass through an ambush of a coaliated vascon and Muslim force. igo Arista of Pamplona was stepbrother of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi, by mother. In 799, proFrankish assassins, murdered Mutarrif ibn Musa, governor of Pamplona, perhaps the brother of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi and of igo himself. Also in 799, northern Basques, organized in the Duchy of Vasconia, collaborated with Franks during campaigns such as the capture of Barcelona. In 806, Pamplona, still under Cordovan rule, was attacked next by the Franks. The Pamplonese led by a Velasko pledged allegiance to Charlemagne again, but his tenure on power proved feeble. At about 814, an anti-Frankish faction led by Enecco, allied of the Banu Qasi, seems to have taken over again. A Frankish army was sent to quash the revolt, to little effect. Furthermore, on their way north through Roncevaux an ambush attempt took place that ended in stalemate, due to the greater precautions taken by the Franks, i.e. Basque women and children taken as hostages. After the death of Charlemagne in 814, uprisings started anew. The revolt in Pamplona crossed the Pyrenees north and in 816 Louis the Pious deposed the Basque Duke Seguin of Bordeaux. Failure to suppress the rebellion started a widespread revolt, led by Gartzia Semeno (who according to late traditions was a near-kinsman of Eneko Aritza, was the first monarch of Pamplona, and was newly appointed duke Lupus Centullo (c. 820).) Meanwhile, in Aragon the pro-Frankish Count Aznar Galindo was overthrown by Eneccos allied Count

Gartzia Maloith. Aznar Galindo in turn sought refuge in Frankish-held territory. Louis the Pious then received the submission of rebel Vascon lords in Dax, but things were far from settled.[citation needed] Historian Ibn Hayyan reported that in 816, Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Wahid ibn Mugit launched a military campaign against the pro-Frankish "Enemy of God", "Velasco the Gascon" (Arabic: , Balak al-alaq), Sahib of Pamplona (Arabic: ) . These armies were reported to have united Christian and pagan factions. A three-day battle was fought in which the pro-Crdoba faction routed their enemies and killed Velasco, along with Garca Lpez, kinsman of Alfonso II of Asturias, Sancho "warrior/knight of Pamplona", and pagan warrior "altn". This defeat of the pro-Frankish force appears to have allowed the anti-Franks igo to come to power. In 820, igo is said to have intervened in the County of Aragon, ejecting a Frankish vassal, count Aznar I Galndez, in favor of Garca el Malo (the Bad), who would become igo's sonin-law. In 824, the Frankish counts Aeblus and Aznar Snchez made an expedition against Pamplona, but were defeated in the third Battle of Roncesvalles. In 824, the third Battle of Roncevaux ensued. Counts Eblo and Aznar Galindo (also identified as Aznar Snchez and the latter appointed Duke of Gascony) were captured by the joint Pamplonese and Banu Qasi forces, strengthening the independence of Kingdom of Pamplona. The type of soldiers in these on-going battles consisted of small groups trained in assault by surprise. Christian Aragonese Crown soldiers will adapt these tactics and come to be known by the name of almogavars.

10th and 11th Centuries


The Banu Hud of Taifa of Saraqusta resisted the Almoravid dynasty. They ruled until they were eventually defeated by the Almoravids in May 1110. The last sultan of the Banu Hud, Abd-al-Malik, and Imad ad-Dawla of Saraqusta, was forced to abandon the capital. Abd-alMalik allied himself with the Christian Aragonese under Alfonso I of Aragon. From the time, the Muslims of Saraqusta became military regulars within the Aragonese forces. In the Taifa of Zaragoza Christian infanzon exiled of Castilla El Cid with his supporters (Mesnada) offer their service to Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud. He accepted the command of Taifa of Zaragoza and swore their allegiance to the Moorish Muslim king of the northeast AlAndalus city of Zaragoza, Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud. They served both this Moorish king and his successor, Al-Mustain II. Given the title of Al Sidi ( El Cid, The Master), he served as a leading figure in a Moorish force consisting of Muladis, Berbers, Arabs and Malians. O'Callaghan writes: That kingdom was divided between al-Mutamin (10811085) who ruled Zaragoza proper, and his brother al-Mundhir, who ruled Lrida and Tortosa. El Cid entered al-Mutamin's service and successfully defended Zaragoza against the assaults of al-Mundhir, Sancho I of Aragn, and Ramn Berenguer II, whom he held captive briefly in 1082. In 1084, El Cid and the Moorish armies defeated Sancho of Aragon at the Battle of Morella near Tortosa. He was then troubled by the fierce conflicts between the Muladis of Badajoz and the Arabs of Seville.

In 1086, the Almoravid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula began. It was started through and around Gibraltar. The Almoravids, Berber residents of present-day North Africa, led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin, were asked to help defend the divided Moors from Alfonso. El Cid probably commanded a large Moorish force during the great Battle of Sagrajas, which took place in 1086, near the Taifa of Badajoz. The Almoravid and Andalusian Taifas, including the armies of Badajoz, Mlaga, Granada, Tortosa and Seville, defeated a combined army of Len, Aragn and Castile. Already in 1095 troops named Almogavars served King Sancho Ramrez I of Aragon. These forces took part in the conquest of a Muslim city, which the Chronicles did not identify at the time. However, after the recapture, this city was renamed by King Ramirez as Limousin Mont Sn, and later renamed Castilianize in Monzn.[7][8]

12th, 13th and early 14th Centuries


This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012) In 1110 or 1111, some Christian Almogavers were reported when Christian King Alfonso I of Aragon and Pamplona designated Almogavers as the populace of the "El Castellar" fortress. This fortress was located on the banks of the Ebro near Zaragoza. This reference took place the same year that Aragonese and Navarrese troops conquered Ejea and Tauste and as they prepared to besiege Saraqusta.[citation needed] In 1177, Alfonso the Chaste went to the siege of Al- Madinat kunka (Cuenca) with a group armed and identified as almogavers. This effort was in support of the Castilian monarch.
War in Sicily and crusade against the Crown of Aragon

On March 30, 1282, Peter III of Aragon waged war on Charles of Anjou after the Sicilian Vespers for the possession of Naples and Sicily. The Almogavars formed the most effective element of his army. Their discipline, ferocity and the force with which they hurled their javelins made them formidable against heavy cavalry of the Angevin armies. They fought against cavalry by attacking the enemies' horses instead of the knights themselves. Once a knight was on the ground he was an easy victim of an Almogavar. Between 1284 and 1285, the "Crusade against the Crown of Aragon" was declared by Pope Martin IV against King Peter the Great of Aragon. This crusade was declared based on King Peter's intervention in Sicilian affairs against the papal will. Most of the conflict took place in Catalonia, although the first episode took place in the frontier of Navarre and Aragon. The Almogavars were at the service of King commanded by King Peter or Roger of Lauria. Roger of Lauria had much more control over his captains than the enemies did. His crews were made up of specialized troops, instead of the more generic types used by his enemies. His archers were used initially, while his oarsmen Almogavars stayed under cover. These Almogavars were much more agile than the heavily armored knights with swords, as his enemies often used, especially on the moving deck of a galley at sea. Roger used trickery to disguise the size of his force. In addition, he sometimes kept some of his galleys hidden, to attack the rear of the enemy after the battle had started.

Roger was also infamous for the ruthless sackings and the devastation of his actions, often driven only by greed and personal advantage. On the other side, his reputation alone possibly caused some enemies to lose heart during a battle.
The Catalan Company

In 1302, the Peace of Caltabellotta ended the war in southern Italy. The Almogavars, under the leadership of Roger de Flor ("Roger Blum", a former Knight Templar), formed the Catalan Company in the service of the emperor of the East, Andronicus II Palaeologus. This company was organized to fight against the Turks. Both kings of Aragon and Sicily agreed with this strategy as a viable alternative to having the Almogavar standing army unemployed in their realms. The Almogavar campaign in Asia Minor took place in 1303 and 1304. It began with a series of military victories, but also saw widespread looting of Byzantine civilians. When the Almogavars insisted in receiving the agreed payment, the Byzantine Emperor refused. Thereafter the Almogavars turned to violence, making their presence intolerable to the Byzantine population. In 1305, Roger de Flor and his lieutenants were assassinated by orders of the Emperor while meeting to discuss terms on their compensation. This assassination was presumably on the instigation of Genoese merchants, who were conspiring to keep their own position of influence and power. This betrayal resulted in the Almogavars ravaging the neighborhood of Constantinople.
The Aragonese Duchy of Athens

Subsequently the Almogavars marched against the Duchy of Athens, under the rule of the French House of Brienne. In March 1310, Duke Walter V of Brienne and all his knights were defeated and slain by the Almogavars at the Battle of the Cephissus, or Orchomenus in Boeotia. They then divided the wives and possessions of the Frenchmen by lot, and summoned a prince of the house of Aragon to rule over them. The culminating achievement of the Almogavars was the foundation of Aragonese rule over the duchy of Athens. Although the duchy eventually fell to the Ottoman Empire, even today the King of Spain still holds the title of 'Duke of Athens and Neopatria'.

Late Period
As time passed, Muslim Almogavars became less numerous. In 1502, violating the 1492 peace treaty Ferdinand II of Aragon forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert to Catholicism or be expelled. Nevertheless, King Ferdinand, ruler of the Kingdom of Aragon, continued to tolerate the large Muslim population living in his territory. Since the Crown of Aragon was independent of Castile, their policies towards Muslims were more tolerant. Historians have suggested that the Crown of Aragon was inclined to tolerate Islam in its realm because the landed nobility there depended on the cheap, plentiful labor of Muslim vassals.[9] However, the landed elite's exploitation of Aragon's Muslims also exacerbated class resentments. These Aragonese troops were subjected mainly by Christian nobility.

In the 1520s, Valencian guilds rebelled against the local nobility in the Revolt of the Brotherhoods. The rebels "saw that the simplest way to destroy the power of the nobles in the countryside would be to free their vassals, and this they did by baptizing them." [10] The Inquisition and monarchy decided to prohibit the forcibly baptized Muslims of Valencia from returning to Islam. In 1609, nominally converted Christian Moriscos were thereafter expelled.

Cultural and linguistic legacy


This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2011)

Etymology
Like most Iberian words beginning with the prefix "al-", it is derived from the Arabic language, from Arabic: al-maghwr, "scout"[1] Al-Mogawer , means "beside" or "neighbor". Other sources claim that the word Almogavar may come from the Arabic "al-muqafir," a "raider" or "devastator". Some sources claim that the catalan word "Almogver" is based on the name al-mughawwar, meaning els que provoquen algarades ("the ones wreaking havoc") given to them by the Saracens. When they made brief incursions, lasting one or two days, of about twelve men into Muslimcontrolled territory. The name and also the presence of these Muslim mercenary troops is earlier, in other Iberian kingdoms. The Almogavars were led by the "Adal", from Arabic ad-dalla, "guide". The captain of a large squadron was known in Catalan as "Almogaten", from Arabic al-muqaddam, "captain".
[11]

Negative connotation of Almogavars


This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012) Almogavars were also known as "catalans" in Byzantine Empire territories. The presence of the company left its mark on the folklore and the popular legend of the different regions where they spent, including as far as the Balkans and Greece. Devastation caused by Almogavars troops has created a negative connotation in some locales. In the region of Thrace, a popular saying included: may the revenge of the Catalans fall on you. In Bulgaria, the expressions "Catalan" and "Son of Catalan" mean "wicked man, soulless, torturer". This negative connotation reached beyond the boundaries of folklore to influence poets such as Ivan M. Vazov in the poem Pirates, first published in 1915. Vazov includes the Catalans with the Turks as the greatest oppressors of the Bulgarian nation. In the region of Parnassus, the following saying is popularised: "I will flee from the Turks to fall into the hands of the Catalans". Currently, in Albania the word "Catalan" means "ugly and wicked man." Likewise, "Catalan" or "Katallani" is designated in Albanian folklore as a monster with one eye, reminiscent in many ways the Cyclops Polyphemus. This cyclops is represented by a wild blacksmith who

feeds on human flesh. He also has no knees, so he can not bend, and long legs like masts of a ship. He faces a young hero named Dedaliya. This tradition, in various versions, is usually called by the title of Daedalus dhe Katallani, Daedalus and Catalan.

The battle cry of the Almogavars in Catalan


Main article: Awake iron! Aur! Aur! Desperta ferro! Deus aia! ... Veyentnos sols venir, los pobles ja flamejen: veyentnos sols passar, son bech los corbs netejen. La guerra y lo saqueig, no hi ha mellors plahers. Avant, almugavers! Que avisin als fossers! La veu del somatent nos crida ja a la guerra. Fadigues, plujes, neus, calors resistirem, y si'ns abat la sn, pendrra per llit la terra, y si'ns rendeix la fam carn crua menjarem! Desperta ferro! Avant! Depressa com lo llamp caym sobre son camp! Almugavers, avant! Anem all a fer carn! Les feres tenen fam! [12] Meaning: Listen! listen! Wake up, O iron! Help us God!...Just seeing us coming the villages are already ablaze. Just seeing us passing the crows are wiping their beaks. War and plunder, there are no greater pleasures. Forward Almogavars! Let them call the gravediggers! The voice of the somatent[13] is calling us to war. Weariness, rains, snow and heat we shall endure. And if sleep overtakes us, we will use the earth as our bed. And if we get hungry, we shall eat raw meat. Wake up, O iron! Forward! Fast as the lightning let us fall over their camp! Forward Almogavars! Let us go there to make flesh, the wild beasts are hungry!

See also

Catalan Company Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Aragon

References
^ a b c Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2004). Reconquest and crusade in medieval Spain. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-8122-1889-3. 2. ^ "Los almogvares(Spanish)". 3. ^ a b Bolea 2010, pag. 14 1. Adems, y corrigiendo trabajos literarios aparecidos en los ltimos aos, se debe recordar que estos mercenarios hablaban y se comunicaban exclusivamente en aragons y en cataln medieval. De ninguna manera lo hicieron en castellano, lengua en ese tiempo extraa para ellos [...] y as lo atestiguan documentos como los transmitidos por Johan Ferrndez de Heredia o la corte de Pedro IV [de Aragn]

loc. cit. Chus L. Bolea 4. ^ Rufino Blanco-Fombona y, Motivos y letras de Espaa. II. La epopeya bizantina de los almogvares, en Rafael Ramn Castellanos (ed.), Ensayos histricos, Caracas, Biblioteca Ayacucho, 1981, pg. 333. ISBN 978-84-660-0003-1. 5. ^ Jos Hinojosa Montalvo, Jaime II y el esplendor de la Corona de Aragn, San Sebastin, Nerea, 2006, pg. 232. ISBN 978-84-89569-99-7. 6. ^ Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith, originally published in 1912, ISBN 1-143-05978-6 ISBN 978-1143059780 (Nabu Press, 2010) pg. 259. 7. ^ History of the Mallorca Region (in Spanish) 8. ^ Historia y Vida n. 432 9. ^ Henry Kamen, Spanish Inquisition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997, p. 216 ISBN 978-0-300-07880-0) and Yale University Press Review of Kamen book 10. ^ Kamen, Spanish Inquisition, p. 216. 11. ^ Ferran Soldevila: "Els Almogvers" 12. ^ "Los pirineus : obra dramtica en un prolech y tres actes" - Victor Balaguer 13. ^ An ancient Catalan paramilitary organization

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muladi

Muladi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The Muladi (Spanish: mulad [mulai], pl. mulades; Portuguese: muladi [muli], pl. muladis; Catalan: muladita [muit] or mulad [mui], pl. muladites or mulads; Arabic: trans. mwallad, pl. mwalladn or mwalladn) were Muslims of ethnic Iberian descent or of mixed Arab, Berber and European origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. They were also called "Musalima" (Islamized).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Famous Muladi 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References

Etymology

Aljamiado text in 16th century The Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan words mulad, muladi or muladita are derived from Arabic muwallad. The basic meaning of muwallad is a person of mixed ancestry, especially a descendant of an Arab and a non-Arab parent, who grew up among Arabs and was educated within the Islamic culture. Muwallad is derived from the root word WaLaD ( direct Arabic transliteration: waw, lam, dal). Walad means, "descendant, offspring, scion; son; boy; young animal (male), young one (male)." Muwallad referred to the offspring of Arab men and foreign, non-Arab women. The term muwalladin is used in Arabic up to this day to describe the children between Arab fathers and foreign mothers.[1] According to Dozy, Muwallad means "anyone who, without being of Arab origin, is born among the Arabs and has been raised as an Arab".[2] The word, according to him, does not necessarily imply Arab ancestry, either paternal or maternal. According to the dictionnary of the Real Academia Espaola, Muladi means "Christian Spaniard who, during the Arab domination in Spain, embraced Islam and lived among the Muslims." http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=muladi According to Bernards and Nawas, the plural form of the word seems to be restricted to alAndalus, almost exclusively to the areas of Mrida, Granada, Seville and Jan.[3] "Muladi" has been offered as one of the possible etymological origins of the still-current Spanish and Portuguese term Mulatto, denoting a person of white and black ancestry. In the Basque language, the word mairuak (builders of semi-circular Arches) referred to Muladi merchants and travelers who built Mosques in the rural regions of Iberia.

History

Muladi art from Toledo in Al-Andalus depicting the Alczar in the year 976.AD In Islamic history muwalladun designates in a broader sense non-Arab neo-Muslims or the descendants of converts. In the Muslim-ruled parts of the Iberian Peninsula, parts of the indigenous until-then Christian population (basically a mixture of the pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, ancient Romans, Visigoths and Suebi) converted to Islam in the 8th and 9th centuries. In the 10th century a massive conversion of Christians took place, so that muladies comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the century's end. However, the majority of Muwallads had embraced Islam early, but retained many preIslamic customs and characteristics. Conversion to Islam was encouraged by the Ummayad caliphs and Emirs of Crdoba but it was not forced. Many Christians converted to Islam to avoid the Jizya tax which they were subjected to as Dhimmis.[4] Conversion to Islam also opened up new horizons to the native Christians, alleviated their social position, ensured better living conditions, and broadened their scope for more technically skilled and advanced work.[5] The Christians who embraced Islam became Mawali, or clients attached to an Arab tribe, and as such, were thoroughly Arabized, adopting the Arab dress code, customs, and language.[6] The Muwallads were also called Muslima (Islamized), and elches (ilj, plural: ulus), in reference to the society from which they sprang. They later were denominated Aljamiados because of their non Arabic-tongue, the term having particular reference to the Persian language. Through the cultural Arabization of muladies and their increasing inter-marriage with some Berbers and Arabs present in Iberia, the distinctions between the different Muslim groups became increasingly blurred in the 11th and 12th centuries. The populations mixed with such rapidity that it was soon impossible to distinguish ethnically the elements of foreign origin from the natives. Thus they merged into a more homogeneous group of Andalusi Arabs generally also called Moors.[6]

Poems in Aljamiado. The Muwallads primarily spoke Andalusian Arabic, along with a wide variety of Iberian Romance languages. Andalusian Arabic was a mixture of Iberian languages and Classical Arabic, though derived especially from Latin. This local dialect of Arabic was also spoken by the Berbers and Arabs from the 9th century onwards.

In the process of acculturation, Muwallads may well have adopted an agnatic model of descent, but without abandoning the bilaterality of late Roman kinship. According to Abu Jafar ibn Harun of Trujillo a vast but silent majority of Muladi Muslims thrived especially in the Extremadura region of Spain.[6] Among the Muwalladun were the free-born, the enfranchised, and slaves. A significant part of the Muwalladun was formed by freed slaves. These were the Saqaliba, or Slavs who became an important social group in Al-Andalus during the 10th and 11th centuries. Upon adopting the ethnic name of their patrons, the emancipated slaves gradually forgot their own ethnic origin.[6] The Slavic Muslim slaves were the Saqaliba, led by Ali ibn Yusuf, who profited from the progressive crumbling of the Umayyad Caliphate's superstructure to gain control over the province of Denia. The Saqaliba managed to free themselves and gain dominion over the Taifa, which extended its reach as far as the Balearic Islands, and their capital, Madina Mayurqa (now Palma, Majorca). The intermarriage of foreign Muslims with native Christians made many Muwallads mindless of their Iberian origin. As a result, their descendants and many descendants of Christian converts forgot the descent of their ancestors and assumed forged Arab genealogies.[6] However, there were a few who were proud of their Roman and Visigothic origins. These included the Banu Angelino and Banu Sabarico of Seville, Banu Qasi of Aragon, Banu l' Longo and Banu Qabturno. Several Muwallad nobles also used the name Al-Quti, (the Goths), and some may have been actual descendants from the family of the Visigothic King of Hispania, Wittiza.[6] The conversion of the native Christians to Islam did not mean the total erasure of previous beliefs and social practises. There is some evidence of a limited cultural borrowing from the Christians by the Muwalladun and other Muslims in Al-Andalus. For instance, the Muslims' adoption of the Christian solar calendar and holidays was an exclusively Andalusi phenomenon. In Al-Andalus, the Islamic lunar calendar was supplemented by the local solar calendar, which was more useful for agricultural and navigational purposes. Like the local Mozarabs (Iberian Christians under Muslim rule in the Al-Andalus who remained unconverted to Islam), the Muslims of Al-Andalus were notoriously heavy drinkers. The Muslims also celebrated traditional Christian holidays, sometimes with the sponsorship of their leaders, despite the fact that such fraternisation was generally opposed by the Ulema. The Muslims also hedged their religious devotions through the use of Roman Catholic sacraments.[7] Many Muwallads held key posts in the departments of civil administration, justice and the armed forces. Amrus ibn Yusuf, a Muwallad who was originally from Huesca, was appointed governor of Toledo by Hakam I in 797. Towards the end of the 11th century, the Muwalladun held distinctive posts in the judicial departments. The Caliph of Crdoba, Abd ar-Rahman III, once bestowed the post of chief qadi of Crdoba on a Christian convert, whose parents were still Christian, and the Fuqaha found much difficulty in dissuading him. The secretary of the Crdoban Emir, Abd'Allah, was a Muwallad. The commander of the Crdoban force in the battle of Alhandega against the Zamorans in 938 was a neo-Muslim Slavic general named Najdah. The 10th century Muwallad historian Ibn al-Qiyya was descended directly on the maternal side from the Visigothic King Wittiza.[6] In about 889 a ship carrying twenty Berber Muwallad adventurers from Pechina near Almera established a fortress in Fraxinet, on the Gulf of Saint-Tropez in Provence. They spoke both Latin (Mozarabic?) and Arabic.[8]

Several Muwalladun became rich and powerful magnates by means of trade, agriculture, and political activity. The Muwallads of the town the Christians called Elvira, after the former Iberian name "Ilbira", had become so powerful during the reign of Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi that they rose under a chieftan called Nabil and successfully drove the Moors out of the city. The Banu Qasi dynasty which ruled the entire Ebro valley in the 9th and 10th centuries, became strong enough to break free from the control of the Umayyad dynasty of Crdoba and turn from a semi-autonomous governorship to an independent taifa.[6] The Muwalladun were the mainstay of the economic framework of the country. Together with the Mozarabs they constituted the productive classes which were craftsmen and small tradesmen in the towns, and farmers and labourers in the rural countryside. However, they were inferior to the Arabs and Berbers in social status. Prominent positions in government and society were usually not available to individuals of Muladi descent. In spite of the Islamic doctrine of equality and brotherhood of Muslims, the Muwalladun were often looked down upon with the utmost contempt by the Arab and Berber aristocrats and were usually pejoratively referred to as "the sons of slaves".[6] The Muwallads, in turn, in spite of their profession of faith, despised the Arabs whom they viewed as colonialists and foreign intruders. This mutual feeling of hatred and suspicion provoked frequent revolts and led the Muwallads to support the Abbasid political agents, the preachers of Shu'ubiyya (a non-Arab movement), and subversive activities against the Umayyad rule in Iberia.[6] The Shu'ubiyyah of Al-Andalus were active like the Arabs in promoting Arab-Islamic culture and language and claimed their integration with the Arab ethnic groups. The Shu'ubiyyah movement demanded equality of power, wealth and status for non-Arab Berbers and the Muwalladun from the Arabs. Some judges of Huesca upheld the cause of the Muwalladun in the beginning of the 10th century, and a literary epistle of the middle of the 11th century repeated arguments of Eastern Shu'ubite writers.[9] In Al-Andalus, the large numbers of Christians adopting Islam prompted concern among the authorities about the weakening of the tax base and further inflamed resentment towards the Muwallads.[10] The Muwallads were in almost constant revolt against the Arab and Berber immigrants who had carved out large estates for themselves, farmed by Christian serfs or slaves.[10] The most famous of these revolts were led by a Muwallad rebel named Umar ibn Hafsun in the region of Mlaga and Ronda. Ibn Hafsun ruled over several mountain valleys for nearly forty years, having the castle Bobastro as his residence. He rallied disaffected muwallads and mozrabs to his cause. Ibn Hafsun eventually renounced Islam with his sons and became a Christian, taking the name Samuel and proclaimed himself not only the leader of the Christian nationalist movement, but also the champion at the same time of a regular crusade against Islam. However, his conversion soon cost him the support of most of his Muwallad supporters who had no intention of ever becoming Christians, and led to the gradual erosion of his power.[11] There were also other Muwallad revolts throughout Al-Andalus. In the Elvira region, for instance, discord sprang up between the Muwallads and Moors, the latter being led by Sawar ibn Hamdub, and the poet, Sa'ad ibn Judi, both of whom fluctuated between insurrection against Abd'Allah and submission to him. In Seville, the second largest city after Crdoba, there was a vicious feud between the two Arab aristocratic families, Banu Hajjaj and Banu

Khaldun, and two Muwallad noble families, Banu Angelino and Banu Sabarico, which finally left Ibrahim ibn Hajjaj as the ruler of an independent city-state.[6] In 805, the Muwallads of Crdoba, incited by certain theologians, revolted against the Umayyads under Hakim I, but the uprising was suppressed. In 814, there was a second revolt of Muwallads in Corboba, and this time the revolt was put down with the utmost severity, and resulted in the expulsion of 9,500 Muwallads from Crdoba, with over 1,500 going to Alexandria and 8,000 to Fez. In 858, there was a Muwallad revolt in Mrida, led by Ibn Marwan. The Muwallads complained of the taxation of their lands as if they were still Christian. The revolt's outcome was the defeat of Ibn Marwan. Mrida was subdued, but the centre of revolt soon moved to Badajoz.[6] The Muwallads were sometimes assisted by the local Mozarab population, and occasionally by the Christian powers in their revolts. For instance, when the Muwalladun of Toledo revolted, aided by the large Mozarabic population of the city, Ordoo I of Asturias, promptly responded to their appeal for help, but the Emir's forces were routed by the Toledans and Asturians on the Guadacelete in 854.[6] Many minor rebels from among the Muladi leadership took possession of various sites, their descendants eventually becoming semi-independent Emirs. These included:

Ubayd'Allah ibn Umayya ibn Shaliya in Shumantan (present-day Somontin in the region of Jan), Sa'id ibn Mastanna in Baghu (Priego), Khayr ibn Shakir in Shudhar (Jodar), Sa'id ibn Hudhayl in al-Muntliyun (Monleon near Jan), Daysam ibn Ishaq in Murcia and Lurqa (Lorca), Abd al-Malik ibn Abd-al Jawad in Beja and Mirtula (Mrtola) in Portugal, Bakr ibn Yahya in Shantamariyyat al-Gharb (the present-day city of Faro in Algarve, Southern Portugal).[6] Muhammad ibn 'Umar ibn Khattab ibn Angelino, of Seville rebelled against Abd arRahman III

On the western frontier of Al-Andalus, the Muwalladun and Berber families divided control of the region containing Mrida, Badajoz, and their environs.[6]

Famous Muladi

Aben Humeya Ab al-Hasan ibn Al al-Qalasd Abu Hafs Ab Ishq Ibrhm al-Zarql Abu Jafar ibn Harun al-Turjali Abu Taur of Huesca Al-Tutili Al-Udri Amrus ibn Yusuf Ibn al-Qiyya Ibn al-Yayyab

Ibn ar-Tafiz Ibn Ammar Ibn Faradi Ibn Gharsiya Ibn Hazm Ibn Marwan Ibn Quzman Muhammad al-Tawil of Huesca Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi

See also

Mozarabs, local population who remained Christians as dhimmis. Banu Qasi, a Muladi family descending from a Visigothic lord Cassius who became the independent rulers of their own taifa. Mudjars, Muslims living under Christian rulers.

Aljamiado
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

Aljamiado text by Mancebo de Arvalo. c. 16th century[1]

Poema de Yuuf.

Aljamiado Arabic script of rex Pedro ben Xancho

Aljamiado (Spanish: [alxamjao]; Arabic: trans. ajamiyah) or Aljama texts are manuscripts which use the Arabic script for transcribing Romance languages such as Mozarabic, Portuguese, Spanish or Ladino. According to Anwar G. Chejne,[2] Aljamiado or Aljama is "a corruption of the Arabic word ajamiyah (in this case it means foreign language) and, generally, the Arabic expression ajam and its derivative ajamiyah are applicable to peoples whose ancestry is not of Arabian origin". In linguistic terms, the Aljama is the use of the Arabic alphabet to transcribe the Romance language, which was used by some people in some areas of Al-Andalus as an everyday communication vehicle, while Arabic was reserved as the language of high culture and religion. The systematic writing of Romance-language texts in Arabic scripts appears to have begun in the fifteenth century, and the overwhelming majority of such texts that can be dated belong to the sixteenth century.[3] A key aljamiado text was the mufti of Segovia's compilation Suma de los principales mandamientos y devediamentos de nuestra santa ley y sunna, of 1462.[4] In later times, Moriscos were banned from using Arabic as a religious language, and wrote in Spanish on Islamic subjects. Examples are the Coplas del alhichante de Puey Monzn, narrating a Hajj,[5] or the Poema de Yuuf on the Biblical Joseph.

Contents

1 Usage by the Moriscos during the persecution of Muslims in Spain 2 Other uses 3 See also 4 References and notes 5 Further reading 6 External links

Usage by the Moriscos during the persecution of Muslims in Spain

Aljamiado letters Aljamiado played a very important role in preserving Islam and the Arabic language in the life of the Moriscos. After the fall of the last Muslim kingdom on the Iberian peninsula, the Moriscos (Andalusian Muslims in Granada and other parts of what was once Al-Andalus) were forced to convert to Christianity or leave the peninsula. They were forced to adopt

Christian customs and traditions and to attend church services on Sundays. Nevertheless, some of the Moriscos kept their Islamic belief and traditions secretly through the usage of Aljamiado. In 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a royal decree in Spain which forced Moriscos to abandon using Arabic on all occasions, formal and informal, speaking and writing. Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime. They were given three years to learn the language of the Christian Spanish, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. Moriscos translated all prayers and the sayings of their prophet Mohammed into Aljamiado transcriptions of the Spanish language, while keeping all Qur'anic verses in the original Arabic. Aljamiado scrolls were circulated amongst the Moriscos. Historians came to know about Aljamiado literature only in the early nineteenth century. Some of the Aljamiado scrolls are kept in the Spanish National Library in Madrid.

Other uses
The word aljamiado is sometimes used for other non-Semitic language written in Arabic letters. For example Bosnian and Albanian texts written in Arabic script during the Ottoman period have been referred to as aljamiado. However, many linguists prefer to limit the term to Romance languages,[citation needed] instead using arebica to refer to the use of Arabic script for Slavic languages.

See also

Mozarabic language Kharjas Category:Arabic alphabets Arabic Afrikaans Karamanli Turkish

References and notes


1. ^ The passage is an invitation directed to the Spanish Moriscos or CryptoMuslims so that they continue fulfilling the Islamic prescriptions in spite of the legal prohibitions and so that they disguise and they are protected showing public adhesion the Christian faith. ^ Chejne, A.G. (1993): Historia de Espaa musulmana. Editorial Ctedra. Madrid, Spain. Published originally as: Chejne, A.G. (1974): Muslim Spain: Its History and Culture. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, USA ^ L.P. Harvey. "The Moriscos and the Hajj" Bulletin of the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 14.1 (1987:11-24) p. 15. ^ "Summa of the principal commandments and prohibitions of our holy law and sunna". (Harvey 1987.) ^ Gerard Albert Wiegers, Islamic Literature in Spanish and Aljamiado 1994, p. 226.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Further reading

Los Siete Alhaicales y otras plegarias de mudjares y moriscos by Xavier Casassas Canals published by Almuzara, Sevilla (Spain), 2007. (Spanish)

External links

A bilingual Arabic-aljamiado Qur'an from the fifteenth century Aljamiado (Texts and Studies) Alhadith: Morisco Literature & Culture A website devoted to the literature and language of the Moriscos; contains a multilingual bibliography, digital texts, and a catalogue of aljamiado-morisco manuscripts.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taifa

Taifa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2011)

The taifas (green) in 1031 In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from Arabic: 'ifa, plural aw'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate or petty kingdom, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Crdoba in 1031.

Contents

1 History o 1.1 Rise o 1.2 Decline 2 List of taifas o 2.1 First period (11th century) o 2.2 Second period (12th century)

2.3 Third period (13th century)

3 External links

History
Rise
The origins of the taifas must be sought in the administrative division of the Umayyad Caliphate of Crdoba, as well in the ethnic division of the elite of this state, divided among Arabs, Berbers, Iberian Muslims (known as Mulades - the overwhelming majority) and the Eastern European former slaves. There was a second period when taifas arose, toward the middle of the 12th century, when the Almoravid rulers were in decline. During the heyday of the taifas, in the 11th century and again in the mid 12th century, their emirs (rulers) competed among themselves, not only militarily but also for cultural prestige. They tried to recruit the most famous poets and artisans.

Decline
Reversing the trend of the Umayyad period, when the Christian kingdoms of the north often had to pay tribute to the Caliph, the disintegration of the Caliphate left the rival Muslim kingdoms much weaker than their Christian counterparts, particularly the Castilian-Leonese monarchy, and had to submit to them, paying tributes known as parias. Due to their military weakness, taifa princes appealed for North African warriors to come fight Christian kings on two occasions. The Almoravids were invited after the fall of Toledo (1085), and the Almohads after the fall of Lisbon (1147). These warriors did not in fact help the taifa emirs but rather annexed their lands to their own North African empires. Taifas often hired Christian mercenaries to fight neighbouring realms (both Christian and Muslim). The most dynamic taifa, which conquered most of its neighbours before the Almoravid invasion, was Seville. Zaragoza was also very powerful and expansive, but inhibited by the neighbour Christian states of the Pyrenees. Zaragoza, Toledo, and Badajoz had previously been the border military districts of the Caliphate.

List of taifas

First period (11th century)


Albarracn: 10111104 (to Almoravids) Algeciras: 10351058 (to Seville) Almera: 10111091 (to Almoravids) Alpuente: 10091106 (to Almoravids) Arcos: 10111068 (to Seville) Badajoz: 10091094 (to Almoravids) Carmona: 10131091 (to Almoravids) Ceuta: 10611084 (to Granada) Crdoba: 10311091 (to Seville) Denia: 1010/10121076 (to Zaragoza) Granada: 10131090 (to Almoravids) Jrica: 11th century (to Toledo) Lisbon: 1022? (to Badajoz) Lorca: 10511091 (to Almoravids) Mlaga: 10261057/1058 (to Granada); 10731090 (to Almoravids) Majorca: 10181203 (to Almohads) Mrtola: 10331091 (to Almoravids) Molina: ?1100 (to Aragon) Morn: 10131066 (to Seville) Murcia: 1011/10121065 (to Valencia) Murviedro and Sagunto: 10861092 (to Almoravids) Niebla: 1023/10241091 (to Seville) Ronda: 1039/10401065 (to Seville) Rueda: 111830 (to Aragon) Salts and Huelva: 1012/10131051/1053 (to Seville) Santa Mara de Algarve: 10181051 (to Seville) Segorbe: 10651075 (to Almoravids) Seville: 10231091 (to Almoravids) Silves: 10401063 (to Seville) Toledo: 1010/10311085 (to Castile) Tortosa: 10391060 (to Zaragoza); 1081/10821092 (to Denia) Valencia: 1010/10111094 (to El Cid, nominally vassal of Castile but allied to Banu Hud) Zaragoza: 10181046 (to Banu Tujib; then to Banu Hud); 10461110 (to Almoravids; in 1118 to Aragon)

History of Al-Andalus

7111492
711732 Muslim conquest Battles : Battle of Guadalete

Battle of Toulouse | Battle of Tours

7561031 Umayyads of Crdoba Emirate of Crdoba Caliphate of Crdoba Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir 10091106

First Taifa period

10851145 Almoravid rule Almoravid conquest Battle of Sagrajas 1140-1203

Second Taifa period

11471238 Almohad rule Battle of Las Navas de

Tolosa
12321287

Third Taifa period

12381492 Emirate of Granada Nasrid dynasty Battle of Granada

connected articles Map of Al-Andalus Reconquista

Second period (12th century)


Almera: 11451147 (briefly to Castile and then to Almohads) Arcos: 1143 (to Almohads) Badajoz: 11451150 (to Almohads) Beja and vora: 11141150 (to Almohads) Carmona: dates and destiny uncertain or unknown Constantina and Hornachuelos: dates and destiny uncertain or unknown Granada: 1145 (to Almohads?) Guadix and Baza: 11451151 (to Murcia) Jan: 11451159 (Murcia); 1168 (to Almohads) Jerez: 1145 (to Almohads) Mlaga: 11451153 (to Almohads) Mrtola: 11441145 (to Badajoz) Murcia: 1145 (to Valencia); 11471172 (to Almohads) Niebla: 11451150? (to Almohads) Purchena: dates and destiny uncertain or unknown Ronda: 1145 (to Almoravids) Santarm: ?1147 (to Portugal) Segura: 1147? (destiny unknown) Silves: 11441155 (to Almohads) Tavira: dates and destiny uncertain or unknown Tejada: 11451150 (to Almohads) Valencia: 11451172 (to Almohads)

Third period (13th century)


Arjona: 12321244 (to Castile) Baeza: 12241226 (to Castile) Ceuta: 12331236 (to Almohads), 12491305 (to Marinids) Denia: 12241227 (to Almohads?) Lorca: 12401265 (to Castile) Menorca: 12281287 (to Aragon) Murcia: 12281266 (to Castile) Niebla: 12341262 (to Castile) Orihuela: 1239/12401249/1250 (to Murcia or Castile) Valencia: 1228/12291238 (to Aragon)

Additionally, but not usually considered taifas, are:


Granada: 12371492 (to Castile) Las Alpujarras: 15681571 (to Spain)

External links

Chronology of the taifa kingdoms (in Spanish) History of Spain: Disintegration of the Caliphate (10101260) Regnal Chronologies - Iberia: al-Andalus

Taifa of Zaragoza
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Saraqusta) Jump to: navigation, search

Taifa of Zaragoza

10131110

Taifa Kingdom of Zaragoza, c. 1080.

Capital Language(s) Religion

Government Historical era - Downfall of 1013 Caliphate of Cordoba - Conquered by the 1110 Almoravids Currency Dirham and Dinar

Zaragoza Arabic, Mozarabic , Hebrew, Berber Islam, Roman Catholicism, Judaism Monarchy Middle Ages

The taifa of Zaragoza was an independent Muslim state in Moorish Al-Andalus, present day eastern Spain, which was established in 1018 as one of the taifa kingdoms, with its capital in Islamic Saraqusta (Zaragoza) city. The zaragoza's taifa emerged in the 11th century following the destruction of the Caliphate of Crdoba in the Moorish Iberian Peninsula. During the first three decades of this period (10181038) the city was ruled by the Banu Tujibi. They were replaced by the Banu Hud, who had to deal with a complicated alliance with El Cid of Valencia and his Castilian Masters against the Almoravids who managed to bring the Taifas Emirates under their control. After the death of El Cid, his kingdom was conquered by the Almoravids, and by 1100 they had crossed the Ebro into Barbastro, which brought into direct contact with Aragon. The Banu Hud stubbornly resisted the Almoravid dynasty and ruled until they were eventually defeated by the Almoravids in May 1110. The last sultan of the Banu Hud, Abd-al-Malik, and

Imad ad-Dawla of Saraqusta, was forced to abandon the capital. Abd-al-Malik allied himself with the Christian Aragonese under Alfonso I of Aragon and from the time the Muslims of Saraqusta became military regulars within the Aragonese forces. They were knowed as Almogavars.

Contents

1 List of Emirs o 1.1 Tujibid dynasty o 1.2 Huddid dynasty 2 See also 3 External links

List of Emirs
Tujibid dynasty

Mundir I al-Tuybi al-Mansur: c.1013-1021/2 Yahya: 1021/2-1036 Mundir II: 1036-1038/9 Abd Allah (Zaragoza): 1038/9

Huddid dynasty

Suleiman Al-Mustain I ibn Hud: 1038/9-1046 Muhammad al-Hayib Adud ad-Dawla (Calatayud): 1046/7-1066/7 with... Lubb (Huesca): 1047-1048 and... Mundir al-Hayib al-Zafir Nasir ad-Dawla (Tudela): 1047-1048/9 and... Yusuf al-Muzaffar Sayf ad-Dawla (Lrida): 1047-1078/81 and... Abu Ya'far Ahmad al-Muqtadir: 1046-1081 or 82/3 Yusuf al-Mu'tamin: 1081 or 82/3-1085 Ahmad II al-Musta'in: 1085-1110 'Abd al-Malik Imad ad-Dawla (Rueda, Z. 1110 only): 1110-1130 Abu Dja'far Ahmad Zafadola (Rueda. In Val. 1146): 1130-1131 d. 1146 o Zaragoza to Morocco 1110-1118; Rueda to Castile 1130

See also

Taifa Al-Andalus Granada History of Islam History of Spain List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

Saqaliba
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Slavery
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Related topics

Abolitionism Exploitation Indentured servant Unfree labour

v t e

Saqaliba (Arabic: , sg. Siqlabi) refers to the Slavs, particularly Slavic slaves and mercenaries in the medieval Arab world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and AlAndalus. It is generally thought that the Arabic term is a Byzantine loanword: saqlab, siklab,

saqlabi etc. is a corruption of Greek Sklavinoi for "Slavs". The word was also often used more generally to refer to all slaves from Central and Eastern Europe.[1] The Persian chronicler Ibn al-Faqih wrote that there were two types of saqaliba: those with swarthy skin and dark hair that live by the sea and those with fair skin and light hair that live farther inland. Abu Zayd al-Balkhi described three main centers of the Saqaliba - Kuyaba, Slavia, and Artania. Ibrahim ibn Yaqub placed the people of "Saqalib" in the mountainous regions of Central Balkans, west of the Bulgarians and east from the "other Slavs" (Croats), thus in the Serb lands. The Saqalib had the reputation of being "the most courageous and violent".[2] There were several major routes of the trade of Slav slaves into the Muslim world: through Central Asia (Mongols, Tatars, Khazars, etc.); through the Mediterranean (Byzantium); through Central and Western Europe to Al-Andalus and further to North Africa (Morocco, Egypt). The Volga trade route and other European routes, according to Ibrahim ibn Jakub, were serviced by Radanites, Jewish merchants. Theophanes mentions that the Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I settled a whole army of 5,000 Slavic mercenaries in Syria in the 660s. In the Muslim world, Saqaliba served or were forced to serve in a multitude of ways: servants, harem girls, eunuchs, craftsmen, soldiers, and as Caliph's guards. In Iberia, Morocco, Damascus and Sicily, their role may be compared with that of mamluks in the Ottoman Empire. Some Saqliba became rulers of taifas (principalities) in Iberia after the collapse of the Caliphate of Cordoba. It is possible that in some old texts "Saqaliba" may refer to other peoples of Eastern Europe. In particular, Ibn Fadlan referred to the ruler of the Volga Bulgaria, Alm, as "King of the Saqaliba". This may have been either because many Slavs, both slaves and ordinary settlers, lived in his domain at that time; or because, at the time of the writing, the Bulgarians were controlling the Serbian lands.

See also

Arab slave trade Ghilman Scythians Mamluk

References
1. 2. ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Oxford Univ Press 1994. ^ Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world, by H. T. Norris