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Jul 27, 2013

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Applications Mach Number

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Applications Mach Number

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Applications of the Mach number

1 |
Deﬁnitions |

ρ |
= Air density (kg/m |

A |
= Area (m |

a |
= Speed of sound (m/s) |

p |
= Pressure (P a = N/m |

R |
= Gas constant (Value is: 287J/(kgK)) (J/(kgK)) |

T |
= The temperature of a certain amount of gas (K) |

V |
= Velocity (m/s) |

M |
= Mach number (dimensionless) |

γ = Ratio of speciﬁc heats (Value for normal air is: 1.4) (dimensionless)

c _{v} = Speciﬁc heat at constant volume (For air: c _{v} = 717J/(kgK)) (J/(kgK))

c _{p} = Speciﬁc heat at constant pressure (For air: c _{p} = 1004J/(kgK)) (J/(kgK))

V _{c}_{a}_{l} = Calibrated ﬂight velocity (m/s)

2 Speed of sound

The speed of sound is an important thing in aerodynamics. A formula to calculate it can be derived. Therefore the continuity equation is used on a sound wave traveling through a tube with constant area:

ρAa = (ρ + dρ)A(a + da) ⇒ a = −ρ ^{d}^{a} dρ

Assuming an isentropic ﬂow, it is allowed to ﬁll in the speed of sound in the Euler equation, which gives

dp = −ρ a da. Combining this with the previous equation gives:

a

dp

= _{d}_{ρ}

(2.1)

This is not a very easy formula to work with though. But by using the isentropic ﬂow relations, it can

be derived that

dp

dρ

^{=} ^{γ} p

_{ρ} , and therefore:

a = γ _{ρ} ^{p}

Using the equation of state, this can be transformed to:

a = ^{} γRT

(2.2)

(2.3)

So the speed of sound only depends on the temperature. But when the speed of sound is known, also the Mach number can be calculated:

M = ^{V}

a

(2.4)

There are three important regions of Mach numbers:

1

1.

M < 1: Subsonic ﬂow

2. M = 1: Sonic ﬂow

3. M > 1: Supersonic ﬂow

These regions can be split up into more detailed, but less important regions, as can be seen in table 1.

Mach number: |
M < 0.3 |
0.3 < M < 1 |
M = 1 |
M ≈ 1 |
1 < M < 5 |
5 < M |

Name: |
Low subsonic |
High subsonic |
Sonic |
Transonic |
Supersonic |
Hypersonic |

Table 1: Mach regions and corresponding names.

3 Isentropic ﬂow relations including Mach number

Let point 0 be the stagnation point, and let point 1 be a point in the undisturbed ﬂow. The stagnation speed V _{0} is 0. So p _{0} is equal to the total pressure in the ﬂow. The energy equation implies that:

c _{p} T _{1} +

1

2 ^{V}

2

1

=

c _{p} T _{0} ⇒ ^{T} ^{0}

T

1

= 1 +

2

V

1

2c _{p} T _{1}

It is known that R = c _{p} − c _{v} and γ = ^{c} ^{p} . From that it can be derived that:

c

v

c _{p} =

^{γ}^{R}

γ − 1

Combining these two equations results in:

T 0

T

1

=

_{1} _{+} ^{γ} ^{−} ^{1}

2

2

V

1

γRT _{1}

It is also known that a ^{2} = γRT _{1} and M _{1} ^{V} ^{1} . Using that data, the previous formula can be transformed to:

1

a

1

T 0

T 1

= 1 + ^{γ} ^{−} ^{1} M

2

2

1

(3.1)

And by using the isentropic ﬂow relations, also the following can be deduced:

p

0

p

ρ

1

0

ρ

1

=

=

1 +

1 +

^{γ}

^{−} ^{1} M

2

2

1

^{γ}

^{−} ^{1} M

2

2

1

γ

^{γ}^{−}^{1}

1

^{γ}^{−}^{1}

(3.2)

(3.3)

But do keep in mind that p _{0} and ρ _{0} are the pressure and density, respectively, at the stagnation point (because V _{0} = 0).

2

4 Calculating ﬂight velocity

Calculating ﬂight velocity for low subsonic ﬂows is not diﬃcult, because incompressibility can be assumed. Therefore only the formula for the ﬂight velocity at high subsonic speeds is shown. The equations derived

in the previous paragraph can be used to ﬁnd those formulas. But to do that, the Mach number should

ﬁrst be isolated:

M

2

1 =

2

− 1 p 0

γ

p

1

_{} γ−1

γ

−

1

And using equation 2.4, the following relation is evident:

2

V

1

=

− 1 p 0

2a

2

1

γ

p

1

_{} γ−1

γ

− 1

(4.1)

However, it is not easy to measure a pressure ratio ^{p} ^{0} . Most measuring devices measure a pressure diﬀerence p _{0} − p _{1} instead. Therefore the previous equation can be transformed.

p

1

2

V

1

_{=}

2a ^{2} 1 ^{} ^{} p _{0} − p _{1}

1

γ −

p

1

+ 1 _{} γ−1

γ

− 1

This formula still has a pressure value p _{1} (which is not a pressure diﬀerence), and the speed of sound

(which depends on T _{1} , the static temperature in the air around the airplane). Both are rather diﬃcult

to

measure accurately. Therefore the calibrated airspeed V _{c}_{a}_{l} is introduced, and deﬁned as follows:

V

2

cal ^{=}

2a 2

s

γ −

1

^{} ^{} p _{0} − p _{1}

p

s

+ 1 _{} γ−1

γ

− 1

(4.2)

5

Supersonic wind tunnels

From the continuity equation, the following can be derived:

ρAV = c ⇒ ln ρAV = ln ρ + ln A + ln V = ln c ⇒ ^{d}^{ρ}

ρ

_{+} dA _{+} dV

A

V

= 0

Where c is any constant mass ﬂow. First ﬁlling in Euler’s equation ρ = − ^{d}^{p} _{d}_{V} and then ﬁlling in equation 2.1 results in the following:

V

_{0} _{=} _{−} dρ V dV dp

_{+} dA _{+} dV

A

V

_{=} _{−} V dV

a

^{2}

_{+} dA _{+} dV

A

V

_{=} _{−} M ^{2} dV

V

_{+} dA _{+} dV

A

V

A ﬁnal transformation results in the so-called area-velocity relation:

dA

A

=

^{} M ^{2} − 1 ^{} ^{d}^{V}

V

(5.1)

This formula has interesting implications. When looking at the three previously discussed Mach number regions, the following three phenomena can occur:

1. Subsonic ﬂows (M < 1): For the velocity to increase, the area must decrease (and vice-versa).

2. Sonic ﬂows (M = 1): This is a rather strange case, because it implies ^{d}^{A}

to be 0. Therefore this

only occurs in the tunnel where the cross-sectional area is minimal (this point is called the throat of the tunnel).

A

3. Supersonic ﬂows (M > 1): For the velocity to increase, the area must increase (and vice-versa).

3

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