CENTRAL AMERICA Central America, a part of North America, is a tropical isthmus that connects North America to South America

. It includes (7) countries and many small offshore islands. Overall, the land is fertile and rugged, and dominated through its heart by a string of volcanic mountain ranges that are punctuated by a few active and dangerous volcanos. Positioned in the planet's northern and western hemispheres the Central America isthmus is bordered in the northwest by the country of Mexico, and in the southeast by the country of Colombia. In addition, it's bordered by the Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean, and numerous bays, gulfs and inlets.

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GDP Total: $107.7 billion (2006) GDP per capita: $5,339 (2006) Major Languages: Spanish, English, Mayan languages and many others Population: (2009 est) Population Density: 77.2 km2 (29.8 sq mi)

Capital Cities: (see map) (by metro population)
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Guatemala City: 3,681,309 Managua: 2,105,000 San Jose: 1,715,485 Tegucigalpa: 1,324,000 Panama City: 1,272,672 San Salvador: 540,898 Belmopan: 20,000

Largest Countries: (by population - 2009 est)
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Guatemala: Honduras: El Salvador: Nicaragua: Costa Rica: Panama: Belize:

A piece of cloth, usually rectangular, of distinctive color and design, used as a symbol, standard, signal, or emblem of a nation, state, or organization.

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Size: 523,780 sq km, 202,000 sq miles Percent of Earth's Land: 0.1% Highest Point: Tajumulco Volcano, Guatemala, 13,845ft (4,220m) Lowest Point: Caribbean Sea, 0ft (0m) Geographic Center: The geographic center of Central America is 116 miles northeast of Lake Managua, Nicaragua Horizontal Width: From Guatemala's southwestern border with Mexico, directly east to the Caribbean Sea border of Honduras and Nicaragua: 595 miles (958 km) (see map) Vertical Length: From Belmopan, Belize directly southeast to Panama City, Panama: 880 miles (1,416 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point, straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections. Central American Countries: (by LAND AREA)

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Nicaragua: 130,373 sq km Honduras: 112,090 sq km Guatemala: 108,890 sq km Panama: 78,200 sq km Costa Rica: 51,100 sq km Belize: 22,966 sq km El Salvador: 21,040 sq km (by POPULATION DENSITY)

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El Salvador: 292 per sq km Guatemala: 129 per sq km Costa Rica: 90 per sq km

all covered by mangrove swamp. and the Cordillera de Talamanca running through Costa Rica and Panama..and who could blame them ... as the istmus is geologically active. Gulf of Fonseca stretches inward from the Pacific Ocean for just over 41 miles and covers an estimated area of 700 sq. and home to a rich population of fish. miles. here we locate and identify the major Central America volcanos. lakes. El Salvador and Honduras. For additional info and links explore the individual countries on the map. It's circular in shape. Conception is still active while Maderas is dormant.. The lake's largest islands include Ometepe. and a few are currently active and have erupted in.. in modern times.. beautiful Zapatera Island. Central America has many volcanic mountain ranges... including mountains. Volcanoes of Central America are located along the Ring of Fire.        The Great Blue Hole is a large underwater sinkhole off the coast of Belize. The Maya constructed numerous sites around this beautiful lake . The isthmus itself contains many volcanoes. the Cordillera Isabelia in Nicaragua.as the flora and fauna within the surrounding landscape continues to be a magnet for visitors. The Panama Canal extends across the Isthmus of Panama from Colon on the Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean Sea) side. actually formed by the lava flow of two volcanoes. The fringes of this fertile volcanic landscape are indented by a seemingly endless series of winding lagoons ... rivers and more. Lake Izabal is ringed by a tropical rain forest. the thirty-some islands of the Solentiname archipelago. while others are considered potentially active. ..    Honduras: 67 per sq km Nicaragua: 44 per sq km Panama: 44 per sq km Belize: 13 per sq km Regarding landforms. Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centres of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. and over 300 metres (984 ft) across and 124 metres (407 ft) deep. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala. these landforms (volcanos) have devasted many cities and killed hundreds of people in Central America. In fact. especially eco-tourism types. For addition information on Central America landforms. to Balboa and the Pacific Ocean.. please follow the individual country links below: There are hundreds of interesting sites spread across Central America and these are but a few. . including an archipelago of over 350 tiny islets near the port city of Granada. It lies near the center of Lighthouse Reef. with volcanic eruptions and subsequent earthquakes occurring on a somewhat frequent basis. some are clearly dormant with unknown details on their last eruptions. the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Guatemala.. It was built by the.. Lake Nicaragua has hundreds of islands.. and further to the south.

. Coat of Arms Belize Mayan Bird Guatemala For more infomation on symbols for each Central America country. Symbols are on occasion completely unrelated to the idea they represent. that has acquired significance as a representation of something else. abstraction or concept. use the map links.Definition: A symbol is an idea.

Central America Timeline:                    1500 BC Maya civilation dominates much of Central America 600 BC Maya migrate from Central America into South America 50 BC Maya introduce a calendar known as the Calendar Round 500 Tikal. William Walker becomes president of Nicaragua 1860 William Walker is executed in Honduras 1860 British government returns control of Caribbean coastline to Nicaragua 1862 Belize declared British crown colony. Nicaragua and Costa Rica. El Salvador. Honduras. all are now independent from Spain 1844-65 Dictator Rafael Carrera ruled Guatemala 1854 Earthquake destroyed San Salvador. thousands die 1739 British capture Spanish city of Portobello. Panama 1763 Britain and Spain reach agreement for woodcutting rights in Belize 1800's             1821 Guatemala declared its independence from Spain 1823 Congress of Central America declared independence from Spain and Mexico 1838 Central American Federation splits into Guatemala. later bananas become a significant export 1893 General Jose Santos Zelaya seizes power and establishes dictatorship in Nicaragua 1900's . Guatemala becomes a Spanish colony 1524 Spanish established settlement at Puntarenas. consequently named British Honduras 1874 Banana cultivation begins in Costa Rica. Costa Rica 1525 Spanish begin their conquest of Honduras 1530 Francisco Pizarro sails from Panama to attempt the conquest of Peru 1540 El Salvador becomes a Spanish colony 1561 Juan de Cavallon of Spain established colony in Costa Rica print this map 1600's      1624 Spanish silver fleet sailed to Panama 1628 Locust devastated Mayan crops across Belize 1671 Pirate Henry Morgan captures Panama 1677 Spanish fail to control southern Belize 1698 Scotland attempts to establish colony in Panama 1700's     1720-90 British extend their influence over Nicaragua's Caribbean coastline inhabitants 1723 Irazu volcano erupts in Costa Rica. claims ocean for Spain 1519 Panama City founded by the Spanish 1523 Indigenous Mayan defeated. Guatemala developes into a major Mayan temple city 1123 Yucatec Maya overthrew the Itza Maya 1487 Aztec send spies to Belize to gain trade information 1492 Columbus expores islands along the Caribbean Sea coastline 1501 Columbus visted and named Costa Rica (Rich Coast) 1502 Spanish explorer Rodrigo de Bastidas visits Panama 1502 Columbus reaches the coastline of Honduras 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa reaches the Pacific coast. El Salvador 1855 US built the Panama railroad 1856 American adventurer.

the elected president of Panama 1988 US charges Manuel Noriega with drug smuggling. over 5. Nicaragua devastated by earthquake.000 killed 1976 Guatemala earthquake left millions homeless. thousands died 1932 30. Bishop Juan Gerardi. one suitable for a canal 1992 Severe earthquake rattles Nicaragua.200. one year later US invades Panama and ousts Noriega 1903 The USA is granted exclusive control of a ten-mile corridor across Panama. Thousands killed. Costa Rica. hundreds killed 1970 Belize capital moved to Belmopan 1973 British Honduras name changed to Belize 1972 Managua.000 killed during peasant uprising in El Salvador 1937 General Somoza elected president of Nicaragua 1951 Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected the new president of Guatemala 1956 Nicaragua's General Somoza assassinated 1968 Arenal volcano erupts in Costa Rica.000 dead 1979-81 Over 30.                               1903 The USA is granted exclusive control in perpetuity of a ten-mile corridor across Panama. thousands died 1974 Hurrican Fifi strikes Honduras. 700 killed 1911 US helps to overthrow an unpopular Honduras president. murdered in Guatemala 1999 Over one million tourist visited Costa Rica 1999 Control of the Panama Canal returned to Panama 2000's       2001 El Salvador earthquake kills 1. Miguel Devila 1912-25 US established military bases in Nicaragua 1914 Panama Canal completed 1931 Jorge Ubico elected president of Guatemala 1931 Hurricane struck Belize City. one suitable for the construction of a canal 1904 US takes over control of Panama Canal construction 1909 US troops help to depose Zelaya in Nicaragua 1910 Earthquake detroys Cartago. 27. an estimated one million are homeless 2002 Guatemala and Belize settle long-standing border 2004 Panama Canal earns a record $1 billion in revenue 2008 El Salvador is rated the country with the highest murder rate 2008 Laura Chinchilla elected president of Costa Rica 2010 Porfirio Lobo sworn in as president of Honduras .000 killed in El Salvador by government-sponsored death squads 1981 Belize gains it independence from Britain 1982 US sponsored attacks by Contra rebels (based in Honduras) begin in Nicaragua 1984 Daniel Ortega elected president of Nicaragua 1985 Manuel Antonio Noriega ousted Nicolas Ardito Barletta. and hundreds of thousands left homeless across Honduras and Nicaragua 1998 Human rights activist. thousands rendered homeless 1998 Hurricane Mitch caauses massive damage.

with some supporting sizable communities year-round. such as tomatoes and squash. the expansion continued unabated. Native American societies continued to spread. Small groups settled on many islands in the southeastern Caribbean. the brown-skinned Arawak People migrated fromVenezuela to the Lesser Antilles. and from the Plains to the Southwest. they began to farm some familiar crops now used around the world. a wide variety of prehistoric cultures developed across the continent. They developed written language. Some experts feel that by using primitive boats. north to south. as well as far-reaching advances in art. As large groups gained additional knowledge. architecture. Perhaps most importantly they developed . Long before the Europeans arrived. small groups developed throughout the Americas. and Jamaica In the far-southern reaches of the continent important cultural advances were made by the Maya civilization. At about the time of Christ.that debate continues. the Inuit and the Aleut lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the Arctic regions while large groups inhabited the Subarctic parts of Alaska and western Canada. From the Northeast to the Southeast.NORTH AMERICA NORTH AMERICA HISTORY: Anthropologists believe that North America's initial inhabitants arrived around 40. they were at the pinnacle of their power. creating their largest settlements on the islands of Cuba. social organization were building mound complexes. sophisticated pre-Columbian cultures continued to develop. Across regions of what is now the United States. In North America. early man also migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Indigenous peoples of theAmericas have been linked to North Asian populations by linguistic dialects and blood types. specifically from the eastern Siberian populations. Puerto Rico.000 years ago by traversing the Bering Strait. After the last glacial period ended some 12. eventually reaching the Greater Antilles.500 years back. astronomical systems and mathematics. There is scientific evidence connecting indigenous Americans to Asian peoples. but they were eventually replaced by more sophisticated bands that farmed the land.Across the Great Plains hunter-gatherers existed on wild plants and animals. From the years 250 to 900.Hispaniola. raised some animals and improved their hunting skills. The development of stone tools was one of the factors instrumental in that successful expansion.

Using sturdy wooden longships they traveled as far west asIceland. explored. and northern Costa Rica. In 1492. and it marked the beginning of 300 years of dominate Spanish influence over most of Mexico. word of its potential riches spread across Europe and explorers and settlers by the thousands would eventually step ashore along the Atlantic Ocean coastline of North America. Guatemala. Giovanni da Verrazzano explored the East Coast of North America from Florida to eastern Canada in 1524. At that same time natives on the continent lived without fear as they were ignorant of the outside world. The city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the Venezuela island of Cubaqua. In 1539. and North America would change forever. Soon their innocence disappeared. Within a few months he reached land in the Bahamas. El Salvador. Central America and the Caribbean. With 600 soldiers in tow. the Spanish made their move to colonize parts of the New World. and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th centuries. Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama to find gold. In 1500. 1519. after proposing a voyage of discovery to the then mostly-imagined New World. his goal was to find gold for the Spanish Crown.Honduras. Hernando de Soto landed at Tampa Bay in what is now the US State of Florida. Mexico on April 22. Nicaragua. Hernan Cortes and his conquistadors came ashore at present day Veracruz. traded. Greenland. Queen and King of Spain. fromMexico to Belize. but instead led the first European expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the west coast of the New World. The Vikings were seafaring north Germanic people who raided. As a result of European exploration the Native American population declined substantially. Balboa then claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. and Newfoundland. The Mayan culture was fading and the Aztec Empire now stretched across most of Mesoamerica. Leif Eriksson is believed to have reached the Island of Newfoundland.circa 1000 AD In the 13th century. Canada . Asia. as Europeans began to stake their claims. and settled in wide areas of Europe. primarily due to the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked . maize (corn). frequently in brutal ways. central Mexico was the center of the Aztec civilization. financed by Isabella I and Ferdinand II. and Jacques Cartier made a series of voyages on behalf of the French crown in 1534 and penetrated the St. In 1510 they established Santa María la Antigua del Darien near the border of Colombia andPanama: these were the first European settlements in the Americas. John Cabot explored the east coast of what would become Canada in 1497. The first mainland Spanish explorations were a series of inland expeditions that led to the conquest of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula. After Columbus made his initial voyage to this New World.farming techniques for one of the planet's major foods. Lawrence River. Christopher Columbus left Spain on an epic journey. In 1513.

This massive transfer of land included all of presentday Arkansas. The first French settlements were established at Port Royal (1604) and Quebec City (1608) in what is now Nova Scotia and Quebec. New Spain. the War of 1812 began when the United Statesdeclared war on the British. became the first independent state in Central America. An American Revolution was brewing within the English colonies. Britain and France (as well as Spain) were beginning to establish extensive territories in the northern reaches of the continent. The 32-month military conflict (fought on many fronts) resulted in no territorial change between the British Empire and the USA. Spain's hold on Mexico was weakening and slave revolts were common in the Caribbean. a conflict that led to the end of slavery in the United States. Virgina. the creation of the Mexican Empire. Not to be outdone. It was followed by the . In 1607. Kansas. and some of the European territories changed hands multiple times. Missouri. Canada. a handful of independence movements came to fruition across the North America continent. The new country of America's 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France almost doubled its size overnight. Guatemala. With space too limited here to detail. Even lesser-powers like the Netherlands and Sweden laid claim to smaller parts. the two most devastating events on the North America continent were the American Civil War (from 1861 to 1865). with the support of Napoleon III of France in 1864. they became the United States of America. including the possibility of America's interest in annexing Canada. Montana and Wyoming. and after the American Revolutionary War ended in 1783. For many reasons. independence movements were on the front-burner across the continent. They include: The Republic of Texas formed as an independent sovereign nation in 1836.Canada was formed from the unification of northern territories once controlled byBritain and France. By the end of the century. Massachusetts colony in 1620. as well as from violent conflicts where they were no match for European fire power. Near the end of the 17th century the colonialism of North America was at full speed. The 13 original British Colonies declared independence in 1776. the Caribbean island of Tobago changed hands 33 times. then part of that Mexican Empire. the Rebellions of 1837 in Lower and Upper Canada. becoming the First Mexican Empire. as well as significant parts ofNorth Dakota. In fact.S. and a tremendous loss of life. but a resolution of many issues which remained from the American War of Independence. Arguably. we highlight a series of important land agreements and compromises that occurred in North America through the end of the 19th century. but it brought destruction to most of the South. Minnesota. South Dakota. through Central America declared independence in 1810. followed by thePlymouth. a territory that stretched from the southwestern modern-day U. In the middle of the 18th century. the first successful English settlement was built at Jamestown. and inevitable disagreements and greed were the genesis for a series of regional wars. Oklahoma. Texas and Louisiana.immunity. Nebraska and Iowa. and the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. most ofColorado.

In Canada this was mirrored by the Quiet Revolution and the emergence of Quebec nationalism. Canada during this era was dominated by the leadership of Pierre Elliot Trudeau. Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago were joined by Antigua. Barbados. and to a lesser degree Canada. During the Spanish–American War of 1898. the Cuban Revolution introduced the Soviet Union (now Russia) into Latin America. World War II was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945.Guatemala. In Mexico. including Canada and the US. and Trinadad and Tobago became politically independent. During this time the United States became involved in the Vietnam War. Canada had a new constitution. Since 1962. In 1914. The 1867 Alaska Purchase was the acquisition of what is now the US State of Alaska from the Russian Empire. The destruction of Europe wrought by the war vaulted all North American countries to more important roles in world affairs. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers. El Salvador. many islands witnessed the beginnings of decolonization. Grenada. the US seized several colonies from Spain including Cuba and Puerto Rico.the Bahamas. In the Caribbean. Lucia and St. the Panama Canal opened. In 1962. there was a popular uprising against the anti-Catholic government. while on the island of Cuba. .United States government fighting numerous Indian Wars against the Native Americans for land acquisition. At home." Mexico also experienced an era of huge economic growth after World War II. At the end of World War I (fought from 1914 to 1918 in Europe) the early 20th century brought an age of great prosperity to the United States. America's intervention into Latin America and elsewhere expanded. But the Stock Market Crash of 1929 was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States. In 1960. and that crash affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until the onset of American mobilization for World War II in 1941. Vincent. St. and American troops were withdrawn. Eventually in 1982 at the end of his tenure. a period known in Mexican history as the "El Milagro Mexicano" (Mexican miracle). a heavy industrialization process and a growth of its middle class. Following the Civil War. the United States witnessed violent change especially in the area of race relations. tens of thousands died as a result. from 1936 to 1949. Dominica. The early Cold War era saw the United States as the most powerful nation in a Western coalition of which Mexico and Canada were also a part. This event ushered in a period of formal decolonization of the English-speaking Caribbean. the 48-mile (77. That war would later prove to be highly divisive in American society.1 km) ship canal in Panama connecting the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean enabled ships to avoid the lengthy Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America. and the United States emerged as a "superpower. Belize. Honduras and Nicaragua banded together to find a common economic bond. Guatemala.

Canada.765 km) in length.participated in by Canada and the US.Major changes continued into the 21st century: Mexico experienced a strong economic recession in the 1980s. Kitts & Nevis. Grenada. much of the modern world. the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement was reached in January 1989. In 2008. Mexico.the world’s largest island. It contains all Caribbean and Central America countries. . It flows from northwestern Minnesota south to the Gulf of Mexico.Barbados. and that human tragedy reached a deadly peak in Mexico in the last few years. Those major economic events were followed by the 9/11 attacks on the United States. and to economically benefit by working together. the planet’s 3rd largest continent. the United States of America. tornadoes. in the southeast by the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. creating the world's largest free trade area. and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Lucia. an economic slowdown that has now wained some. NORTH AMERICA MAP: North America. Today the diverse and massive continent of North America present a bright potential future for all of its people. It is a significant transportation artery and when combined with its major tributaries (the Missouri and Ohio rivers) it becomes the third largest river system in the world at (3. contentious imigration issues and isolated terroism attacks. Dominica. just below the city of New Orleans. and on January 1. Positioned in the planet's northern and western hemispheres. includes (23) countries and dozens of possessions and territories. and for that matter. The land is generally smooth with large treeless areas and shallow river valleys. Sandhills and buttes cover parts of the north central U. hurricanes. Bermuda.236 km) in length. St. and in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains of northwestern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. the violent drug war spread from Central America to Canada.339 miles) (3. Mississippi River System: It is the major river of North America and the United States at (2. Surviving powerful earthquakes. NORTH AMERICA GEOGRAPHY NOTES: Two of North America's most interesting geographical features are the Great Plains and the Mississippi River System. Additional North American countries (not shown on this map) include: Antigua and Barbuda. Haiti. it's bordered in the north by the Arctic Ocean. Vincent & the Grenadines and Trinidad & Tobago.877 miles) (6. 1994. and the subsequent war in Afghanistan . Canada. St.S. Mexico and theUnited States of America signed the North American Free Trade Agreement. In 2006. St. in Nebraska. Minor hills and mountains are found in the Ozark Plateau of Missouri. in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. Great Plains: The Great Plains of North America slope east from the Rockies and extend to the edge of the Canadian Shield and the western edges of the Appalachians. both impressive in so many ways. the twenty-three countries and the dozens of possessions and territories within North America have found ways to (for the most part) co-exist in peace. a financial crisis that began the United States eventually triggered a worldwide recession. as well as Greenland .

North Dakota" at approximately 48° 10´ N 100° 10´ W. Panama: 5. (see map) Horizontal Width: From San Francisco. 20.347 miles (8. east to New York City. California. NY: 2.605 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point. directly southeast to Panama City.322ft (6. -282 ft (-86m) below sea level (see map) Geographic Center: The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta. . Alaska.582 miles (4.156 km) (see map) Vertical Length: From Barrow. straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections.194m) (see map) Lowest Point: Death Valley in California. Pierce County.NORTH AMERICA GEOGRAPHY FACTS:       Percent of Earth's Land: 16.5% Highest Point: Mt McKinley in Alaska.

Newfoundland and Quebec.NORTH AMERICA TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP A typical topographic-type map highlights hills. that extends from central Alabama through the New England states and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick. This topo map clearly shows how the Rocky Mountains and it various ranges dominate the western-third of the continent (see below). it also highlights the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern U. mountains and valleys of a specific land area by exaggerated shading rather than by using contour lines. In addition.. and some rivers.             Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala            Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States . NORTH AMERICA COUNTRIES This list does not include the island dependencies and overseas territories in the Caribbean.S. It also includes major bodies of water. a range of about 1.500 miles in length.

Note the depression to the north of Death Valley and west of the Sierra Nevada. one that highlights the Rocky Mountains. one of the most fertile farming areas in the country. aruably the most dramatic landform is all of North America. including . Additional features clearly visable include some of the larger rivers on the continent and one of the most interesting geography features of the United States. this page will help NORTH AMERICA SATELLITE VIEW MAP This NASA satellite view of North America can be useful in many applications.ROCKY MOUNTAINS This is a slice of the large topographical (or relief) map shown above. and the Sacramento Valley (north). For additional details on many of the geography features of North America. This is both the San Joaguin Valley (south).

000 Mexico: 108. forestry. -282 ft (-86m) below sea level.000 Dominica: 67.460 sq miles It's the third-largest continent in area.000 Saint Kitts & Nevis: 38.9 km2 (59.377. and the Great Plains that slope east from the Rockies and extend to the edge of the Canadian Shield and the western edges of the Appalachians. the Italian explorer Major Languages: English. French and Spanish Population: 528. meteorology.449.822. after Asia.000 Cuba: 11. In addition.2010 estimates)                        United States: 309.322ft (6.204.194m) (see map) Lowest Point: Death Valley in California.000 El Salvador: 6.396.474. Africa. and Europe Population Density: 22. 20.720.194.000 Saint Lucia: 174. intelligence and warfare.207.000 Dominican Republic: 10.000 sq km.975. Percent of Earth's Land: 16.960     Continent Size: 24.588 (2008 est) It's the fourth most populous continent.000 St.640.100 Barbados: 257.211 Canada: 34. following Asia and Africa.000 Belize: 322.000 Nicaragua: 5.000 Honduras: 7. .576 Jamaica: 2.000 Trinidad & Tobago: 1.000 Grenada: 104. 9.000 Bahamas: 346.     Namesake: Americo Vespucci.344. it's a great education tool as it provides an overview of the snow covered lands of the far north.000 Panama: 3. geology.000 Haiti: 10.225.616.188.agriculture. That land is generally flat with large treeless areas and shallow river valleys.000 Costa Rica: 4.322. Vincent & the Grenadines:109.730.5% Highest Point: Mt McKinley in Alaska.000 Antigua & Barbuda: 89.000 Guatemala: 14.3 sq mi) North America Country Populations: (23 countries .

194 m) is located here. in Tennessee The Blue Ridge Mts. NY: 2. in Vermont The White Mts.060 ft. Highest point: Mt. of New Hampshire The highest point is Mt. 9.347 miles (8.320 ft.826.582 miles (4. Appalachian Mountains: The Appalachians. McKinley.037 m) Brooks Range: Mountains of northern Alaska.500 miles in length. Canada. California. (6. about 1.S.156 km) (see map) Vertical Length: From Barrow. (see map) Horizontal Width: From San Francisco.254 sq km Honduras: 112. 20. Alaska.890 sq km Panama: 78.684 ft (2. Largest North American Countries: (by land area)           Canada: 9. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6.040 sq km Nicaragua: 120. up through the New England states and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick.630 sq km Mexico: 1. The highest point in North America.670 sq km United States: 9. Isto. Panama: 5. North Dakota" at approximately 48° 10´ N 100° 10´ W.860 sq km Guatemala: 108.923. Mt.090 sq km Cuba: 110. extend from central Alabama in the U. (2.   Geographic Center: The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta.730 sq km Alaska Range: Mountains of south-central Alaska that extend from the Alaska Peninsula to the border of the Yukon Territory.200 sq km Costa Rica: 51. straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections. Significant Appalachian ranges include:       The Cumberland Mts.984.760 m) North America Timeline:       900 Toltec civilization develops in present day Mexico 981 Eric the Red founds the first Nordic settlement in Greenland 1000 Vikings visited coastline of Newfoundland 1327 Aztecs established Mexico City 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas 1510 Spain began settlements in Jamaica . in New York The Green Mts. east to New York City.605 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point. Pierce County. in Virginia The Alleghenies in Pennsylvania The Catskills Mts.100 sq km Dominican Republic: 48. Newfoundland and Quebec. directly southeast to Panama City.

Lawrence 1565 Spanish founded Saint Augustine.S. Civil War began 1862 Canadian smallpox killed 200.S. Texas 1901 President McKinley assassinated 1902 US opens military base at Guantanamo Bay 1903 US granted control of corridor across Panama 1904 Much of Toronto's downtown destroyed by fire 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake killed 500 1907 Race riots within Vancouver's Chinatown .2 mil 1896 Gold discovered in Yukon Territory 1898 Spain ceded Puerto Rico and Cuba to US 1898 Spain sells Philippines to U. for $20 million 1900's        1900 Hurricane kills 6. President Lincoln assassinated 1867 Dominion of Canada created 1867 U.S. English signed peace treaty 1741 Vitus Bering claimed Alaska for Russia 1744 King George's War began 1749 Halifax. Nova Scotia founded 1754 French and Indian War began 1768 British troops began occupation of Boston 1773 Boston Tea Party 1775 American Revolution began 1776 USA gained its independence from Britain 1789 George Washington elected first US president 1800's                   1814 Washington captured and burned by British 1814 Mexico declared independence from Spain 1819 Florida ceded by Spain to the United States 1823 Guatemala declared independence 1836 Americans defeated at Battle of the Alamo 1845 United States annexed Republic of Texas 1846 -1848 U.            1519 Hernando Cortes defeated the Aztecs 1534 Jacques Cartier charts Gulf of St. Virginia settlement established 1608 Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain 1609 Henry Hudson explored New York Bay and Hudson River 1612 French explorers discovered Lake Huron 1616 Smallpox devastates Native Americans 1620 Pilgrims arrived on Mayflower at Plymouth.Mexican War 1849 California Gold Rush began 1852 Fire destroyed 11. French.000+ in Galveston. MA 1600's       1629 English captured Quebec City 1642 Montreal founded by Sieur de Maisonneuve 1663 Louis XIV assumed control of New France 1664 New Amsterdam renamed to New York 1670 Hudson Bay Company chartered by Charles II 1682 LaSalle explored Mississippi River 1700's           1701 Iroquois.S. . Florida 1577 Sir Francis Drake explores Pacific Ocean coastlines 1585 English colonists settled on Roanoke Island.S.000 Indians 1865 13th amendment abolished slavery in the U. 1865 Civil War ends.000 homes in Montreal 1861 U. Virginia 1598 New Mexico claimed by Spanish Explorers 1607 Jamestown. bought Alaska from Russia for $7.

President John F.500.S. Symbols are often completely unrelated to the idea they represent. four passenger aircraft hijacked. 1503 died 1913 President Madero of Mexico assassinated 1914 Panama Canal completed 1914 World War I began in Europe 1915 Lusitania sank. President 2009 drug-related killings in Mexico reached 6. 1100 died 1916 Haiti became US protectorate 1917 Jones Act gave Puerto Ricans US citizenship 1918 World War I ended 1929 Great Depression began 1932 Amelia Earhart flies solo across Atlantic 1937 Amelia Earhart disappears circling the world 1939 World War II. US aids in crisis 1996 Serious riots in Quebec City 2000's             2001 On September 11.500 2010 Explosion aboard oil rig in Gulf of Mexico   A symbol is an idea.S. 3. 7 astronauts killed 1989 Exxon Valdez wrecks in Prince William Sound 1993 Bomb exploded in World Trade Center 1993 NAFTA enacted. Hitler attacked Poland 1941 Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. that has acquired significance as a representation of something else. Kennedy assassinated 1969 First moon landing 1977 Control of Panama Canal given to Panama 1985 Mexico City Earthquake kills thousands 1986 ―Challenger‖ exploded.  Scarlet Macaw Coat of Arms Mexico National Bird of Hondura South America .025 people were killed 2001 Canada became first country in world to legalize medical marijuana 2003 Shuttle Columbia. two crashed into the World Trade Center.                             1909 Peary and Henson reach North Pole 1912 Titanic struck iceberg and sunk. abstraction or concept. exploded upon reentry 2003 Massive power failure in NE US and SE Canada 2004 Four hurricanes hit Florida and southern US 2005 Hurricane Katrina devastates New Orleans 2006 65 miners killed in explosion at coal mine 2007 Heavy rains flood Mexico .000 homeless 2008 Barack Obama elected U. Lawrence Seaway opens 1963 U. US. one into the Pentagon and the fourth in a field in Pennsylvania. Canada and Mexico agree 1995 Mexican banking crisis. Hawaii 1944 Allies launch D-Day offensive 1945 Enola Gay dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima 1945 World War II ended 1953 Jonas Salk develops polio vaccine 1959 St.

the Falkland Islands. Chile: 5.500 Fortaleza.923. the longest mountain range.000 Chile: 17. it includes the largest rainforest.413.246. the highest commercially navigable lake in the world.976.South America .800 Salvador. Chile. Dutch.636.000 Ecuador: 14. Colombia: 2.132.600 Bogota.173. Brazil: 2.800. the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community.603.798.Lake Titicaca .295. Colombia: 7.000 Lima. Brazil: 3.500. and. the Andes. Peru: 7. Brazil: 11. the largest river (by volume).000 (2009 est) It's the fifth most populous continent.368.500 Santiago.085. La Paz.130 Peru: 29.000 Venezuela: 29.0 sq mi) Top 10 Largest Cities: (see map) (by metro population)           Sao Paulo.505.     Namesake: Americo Vespucci. The continent contains the world's highest waterfall. and the driest place on earth.000 . the planet's 4th largest continent.100 Buenos Aires.990 Argentina: 40. Brazil: 4.867 Colombia: 45. Bolivia . Angel Falls in Venezuela.4 sq km (56. French. the Atacama Desert in Chile. Italian. Puerto Toro. Arabic.800 Rio de Janeiro. Europe and North America Population Density: 21.228. excluding research stations in Antarctica. the Amazon Rainforest . Spanish. In addition. Galapagos Islands and French Guiana.656. the Amazon River. Africa. English.600 Largest Countries: (by population .200 Cali.2008 est)         Brazil: 193. Brazil: 18. the highest capital city.800 Belo Horizonte.000 Bolivia: 9. includes (12) independent countries and (3) major territories. and dozens of indigenous languages Population: 379.182. after Asia. the Italian explorer Major Languages: Portuguese. Argentina: 12.891.

000 miles in length.220 sq km Colombia: 1.750 sq km Ecuador: 283.879. (see map) Horizontal Width: From Lima. in the State of Mato Grosso.000 tributaries.138.000   Definition: A symbol is an idea. and total rainfall often approaches 100 inches per year. Argentina 22.877 sq km Argentina: 2. to Fortaleza. that has acquired significance as a representation of something else. Largest South American Countries: (by land area)             Brazil: 8.463. abstraction or concept.000 Suriname: 499.270 sq km GEOGRAPHY SOUTH AMERICA Amazon Basin: The Amazon Basin (Amazonia) is covered by the largest tropical rain forest in the world.    Paraguay: 6.890 sq km Peru: 1. Colombia. and running through its heart is the Amazon River and its more than 1. straight-line measurements and will vary some using other map projections. Brazil. south to Ushuaia. at 15° 27´ S 55° 44´ W. Africa and North America Percent of Earth's Land: 12% Highest Pt: Cerro Aconcagua.705 miles (4. following Asia. 6.220 sq km Suriname: 163. . Brazil: 2. Andes Mtns. seven of them more than 1.098.149 km) (see map) Note: Lengths and widths are point-to-point. Argentina -151 ft (-40m) below sea level Geographic Center: Chapada dos Guimarães.000 sq km.766. Coat of Arms Brazil        Continent Size: 17. Symbols are on occasion completely unrelated to the idea they represent.950 sq km Paraguay: 406. Argentina: 4.000 Uruguay: 3.050 sq km Chile: 756.285. Peru.833ft (6.560 sq km Guyana: 214.999 sq km Uruguay: 176.443 miles (7.353 km) Vertical Length: From Cartagena. Measurable rain falls on an average of 200 days a year here.959m) (see map) Lowest Pt: Peninsula Valdes.580 sq km Venezuela: 912.000 Guyana: 751.819.514.000 sq miles It's the fourth-largest continent in area.158.910 sq km Bolivia: 1.

The basin drains over 2. and in terms of volume of water discharged into an ocean. some 4. and in the far south along the coast of Chile. Andes Mountains: This toothy-edged mountain system. It's also home to some of the planet's largest volcanoes. .000 sq. and one of the few deserts on Earth that doesn't receive any rain. extends from the southern tip of South America all the way to Panama. and its many ranges include dozens of peaks that reach over 20.. and covers about one-third of South America. the river's network irrigates almost half of the continent.960m). namely the Serra de Mantiquiera. The estimated highest point is 7..500 miles (7. Atacama Desert: Sparsely populated and positioned high into the Andes of Chile. Rising high in the Andes. It's approximately 100 miles wide and 625 miles long.240 km) in length. miles.700. Hundreds of rivers and streams flow through this area on their way to the Amazon These rivers contain a large number of migratory fish species. the highest point being Aconcagua in Argentina. large glaciers and ice sheets are commonplace. Serra do Paranapiataba.384 ft. this somewhat small desert (or plateau) is a cold place.368 ft (2. (6. It's the source of most major rivers on the continent. it's the largest in the world. Brazilian Highlands: This magnificent landscape of southeastern Brazil is 800 miles in length and contains varied mountain ranges. Brazilian Shield: The shield is a geologic formation lying south of the Amazon. at 22.000 ft. and Serra do Mar. The landscape is totally barren and covered with small borax lakes.245m). Serra Geral. lava flow remnants and saline deposits.

it's the favorite route of cruise ships traveling south to Ushuaia and Antarctica because unlike the often turbulent South Pacific Ocean. He traveled through this somewhat narrow body of water on his way to the Pacific Ocean.212 ft (979m) high. one marked by deep gorges. the first explorer to circumnavigate the globe. it's one of the most beautiful water passageways on the planet.. famed for its beauty and striking mountain scenery. Patagonia: Located between the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean. and a series of smaller ones. It's famed for the highest waterfall in the world (Angel Falls) at 3. the Beagle. Patagonia stretches south from the Rio Negro River to Tierra del Fuego and the Strait of Magellan. miles (761. Guina Highlands: Over 1. It lies mostly within southwestern Brazil. Guyana and Venezuela at 9. located just a few miles off the coast of French Guiana. It was reportedly named by the Portuguese adventurer. this large plain in the southern part of the continent (in central Argentina) extends for almost 1. His chosen route through the Magellan Strait proved to be the fastest and safest connection between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for sea-going commerce and exploration. is drained by the Orinoco River and its many tributaries. . The islands are known throughout the modern world by the brutal history of the 19th century French penal settlement that was located here.600 km). In addition. It's a vast plateau.. the Highlands stretch from southern Venezuela to the northern border of Brazil. it's fronted by some of the most impressive glaciers in South America and. especially with the release of a novel and movie called. The highest point is Mt.Cape Horn: The southernmost tip of South America.000 sq mi) and 195. it's waters are sheltered and calm.000 sq. It's mostly rugged. Roraima on the borders of Brazil.810m). and central and southern Venezuela.000 sq.000 sq.   Beagle Channel was traversed by Charles Darwin during his 1831 world voyage.571 sq miles. barren land. and about 1. There are hundreds of interesting sites spread across South America and these are but a few of our favorites. tropical rain forests. It contains an astonishing collection of aquatic plants and a wide variety of of animal species. In modern times..219 ft (2. It was Ile du Diable (or Devil's Island itself) that perpetuated that story across the planet. miles (582. Ile Ste-Joseph and Ile Royale.000 miles in length. the Tierra Del Fuego archipelago includes one large island (18.000 miles (1. Pampas: Famed for its many cattle ranches. The group includes Ile du Diable (Devil's Island). Pantanal: The Pantanal is the world's largest wetland of any kind. numerous rivers and waterfalls. remains a maritime legend to this day. Ferdinand Magellan. It's approximately 225. and covers an area estimated at between 140. located in eastern and central Colombia.460 sq km).. Later named for Darwin's ship.. Llanos: This large and very fertile plain. km) in size.100 sq km) in size. as sailing around this remote point and through its violent stretch of chaotic water is one of the most challenging nautical routes on the planet. 48. For additional info and links explore the individual countries on the map. The Devil's Islands archipelago consists of three small islands. Tierra Del Fuego: Located at the southern tip of South America.000 sq mi). and covers 294.000 miles in length.000 square kilometers (54.000 square kilometers (75.

Colombia 1532 Francisco Pizarro conquers Ecuador 1533 Spanish Conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro. 1400 .. but their traditions live on. an unrivaled Carnival celebration. Peru is founded 1536 Buenos Aires.   Magdalena Island... When their chicks are counted. 1498 Christopher Columbus explored the northern coastline of South America. 400 BC – 800 Along the central coastline of Peru. Rio de Janeiro. Bolivia established by the Spanish 1550 African slaves arrive in Brazil 1552 Cattle imported into Argentina and Paraguay 1555 Smallpox epidemic along coastal Brazil 1567 Caracas. Paracas and Nazca cultures flourished. Paraguay founded 1540 Chile explored by Valdivia 1541 Buenos Aires. Peru area. In 1442. From there they traveled south to the lands of Central and South America. the Incas began a far-reaching expansion across the western edges of the continent. Argentina abandoned 1545 Silver discovered in Potosi. and Ecuador. the Moche.000 mated pairs call it home. 1000 BC – 1450 The Cañaris culture of Ecuador.. and in fact. In addition to fabulous skiing and other winter sport activities. and the Aymaran kingdoms of Bolivia and southern Peru flourished. 1400 Machu Picchu. Bolivia.. Brazil It is without question one of the most magnificent port cities on the planet. 600 BC – 1200 The Tiahuanaco and Wari empire of central and northern Peru expanded their influence to all of the Andean region. it's the gateway to Antarctica and. 1500's                       1500 Portuguese explorer Alvares Cabra lands in Brazil 1516 Juan Solis discovers the Rio de la Plata 1520 Ferdinand Magellan sails through Tierra del Fuego 1521 Cortez defeats the Aztecs. conquers their capital 1526 The Spaniards establish Santa Marta. enormous granite peaks in all directions. infectous samba music. Venezuela founded 1571 Inca leader Tupac Amaru beheaded 1555 British pirates pillage Valparaiso. some of the best soccer teams to ever play the game.1550 The empire of the Incas covered Peru. It was first the site of a prison established by the Argentine government. and from there the Inca state grew to absorb other Andean communities. and word of his discovery eventually spread to Europe. Chile. Argentina is considered the southernmost (city) in the world. It began as a tribe in the Cuzco. Over matched by superior weapons and military tactics. Christ the Redemmer statue high atop Corcovado mountain.1200 BC The ancient ancestors of the people of South America were believed to have been nomadic Asian hunter-gatherers who crossed over the frozen Bering Strait and into North America. It is positioned on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. Chimu Empire in Peru. 900 BC – 300 BC The Chavín civilization established a trade network and developed agriculture products in the highlands of Peru. Chile is positioned in the Strait of Magellan about 27 miles northeast of Punta Arenas.. Chile 1580 Buenos Aires re-established 1600's . It's world famous for many things. Spanish Conquistadores led by Francisco Pizarro arrived in the 1500's intent on finding treasure and conquering this rich land. northern Argentina. an estimated 70. incuding Sugarloaf mountain and. Ushuaia. but the most significant ones certainly must include Copacabana and Ipanema beaches. conquered much of the existing Inca territory including the Inca capital of Cuzco 1533 Cartagena founded by the Spanish 1535 Lima. the indigenous sovereignty enjoyed by the Incas was lost. Argentina established 1537 Asuncion. and the Chachapoyas. Lost City of the Incas was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti. The island is literally covered by Magellanic penguins. South America Timeline:        5000 BC . Bolivia 1548 La Paz.

Brazil and Uruguay attack Paraguay 1869 Argentina population approaches two million 1876 Peru population approaches three million 1882 Maximo Santos elected President of Uruguay 1888 Chile annexes Easter Island 1888 Slavery abolished in Brazil 1888 Ecuador claims Galapagos Islands 1900's              1902 Uruguay's population exceeds one million 1903 Jose Battle y Ordonez elected President of Uruguay. O'Higgins is defeated and flees to Argentina 1818 Colombia abolishes slavery by law 1818 Chile declares its independence from Spain 1819 Gran Colombia (Colombia. Venezuela. Argentina 1917 Oil discovered in western Venezuela 1925 With its new president installed. Chile has now had over 120 different governments since 1892 1929 Venezuela is now the world's second largest producer of oil 1931 The President of Chile resigns under fire 1937 Exports in Chile triple in five years 1940 Peru's population now exceeds seven million 1945 First open and free election held in Peru 1946 Venezuela holds first free elections . Chile 1910 Hermes da Fonseca elected President of Brazil 1912 After many years of construction the subway opens in Buenos Aires. Ecuador) is established. Colombia 1700's             1711 War of the Mascates begins in Brazil 1720 Spain ends its repressive labor practices 1711 Easter Island discovered 1729 Montevideo. expelled from Venezuela. Pedro (his son) appointed governor of Brazil 1821 Peru declares its independence 1823 Simon Bolivar arrives in Lima 1820 Portugal & USA recognize independent Brazil 1832 Ecuador claims Galapagos Islands 1833 Britain invades Falkland Islands 1832 Ecuador claims Galapagos Islands 1834 Civil War breaks out in Peru 1838 Brazil imports thousands of African slaves 1841 Jose Ballivian appointed president of Bolivia 1851-52 Cattle is now Argentina's largest export 1852 Slavery abolished in Uruguay 1860 Peru enacts a new constitution 1862 Ecuador declares war on Colombia 1864 Argentina. Uruguay established 1711 Diamonds discovered in Brazil 1743 University founded in Santiago 1759 Spanish expelled Jesuits from Brazil 1777 Venezuela established administrative divisions 1783 Indio rebellion is defeated in Peru 1791 Chile forbids forced labor of indigenous people 1797 British raid and conquer Trinidad 1799 Brazil's populations exceeds three million 1800's                                   1800 Peru's population in sharp decline 1806 Rio de Janeiro largest city in Brazil 1800 Britain takes Buenos Aires from Spain 1807 Locals expel Britain from Buenos Aires 1808 After Napoleon invaded Portugal.       1613 Serious smallpox outbreak sacks Brazil 1616 Dutch explorer Schouten sails around Cape Horn 1621 Dutch West India Company invades Guyana 1629 Dutch troops conquer Pernambuco. The King of Portugal (Dom Joao) moved his capital city to Brazil 1811 Brazil signs exclusive trade deal with Britain 1813 Simon Bolivar invades Venezuela from Bogota 1814 Bernardo O'Higgins leads Chilean rebels 1814 Bolivar defeated. Simon Bolivar is president 1820 Civil war all but destroys Argentina 1820 Dom Joao returns to Portugal. the first civilian president of Uruguay 1905 Riots over high prices in Santiago. Panama. Brazil 1647 Strong earthquake strikes Santiago 1693 Gold discovered in Brazil 1697 Pirates raid Cartagena.

Pablo Escobar.000%. stifles free speech and other personal freedoms 1950-55 European immigrants by the tens of thousands continue to arrive in South America countries 1950 Brazil population now exceeds 50 million 1952 Eva Peron. the Nazi war criminal. launches a controversial nationalization plan 2007 Drug lord Diego Montoya arrested in Colombia 2007 Cristina Fernandez elected President of Argentina 2008 Ecuador has a new constitution 2010 Argentina approves same-sex marriages 2010 An 8. brutal dictatorship 1976 Chile's population now exceeds 11 million 1979 A subway opens in Rio de Janeiro 1981 Ecuador's president dies in an plane crash 1983 Bolivia holds its first free elections 1987 Colombia's drug cartels terrorize the country. is killed by police in Colombia 1996-98 FARC kills dozens of Colombian soldiers 1998 Hugo Chavez elected President of Venezuela 2000's                2000 Brazil's population exceeds 170 million 2000 The economy of Argentina totally collapses 2002 Brazil wins soccer world cup for the fifth time 2002 Luiz Inacio Lula elected in Brazil 2003 Bolivian landslide kills hundreds 2004 Fire in Paraguay mall. millions mourn her passing 1957 Students riot in Chile over college costs 1960 9. the economy falls into a rapid decline 1992 Venezuela survives a coup by Hugo Chavez 1993 The world's most famous drug lord. thousands would die over the next few years 1988 Pinochet resigns. begins his long. Chile finally rescues 33 miners trapped deep underground for 69 days 2010 Dilma Rousseff elected President of Brazil . Augusto Pinochet. President of Argentina. hundreds die 2010 After weeks of planning.5 magnitude earthquake strikes Chile 1960 Nazi Adolf Eichmann arrested in Argentina 1970 Brazil population now exceeds 90 million 1971 Chile's Pablo Neruda awarded Nobel Peace Prize 1973 Chile general. his dictatorship over 1990 Argentina's inflation exceeds 8. secretly arrived in Argentina 1949 Juan Peron.8 magnitude earthquake strikes Chile. the President of Bolivia.                      1949 Josef Mengele. hundreds dead 2005 Ecuador's President flees the country 2006 Evo Morals. the First Lady of Argentina dies.

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